Category Archives: Urban and Regional Planning

journal for studies in Management and planning

Journal for Studies in Management and Planning (JSMaP) peer-reviewed and published monthly, is committed to publishing scholarly empirical and theoretical research articles that have a high impact on the management field as a whole. JSMaP covers domains such as business strategy and policy, entrepreneurship, human resource management, organizational behaviour, organizational theory, and research methods. This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

The Journal of MJournal for Studies in Management and Planning (JSMaP) is committed to publishing scholarly empirical and theoretical research articles, that have a high impact on the management field as a whole. The journal encourages new ideas or new perspectives on existing research. The journal covers such areas as: 

  • Business strategy & policy
  • Organizational behavior
  • Human resource management 
  • Organizational theory
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Research Methods

Review Issues are published on monthly basis. These issues include widely read and widely cited collections of articles in the field of management and have become a major resource for management scholars. The Review Issues cover a broad range of topics from a wide range of academic disciplines, methodologies, and theoretical paradigms.

The mission of JSMaP is to publish empirical research that tests, extends, or builds management theory and contributes to management practice. All empirical methods including, but not limited to, qualitative, quantitative, field, laboratory, meta-analytic, and mixed methods are welcome. To be published in JSMaP, the research must make strong empirical and theoretical contributions and the manuscript should highlight the relevance of those contributions to management practice. Authors should strive to produce original, insightful, interesting, important, and theoretically bold research that demonstrates a significant “value-added” contribution to the field’s understanding of an issue or topic. 

The European ManJournal for Studies in Management and Planning (JSMaP) ) is a flagship scholarly journal, publishing internationally leading research across all areas of management. JSMaP articles challenge the status quo through critically informed empirical and theoretical investigations, and present the latest thinking and innovative research on major management topics, while still being accessible and interesting to non-specialists.

JSMaP articles are characterized by their intellectual curiosity and diverse methodological approaches, which lead to contributions that impact profoundly on management theory and practice. We welcome interdisciplinary research that synthesizes distinct research traditions to shed new light on contemporary challenges in the broad domain of European business and management. Cross-cultural investigations addressing the challenges for European management scholarship and practice in dealing with global issues and contexts are strongly encouraged.

Send papers for publication to editor@ijrmpad.org

Link to Journal is https://ijrmpad.org/index.php/jsmap

The History Of Urban Planning 

Humankind has been on the constant journey of uplifting their standards of living. This species is known to carefully analyze its surroundings and bring about the required changes for maximum betterment.  

For an improved strategy that helps lead lifestyles, it is essential to pay extra attention to crucial aspects. One such significant section is urban planning. It is a process that requires examining and strategizing the proper use of elements like water, land, resources, and so forth.  

In simple terms, it is related to curating an infrastructure that is best suitable for a sustainable lifestyle. In this article, we will learn about urban planning and some of the essential segments of its history. 

What Do You Understand By Urban Planning?  

As mentioned above, urban planning is related to curating a fruitful infrastructure that clearly defines the vital resources available to humankind. Urban planning is both a technical as well as a political process that requires ample amounts of knowledge. 

The history of urban planning stretches to that of human existence. To carry out excellent urban planning, one requires appropriate information regarding engineering and architecture. Moreover, this field also needs adequate audience participation. Thus, it is essential to instill utmost discipline while dealing with urban planning. 

Pre-Classical Era 

The pre-classical era witnessed several cities being laid down according to a strategic plan. Many of these cities tended to develop organically over time. Some of the most prominent cities designed in this period were Harappan, Minoan, and Egyptian civilization. If we talk about the first recorded urban planning description, it goes back to The Epic of Gilgamesh. 

The streets of many cities known to humankind were built and laid out in the forms of rigid right angles and grid patterns. Some archaeological evidence also suggests that many houses were designed to shield from the noise and improve the standard of living. Additionally, most of the homes have their very own water well. This suggested the remains for sanitary purposes. Furthermore, some archaeologists also interpret that these cities had well-organized drainage systems as well as agricultural land. 

