Tag Archives: History


I Know I am late a moment ago I came to know about that 2nd July was UFO day, I am really very flatter to know about this day in my school days I was very much curious about the galaxy , the unknown mysterious world, other planets , aliens then with the time  I am distracted from my this world, but always when I get time I tried to gather information .so 1st I am telling you the reason behind the day

World UFO Day is an awareness day for people to gather together and watch the skies for unidentified flying objects. The day is celebrated by some on June 24, and others on July 2. June 24 is the date that aviator Kenneth Arnold reported what is generally considered to be the first widely reported unidentified flying object sighting in the United States,[ while July 2 commemorates the supposed UFO crash in the 1947 Roswell UFO Incident.

Roswell Daily Record, July 8, 1947, announcing the “capture” of a “flying saucer” source WIKIPEDIA

What is other side of the sky? Once This question always going round in my mind, other planets, solar system , milky way, black eye galaxy this things are fascinated millions , years after year scientist research and now the craze to know the unknown world , creature from other planet is really noticeable. Series, documentaries, movies based on aliens, other world.  But you know In Chhattisgarh ancient rock painting depicting UFO exist suggesting Alien communication with humans since prehistoric times, Archaeologists JR Bhagat, who discover them , said they depict strange humanoids with no facial features and other painting of flying discs.

CHARAMA (Chhattisgarh): Chhattisgarh state department of sarchaeology department has sought help from NASA and ISRO experts.

The finding suggest that humans in prehistoric times may have seen or imagined beings from other planets which still create curiosity among people and researchers.


Traditional water conservation techniques of India

Traditional water wisdom and systems of RajasthanNews Cusp | News Cusp
A jhalara in Rajasthan

1. Jhalaras

Jhalaras are typically rectangular-shaped stepwells that have tiered steps on three or four sides. These stepwells collect the subterranean seepage of an upstream reservoir or a lake. Jhalaras were built to ensure easy and regular supply of water for religious rites, royal ceremonies and community use. The city of Jodhpur has eight jhalaras, the oldest being the Mahamandir Jhalara that dates back to 1660 AD.

2. Talab /Bandhi

Talabs are reservoirs that store water for household consumption and drinking purposes. They may be natural, such as the pokhariyan ponds at Tikamgarh in the Bundelkhand region or man made, such as the lakes of Udaipur. A reservoir with an area less than five bighas is called a talai, a medium sized lake is called a bandhi and bigger lakes are called sagar or samand.

3. Bawari

Bawari | Hindi Water | Flickr

Bawaris are unique stepwells that were once a part of the ancient networks of water storage in the cities of Rajasthan. The little rain that the region received would be diverted to man-made tanks through canals built on the hilly outskirts of cities. The water would then percolate into the ground, raising the water table and recharging a deep and  intricate network of aquifers. To minimise water loss through evaporation, a series of layered steps were built around the reservoirs to narrow and deepen the wells.

4. Taanka

Taanka is a traditional rainwater harvesting technique indigenous to the Thar desert region of Rajasthan. A Taanka is a cylindrical paved underground pit into which rainwater from rooftops, courtyards or artificially prepared catchments flows. Once completely filled, the water stored in a taanka can last throughout the dry season and is sufficient for a family of 5-6 members. An important element of water security in these arid regions, taankas can save families from the everyday drudgery of fetching water from distant sources.

5. Ahar Pynes

Ahar Pynes are traditional floodwater harvesting systems indigenous to South Bihar. Ahars are reservoirs with embankments on three sides that are built at the end of diversion channels like pynes. Pynes are artificial rivulets led off from rivers to collect water in the ahars for irrigation in the dry months.  Paddy cultivation in this relatively low rainfall area depends mostly on ahar pynes.

6. Johads

Water Johads: A Low-Tech Alternative to Mega-Dams in India

Johads, one of the oldest systems used to conserve and recharge ground water, are small earthen check dams that capture and store rainwater. Constructed in an area with naturally high elevation on three sides, a storage pit is made by excavating the area, and excavated soil is used to create a wall on the fourth side. Sometimes, several johads are interconnected through deep channels, with a single outlet opening into a river or stream nearby. This prevents structural damage to the water pits that are also called madakas in Karnataka and pemghara in Odisha.

