River and lakes are almost as old as civilization itself. The roads and rails are, admittedly a much later phase. Even in the prehistoric days, the waters formed the prime routes. Naturally, commerce, art and culture and even raids or invasions were largely dependent on it.
Venice is a city of lakes even today. In Europe, the rivers Peo, Rhine, Seine and the Adriatic Sea; and in Egypt, the River Nile was the chief sources of that imported and exchanged the various centuries. They contributed largely to the Mediterranean culture. In India the Gangetic and the Indus Valley are riparian.
The cargo boats in the Ganges ply trade materials like the bamboos and logs of woods. In Myanmar(Burma), and Yangon(Rangoon) the timber trade is a regular feature of the commercial use of the rivers. When road traffic gluts in big cities the authorities take recourse to the rivers. To cite, in Kolkata the Gange now lends large scale relief to the town administrators, and boat ferry has made the movements of commuters and others much easier as well as healthier. Again the rivers provide and have provided a never-ending source of enjoyment, fun and games. The Dhakuria lake in Kolkata becomes seasonally a site for delectable rowing by the member of the KolkataRowing club. The river Thames that skirts many towns and cities in England becomes alive often with rowing boats. Needless to mention that this event is centuries old in England.
These days there are adventurous feats for ambitious youths in which the river plays a significant role. Rafting for instance. Many young boys and girls jump into the fray regardless of the hazards of the game. It involves a pluck and courage to dare the turbulent current of the reader. It usually takes place in the upper reaches of the Ganges. Sometimes although very rarely, one is lost in a vortex. But the joy is in the adventure itself, a fit enterprise for the youth.
Thus the rivers are the natural outlets of the stored energy of young men, whereas the lakes are artificial ones. Such amusements and exercises are avowedly healthy ones and the phenomenon is steadily gaining ground.
There are some places in North Bihar and Bangladesh or Assam which have intricate river network. Although today we have improved modes of river communications, in more primitive days the men there had to depend more on showed greater pluck and courage in negotiating watery tracts. It is interesting to read the stories of their lives. They lived to plunge into the river day in and day out and very seldom suffered from cough and cold. In the rainy season, they shifted to safer and higher regions loading their belongings which they could savage on wooden cots that served as boats. What struck terror in the hearts of town dwellers, was those lads interesting and play like.
In modern ecology, sound pollution has come for serious discussion. Formerly men did not mind persistent loud noises. It disturbed the peace of poets and thinkers, but it was not considered to be a factor that could tell upon one’s health. But today it is so.
City noises or noisy cities are both alike. The main factor that contributes to their unwelcome noise is the loudspeaker. It is said that Rabindranath Tagore had forbidden the use of loudspeaker in the draft Constitution of the Santiniketan. It is strictly observed during marriages or other social functions. Its use during cultural functionoise pollution.ns remains confined within the halls.
The big cities are most subject to such noise pollutions. Publicity vans, cinema songs, functions or marriages deafen us with their decibel sounds. The horns in cars honk in extraordinary loud sounds. As a result, some hospitals are marked no horn zone. Now the doctors often come across deaf cases caused by high sounds in factories.
Not very long ago people had a notion that louder kirtan prayers carry higher rewards.Consequently the temples,the mosques and the gurudwaras set mikes on all sides of their building.These prayer sometimes continue for days on end .One canot protest because it is a secular country.The serious student affairs,the patient soreds restless nights..This preactice has been in vogue since long.But now the Kolkata High Court has passed a judgement restricting the decibel limit of such sounds.Students often face problems when loud music is played during examinations.Critical heart patients staying at home becomes ill and feels terrible.
Infact high noises affect not only our hearing ,it has slow poisoning effect on brains as well..The human brain is a highly sensetive organ..The repellent noice caused a kind of tendion in the brain: and its continued effect may cause any kind of damage to the human sensibility..Itvis a well known fact that hardened criminals are often treated with this device.They are subjected for hours to continuous monotonous deafening noice so that their psychological resistance is broken.It often yields tge desired result.
Like other kinds of pollution ,the remedy to this dangerous curse lies with men themselves.The government or the High Court may contain the nuisance by enforcing strict measures.But men at large ,must pay regard fo the feelings of others..Loud noise is never a sign of culture.Nehru remarked ” Culture is never loud ,culture is quiet” A cultured man is noted for his quite and restrained manners.Only the uncultured think that he gains by creating abnormal noise.