Medieval Europe  

The disintegration of the west Roman empire dates back to the 5th century. Since then, the general improvement is noted to have appeared in the 10th and 11 centuries. This time was interpreted as politically stable and economically beneficial. It was then when trade and craft flourished, and monetary benefits were revived in the economy. During this era, hundreds of towns were built. Moreover, many of the pre-existing towns were expanded. Without a doubt, these new towns have played a significant role in maintaining the geographical structures of Europe. 

The Era Of Industrialization 

The late 19th century saw a boost in the industrial sector. This was a result of the rapid population growth, business enterprises, frequent profits, and so forth. Giant cities developed during this era, and a subtle exhibition of luxury as well as poverty was observed. The growing status difference led to the rise of corruption as well as the poor sections of society like the slums, etc., saw a rise.  

The poor standards of living resulted in poverty, and that posed a threat to society. Since then, individuals have started to focus on the betterment of public health. This was followed by the creation of better and strategic plans for water supplies, sewage, and so forth. 

Soon, the first housing reform was enacted in the late century. However, the implementation was slow and steady as the government provided funding after a long gap. With housing improvement, new and erect structures were observed in the economy. These were more stable and improved standard of living. 

Progressive Era 

The progressive era saw the need for urban recreational planning. It was during the early 20th century structures like parks were built. These places were created with the motive of providing relief and peaceful places for relaxation. A little time later, numerous playgrounds started to emerge that facilitated a dedicated area for children as well as adults. Soon the separation of roads was also witnessed. There was a specific section for all the pedestrians as well as the vehicular traffic. This provided more structure as well as rigidity to the society.  

Benefits Of Urban Planning  

Urban planning plays a major role in the social-economic level as a political connection of the society. This type of planning requires the proper utilization of resources in order to extract maximum benefit from them. Below, we have mentioned a few benefits of urban planning, depicting its importance in today’s society. 

1. Connectivity  

Urban planning resulted in better connectivity of towns, cities, neighborhoods, and so forth. This resulted in enhanced land values of the well-connected cities. Furthermore, it also resulted in enhancing people’s safety as well as security. This is so because urban planning facilitated better surveillance and prominent health benefits. 

2. Adaptability  

The proper use of urban planning increased the capacity of buildings as well as neighborhoods and thus led to an adequate use of spaces. This, in turn, increased the adaptability of land resources. Therefore, urban planning resulted in more fruitful use of economic spaces like buildings. It promoted the diverse use of public spaces and encouraged individuals to utilize non-renewable resources for better living standards properly. 

3. User participation  

Improved urban planning boosted the public consultation process. It encouraged individuals to participate in urban design projects and give their opinions through numerous surveys and design workshops. Therefore, planning promoted user participation. This, in turn, boosted a proper fit between users as well as the urban design. The participants were encouraged to come out and give their opinion about the effective use of resources. This boosted the decision-making process and provided a sense of participants to the individuals. 

4. Better standards of living  

Urban planning directly affected the standards of living. Increased use of urban planning emphasized a more realistic approach in society. This led to the enhancement of economic spaces. Therefore, urban planning encouraged more audience participation in cultural as well as community activities. Better standards of living also meant several health benefits along with strategic use of the public space. Furthermore, urban planning also resulted in the enhanced personal safety of individuals. 

Conclusion  

Urban planning has played a significant role in the betterment of the standards of living. Additionally, urban planning has been a part of society for a very long time now. 

After carefully examining the various aspects of urban planning, we have briefly summarised the entire information in the above-mentioned article. We have talked about urban planning, its various elements, along some benefits. We trust that this article would be beneficial and provide you with adequate information related to urban planning. 

online classes AMID Pandemic

COVID-19 began in the month of December in 2019 and soon it grew into a pandemic, leading to several losses of lives and locking down of many cities. Social distancing became the key to escape out of this problem. But, with this solution came other problems. We are able to follow social distancing by keeping us locked in our houses but this stopped students’ education too. But we can’t just stop everything due to this COVID thing. We need to find an effective solution to continue the education of students. We need to continue the functioning of schools and colleges.

Online Classes

In the times of the internet, the one and the only solution are online classes. The online way to share knowledge and information now is the internet. It has proved to be a real miracle these days, connecting millions and making information access fast and easy. Be it school, college, tuition, or coaching classes, knowledge is now being delivered to students who are sitting at their home and can learn things sitting there only. Students now need a mobile or desktop and fast internet connection to attend their online classes and learn things. It is not possible for a pandemic to stop students from learning.