7. Panam Keni

The Kuruma tribe (a native tribe of Wayanad) uses a special type of well, called the panam keni, to store water. Wooden cylinders are made by soaking the stems of toddy palms in water for a long time so that the core rots away until only the hard outer layer remains. These cylinders, four feet in diameter as well as depth, are then immersed in groundwater springs located in fields and forests. This is the secret behind how these wells have abundant water even in the hottest summer months.

8. Bamboo Drip Irrigation

Bamboo Drip Irrigation

Bamboo Drip irrigation System is an ingenious system of efficient water management that has been practised for over two centuries in northeast India. The tribal farmers of the region have developed a system for irrigation in which water from perennial springs is diverted to the terrace fields using varying sizes and shapes of bamboo pipes. Best suited for crops requiring less water, the system ensures that small drops of water are delivered directly to the roots of the plants. This ancient system is used by the farmers of Khasi and Jaintia hills to drip-irrigate their black pepper cultivation.

9. Eri

The Eri (tank) system of Tamil Nadu is one of the oldest water management systems in India. Still widely used in the state, eris act as flood-control systems, prevent soil erosion and wastage of runoff during periods of heavy rainfall, and also recharge the groundwater. Eris can either be a system eri, which is fed by channels that divert river water, or a non-system eri, that is fed solely by rain. The tanks are interconnected in order to enable access to the farthest village and to balance the water level in case of excess supply. The eri system enables the complete use of  river water for irrigation and without them, paddy cultivation would have been impossible in Tamil Nadu.

Pat System

The Pat system, in which the peculiarities of the terrain are used to divert water from hill streams into irrigation channels, was developed in the Bhitada village in Jhabua district of Madhya Pradesh. Diversion bunds are made across a stream near the village by piling up stones and then lining them with teak leaves and mud to make them leak-proof. The Pat channel then passes through deep ditches and stone aqueducts that are skilfully cut info stone cliffs to create an irrigation system that the villagers use in turn.

The revival of Neanderthal: The Return of our ancestor

We, the homo sapiens, now are the most advanced creature compared to our ancestors after a long evolution history dated back around 15 million years ago. Humans belong to the order primates and class Mammalia with our other members like the well-known apes, gorillas, chimpanzees, macaques, orangutans, etc. which originated from 85 million years ago. You might have seen several illustrations of human evolution, as shown below.

The evolution of a man . Courtesy: Britannica Encyclopedia

If you are familiar with the biology subject, you may know the reason. Charles Darwin, the father of evolution in his book, The Origin of Species, mentions about the series of natural selection, the struggle to exist in the world, survive by making proper tools, variation, and changes in the body like shape, color, etc. As a result of mutation and many more factors like genetic recombination, We know the stages of human evolution right from Dryopithecus, Ramapithecus, Australopithecus, Homo Erectus, Homo Sapiens Neanderthals and finally Homo Sapiens Sapiens. The closest ancestors were Neanderthals. There were others in the timeline like Homo Habilus and many more, but now researches have found a way to revive the brain of a Neanderthal. By this we can know more about, let’s see how.

The Father of Evolution: Charles Darwin

Neanderthals with a big brain and vast muscular body in size compared to Homo Sapiens. Additionally, a large head was its specialty along with powerful jaws, hunters with the tools used by them were advanced when compared to their ancestors. The researchers at Basel, Switzerland, the neuroscientists specifically grew up small replicas or copies of the brain from stem cells along with the DNA of Neanderthals. We, being a modern man, still may share about 1 to 4 percent similarity in the genes compared to them. This theory holds as the genomes of a European family matched with the reference of a 2010 model of Neanderthal genome by Svante Pääbo, a geneticist.

The following finding helped to generate three-dimensional objects of brain tissues in a petridish used in laboratories. Organoids of these miniature-sized brains are commonly used to test the effects of drugs. This information may help us more to know about the previous lifestyle, the diet of a Neanderthal. Our ancestors had a problem of communication, maybe due to the absence of language as we use today effectively. These brains were grown from pluripotent stem cells using five cell lines to produce brain organoids, leading to single-cell RNA sequencing data to learn more about their cell composition in the past.

The miniature brain cells grown from the stem cells.

