All posts by debalinam

I have completed my graduation with English honours and currently pursuing M. A in English language and literature. I love to write and coming from a well reputated family i eork with sincerity and dedication.i believe knowledge is power and work is worship

English poetry on Environment. By Debalina Mukherjee.

Farewell…

We cut the trees and make the concrete forest
The trees never complain but the normal atmosphere bids us farewell;
We dispose waste in the rivers we consider to be our Goddess
She never complains.. But the purity bids us farewell
We use the vehicles that emit the poisonous gases
Freshness of the air never complains but bids us farewell
Our industries discharge chemicals in the ponds with aquatic ecosystems
The water never revolts but the aqatic life bids us farewell
Our continuous cropping tortures the soil
The soil never complains but its fertility bids us farewell
We use the high speed networks that emit heavy radiation
Nature never complains but the birds bid us farewell
We r clearing more forests that is the habitat of our wildlife
Ecology never complains but wildlife bids us farewell
We use the refrigerators and ACs that are the source of green house gases
Environment never complains but the soothing climates bid us farewell
All the above mentioned,being a part of mother  earth never complains..
Its true that a mother endures everything for the sake of her children
But doesn’t She is under a threat?
If we dont rectify our mistakes within the little time left
I am afraid,our mother earth will soon one day bid us farewell….



Benefits of reading news online.

Benefits of reading news online by Debalina Mukherjee

‘Knowledge is power’ goes an old saying.In this competitive and busy world everyone needs to be up to date and completely aware of what’s going on around us and so reading news hase been an important part of everyone’s life. As a result of the advanced technologies people are now been able to read online news whichi is of great advantage. Gone are the days when people used to wait for their morning newspapers for knowing what is happening across the globe.
Reading online news has made our life easier.We get to know the exact current update within seconds and one does not have to wait for long. Moreover in online news we can make our preferences.. It is true that every individual on this earth is different and their choices vary.. One might like politics while the other likes to read about sports.. In case of online news, this preference can be taken care of.. Whatever we choose to read we can easily get access to that..We are already in an age where people hardly have time to sit at home and relax. Majority of the population remains outside of their house for almost 8-12 hours a day and for them online news is a blessing… It can be read anywhere and there is no such problem of carring extra papers.we can read online news on our laptops, tablets, mobiles. In other words online news makes the authentic news aavailable to lakhs of people within no time.
Online news also has economical benefits.While we need to buy newspapers, most of the online news are free and no extra money is required for reading. When all economists are concerned about our economic growth and environmentalists are worried about saving mother nature, reading news online opens a new gate for the digital India and saves nature since no extra paper is required in the process. Since the environmentalists are repeatedly asking to plant more tress and stop cutting them, e-news actually fits the box.. It can at least decrease the paper reauirement to some extend.
Simultaneously, when we read online news we actually get freedom from our geographical boundaries.. Not all regional language newspapers are available in every region or state..but online news can reach anywhere.. Sitting in one state one can get the news of another state written in anothee language very easily. This facility not only helps in making the news more accessible but it also creates employment in a way… It attracts new readers and gives opportunity to new talents to show show their skills online.. Thus demand and suppy remains balanced.
Again when we talk about aged people they at times face difficulties while reading normal newspapers due to their compromised eyesight and back pain.. But with online news they can easily zoom the words and read while lying on the bed or an armchair which further reduces their strain.Online news also provides them various additional links and suggested pages which gives them more detailed information about the topic.. Some people have a habit of collection data and for them preserving old newspapers becomes very tough at times but in case of online news one can easily download and save the information and can keep it for ages without any damage.
In conclusion I would like to say,that when we have to be absolutely aware of every single thing that is happening around us and be ready for any challenge that life gives us, online news brings the globe within our reach in true sense.

Economic impact of COVID-19 pandemic in India By Debalina Mukherjee.