How it is a different experience?

This way of learning is totally new to everyone, be it students, be it teachers or be it parents. We were already involved in some small ways of e-learning but a complete shift towards this type of mode is  something new and challenging to everyone. Teachers are continuously involved in finding new ways to make e-learning more interactive and interesting for students. They are continuously evolving their way of teaching and trying to give them a class-type of feeling. Teachers are also learning to adapt with new softwares and explore things. Students are learning how to deal with online homework submissions, doubt-sessions and examinations. But, the problem is that the medium of interaction is always an electronic device. Hence, students are subjected to fatigue and mental stress. They seem irritated and develop body pain sitting still at a particular position holding their phones or laptops. Students are also developing stress on eyes. It is quite difficult for them to adjust with all of these. It seems that this way of teaching costs their health, both mental and physical. Besides this, internet is not available to all the areas of the country and to all the students. Poor students can’t afford high speed data. This method of teaching, is thus, a barrier between poor students and education. It is a harsh truth that they are left behind. We need to work together towards this to make education available to these students also.

The Changes After 1991 In India

Today India is one of the most powerful nations in the world. Our progress in education, science-technology, business, economy, the defense system is really noticeable. India is always a unique country but India also passed many tough situations, this achievement comes after so many hardships, struggles, and fights.before 1991 the political situation in India is unstable, after 1991 certain changes in the Indian economy, science-technology held to be very important In the history of India.

Indian Economy: we wanted to establish an Economy based on social justice through planning for a National planning commission was established that would coordinate development through the policy of the Five Year Plan. The government started Economic Reforms are called as Economic Liberalisation. The foreign Invest In India increased, the field of information technology opened several avenues of employment in the country . Liberalization, Privatizati, and Globalization, India under its New Economic Policy approached International Banks for development of the country. These agencies asked Indian Government to open its restrictions on trade done by the private sector and between India and other countries.

Science and Technology: The experiment in the co-operative dairy movement By Dr.Verghese Kurien led to increase in milk production in India. This is called as White Revolution. Dr.Homi J.bhaba laid the foundation of the Indian atomic Power Programme. India insisted on using atomic energy for peaceful purposes like generation of electricity, pharmaceuticals and defense.

Change In Social Field: changes related to the women empowerment movement and other related to the policies regarding the uplift of deprived sections of the society

ROLE OF ASHAs IN KEEPING INDIA’S VILLAGES PROTECTED FROM CORONAVIRUS

Accredited Social Health Activists, ASHAs, are playing an indispensable role in rural outreach by educating village people on arresting the spread of the much-dreaded Coronavirus. Field reports from Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s constituency, Varanasi indicate that ASHAs credited with juggling multiple roles have been deputed to spread awareness on prevention of Coronavirus in their areas. They are after all the backbone of primary healthcare in more than seven lakh villages of India.

On April 14, the day Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced an extension of the 21-day lockdown till May 3, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, advised in a COVID-19 related tweet that persons having symptoms may approach national/ state helpline centres or frontline workers such as ASHA workers and field workers. The tweet said that these workers have been oriented about the process to be followed and can help in early detection and facilitate proper treatment in hospitals.

Rekha Sharma, a forty-year-old ASHA worker says that ASHA workers in Varanasi have been asked to cover 25 to 30 houses a day in the assigned villages till the end of May. After lockdown, some workers working in Bengaluru, Delhi, Pune and other cities have come back to the villages because they did not have any work in lockdown. They have been asked to undergo tests for COVID- 19.”

The ASHAs are given performance-based incentives for promoting universal immunisation, referral and escort services for reproductive and child health and other healthcare programmes and construction of household toilets. They counsel women on birth preparedness, the importance of safe delivery, breast-feeding and complementary feeding, immunisation, contraception and prevention of common infections including Reproductive Tract Infections/ Sexually Transmitted Infections (RTIs and STIs) and care of the young child. From time to time, the ASHA workers have been deservingly honoured as well. In December 2019, Balvinder Kaur, an ASHA worker from Khosi Kalan village of sub-centre Koomkala of Ludhiana, Punjab was honoured with the National Universal Health Coverage Award by Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare, Dr Harsh Wardhan. She was honoured for her contribution to promoting facilities of Health and Wellness Centres in her block, Likewise, Jamuna Mani Singh was also felicitated by the Odisha government. “From the time we came to know that COVID-19 is going to pose a big threat to India, we took it upon ourselves to strengthen our rural outreach. Since we have been working in several states of India with special focus on many districts of Uttar Pradesh for a long time, we offered our services to government departments like education, health, women and child welfare departments.