We still share some common characteristics with our ancestors, like hair and skin color. Neanderthals and Denisovans genomes were found in caves, depicting they lived around 80 to 120 thousand years ago. This researches in the future may help to find the proper treatment for cancer. Just imagine, for a while, the stem cells are a gift from nature. It’s unique, usually seen during the development of a baby child, and it can generate all different cells right from a muscle cell to the most crucial brain cells. They help to recover the damages formed in the tissues also. The science of cell being so small may amaze you, and it does.

For more details, refer to the PDF: https://www.cell.com/stem-cell-reports/pdf/S2213-6711(20)30190-9.pdf

A Woman Who Shaped History in her Own Right.

– By Shivam Pathak
There is this fallacy that women are incompetent to change the course of the future because of this fallacy women’s credentials are always being questioned. This mistaken belief doesn’t emerge recently it took its roots long back in history when women were only considered as an object of sexual pleasure and delight, but just as in today’s gelation there were also some women in history who proved this fallacy a misconception. One among the mighty and intelligent women who made history by exemplifying their remarkable achievements was Wu Zetian, a woman who rose from a lowly concubine to become the emperor of China. The only female emperor in Chinese 2000 years of imperial history who ruled China with an iron fist. Here a question may arise in your mind that how a woman elevates her status from a mere concubine to the emperor of China. It all commenced way back 637 AD when Wu entered the imperial court as a 14-year-old concubine serving emperor Taizong.wuzetian3
Emperor had more than 100 concubines, but somehow one way or the other Wu paved her route to the emperor’s heart and quickly gained favours of the emperor. Her ambition to become the emperor of China was very clear from the beginning. An instance to support this narrative was that when Lady Yang ( Wu Zetian’s mother) wept bitterly at the time of parting from her daughter Wu, Wu responded ‘ How do you know that it is not my fortune to meet the son of heaven ( title given to the monarch of China). Lady Yang as reported then understood her desire and therefore stopped crying. Traditional folklore portrays Wu as a power-hungry woman with no care for who she hurt or what she did. But early excavations discovered something different that determined traditional folklore wrong about Wu’s reign and the reflections of her characteristics. In excavations, archaeologists found a skeleton of a woman with fabled Phoenix crown of ancient china. The name of that was Li Chua, she was a minor descendent of Wu Zetian who wore the opulent crown embedded with carnelian from Uzbekistan, garnet from India, amber from Iran and ivory from Sri Lanka. This shows that how luxurious life was in Wu’s reign as the emperor.
Her period marked a major expansion of the Chinese empire, extending it far beyond from its previous territorial limits. After Taizong’s death she assumed some level of power in her hand and became the second wife of his son emperor Gaozong. But after Gaozong’s death in 660, Wu became the administrator of the court, a position equal to the emperor’s until 70s. Wu Zetian was not only a national leader, but she was also an international leader. Historical pieces of evidence suggests that she shared a good relationship with foreign countries and she also had ambassadors from Mongolia, Korea, Greece and Persia. Daming palace made under her reign was the largest in the world. It is assumed to be five times bigger than the Forbidden city. Jaws of the emissaries were dropped at the first sight of the palace which shows the imperial grandeur of Wu’s capital Chang’an ( today is known as Xi an). She encouraged women to be entrepreneurs and to divorce and marry freely. She even appointed a female prime minister.
As Wu Zetian grew older her mind started turning towards her afterlife, she want forgiveness for her sins she had committed throughout her life. She wrote a confession that had been engraved on a golden tablet and have that tablet taken to a holy place to perform a sacred ritual. She then cast down the tablet from Mount Song in order to attain forgiveness for her doings. Wu Zetian died in 705 and was buried at the east of the phoenix gate within the Qianling Mausoleum. The Mausoleum not only housed the remains of Emperor Wu, but is also served as the epitome of the imperial splendour, high rank and social importance of Wu Zetian. Wu may be regarded by the chronicles as the ruthless in her endeavours to grab power, but there is no doubt that she left her legacy that even in yore times a woman could do everything a man could do. In Wu’s reign, women’s status was higher than ever before. Consequently, Wu Zetian was an extraordinary woman, attractive in appearance, exceptionally gifted political astute and an excellent judge of men.