Pollutions caused by unhealthy sound are less obvious than those caused by light and smell..In the latter case the senses immediately react.The eyes automatically shrink against unusual glares.Similarly the hands coverthe noise against foul smoke.Where a long dinning noises do not stem to affect us outwardly but they sink into our senses like an undeen evil.Sometimes a man becomes dangerously conditioned to this.I have read a railway enployee complain that he can not sleep in a restful surrounding.The shnnting noise of the engines bring him sound sleep.What a tragedy!!!
Another name of superstition is blind faith. It dies hard and is born out of many circumstances. In our Sanskritic culture, the pundits and scholars set some taboos or inhibitions of human behaviour. Carrying eggs, oils and many such articles during the journey was regarded as inauspicious. Journeys away from home were strictly confined for the seven days of the week. The newly initiated ‘brahmacharis’brahmcharis’were strictly forbidden to see the face of the lower caste men like the scavengers. These strict rules struck root in the households and were especially so because people were illiterate, unenlightened, orthodox and sometimes dominating. Enlightened intellectuals like Vidyasagar, Rammohan Roy tried to axe these evils. Rabindranath Tagore, even as a child defied such taboos at his ‘upanayana’ ceremony. But in spite of such efforts, they survive even today.
These are not based on common sense, to say, the least. There is a basic difference between ‘common sense and common belief. The latter may harbour superstition or may not. It depends upon the degree of enlightenment within society. But common sense has something to do with reason, logic and argument. It is a healthier tradition. Primitive society and culture followed customs, ritual and traditional practices. But today even rustic or illiterate persons are amenable to reason. They are often prepared to give up their blind and obsolete ideas if they are made to see reason in the changed outlook.
The world today has come much closer. In the longer frame, there is the UNO which has been giving invaluable service in spreading the light of knowledge. Today the NGOs have come up and the literacy campaigns are contributing their mite.
Therefore, it is proved that superstition is an outcome of ignorance. It, sometimes, survives even in scholars and learned and educated persons. An internationally reputed Hindu philosopher may staunchly object to his daughter’s marriage with a fine specimen of a boy who belongs to the opposite community. Even today, intercaste marriages are not easily accepted by parents. A person marrying someone of a different religion has to face a lot of huddles and listen to criticism of society. Earlier women were not allowed to get an education. It was believed that only males can go out and work. Females must stay at home and cook. Their sole responsibility was to go look after her children and family. Moreover, every used to expect the delivery of a male child and girls were considered to be unlucky. Sati was a practice where the widow had to burn herself with his dead husband. These are all superstitions that existed years back. When a black cat crosses a road it is still considered to be unlucky and bad. When the world is getting updated it is sad that we are still haunted by these superstitions.
To conclude, superstition is a sequel to fear for the unseen. It seems extremely difficult to erase out from the minds all the considerations of a nameless fear, although it is not an unattainable ideal or objective. Rabindranath Tagore did his devout, though not uncritical, champion Abu Syyeed Auyub.
The Wife’s Lament
The poem well exemplifies the problems besetting the critic of OE poetry. It follows a series of riddles and, like many of them, takes the form of a first-person narrative and is mystifyingly allusive in its plot. The poem is a lamentation; the speaker is in friendless exile, left behind by a lord, betrayed by an intimate companion, tormented by an unfulfilled longing; there is imagery of the deserted, decaying city in an aged world, of death and of the grave, of weeping and of retribution: the language and whole mood of the poem may signal a penitential interpretations. Some of its motifs are available in the Scriptures and apt for this purpose.
The theme of betrayal and the lamentation of Zion come together in the Roman liturgy of Holy Week, when reading from this chapter of Lamentations are interspersed with verses including: ‘ My friend betrayed me by the token of a kiss… It were well for him if this man had not been’ and ‘Jerusalem, Jerusalem, turn back to the lord of your God.’ If this complex of scriptural associations and their orthodox interpretations already existed, ‘Wife’s Lament’ could conceivably be a riddle with the solution ‘Zion, the soul.’ The woman’s exile and betrayal would then suggest historically the alienated state of mankind before the Messiah’s advent, and symbolically the soul of everyman before the realisation of personal redemption; the woman’s longing and her imprecations would suggest Zion’s and the soul’s intuition of a saviour and a judge to come.