We have made sure that all facts on COVID-19 that are being put out by the World Health Organisation and the Ministry of Health, are disseminated to the villages daily. As and when required, we are seeking the help of community-based organisations and other voluntary organisations.” Mr Pradhan explained that MAMTA is using the existing WhatsApp groups through which they normally function with senior government officers on several social welfare and development-oriented schemes, to spread awareness on COVID-19 as well. We are working in all eight blocks in the Prime Minister’s constituency. We have also asked ASHAs, frontline workers, Nehru Yuvak Kendra, NSS (National Service Scheme) and NCC (National Cadet Corps) volunteers to ask villagers to download Arogya Setu App (a mobile app developed by the Ministry of IT and Electronics to help citizens identify the risk of contracting COVID-19 infection). All government departments of Varanasi are already actively promoting Arogya Setu. To make it easy, we have shared the Arogya Setu link with all volunteers and social workers. Surely, the army of dedicated and friendly health activists in India’s villages is taking on the COVID- 19 challenge by empowering people with knowledge.

#sorrows of Sparrow 🐦

Do you remember your childhood when you use to sing that beautiful song ‘Anek chidiya ‘?today ,like the ‘chidiya ‘,the song has become almost extinct!even birds like the commando sparrow,which we used to see in large in numbers,are scarcely seen today.these ‘chirpy little fellows ‘ that used to delight us onces upon a time should now be named ‘Sorrow’ instead of ‘sparrow’. That is what their lives have become. Full of sorrows! Human beings have no mercy for them. They shoo them away. They do not allow them to make nests on their balconies Or terraces. Rapid urbanization has resulted in cutting down of trees. This destroyed their natural habitat. An over – Abandunce of vehicle and factories have polluted the atmosphere. We have erected mobile towers and use cellphones, the vibration of which, distrub these birds.how do we expect them to live in the concrete jungles that we have erected? We have changed the entire infrastructure around us. We have paved the roads. We have tiled the areas around our buildings. Where are the green areas? As a result these little friends of ours have escaped, no more return. Trees provide our friends, the sparrows, with fruits and insects to eat. Now they are facing an acute security of food. It is for us, human being, to take more efforts to make things easy for these birds. We could provide grain or food for them to eat outside our balconies or windows. We could provide them with little boxes in which to have a dust bath. How enjoyable it would be to see these cheery little creatures flapping around in the mud! More importantly, we could plant more trees. Is anyone reading out there? Will anyone heed their plight and take necessary steps to help them? Otherwise these friendly Birds are facing extinction! The lifestyles of the people has been changed and they are no longer environment or Bird-Friendly. So this is our responsibility to do something for that little one. Just think about it! This is the small msg from that little sparrow–🌠Dear friends, I am little sparrow and how helpless I am? In fact, my name should have been ‘sorrows’ instead of sparrow, because Human beings have no Marcy on us, little birds that we are. They pollute the atmosphere and erect mobile towers, making it impossible for us to breathe or live. They cut down trees that are our natural habitat. Tell me, where we expect to live? In the past, the trees provided us with fruits & insects to eat. Now, however because of deforestation, we are facing a scarcity of food. I wish human beings would take more efforts to make things easy for us. They could provide us food & shelter. They plant more trees. These are our expectations from you people. Will they heed our plight and take necessary steps to help us? Otherwise we are facing near extension! Thank you all!

Mawlynnong

Mawlynnong God’s own garden ,The cleanest village in Asia . It’s a small village in East Khasi Hills district Meghalaya state in North east India .In 2003 It was awarded the title ” cleanest village In Asia” by Discover India. a mysterious paradise, a place far from city life’s pollution .cleaniless really a great achievememt when whole country is struggle for “swachata” along with this the village has approx hundred percent literacy rate and highly progressive scenario for women.