Covid 19 is something that has shattered the whole world. No body was prepared for it. Corona virus or covid 19 has affected different sectors very badly. When it comes to India’s growth it has gone down to 3.1% according to the ministry of Statistics. According to the World bank along with the rating agencies India’s growth has touched its lowest figures and is in worst state since last three decades.CRISIL has already announced that India is perhaps going to see the worst recession in the coming days since it has got its Independence.
Unemployment is becoming a very big issue in India.Within a month of lockdown the unemployment rates rose from 6.7% to 26% and 14 crore people approximately lost their jobs. The business sector got affected very badly. The supply chains were kept on hold and at first there was a big confusion regarding what is ‘essential’ and what is ‘non essential’. Due to the restrictions made by the government this sector has witnessed a lot of loss as well. In the agricultural field the farmers suffered from fear and anxiety. They were not able to bring their produce for sale to the market. They couldn’t cut their crops as well. Their future became absolutely uncertain. Daily wage workers and private sectors were at high risk of facing loss and have to take special measures like work from home etc. Major companies in India such as Larsen & Toubro, Bharat Forge, UltraTech Cement, Grasim Industries, Aditya Birla Group,BHEL and Tata Motors had to slow down their operations for some days. Due to uncertainty and lack of demand, the stock markets also collapsed. Many companies unwillingly had to cut down the salaries of the employees and many employees were asked to leave. The live event companies had also said that they have suffered a loss of more than 3000 crorers.
The small businesses and small scale industrues suffered a lot.. The airlines,markets hotels, big shopping malls were completely closed and people have witnessed unemployment in these sectirs as well.
The Central and State government, both has taken various steps to cover up the loss. Various measures were taken and many scemes were declared sarting from food security and funds for healthcare for different states. Income tax return dates were extended and Electricity and telephone bill submission dates were also extended. On 26 th may some relief measures were declared for the poor and the most suffering sections of the society. On 12 May the Prime Minister of India announced an overall economic package of ₹20 lakh crore (US$280 billion),10% of India’s GDP, with emphasis on India as a self-reliant nation. (Atmanirbhar). Indian government also announced relief measures in the areas of GST ,Customs & Central Excise, Corporate Affairs, Insolvency &Bankruptcy Code (IBC) Fisheries, Banking Sector and Commerce. About 800 million people are going to get free cereals and cooking gas along with cash through direct transfers for three months.The Prime Minister of India has already told and thought of setting up an Economic Task Force to devise policy measures to tackle the economic challenges .
In conclusion I would like to say that covid 19 has affected the world very bady and though the situation is bad still our governments, both Central and State are working on how to recover from this economic crisis that has arised globally.So this is the time for each one of us to join hands and fight this virus and try to contribute as much as we can. We must believe that we are not alone in this and we shall be able to ovecome this situation very soon. Lets take the pledge to listen to what our governments are saying and try to contribute and maintain the lockdown.

5 Original activities to do during quarantine

5 Original activities to do during quarantine

Covid 19 is something that the world has never expected to happen. Nobody was prepared for it. Thankfully most of the people are maintaining the lockdown but are getting bored at home. But this lockdown, one can use this time in different ways. One can really make it useful and productive.

During this quarantine period one can get back to his/her old photo albums. Memories are precious and they are a big part of a person’s life. In this busy and competitive world we hardly get time to get back to our memories. Now it is a golden opportunity to do that. One can browse through their memories ,cherish the time, and relive the moments.

Then people can also get back to their old hobbies like painting stitching, reading,writing etc. It is said that books are a person’s best friend. Those who have always been only engaged with their academic books for most of the time, can pick up their favourite genres and enjoy some quality time with short stories horror stories, novels etc.. Stitching is a fantastic hoby because it not only makes one happy but it also becomes productive when one makes something useful with it for daily life usage.There are different courses which are found online for free.. So one can actually cultivate and sharpen his/her potentials by learning new couses. Cooking is another best thing to do.

Gardening is another hobby that one can practice. In Wordsworth’s words ‘nature heals’. During quarantine it is very important that one takes very good care of his/her mental health. Moreover one might feel depressed and anxious due to the lockdown but then nature can help to maintain mental peace.By coming close to nature one can feel relaxed and rejuvenated. Different colours and the greenery contribute to keep a person healthy and mentally fit.. Even the psychologists recommend this to the patients who suffer from anxiety and stress due to this current situation.

