Category Archives: Urban and Regional Planning

The Changes After 1991 In India

Today India is one of the most powerful nations in the world. Our progress in education, science-technology, business, economy, the defense system is really noticeable. India is always a unique country but India also passed many tough situations, this achievement comes after so many hardships, struggles, and fights.before 1991 the political situation in India is unstable, after 1991 certain changes in the Indian economy, science-technology held to be very important In the history of India.

Indian Economy: we wanted to establish an Economy based on social justice through planning for a National planning commission was established that would coordinate development through the policy of the Five Year Plan. The government started Economic Reforms are called as Economic Liberalisation. The foreign Invest In India increased, the field of information technology opened several avenues of employment in the country . Liberalization, Privatizati, and Globalization, India under its New Economic Policy approached International Banks for development of the country. These agencies asked Indian Government to open its restrictions on trade done by the private sector and between India and other countries.

Science and Technology: The experiment in the co-operative dairy movement By Dr.Verghese Kurien led to increase in milk production in India. This is called as White Revolution. Dr.Homi J.bhaba laid the foundation of the Indian atomic Power Programme. India insisted on using atomic energy for peaceful purposes like generation of electricity, pharmaceuticals and defense.

Change In Social Field: changes related to the women empowerment movement and other related to the policies regarding the uplift of deprived sections of the society


Accredited Social Health Activists, ASHAs, are playing an indispensable role in rural outreach by educating village people on arresting the spread of the much-dreaded Coronavirus. Field reports from Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s constituency, Varanasi indicate that ASHAs credited with juggling multiple roles have been deputed to spread awareness on prevention of Coronavirus in their areas. They are after all the backbone of primary healthcare in more than seven lakh villages of India.

On April 14, the day Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced an extension of the 21-day lockdown till May 3, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, advised in a COVID-19 related tweet that persons having symptoms may approach national/ state helpline centres or frontline workers such as ASHA workers and field workers. The tweet said that these workers have been oriented about the process to be followed and can help in early detection and facilitate proper treatment in hospitals.

Rekha Sharma, a forty-year-old ASHA worker says that ASHA workers in Varanasi have been asked to cover 25 to 30 houses a day in the assigned villages till the end of May. After lockdown, some workers working in Bengaluru, Delhi, Pune and other cities have come back to the villages because they did not have any work in lockdown. They have been asked to undergo tests for COVID- 19.”

The ASHAs are given performance-based incentives for promoting universal immunisation, referral and escort services for reproductive and child health and other healthcare programmes and construction of household toilets. They counsel women on birth preparedness, the importance of safe delivery, breast-feeding and complementary feeding, immunisation, contraception and prevention of common infections including Reproductive Tract Infections/ Sexually Transmitted Infections (RTIs and STIs) and care of the young child. From time to time, the ASHA workers have been deservingly honoured as well. In December 2019, Balvinder Kaur, an ASHA worker from Khosi Kalan village of sub-centre Koomkala of Ludhiana, Punjab was honoured with the National Universal Health Coverage Award by Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare, Dr Harsh Wardhan. She was honoured for her contribution to promoting facilities of Health and Wellness Centres in her block, Likewise, Jamuna Mani Singh was also felicitated by the Odisha government. “From the time we came to know that COVID-19 is going to pose a big threat to India, we took it upon ourselves to strengthen our rural outreach. Since we have been working in several states of India with special focus on many districts of Uttar Pradesh for a long time, we offered our services to government departments like education, health, women and child welfare departments.

We have made sure that all facts on COVID-19 that are being put out by the World Health Organisation and the Ministry of Health, are disseminated to the villages daily. As and when required, we are seeking the help of community-based organisations and other voluntary organisations.” Mr Pradhan explained that MAMTA is using the existing WhatsApp groups through which they normally function with senior government officers on several social welfare and development-oriented schemes, to spread awareness on COVID-19 as well. We are working in all eight blocks in the Prime Minister’s constituency. We have also asked ASHAs, frontline workers, Nehru Yuvak Kendra, NSS (National Service Scheme) and NCC (National Cadet Corps) volunteers to ask villagers to download Arogya Setu App (a mobile app developed by the Ministry of IT and Electronics to help citizens identify the risk of contracting COVID-19 infection). All government departments of Varanasi are already actively promoting Arogya Setu. To make it easy, we have shared the Arogya Setu link with all volunteers and social workers. Surely, the army of dedicated and friendly health activists in India’s villages is taking on the COVID- 19 challenge by empowering people with knowledge.