A plausible relationship with ‘Husband’s Message’ is established – the message being a token that love has at last come out of longing and the just judgement is at hand. In ‘Wife’s Lament’, the woman whose lord has gone away is ever tormented by anxiety and longing for him, especially as his own kindred are plotting to make the separation permanent. She has few friends still living; it is therefore especially painful that one of them, a man she had treated as her equal and much loved, proves to have concealed murderous intentions beneath a benign demeanour. Her sense of longing for her lord is all the more acute; now that she is betrayed and utterly abandoned in her grave-like den beneath the oak. She wishes upon her false friend such misery as she herself suffers: then he will understand what she has learned from her own experience – the pain of waiting for longing to be relieved by love restored.
The Husband’s Message
The speaker persona– not the ‘husband’ but the instrument of the message– says that the message embodies an immutable covenant by which an ‘ancient vow’, made before a feud intervened and caused the lord to be cast out by his own people, will be honoured. The spouse is called upon to voyage to the lord across the ocean to another country where he rules, where wealth abounds but where earthly treasure will be superseded by the all- sufficient joy of reunion according to the covenant. ‘Husband’s Message’ stands in a larger context than any that can plausibly be found for it in secular legend. Its motis of seafaring towards a ready home in another country would relate to the meaning as well as to the language of the ‘Seafarer’; and its concern with the covenant– tenuously observed in faith and hope through the history of the Old Testament, awaiting the consummation of charity in the age of the New – would be shared with the poems of Junius MS. In so far as the stoic endurance, the hope of retribution and the unceasing longing, of the woman in ‘Wife’s Lament’ may represent faith and hope glimmering in the pre-Messianic age of exile, that poem too would belong in the context established for ‘Husband’s Message’: the message would be that, in answer to the faithful longing, love has called Jerusalem to what is duly hers in heaven by virtue of espousal to Christ.
As in ‘Wife’s Lament’ and ‘Seafarer’, the literal level of the poem is vivid, specific and circumstantial, and arguably self-sufficient as a poetic topic, without symbolic interpretation. ‘Husband’s Message’ and ‘Wife’s Lament’ are not adjacent in the codex, but still it is hard to resist considering them in the relationship which their titles suggest. However, ‘Husband’s Message’ is as riddling allusive as ‘Wife’s Lament’.
The interaction between any device or modern amenity and society is the most significant point. So it is with television. It is an audiovisual electronic device of the modern age. It has invested life with a new charm that can never be dismissed summarily as harmful.
To be very plain no scientific thing is in itself harmful except, of course, the lethal weapons. Television today has become a domestic commodity. Almost every house owns it. It is a source of entertainment in hotels, restaurants, deluxe coaches, planes and whatnot. The cinema caters to the taste of people at limited hours and in limited things. But the TV with its far-flung multiple channels has a wild variety of things and programmes to cate.
The chief issue is how to use television. Ours is a permissive society although still in a considerable section of our globe men live primitive lives. It can be proved that the utility of television lies in its proper use otherwise, like Ms.Shelley’s Frankenstein, it harms the master that operates. Take the case of its commercialization in our society. The channels make a reckless display of nude or semi-nude films, crime and paranoic As a result, the colleges and now even the schools and their hostels teem with cases of sexual violence and the society at large has become arey to the interchange of wives and promiscuity. The west which fell a prey to it now confronts the fatal disease called aids. Doubtless, it, more than the cinema is accountable for it., for it administers the person to the mailing millions day in and out. In consequence of the heavy toll of the disease, the counter in. It is again the tv that comes to the rescue. The global investigations, a conference of doctor, findings and remedies are all disseminated to the public through the tv.
Naturally, it is the ultimate analysis that the role of a man that comes foremost. Tv has a powerful educative value quiz contests, merits of proper child care, intelligent programs to create awareness of family control among the illiterate and many other such educative programs are being done through tv take a good effect.