There are also people who had started working at a very young age due to financial problems but always wanted to be writers so they can start writing now. They can pen down their emotions and feelings on a sheet of paper and achieve what they have always desired.. Many pandamics have given rise to exceptionally talented writers so one must go ahead and fulfill his/her dearms once they are given this unsaid opportunity.

Just like nature, music therapy is another good thing to pursue. There are different online apps that are now available and many people who always have the desire to learn something new can actually utilize this occasion to learn the instrument or music or dance.
When it comes to cleaning most of the people hardly get time to clean their houses all by themselves. During this quarantine period one can actually get more familiar with their house by cleaning them and making then a better place to live it. It is often said in spiritual books that ‘when you clean something you actually clean your soul’Acknowledging this fact one can actually clean something and feel relaxed.This quarantine period,one can also keep some precious time for oneself.Me time is also very crutical for every individual.

Meditation is the best way to calm down and remain healthy.. In this world and life which keeps providing stess, one can actually relax by meditating.It increases concentration and makes a person more productive and energetic.Meditation ensures good mental and physical health and helps to reestore the lost energy.

To conclude we are currently in a state that has not happened in the recent past and that will not probably happen again. So everyone must utilize it in a positive way and create a vision that can lead ourselves and the nation to a better tomorrow.

English literature

English literature refers to all the works that are written in English language.Literature of a country actually depicts the social,economic and political background of that country and gives the vivid idea of the changes that take place over the years. .Starting from short stories or novellas to novels and dramas,English literature is considered to be vast and huge and at times a bit tough to grasp.In order to understand English language and literature one has to study it deeply by reading its history,different English writers and their work.
Studying English language and literature does not simply mean reading English writers. While studying English language and literature we see that there are different periods and these periods show different ages through which English literature has evolved. These periods give profound information about the background of English literature and how it has changed. The different periods are given below along with their years:-
450-1066 – Old English [also known as Anglo Saxon Period]
1066-1500 – Middle English Period
1500-1600 -The Renaissance
1558-1603 -Elizabethan Age
1603-1625- Jacobean Age
1625-1660-Commonwealth Period
1660-1785- The Neo classical Period
1660-1700-The Restoration
1700-1745-The Augustan Age[Age of Pope]
1745-1785-The Age of Sensibility [Age of Johnson]
1785-1830-The Romantic age
1832-1901-The Victorian Period
1848-1860-The Pre Raphaelites
1880-1901-Aesthetism
1901-1914 -The Edwardian Period
1910-1936-The Georgian Period
1914- The Modern age
1945-Post Modernism
Now,the English writers were born in these periods and they have written mesmerizing masterpieces that has contribited to make English literature what it is today.The different periods along with the writers that were born in that age along with their famous writings are discussed in a nut shell.
During the Anglo Saxon Period, the Norman Conquest took place in 1066 and after the Romans left in 410,the British population became open to the inroads of the invaders from the north. Many of the poems of this age have the features which are associated with the pagan past, namely Widsith and Beowulf. Among all the Old English poets we find the direct mention of Caedmon. The name of another poet is Cynewulf. We get to know about him because he had signed his poems in runic letters at the end of four poems. Many of the prose and poetry have been translated from Latin. The works for translation were the books of Bible., the lives of the saints and many works of practical nature. Regarding the manuscripts, only a portion has survided. The theme of the poem Beowulf is Continental German.’Widsith’ is considered to be the oldest poem in English language which consists of 150 lines of verse. In the poem a traveller, considered to be more imaginary than real recounts the places and the illustrious people that he had visited. From the historical point of view the poem is very important. ‘Waldere’ consists of two fragments and is of sixty lines and talks about some of the exploits of Aquintaine. Again ‘The Battle of Maldon ‘describes the battle that took place in 993 and’ ‘The Battle of Brunanburh’ is a piece based on the war of 937. Then there are some elegies like ‘The Wanderer’, ‘The Seafarer’, ‘The Wife’s Lament’and ‘The husband’s Message’ that are found in the Exeter Book.