#sorrows of Sparrow 🐦

Do you remember your childhood when you use to sing that beautiful song ‘Anek chidiya ‘?today ,like the ‘chidiya ‘,the song has become almost extinct!even birds like the commando sparrow,which we used to see in large in numbers,are scarcely seen today.these ‘chirpy little fellows ‘ that used to delight us onces upon a time should now be named ‘Sorrow’ instead of ‘sparrow’. That is what their lives have become. Full of sorrows! Human beings have no mercy for them. They shoo them away. They do not allow them to make nests on their balconies Or terraces. Rapid urbanization has resulted in cutting down of trees. This destroyed their natural habitat. An over – Abandunce of vehicle and factories have polluted the atmosphere. We have erected mobile towers and use cellphones, the vibration of which, distrub these do we expect them to live in the concrete jungles that we have erected? We have changed the entire infrastructure around us. We have paved the roads. We have tiled the areas around our buildings. Where are the green areas? As a result these little friends of ours have escaped, no more return. Trees provide our friends, the sparrows, with fruits and insects to eat. Now they are facing an acute security of food. It is for us, human being, to take more efforts to make things easy for these birds. We could provide grain or food for them to eat outside our balconies or windows. We could provide them with little boxes in which to have a dust bath. How enjoyable it would be to see these cheery little creatures flapping around in the mud! More importantly, we could plant more trees. Is anyone reading out there? Will anyone heed their plight and take necessary steps to help them? Otherwise these friendly Birds are facing extinction! The lifestyles of the people has been changed and they are no longer environment or Bird-Friendly. So this is our responsibility to do something for that little one. Just think about it! This is the small msg from that little sparrow–🌠Dear friends, I am little sparrow and how helpless I am? In fact, my name should have been ‘sorrows’ instead of sparrow, because Human beings have no Marcy on us, little birds that we are. They pollute the atmosphere and erect mobile towers, making it impossible for us to breathe or live. They cut down trees that are our natural habitat. Tell me, where we expect to live? In the past, the trees provided us with fruits & insects to eat. Now, however because of deforestation, we are facing a scarcity of food. I wish human beings would take more efforts to make things easy for us. They could provide us food & shelter. They plant more trees. These are our expectations from you people. Will they heed our plight and take necessary steps to help us? Otherwise we are facing near extension! Thank you all!


Mawlynnong God’s own garden ,The cleanest village in Asia . It’s a small village in East Khasi Hills district Meghalaya state in North east India .In 2003 It was awarded the title ” cleanest village In Asia” by Discover India. a mysterious paradise, a place far from city life’s pollution .cleaniless really a great achievememt when whole country is struggle for “swachata” along with this the village has approx hundred percent literacy rate and highly progressive scenario for women.

Mawlynnong is located 90km from Shilong , along the India Bangladesh Border. Agriculture is the chief occupation of the local population. Here weather is pleasant all throughout the year, still the best time to visit is Moonsoon. During rainy season village and it’s surroundings become lush green .

each and every house of this village has functional toilets and the whole locality is provided with baboo dustbins,every waste product even dry leaves go into dustbin . Plastic and smoking strictly prohibited here. The Khasi tribe is the biggest attraction of this small village. This is a famous tribe and is well ahead of the patriarchal notions. In this tribe, children inherit their mother’s surnames and property is also passed through the matrilineal lines. Mawlynnong with all these features, proves that women empowerment is completely possible if people are convinced enough.

Living roots bridges,This natural wonder has been declared as an UNESCO World Heritage Site. The living route bridges are a phenomenon in itself. The bridges connect the aerial roots of one giant rubber tree and make a bridge hanging above the river. These bridges take years to self construct and can accommodate fifty to seventy people at a time.

Khasis in Mawlynnong are devout Christians. Surrounded by orange and palm trees, stands a 100-year-old church in the village called ‘Church of the Epiphany’. Narrow stone paths with plants bearing orange flowers reach out to the Church, which is a black and white structure exuding an old-world charm. There are no houses that rise above the Church spire.

natural beauty , simle people ,culture, local dishes , a strange blissful peace and” cleaniness” makes MAWLYNNONG a destination of relief .