Mawlynnong is located 90km from Shilong , along the India Bangladesh Border. Agriculture is the chief occupation of the local population. Here weather is pleasant all throughout the year, still the best time to visit is Moonsoon. During rainy season village and it’s surroundings become lush green .

each and every house of this village has functional toilets and the whole locality is provided with baboo dustbins,every waste product even dry leaves go into dustbin . Plastic and smoking strictly prohibited here. The Khasi tribe is the biggest attraction of this small village. This is a famous tribe and is well ahead of the patriarchal notions. In this tribe, children inherit their mother’s surnames and property is also passed through the matrilineal lines. Mawlynnong with all these features, proves that women empowerment is completely possible if people are convinced enough.

Living roots bridges,This natural wonder has been declared as an UNESCO World Heritage Site. The living route bridges are a phenomenon in itself. The bridges connect the aerial roots of one giant rubber tree and make a bridge hanging above the river. These bridges take years to self construct and can accommodate fifty to seventy people at a time.

Khasis in Mawlynnong are devout Christians. Surrounded by orange and palm trees, stands a 100-year-old church in the village called ‘Church of the Epiphany’. Narrow stone paths with plants bearing orange flowers reach out to the Church, which is a black and white structure exuding an old-world charm. There are no houses that rise above the Church spire.

natural beauty , simle people ,culture, local dishes , a strange blissful peace and” cleaniness” makes MAWLYNNONG a destination of relief .

Home- still a dream of many

Modernization, the want to step ahead of time, and fight between the human race, has become one of the reasons why people try and judge each other for what kind of house they live in.

Whenever a person go to someone’s home, the first thing they tend to judge, is there home well furnished? Is the arrangement of their house proper? And etc. etc. But forget that, income and prices are the two factors that do not go hand in hand. Also, the country which we reside in, is one of the developing nations in the world, where “A perfect home” is still a dream of millions. Thus, how can we expect that when a person can’t even afford to live peacefully under a roof, how can the other render to make everything look pretty.

Urban and rural differences –

In India, most of the population hail from village areas and move towards cities in search of better opportunities, such as, jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors, better resources, and better standard of living. Instead, they fail to survive most of the times and hang in between the air with less access to resources and low standard of living, since affording such standard of living remains out of their approaches.

According to the report of World Bank’s collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources, rural population in India was reported at 65.97%

While people hailing from rural areas face tough times with city lifestyle. People residing in cities too confront with problems of proper houses to live in, also they are detained from basic resources that are searched by village people in the limelight of cities. They often end up living in congestion, without proper sanitation facilities, water and electricity, and lag behind in most of the basic values that are necessary to live a prosperous life. Also population remains a constant reminder that the land is unavailable to fit such a large amount of people who seek to live in the middle of the cities instead of country sides. The pressure upon the land has become a huge chunk of tension for the policymakers, which is why most people remain neglected from a proper facility of house and housing.

Dharavi, Asia’s biggest slum is full of such people who either migrate to cities in search for resources, or the people who are unable to afford a lifestyle that is basic necessity and right of every human being. It is a place with 2.1 sq. Km. and a population as estimated in 2016, 900,000 – 1,000,000 people.

Problem of resources –

While most of us are happy with the lives and are living peacefully in our own homes. There are still millions of people who do not even have access to basic resources such as –

  • Sanitation facilities
  • Housing
  • Water supply
  • Electricity
  • Food resources
  • Proper job facilities

We can find people sleeping on the pavements of the roads, they could be seen eating on the roadside food joints, and earn only on per day basis, which are not sufficient to provide them with a proper place to live in.

According to NSSO, landlessness in India is a major problem and the total population works out to be 200 million that is counted to be landless.

Thus, a major proportion of the country’s population still have a dream to have their own place to live in. Also, slums remain an inevitable problem in India that cannot be replaced due to their presence from a very long past. It is likely to achieve a figure where most of the Indians could have their own home sweet home.

Ambulance Dada

Meet Karimul Haque as known as Ambulance Dada, he is a tea garden worker in Jalpaiguri, West Bengal who ferries the ill, the poor, and the fragile to the district hospital on his bike. He turned down his bike to an ambulance. He and his bike is the lifeline for 20 villages in and around Dhalabari. This part of Bengal, known as Dooars and dominated by small tea growers, daily wagers and peasants, has mobile networks but lacks concrete roads and basic healthcare facilities.