The Middle English Period is considered to be the period of transition and of experiment. And most of the surviving works are poetry. Poetry of Middle English can be classified unto three groups:-
(1) Chronicles-
(a) Layamon’s Brut-It was written in 1205 by Layamon and it has sixteen thousand alternative lines about the history of Britain from the landing of Brute to the death of Cadwallader.
(b) Robert of Gloucester-He is known for his rhyming chronicle.
(2) Religious and Didactic poetry-‘The Ormulum’ was witten by Orm in 1200,of enormous length(ten thousand lines even incomplete) It was written in North East Midlands dialect.
(3)”The owl and the Nightingale’ is propably written in the eary part of the 13 th century.
The alliterative poems include ‘Pearl’,Purity’, ‘Patience’. Moreover there are numerous romances concered loosely or closely with King Arthur-‘Arthur and Merlin’, ‘Morte d Arthur’, The matter of Rome, ‘Matter of France’
One of the famous writers of this period is Chaucer. He was born in 1340 in London. His literary career was divided into 3 periods-French, Italian and English.One of his most famous works is ‘Canterbury Tales’
Beast epics were also found during this age like ‘The fox and the Woolf’,Chaucer’s’The Nun Priest’s Tale”.Pier’s the Plowman’ is an allegorical poem written in old alliterative meter in the later part of 14 th century. The author is taken to be William Langland.
The Renaissance was started in Italy specially in art and architecture. Renaissance signified the adoption of humanist philosophy.It was the beginning of the modern world in the areas of geography ,science, religion, politics, society and art. London became the capital city of England. New literary genres such as essay(Montaigue), new metrical forms such as sonnets (Petriarch) and Spenserian stanza actually made their appearance. The dominant art forms of the English Renaissance were literature and music.
Spenser is considered to be one of the finest writes of Elizabethan age. ‘The Shepherd’s Calender’ was published in 1579 and this had marked his formal entry as a new poet. He is considered to be the first modern poet to exploit true poetic resources of English language. Again John Donne belonged to the school of Metaphysical poets.. He was born in 1573 in London. He had written satires like ‘Of the Progress of the Soul’.’Songs and Sonnets’is Donne’s love poem. His poems are extremely personal and reveal a complex being for example ‘Extasie’, He had written 19 holy sonnets and his prose include ‘Sermons’, ‘The Pseudo Martyr”During the Elizabethan Age we also find some poets who were called The University Wits. This group consisted of writers like Christopher Marlowe whose works include ‘Dr. Faustus’, ‘Jew of Malta’, ‘Tanburlaine the Great’., Thomas Nash whose only surviving play is ‘Summer’s Last Will’ and the Testament’. Another work is ‘The Unfortunate Traveller’, Thomas Lodge who collaborated with Shakespeare in ‘Henry 4’, Robert Greene, George Peele who used to write in blank verse and Thomas kyd whose most famous work is ‘Spanish Tragedy’. Ben Jonson is another famous writer and his most successful play is ‘Man in His Humour”. Shakespeare is one of the finest English writers and his famous works include’The Merchant of Venice’, ‘Romeo And Juliet’, ”Hamlet’. John Milton’s famous writing ‘Paradise Lost ‘ is considered to be a masterpiece.
During the romantic age emphasis was given to self expression and emotions.The famous Romantic writers include Wordsworth, Coledrige, Byron, Shelley, Keats. Wordsworth was born at Cockermouth and his famous works include’Prelude’ and ‘Daffodils’. Coleridge was born in Devonshire and some of his most famous works are ‘Kubla Khan’ and ‘The Rime of the Ancient Mariner’One of the most famous writings of Shelley is ‘Ode to the West Wind’and Keats’s most famous works include’Ode to a Nightingale’ and ‘To Autumn’.
The victorian age can be considered to be the age of peace. Some of the famous Victorian writers are Jane Austen, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, William Blake.E.B.Browning has written ‘The Seraphim and Other Poems’ and ‘Sonnets from the Portuguese’. Tennyson was born in this age and some of his works are ‘Ulysses’,’The Princess’ etc. Christina Rossetti was a Victorian woman poet and her most famous collections ‘Goblin Market and other poems ‘appeared in 1862.It received widespread critical praise. She has also written a book of devotional prose called’ The Face of the Deep’.
Some of the modern day poets include Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes. Moreover Virginia Woolf who has written ‘To the Lighthouse’ and T. S. Eliot who has writen The Wasteland’ are considered to be the greatest modernist writers.
To conclude English Literature is the amalgamation of beautiful masterpieces written by exceptionally talented writers who have given their thoughts a character, emotions a life and imagination a shape.. There are various genres and sub genres and the history of evolution of English literature is itself the evidence of its richness.