Tv is usually a vicarious means of entertainment. In general, it shuts our mind out. We see through them-religious, secular and vulgar soth our children unconcerned at how it manipulates against our culture. Another powerful aspect asset of tv is its exposure impact. Sidhi bat or Jana Adalat, interviews of defamed politicians with unforgiving critics like Prabhu Chawla, Nalini Singh invariably have a greater impact. Reading of scandals in the newspapers or heading them on radios do not shame the wrongdoers to that extent as when he is conscious that his scandals and sulking replies are being viewed by millions of viewers in his own country as well as abroad.
To cut the story short tv is an indispensable gift of our age. It is alleged that too much of exposure to the screen is likely to damage our dyes. But a controlled use of it and wholesome practices like splashing the eyes with water after seeing the programme would easily set off the little demerit that it has.
COVID-19 – a term that’s making the whole world cringe today. In December 2019, novel coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2, has resulted in the outbreak of a respiratory illness known as COVID-19, which has currently become a global pandemic, killing innumerous people and wrecking homes. Faces hidden behind masks, the hospitals are cramped with patients, the cities are on lockdown, and institutions and workplaces closed. Needless to say, such times are proving hard for every economic sectors, and highly so for the IT sector as well.
According to analysts, as one of the major effects of COVID-19 , there will be a significant impact on the technology sector. There’ll be a striking slowdown in the growth of India’s giant IT sector companies this financial year affecting raw materials supply, disrupting the electronics value chain, and causing an inflationary risk on products. Top software exporters such as Tata Consultancy Services, Infosys and HCL Technologies will be impacted by the reduced technology spending by clients in the US and Europe following lockdowns across the globe.
It is feared that Covid-19 will significantly impact the 180-billion dollars Indian IT sector. This impact may be worse than that of the 2008 global financial crisis (GFC), as the former has dented both demand and supply, whereas the latter had affected only demand. Considering the US and Europe, which together accounts for more than two-thirds of India’s IT exports, are among the worst affected geographies by the pandemic, this assumption holds ground. The total direct GDP impact can be nearly $8 trillion, with all the major sectors hit hard, and the economic loss will in turn affect spending on IT by clients. Accenture has already lowered its growth forecast to 3-6% from 6-8% due to business impact from the Covid-19 impact, and Indian IT firms are expected to follow cue.
As a direct impact, large scale unemployment is snatching livelihoods. Analysts had been warning about the prospect of unemployment ever since the country was put under a lockdown on March 25 to arrest the spread of the coronavirus infections, and people got the opportunity of working from home. Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy shows that unemployment shot up to 23.5% in April from 8.7% in March. In the week ended May 3, it jumped to 27.1%- the highest ever. Those that still managed to save their job, have had their salary recklessly slashed; some even getting paid just 30% of the original amount.
Since the it industies form a back bone of our society,their contribution is huge.In today’ s we cant imagine out life without apps ir smartphones or computers.Software and hardware have transformed our life in a way.It is interesting that if IT industry stop sorking completely then it might happen that our nation will stop in no time.Although most of the officials are working online in other workinds they have switched to eork from home but still situation is not that stable and sound.Home and office atmospheres are completely different so it is a big problem in the current scenario.All developments and research works have been stopped due to covid 19.Companies are worrried abot their progress and their employees as well.
The statement that reading is a good habit is a self-evident truth. Man is not a mere child of instincts. It is intelligence that makes a difference between him and animals. Naturally, a love for books ought to be his natural inclination.
A teenager is basically a student and the period of his teens are the most formative period. Naturally, if a taste for good books can be created in him then it shall contribute substantially to his career. In fact, this truth is apt to be taken up as research. If we trace back the early life of those that have made a mark in life, we shall see that they have sent this period of their life most fruitfully. They may have been poor or may have been away from the seats of culture, yet they must have obtained access to the sources of knowledge during this period.
This period is largely spent in schools and partly in the colleges. It is also seen that in the schools, the syllabus suggests very useful books whether it is framed by the NCERT, the Delhi Board or by the various state educational bodies. They cover a wide range of subjects from language, socio-political cultures, environmental learning, science, moral science and what not. If properly pursued the end- product ought to have been marvellous by now. But if we make a study like random sampling it shall be evident that the net result is not very promising. Have we ever bothered to enquire Why? The guardians spend liberally on their children. The public schools are multiplying every day and still, they do not lack students. The teenaged boys and girls bend under the weight of their school bags. Still, the result is depressing.