It’s easy to sit and criticise …..CORONA – AND WHAT INDIA FACES

Checked the demographics of the developed countries of the world and was startled.The population figures go like this -USA – 33.1 Crores Russia -14.6 Crores Germany – 8.5 Crores Turkey – 8.4 Crores UK – 6.8 CroresFrance – 6.5 Crores Italy – 6.1 Crores Spain – 4.7 Crores Poland – 3.8 Crores Romania – 1.9 CroresNetherlands – 1.7 Crores Greece – 1.7 Crores Belgium -1.2 Crores Czech Republic – 1.1 Crores Portugal – 1.1 Crores Sweden – 1 Crore Hungary – 1 CroreSwitzerland – 0.9 CroreBulgaria – 0.7 Crore Denmark – 0.6 Crore *Total* – 105. 3 CroresThe rest of the 25 smaller European countries combined (there are 44 countries in the European continent) – 6 Crores*Europe – 105.3 + 6 = 111.3 Crores*Adding the populations of Brazil (21.2 Crores) and Argentina (4.45 Crores) 111.3 Crores + 25.65 Crores = 136.95 CroresThus, finally you have arrived at lndia’s population figure of 136 – 138 Crores.*The implication of managing Covid19 in lndia is as enormous a task as managing it in the entire Europe plus USA, Brazil and Argentina.*#isupportmodigoverment

Home- still a dream of many

Modernization, the want to step ahead of time, and fight between the human race, has become one of the reasons why people try and judge each other for what kind of house they live in.

Whenever a person go to someone’s home, the first thing they tend to judge, is there home well furnished? Is the arrangement of their house proper? And etc. etc. But forget that, income and prices are the two factors that do not go hand in hand. Also, the country which we reside in, is one of the developing nations in the world, where “A perfect home” is still a dream of millions. Thus, how can we expect that when a person can’t even afford to live peacefully under a roof, how can the other render to make everything look pretty.

Urban and rural differences –

In India, most of the population hail from village areas and move towards cities in search of better opportunities, such as, jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors, better resources, and better standard of living. Instead, they fail to survive most of the times and hang in between the air with less access to resources and low standard of living, since affording such standard of living remains out of their approaches.

According to the report of World Bank’s collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources, rural population in India was reported at 65.97%

While people hailing from rural areas face tough times with city lifestyle. People residing in cities too confront with problems of proper houses to live in, also they are detained from basic resources that are searched by village people in the limelight of cities. They often end up living in congestion, without proper sanitation facilities, water and electricity, and lag behind in most of the basic values that are necessary to live a prosperous life. Also population remains a constant reminder that the land is unavailable to fit such a large amount of people who seek to live in the middle of the cities instead of country sides. The pressure upon the land has become a huge chunk of tension for the policymakers, which is why most people remain neglected from a proper facility of house and housing.

Dharavi, Asia’s biggest slum is full of such people who either migrate to cities in search for resources, or the people who are unable to afford a lifestyle that is basic necessity and right of every human being. It is a place with 2.1 sq. Km. and a population as estimated in 2016, 900,000 – 1,000,000 people.

Problem of resources –

While most of us are happy with the lives and are living peacefully in our own homes. There are still millions of people who do not even have access to basic resources such as –

  • Sanitation facilities
  • Housing
  • Water supply
  • Electricity
  • Food resources
  • Proper job facilities

We can find people sleeping on the pavements of the roads, they could be seen eating on the roadside food joints, and earn only on per day basis, which are not sufficient to provide them with a proper place to live in.

According to NSSO, landlessness in India is a major problem and the total population works out to be 200 million that is counted to be landless.

Thus, a major proportion of the country’s population still have a dream to have their own place to live in. Also, slums remain an inevitable problem in India that cannot be replaced due to their presence from a very long past. It is likely to achieve a figure where most of the Indians could have their own home sweet home.

Ambulance Dada

Meet Karimul Haque as known as Ambulance Dada, he is a tea garden worker in Jalpaiguri, West Bengal who ferries the ill, the poor, and the fragile to the district hospital on his bike. He turned down his bike to an ambulance. He and his bike is the lifeline for 20 villages in and around Dhalabari. This part of Bengal, known as Dooars and dominated by small tea growers, daily wagers and peasants, has mobile networks but lacks concrete roads and basic healthcare facilities.

