Tag Archives: Science and Technology

Neuralink brain chip

Elon Musk‘s mysterious Neuralink startup is working on a brain-computer interface that will allow wearers to stream music directly to their brain, the technology entrepreneur has claimed. Mr. Musk, who also heads SpaceX and Tesla, is set to reveal new information about the mysterious startup next month but has been slowly releasing details over Twitter in recent days. The device that allows the human brain to connect to a computer could be implanted in a person for the first time later this year, announced the founder of Neuralink neurotechnology company, the tycoon Elon Musk. This crazy project of Elon Musk and his startup seems to be going well. Elon Musk said on Twitter that the Neuralink is working on an “awesome” new version of the company’s signature device. “Clearly better than Utah Array,” he said contentedly.

Neuralink’s ambitions are really great! The main purpose of the device is to compensate for entire sections of the brain lost due to a stroke, accident, or congenital disease. The billionaire businessman said that people would soon be able to use the brain chip technology of Neuralink to stream music into their brains without any special efforts. According to Musk, Neuralink chip would also be able to control hormone levels and help with anxiety relief and some other mental issues.  The Tesla CEO noted that those who are willing to get Neuralink chip into their brains would go through a process similar to laser eye surgery. 

One part of it will involve a neurosurgical robot, which fits flexible “threads” into the brain connected to a tiny implantable computer chip. A research paper detailing the device claims that a single USB-C cable will provide “full-bandwidth data streaming” to the brain. Neuralink has 11 job postings listed on its website, offering roles for a mechanical engineer, a robotics software engineer, and a “histology technician”. Over the weekend, Mr. Musk made a request for people with specific expertise in wearables. Earlier this month, Mr. Musk hinted that Neuralink’s chip will be able to cure depression and addiction by “retraining” the parts of the brain responsible for these afflictions.

Of course, it is not yet clear what the updated concept looks like and whether it will work at all. SpaceX and Tesla chief, however, is full of optimism and enthusiasm. “The potential is truly transformational for restoring brain & motor functions,” he said in his tweet on Monday. If the arrival of the first tests on the human brain is encouraging, the road is long until the actual implantation of Neuralink. In another tweet, he says: “First, we need to make it super safe & easy to use, then determine the greatest utility vs. risk. From initially working to volume production & implantation is a long road.” Though the company is yet to make an announcement over its official plans, Musk recently said that there will be a progress update on August 28.

Neuralink was founded in 2016 and since then the company has only held one public presentation about how the technology will work. In 2019, Musk had said that Neuralink was developing a “sewing machine-like” device that would provide a direct connection between a computer and a chip inserted inside the brain.

WHAT IS GENETICALLY ENGINEERED (GE) TREES?

The proponents of biotechnology industry claim that trees that are genetically altered grow faster and yield better quality of wood in extreme temperatures. Thus they are a boon to forestry in dealing with climate change.

Historical background

The first field trials of GE trees were started in Belgium in 1988, when researchers began to develop poplar trees that were herbicide resistant and that could grow faster. In 2002, China established commercial GE poplar trees plantation as a strategy to address the issue of deforestation. Initially GE trees were established in 300 hectares, and now China has embraced the GE technology on a large scale, integrating this into forestry sector. Latin American countries like Brazil and Argentina, the forerunners in GM food crops are also working on GE trees to enhance the production of pulp and paper.

Is GE trees safer than GM crops?

For: The proponents of the technology claim that GE trees are safer and there is no need to fear about negative consequences. Already the United Nations has approved plantations of GE trees as carbon sinks under Kyoto Protocol’s clean development mechanism. With this stamp of approval, many countries would like to adopt the technology and establish GE plantations.