In fact, what is lacking ? the involvement of the teachers with their students? The irony seems to be an odd notion of The more in number or in the variety of the subject are the books the more shall be the achievement.
The primary factor in our teaching culture ought to be how we can raise the curiosity of the students. We must remember that the curiosity to know, and hence to learn is a basic human impulse. Even a child that prattles, picks up new things every day and shows strong manifestations of his curiosity. How is it that this inherent bent becomes mute or numbed as he grows in age? Afterall it not so dismally true in the foreign countries.
To induce good reading habits, the reader must be made to feel that what is good in a book. It is easier to improve one’s judgement because it is a question of reason or logic. But it is difficult and a painstaking affair to improve one’s taste because it is a question of feeling. However, merely saying that a good book is really good will not do. One has to involve the reader in healthy debates and discussions. The different aspects of ‘good reading’ have to be discussed freely sith students..The bosses of knowledge must not impose; it may have an adverse effect.If some one likes crome gente he or she must be given books from that genre. Reading books increase the stock of words and enhance vocabulary.
“Government of the people, by the people’-this is a patent and ubiquitous definition of democracy. The other two alternative forms of equal universal validity are oligarchy and aristocracy. Out of the three, democracy is by far the best and most popular, although it is not an unmixed blessing.
Yet all said, democracy is the best form of government, as it guards the interests of men in general. It avoids the evils and demerits of both aristocracies which empowers a privileged section of society to run the state and of oligarchy in which only a few men or groups of men arrogate to themselves the right to rule over others. It is elective, representative and broad-based.
In the earlier days of the European civilisation, the roman republic was founded on popular voice. It was a crude form of democracy. The popular or mass opinion is a fickle phenomenon, as it can be swayed in one’s favour by the legerdemain of arguments. In Julius Caesar, Shakespeare has revealed this truth in the speech of Mark Antony who banished all love of Brutus by an artful play of Sentiments.
Modern democracy is decidedly more solid and well thought out. In it the constitution is supreme. It may be a written constitution like in India or an unwritten constitution as in Britain. Our preamble of the constitution grants even an ordinary man some fundamental rights.: the right to vote is given to all after an age of 18 and the affairs of the state are run by the people of the country. The laws are framed towards the attainments of a welfare state. The neglected section of the society, its underdogs, so to say are given certain privileges so that they are able to catch up with the rest.
One remembers the hoary days of independence. Independence, the Five Year Plans, the illustrious cadres of service that was defined as the Steel-Frame of Administration. One remembers the devoted band of social workers, the Congress, the CPI or CPIM, the SSP that functioned in tandem; and one remembers the healthy bourgeois culture, pluralistic, tolerant soaked on brotherly feelings.
But today the country faces a crisis-ridden with intolerance, doubt, lies to shield power, bribes where money changes hands to protect covert crimes. Entrenched power runs havoc with a massacre of values, honesty and integrity. The nation’s political fabric is a ragbag of opportunism. personal convenience nepotism and what not. The parliament, that was once a cynosure for the ordinary men is today a hothouse of disreputable personae mostly. In a republic like the USA one ‘bugging scandals’ could cause the stepping down its President and in Japan one core could bring down its Prime Minister. But here such scandals are worth only casual attention.
In view of the above scenario ‘democracy’ as it obtains in our country lives only as a platitude with our leaders to befool is during elections. Our constitution is the greatest casualty in the hands of the power that can be. Free thinking, freedom of information, meed o labour -/to wish privileges that form the bedrock of a democratic government is but to live in a fool’s paradise! The high court and the Supreme Court run the administration.
When the whole world is under a turmoil students might think what to do next. Well., every problem has a solution. Every end leads to a new journey. Once done with graduation one might continue staying there and pursue higher studies. Australia is considered to be the 3rd most popular study destination. They have excellent colleges and universities along with the world’s best teaching faculty. The universities provide courses like business administration, accounting, and bookkeeping etc. Currently, more than 40000 Indian students are studying in Australia. Competitive costs for tuition and scholarships make education affordable for students. Australian institutions are successfully providing education to 4,15,000 international students.