In 1995 when he was unable to save her mother’s life due to lack of medical facility, he wasn’t found an ambulance to take her mother to the hospital, after this incident, he took an oath to himself that he, not let anyone else die due to insufficient ambulance coverage ,Haque’s motorbike ambulance plan came to him when one of his colleagues collapsed on the field. Since a regular ambulance could not reach him in time, Haque tied him to his back and made him ride pillion to the nearest hospital. His co-worker recovered from the illness, inspiring Haque to continue with this approach.

Since 1998 he providing motorcycle ambulance service around 20 villages Dhalabari, in Doar’s belt, where electricity service roads condition not well, nearest hospital 45 kilometers away. besides the ambulance service, he provides basic first-aid, medicine to the villagers. He spent most of his income on this medical service.

On 2017  he has received the Padma Shri award for his work supporting the villagers in and around Dhalabari by bringing sick people to hospital in his motorcycle ambulance.

Karimul Haque received Padmashri from the president Pranab Mukherjee 2017

Karimul Haque is the real-life hero after I read about this man I get an amazing motivation, we approx most of the time think about ourselves what we do after graduation, about our bank balance, we always think what we haven’t, People like Karimul teach us it’s not necessary to have all the things we want for our life, it’s important to have the courage and desire to do the thing.

Restaurant Business (RS) – A Management Studies Journal

The aim of Restaurant Business (RS) is the dissemination of insightful and original marketing knowledge. We welcome novel and ground-breaking contributions from a wide range of research traditions within the broad domain of marketing. Restaurant Business (RS) is not pre-disposed towards either empirical work or pure theory, nor towards one particular method or approach, we feel that any approach that helps to break new ground is welcome. We are Indian however we actively encourage global contributions, from scholars across the broad domain of marketing.

how to get published

Journal is indexed within Ebsco Database

Editorial Criteria

Restaurant Business (RS) will be an outlet for research that is:

  1. Based on rigorous, high quality scholarly work of global standards
  2. From a diverse range of methodological, philosophical and theoretical approaches
  3. Taken from theoretical conceptualization and appropriate research methodology
  4. Well written, clear, relevant and most importantly of interest to marketing practitioners as well as academicians

Restaurant Business (RS) will be particularly receptive to the development and testing of new theories and concepts to be brought into practise. We therefore will not generally be open to pure opinion although viewpoint and commentary articles are welcome where they can meet appropriate standards of rigour. Authors who wish to submit such articles are encouraged to contact the editors prior to commencing work. Restaurant Business (RS) is also receptive in principle to the submission of replication studies, where they are able to demonstrate a clear and substantive contribution to existing marketing knowledge and practise.

Unique Attributes

Restaurant Business (RS) aims to be a forum for the dissemination of high-quality scholarly research and thinking in marketing. Each paper submitted Restaurant Business (RS) will be subjected to a strict peer review process by practitioners and academicians.

Key Journal Audiences

  1. Marketing scholars
  2. Senior and middle marketing management
  3. Senior executives in distribution, market research and advertising


Restaurant Business (RS) is receptive to all areas of research which are relevant to research and new insight development in the field of Marketing, some examples are:

  1. Rural Marketing
  2. Importance of marketing to the bottom-of-the-pyramid
  3. Luxury marketing
  4. Sustainability and ethical issues in marketing
  5. Consumer behavior
  6. Advertising and branding issues
  7. Methodology of marketing research
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  9. Services marketing
  10. New product development and innovation
  11. Retailing and distribution
  12. Macromarketing/micromarketing and societal issues
  13. Pricing and economic decision making in marketing
  14. Marketing models

Restaurant Business (RS) also welcomes articles which cross boundaries between these and other areas of marketing, and in particular multidisciplinary research which brings together various fields of study.

Restaurant Business (RS)  with ISSN 0097-8043 is multi-disciplinary journals for management studies, business, economics, ecommerce, finance, trade, banking, insurance, commerce, hospitality, tourism, planning, development studies and allied fields. The journal is open access and available electronically around the world.