In 1995 when he was unable to save her mother’s life due to lack of medical facility, he wasn’t found an ambulance to take her mother to the hospital, after this incident, he took an oath to himself that he, not let anyone else die due to insufficient ambulance coverage ,Haque’s motorbike ambulance plan came to him when one of his colleagues collapsed on the field. Since a regular ambulance could not reach him in time, Haque tied him to his back and made him ride pillion to the nearest hospital. His co-worker recovered from the illness, inspiring Haque to continue with this approach.

Since 1998 he providing motorcycle ambulance service around 20 villages Dhalabari, in Doar’s belt, where electricity service roads condition not well, nearest hospital 45 kilometers away. besides the ambulance service, he provides basic first-aid, medicine to the villagers. He spent most of his income on this medical service.

On 2017  he has received the Padma Shri award for his work supporting the villagers in and around Dhalabari by bringing sick people to hospital in his motorcycle ambulance.

Karimul Haque received Padmashri from the president Pranab Mukherjee 2017

Karimul Haque is the real-life hero after I read about this man I get an amazing motivation, we approx most of the time think about ourselves what we do after graduation, about our bank balance, we always think what we haven’t, People like Karimul teach us it’s not necessary to have all the things we want for our life, it’s important to have the courage and desire to do the thing.

Process of intensification, its advantages & disadvantages!

Housing is one of the largest component of urban land use in the city, which determines well a city functions in near future. Land use planning is done for judicious use of land means judicious use of residential areas. Increase in population by natural growth or migration & increasing activities & facilities in cities have put tremendous pressure on urban land. Thus it becomes very important to utilize the scarce resource of land in a planned manner. This is one of the factors affecting land value.

Housing density is the measure of intensity of occupation of land compared to the total land area available within planning boundary. Density indices by themselves do not have any connection with the living conditions of the area but they do establish a distinct relationship between the people and the amount of land they need to attain a certain standard of living. The built form in the city is representatives of its progress and prosperity. While planning for residential areas it is equally important to focus on the transportation aspect as well. Having an efficient and working road network is vital. Presence of well-planned traffic island & Traffic Volume Count Study are basic steps which can be taken for better and manageable traffic movement.

Factors leading to Organic Intensification:

Social Aspects – Like changes in community structure, family structure & way of living.

Economic Aspects – factors like income, occupation pattern, affordability, expenditure pattern, cost factors & financial pattern

Locational Aspects – Along transport corridors, nearness to employment centers etc., which results in appreciation of property values.

Technological Aspects – Emergence of new building materials and new construction techniques. Awareness about the need of data collection, data processing cycle, methods of data processing & information processing cycle.

Legal Aspects – the different norms, standards, rules and regulations of various housing agencies.

The approaches for determining the residential densities have been changing over the time. The earlier approaches have been explained at the city level. But today, as more & more population started concentrating in the cities, the study outlook shifted from the city level to smaller levels – the sector or area level, which finally decides the overall density.

Urbanisation in world

INTRODUCTION:

Intensification:  Intensification occurs when an existing building, site or area within the existing urban area is developed or redeveloped at a density higher than what currently exists. This can occur through:

  • Redevelopment of sites, including the reuse of brownfield and greyfields sites;
  • Development of vacant and/or underutilized lots within previously developed areas;
  • Expansion or conversion of existing buildings, such as office buildings to residential

Buildings & the

  • Construction of new developments that combine a mix of uses for a more efficient use of land.

Expanding Cities and Urban growth

Process of Intensification: The process of intensification of residential areas is a dynamic process, which is a result of the changes in life cycles of the residents i.e., the changing needs, capacities/affordability and incomes of a household. There are two ways of intensification:

  • Incremental addition to the built form
  • Addition in the size of the household i.e., to accommodate more number of people.

This “progressive development” is a global process. The concept of incremental housing has now gone beyond its objective. There is a shift from the need of people to their greed.

Besides the “Organic Intensification”, which involves investment of individual resources & is a natural phenomenon/ a natural self-defined process leading to a differential growth rate, intensification can be done in a planned way with changes in development controls and policies.