Australian universities provide a handful of popular courses that can take one to good posts. Students can apply for PhDs as well.No work is small and every work is equally respected. students can start doing part-time work from home which can fetch them good experience and command on the language will develop. Students having a good academic record in finance can easy join a company and start working as a Finance Business Partner. The average income of a Finance business partner is between $120k and $140k.Then as an AccountAdministrator, one can get a salary between $55k and $65k.Students who have a degree in the administration can try out their luck for the posts like Administration Manager, Administration Officer etc. The income of an administration manager is not less than $65k.One who has good experience in business can easily become a Business Administrator and can get a salary between $55k and $65k.Students coming from Advertising, media and arts.they can shift to different fields like acting, copywriting etc. In today’s world animation plays a big role in the entertainment industry. A good Animator can prove his excellence and fine if the once really have potential. Depending on the performance, the salary of an Animator is between $60k and $70k.In this competitive world, everyone has to up today and here journalism plays a very crucial role. So the students who have studied journalism cam become good journalists if they have proficiency in the language and content. The salary of a journalist often fluctuates between $50k and $60k and this is quite a big deal. The jobs of Editor and Communications Officer are no less prestigious.
There are students who also start their own business after completing their graduation. Manu Indian students often open their own restaurants and cafeterias. Educated and qualified students start working as entrepreneurs at a very young age. Indian food is accepted all over the world so It is an option that most students have in the back of their mind.
Apart from this students can also get involved with social workplaces and start working worldwide since the chin is wide in range and has given opportunities to many young and enthusiastic students.
To conclude, “If there is a will there is a way” goes an old saying. Although we all are probably facing the darkest nights and heading towards a recession still if someone has talent no hurdle can stop him or her. Closed doors cant stop the wind from entering into the room, similarly talents cant be stopped by any means. Dont just wait for the opportunity be prepared for it. World has enough jobs but fewer talents so make yourself count.
Advertising or publicity has today gained phenomenal significance. Naturally, it is wrong to negative it’s used.
In fact, the modern age cannot do without advertisement. Formerly the newspapers, house magazines and other printed media of advertisements were the chief vehicles of communication. But with the advent of the television advertisement has involved human life and culture as it did never before. Education, Science, Competitions, Domestic living and even kitchen menu are now under the remote control of the advertisers.
The world today has not only come closer due to the bonding progress of science, but human life on earth has also become myriad patterned. Commercial competitive spirit has generated a culture in which each product claims to hold it’s own. Naturally, man today is up against an array of competitive products that seek to influence him.
The taste of the pudding is in the eating. The proverb implies that an intrinsically good thing calls for no advertisement. But today the commodities of use have become scientific, and have to be properly advertised. The hygienic values of food, their components and the process of preparation have to be driven home to users through sensible advertisement. Again the earth’s environment, today suffers from an imbalance resulting in various kinds of fatal diseases. Advertisement is exceedingly needed to warn men about their habits and evil consequences. Only through advertisements like cartoon pictures, photographs and intelligent visual strips on TVs can such health hazards be avoided. Again these days the manner on which the importance of iodine on food to prevent goitre and the importance of triple injections for newborn babies that are telecasted shows the importance of advertisement.
But the on the negative side purely commercial advertisements ought to be checked. There is a tendency in traders to launch their bad or indifferent products through advertising gimmicks. Men, in general, are credulous. The sly advertiser often pushes in his stuff by out the good stuff. The usual technique is the high commission to retailers. It follows the general Gresham’s Law that bad money turns good money out of circulation. Unless our national government is alert enough and puts a check on such malpractice’s, we shall reap live the evils of advertisement.
Lastly, advertisement helps us in having a knowledge of the larger world of educational opportunities. Knowledge today is opening new and ever new fronts. Many traditional modes are being progressively relegated. It is a feature of this century where modern science is the greatest contribution, computer assessment of merits, computer in railway reservations have successfully made human living smoother. Now the results are more accurate and corruption free. Naturally, if there were no advertising media,the largest cross section of human beings that live in rural or non urban areas would have remained in the dark.So advertising has proved itself to be necessary,nay an indispensable component of a healthy societyBut as the advantages are many the disadvantages of its missuse are no less.Change is the only constant and inevitable so in near future we might get to see more changes in the advertising sector.