Scopus Indexed Journal available at . Researchers can find the Restaurant Business (RS) Journal Journal Home Page with Issues and Archives at

UGC Approved Journal no. 10549 at RS is working for publication and promotion of research through throughout the world. Scholars are requested to submit papers for publication in Scopus Indexed and UGC Approved journal – Restaurant Business (RS)

Email to submit Papers for publication is 

Restaurant Business (RS)  with ISSN 0097-8043

Restaurant Business (RS)  with ISSN 0097-8043 which handle theoretical and empirical manuscripts can be found on our Journal Matrix. These editorial guidelines reflect the Academies’ policy with regard to reviewing theoretical and empirical manuscripts for publication and presentation in each of these affiliates. The primary criterion upon which manuscripts are judged is whether the research advances the discipline. The specific guidelines which are followed by referees is displayed on the following page. It shows the areas of evaluation to which each manuscript is subjected. Key points include currency, interest, and relevancy. Theoretical manuscripts are particularly vulnerable to problems in literature review. In order for theoretical research to advance a discipline, it must address the literature which exists in the discipline to support conclusions or models which extend knowledge and understanding. Consequently, referees for theoretical manuscripts pay particular attention to completeness of literature review and appropriateness of conclusions drawn from that review. Empirical manuscripts are particularly vulnerable to methodological problems. In order to advance the literature, empirical manuscripts must employ appropriate and effective sampling and statistical analysis techniques. However, empirical papers must also incorporate thorough literature reviews in order to advance the literature. Referees will pay close attention to the conclusions which are drawn from statistical analyses and their consistency with the literature. As the last question on the referee guidelines suggests, we ask referees to be as specific as possible in indicating what must be done to make a manuscript acceptable for journal publication. This embodies a primary objective of the Academy: to assist authors in the research process. Our Editorial Policy is one which is supportive, rather than critical. We encourage all authors who are not successful in a first attempt to rewrite the manuscript in accordance with the suggestions of the referees. We will be pleased to referee future versions and rewrites of manuscripts and work with authors in achieving their research goals.


Restaurant Business (RS)  with ISSN 0097-8043 is multi-disciplinary journals for management studies, business, economics, ecommerce, finance, trade, banking, insurance, commerce, hospitality, tourism, planning, development studies and allied fields. The journal is open access and available electronically around the world.

Scopus Indexed Journal available at . Researchers can find the Restaurant Business (RS) Journal Journal Home Page with Issues and Archives at

UGC Approved Journal no. 10549 at RS is working for publication and promotion of research through throughout the world. Scholars are requested to submit papers for publication in Scopus Indexed and UGC Approved journal – Restaurant Business (RS)

Email to submit Papers for publication is  

GIS Business (ISSN 1430-3663)


GIS Business (ISSN 1430-3663) provides an advanced forum for the science and technology of geographic information. GIS Business publishes regular research papers, reviews and communications. Our aim is to encourage scientists to publish their experimental and theoretical results in as much detail as possible. There is no restriction on the length of the papers. The full experimental details must be provided so that the results can be reproduced. There are, in addition, three unique features of this journal:

  • manuscripts regarding research proposals and research ideas will be particularly welcomed.
  • electronic files and software regarding the full details of the calculation and experimental procedure, if unable to be published in a normal way, can be deposited as supplementary material.
  • we also accept manuscripts communicating to a broader audience with regard to research projects financed with public funds.180614-F-XX999-0033


  • data collection and acquisition
  • data structures and algorithms
  • spatio-temporal databases
  • spatial analysis, data mining, and decision support systems
  • visualization theory and technology in real and virtual environments
  • cartography
  • location based services
  • uncertainty handling in spatial data
  • topology
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  • geo-telematics
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  • applications of geoinformation technology (all possible domains)

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GIS Business is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). GIS Business takes the responsibility to enforce a rigorous peer-review together with strict ethical policies and standards to ensure to add high quality scientific works to the field of scholarly publication. Unfortunately, cases of plagiarism, data falsification, inappropriate authorship credit, and the like, do arise. GIS Business takes such publishing ethics issues very seriously and our editors are trained to proceed in such cases with a zero tolerance policy. To verify the originality of content submitted to our journals, we use iThenticate to check submissions against previous publications. GIS Business works with Publons to provide reviewers with credit for their work.

GIS Business with ISSN no. 1430-3663 is UGC Approved journal with J. no. 27917. Indexing and archives of GIS Business journal is at and Website of GIS Business is

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GIS Busines is multi-disciplinary journal for remote sensing, gis, earth sceinces, geology, geography, urban planning, civil engineering, environmental sciences.