Against:

Environmentalists state that this technology poses as serious a threat as GM crops. The trees are perennial, that live longer than agricultural crops. The changes in the metabolism of trees may occur many years after they are planted, and trees are wild, undomesticated. This makes it difficult to decipher as to how the introduced gene will behave in natural environment. This fact implies that the ecological risks associated with GE trees are far greater than the agricultural crops. It has also been documented that the tree pollen travels a distance of more than 600 km. The probability that the GE tree pollen is likely to contaminate vast expanses of native forests with a wide variety of destructive traits may be a threat to ecological balance and the existing biodiversity of the tropical forests in global south. The contaminated pollen might pose threat to honey bees, adversely impacting pollination in the wild and on agriculture crops.

Who are behind developing GE trees and why?

It is ArborGen a subsidiary of Monsanto, oil companies like British Petroleum and Chevron that are investing in this technology. For these companies GE trees offer a viable alternate to fossil fuels as GE trees could produce ethanol, a green fuel. As the ethanol produced from food stocks came under attack, the companies see bright future in non-food cellulose feedstock like GE trees.

In INDIA

The first experiment with genetically engineered tree was with rubber tree developed by the Rubber Research Institute in Kerala. The GE rubbers are better adapted to drought resistance and increased environment stress tolerance. This will help to establish rubber in non- traditional areas where the conditions are not favourable. Ironically the field trials for GE rubber trees were approved by the then environmental minister (Mr. Jairam Ramesh). Ministry asserted that the genetically modified trees posed lesser threat in comparison to the food crops. This assumption is baseless as the seeds of rubber tree are used as cattle feed, that gets into the food chain through milk. Similarly, Kerala is one of those regions that produce large quantity of rubber honey from rubber plantations. Kerala, a GM free state worried about the implications of GE rubber on biodiversity, has voiced its concern about bio safety issues. Now the rubber trees are being experimented in Maharashtra.

These developments show the predominance of the western forestry science that lays emphasis on forests as a commercial entity to produce wood and pulp. Diverse forests were simplified by the removal of multiple species and establishing monocultures that had commercial value. Already the country’s landscape is scarred with millions of hectares of teak and eucalypts monoculture plantations. This approach has had negative consequences for the environment, biodiversity and the local indigenous people. The same trend will be reinforced with the establishment of GE tree plantations, leading to further devastation of the natural environment and forests.

binary number system and indian history

Binary numbers, number system, decimal codes, computer and technology, Binary codes , information theory, digitallogic gate these things are co-realated with each other . Binary numbers we generally come to know about this number system in our junior year computer class and we used to solve this kind of binary protblemes like convert the decimal number to binary number .

so let’s know what is binary number system binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically “0” (zero) and “1” (one).A binary code represents text, computer processor instructions, or any other data using a two-symbol system. The two-symbol system used is often “0” and “1” from the binary number system. The binary code assigns a pattern of binary digits, also known as bits, to each character, instruction, etc

now if we serch for the history for the binary number system theory or binary code , source show that the modern binary number system, the basis for binary code, was invented by Gottfried Leibniz in 1689 and appears in his article Explication de l’Arithmétique Binaire. The full title is translated into English as the “Explanation of the binary arithmetic”, 

But In India the binary number system came around 3rd or 2nd century, Acharya Pingala an ancient Indian mathematician invented binary system , it,s assumes that he was 1st inventor of binary system in the world. Acharya Pingala authored Chandaḥśāstra (Pingala-sustra) or Chandhas refers to one of the six Vedangas or limbs of vedic studies Chandaḥśāstra literally translate to sciece of meters in Sanskrit. Pingala used binary numbers in the form of short and long syllebles making it similar to Morse code, here the binary numbers increased toward the right and not to the left like in The modern binary system, in this book number started from 1 not 0 . Pingala used laghu(light) and guru(heavy) rather than 0 and 1 described syllbles,(four short syllables—binary “0000”—is the first pattern),

That the binary code was invented in India is hardly a surprise. Not long ago, scientists discovered a very intriguing  ancient Indian text known as the Bakhshali manuscript that re-writes history of number zero and mathematics.

Bakhshali manuscript – Image credit: Bodleian Library