Consequences of Unplanned / Organic Intensification:

Overcrowding – Increase in densities result in overcrowding, decrease in organized open space per person, thus congestion.

Environment & Services Deterioration – Stress on infrastructure & deterioration of environment.

Increase in Informal Housing Stock – including slums and unauthorized colonies.

Transformation in City Character – Loss of traditional housing stock, identity & image of urban form due to redevelopment.

Traffic Problems – Increasing volume of traffic, lack of parking space, and increase in built space.

Increase in Land Prices & Rent – There are various factors affecting land value, phenomenon of speculation leading to hike in land price & rents. Urban poor are most affected.

Advantages & Disadvantages of Planned Intensification / Redensification

Advantages:

Research carried out in Europe, the U.S.A and Australia has led to the advocacy of cities which are spatially compact, with a mix of uses. This urban model is claimed to have a number of benefits in comparison with more sprawling development. Compact cities are argued to offer opportunities to reduce fuel consumption for travelling as homes, work and leisure facilities are close together. They are also favored because urban land can be reused, while rural land beyond the urban edge is protected. A good quality of life is argued to be sustained, with high concentration of people providing social conditions conducive to vibrancy, liveliness and cultural production and consumption.

Various advantages of intensification as a result of urban planning:

  • Urban sprawl and related problems are controlled
  • Optimum utilization of urban land
  • Saves on land cost and development cost
  • Saves time- No land acquisition required
  • Less commuting for citizens and lesser fuel consumption
  • To develop satellite towns/ cities is 6 times more expensive than to reuse/ rejuvenate the existing one. Generation of funds to invest in infrastructure to address higher densities by involvement of public private partnerships.
  • Compact Neighborhoods have their own social life.

 Urban Pattern

Disadvantages: 

The planner’s perception of intensification often contrast with that of the residents. The residents have a negative perception about intensification.

The differences in perceptions arise mainly because of the impacts identified by planners may not affect the local residents; for example, provision of housing and jobs for people outside the area. Planners tend to be much more positive about the potential of intensification. From their perspective, wider objectives are often achieved despite local problems identified by the residents. The strategic arguments for and against intensification often conflict with experience at local level.

The various disadvantages can be:

  • Upgrading can lead to loss of low cost units.
  • Subdivisions may cause loss of family housing.
  • Conversions / redevelopment may lead to loss of jobs. New jobs may not always be for local people.

Methods of Planned Intensification:

There are various methods in which intensification can be done in a planned way:

  • Increasing the available Floor Space:

            –   By increasing the coverage

            –   By increasing number of floors

  • Reducing the size of dwelling unit
  • Reducing the area under non-residential uses
  • High density development in vacant pockets
  • Faster development of partially developed areas

 

Experience from different countries / cities:

Planned Intensification:

Old visions of compartmentalization of cities result in inefficiencies & violations. Different elements of the city like land use, transport, ecology, and housing should not be addressed separately. It is important to understand the dynamics of the city and the market forces this framing regulations and bye laws accordingly. It becomes desirable to have higher FSI/FAR to encourage taller / larger building in the CBD area where property prices are higher.

Examples of Planned Cities:

Atlanta (U.S)

Population – about 2.5 million in 1990

Built Up area – of 4280 sqkm

Longest possible distance – 137 km

Barcelona (Spain)

Population –  about 2.5 million in 1990

Built Up area – of 162 sqkm

Longest possible distance – 37 km

This gives the manifold advantages like: Significant number of trips on foot or by bicycle; offices, schools, shops- all are close by; existence of strong community feeling.

Hong Kong’s new housing development has high densities of 3750 pph. It may not be ideal, but provide a much better living condition than the solid congested slums.

Bangalore: 290 inhabitants per hectare. The city is going American way i.e., its turning into a spread out city. It is impossible to promote metro due to the vast sprawl. The cost shall be prohibitive & the system if set will be a huge waste.

France, Netherlands & the U.K all have policies to encourage compact cities in the name of sustainability.

Author Bio:

Shubham Aggarwal (Founder, PlanningTank) is an Urban Planner from India working to improve the human settlements through the website. PlanningTank is the Urban, Regional, and Rural Planning Knowledge base which provides insight into to urban & rural areas, data processing & GIS.