English Literature

                                                 

English literature refers to all the works that are written in English language.Literature of a country actually depicts the social,economic and political background of that country and gives the vivid idea of the changes that take place over the years. .Starting from short stories or novellas to novels and dramas,English literature is considered to be vast and huge and at times a bit tough to grasp.In order to understand English language and literature one has to study it deeply by reading its history,different English writers and their work.
Studying English language and literature does not simply mean reading English writers. While studying English language and literature we see that there are different periods and these periods show different ages through which English literature has evolved. These periods give profound information about the background of English literature and how it has changed. The different periods are given below along with their years:-
450-1066 – Old English [also known as Anglo Saxon Period]
1066-1500 – Middle English Period
1500-1600 -The Renaissance
1558-1603 -Elizabethan Age
1603-1625- Jacobean Age
1625-1660-Commonwealth PeriodPeriod
1660-1785- The Neo classical Period
1660-1700-The Restoration
1700-1745-The Augustan Age[Age of Pope]
1745-1785-The Age of Sensibility [Age of Johnson]
1785-1830-The Romantic age
1832-1901-The Victorian Period
1848-1860-The Pre Raphaelites
1880-1901-Aesthetism
1901-1914 -The Edwardian Period
1910-1936-The Georgian Period
1914- The Modern age
1945-Post Modernism
Now,the English writers were born in these periods and they have written mesmerizing masterpieces that has contribited to make English literature what it is today.The different periods along with the writers that are born in that age along with their famous writings are discussed in a nut shell.
During the Anglo Saxon Period, the Norman Conquest took place in 1066 and after the Romans left in 410,the British population became open to the inroads of the invaders from the north. Many of the poems of this age have the features which are associated with the pagan past, namely Widsith and Beowulf. Among all the Old English poets we find the direct mention of Caedmon. The name of another poet is Cynewulf. We get to know about him because he had signed his poems in runic letters at the end of four poems. Many of the prose and poetry have been translated from Latin. The works for translation were the books of Bible., the lives of the saints and many works of practical nature. Regarding the manuscripts, only a portion has survided. The theme of the poem Beowulf is Continental German.’Widsith’ is considered to be the oldest poem in English language which consists of 150 lines of verse. In the poem a traveller, considered to be more imaginary than real recounts the places and the illustrious people that he had visited. From the historical point of view the porm is very important. ‘Waldere’ consists of two fragments and is of sixty lines and talks about some of the exploits of Aquintaine. Again ‘The Battle of Maldon ‘describes the battle that took place in 993 and’ ‘The Battle of Brunanburh’ is a piece based on the war of of 937. Then there are some elegies like ‘The Wanderer’, ‘The Seafarer’, ‘The Wife’s Lament’and ‘The husband’s Message’ that are found in the Exeter Book.
The Middle English Period is considered to be the period of transition and of experiment. And most of the surviving works are poetry. Poetry of Middle English can be classified unto three groups:-
(1) Chronicles-
(a) Layamon’s Brut-It was written in 1205 by Layamon and it has sixteen thousand alternative lines about the history of Britain from the landing of Brute to the death of Cadwallader.
(b) Robert of Gloucester-He is known for his rhyming chronicle.
(2) Religious and Didactic poetry-‘The Ormulum’ was witten by Orm in 1200,of enormous length(ten thousand lines even incomplete) It was written in North East Midlands dalect.
(3)”The owl and the Nightingale’ is propably written in the eary part of the 13 th century.
The alliterative poems include ‘Pearl’,Purity’, ‘Patience’. Moreover there are numerous romances concered loosely or closely with King Arthur-‘Arthur and Merlin’, ‘Morte d Arthur’, The matter of Rome, ‘Matter of France’
One of the famous writers of this period is Chaucer. He was born in 1340 in London. His literary career was divided into 3 periods-French, Italian and English.One of his most famous works is ‘Canterbury Tales’
Beast epics were also found during this age like ‘The fox and the Woolf’,Chaucer’s’The Nun Priest’s Tale”.Pier’s the Plowman’ is an allegorical poem written in old alliterative meter in the later part of 14 th century. The author is taken to be William Langland.
The Renaissance was started in Italy specially in art and architecture. Renaissance signified the adoption of humanist philosophy.It was the beginning of the modern world in the areas of geography ,science, religion, politics, society and art. London became the capital city of England. New literary genres such as essay(Montaigue), new metrical forms such as sonnets (Petriarch) and Spenserian stanza actually made their appearance. The dominant art forms of the English Renaissance were literature and music.
Spenser is considered to be one of the finest writes of Elizabethan age. ‘The Shepherd’s Calender’ was published in 1579 and this had marked his formal entry as a new poet. He is considered to be the first modern poet to exploit true poetic resources of English language. Again John Donne belonged to the school of Metaphysical poets.. He was born in 1573 in London. He had written satires like ‘Of the Progress of the Soul’.’Songs and Sonnets’is Donne’s love poem. His poems are extremely personal and reveal a complex being for example ‘Extasie’, He had written 19 holy sonnets and his prose include ‘Sermons’, ‘The Pseudo Martyr”During the Elizabethan Age we also find some poets who were called The University Wits. This group consisted of writers like Christopher Marlowe whose works include ‘Dr. Faustus’, ‘Jew of Malta’, ‘Tanburlaine the Great’., Thomas Nash whose only surviving play is ‘Summer’s Last Will’ and the Testament’. Another work is ‘The Unfortunate Traveller’, Thomas Lodge who collaborated with Shakespeare in ‘Henry 4’, Robert Greene, George Peele who used to write in blank verse and Thomas kyd whose most famous work is ‘Spanish Tragedy’. Ben Jonson is another famous writer and his most successful play is ‘Man in His Humour”. Shakespeare is one of the finest English writers and his famous works include’The Merchant of Venice’, ‘Romeo And Juliet’, ”Hamlet’. John Milton’s famous writing ‘Paradise Lost ‘ is considered to be a masterpiece.
During the romantic age emphasis was given to self expression and emotions.The famous Romantic writers include Wordsworth, Coledrige, Byron, Shelley, Keats. Wordsworth was born at Cockermouth and his famous works include’Prelude’ and ‘Daffodils’. Coleridge was born in Devonshire and some of his most famous works are ‘Kubla Khan’ and ‘The Rime of the Ancient Mariner’One of the most famous writings of Shelley is ‘Ode to the West Wind’and Keats’s most famous works include’Ode to a Nightingale’ and ‘To Autumn’.
The victorian age can be considered to be the age of peace. Some of the famous Victorian writers are Jane Austen, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, William Blake.E.B.Browning has written ‘The Seraphim and Other Poems’ and ‘Sonnets from the Portuguese’. Tennyson was born in this age and some of his works are ‘Ulysses’,’The Princess’ etc. Christina Rossetti was a Victorian woman poet and her most famous collections ‘Goblin Market and other poems ‘appeared in 1862.It received widespread critical praise. She has also written a book of devotional prose called’ The Face of the Deep’.
Some of the modern day poets include Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes. Moreover Virginia Woolf who has written ‘To the Lighthouse’ and T. S. Eliot who has writen The Wasteland’ are considered to be the greatest modernist writers.
To conclude English Literature is the amalgamation of beautiful masterpieces written by exceptionally talented writers who have given their thoughts a character, emotions a life and imagination a shape.. There are various genres and sub genres and the history of evolution of English literature is itself the evidence of its richness.