Tag Archives: India

The Mughal Empire

Indian history and culture are rich and dynamic. The country has been home to some of the worlds greatest empires, including the legendary Mughal Empire. Today let’s take a trip to the past, about 500 years ago, when the founder of the empire came to India and defeated Ibrahim Lodi to form the legendary Mughal Empire.

In 1524 the descendant of Genghis Khan and Timur, Babur came to India on the invitation of Daulat Khan, a rebel of the Lodhi dynasty, to overthrow the king of the dynasty, Ibrahim Lodhi. Many thought that he would leave the country after defeating Lodhi. Little did they know that he had no intention of doing so. Babur defeated Lodhi at the famous First Battle of Panipat in 1526 and established the Mughal Empire. He was opposed by Rana Sanga of Mewar, but the Rana was defeated in the Battle of Khanwa. Thus began the rule of the empire. 

Babur died in 1530 in Agra, where he was buried. Later, his remains were moved to Kabul as per his wishes. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Humayun. Babur had decided to divide the territories his empire between his sons, with Humayun succeeding his father to the throne of Delhi, and his half-brother Kamran Mirza inheriting the northernmost parts of his father’s empire. This was not a common practice in India at the time, but was a common Central Asian practice from the time of Genghis Khan. Many believed that Humayun was an unqualified king as he was only 22, and several of his brothers revolted against him when he came to the throne. 

In 1539, Humayun faced the founder of the Suri empire in India, Sher Shah Suri at the battle of Chausa. Humayun had to escape the battlefield to save his own life, and Suri was crowned the winner.He fled to the refuge of the Safavid Empire in Persia, and with their aid successfully won back his empire. The death of Sher Shah Suri and his successor Islam Shah rendered the Suri empire weak, and Humayun defeated the armies of Sikandar Shah Suri in 1555, re-establishing the Mughal Empire in India. Unfortunately, Humayun died due to an unfortunate accident. During his short time as a ruler, he managed to further expand the empire and was succeeded by his son Akbar.

Akbar was popularly known as Akbar The Great because of the many accomplishments he achieved during his successful rule. He defeated the Hindu king Hemu at the Second Battle of Panipat, which wasn’t far from the site where his grandfather had defeated the Lodhi’s, and occupied Delhi and Agra. After conquering most of Northern India, he sought to take over the Rajputana, and did so by defeating Pratap Singh who was the descendant of Rana Sanga at the legendary battle of Haldighati in 1576. Akbar introduced many social reforms during his time as ruler. He left a rich legacy for the Mughal empire was praised by many. He died in 1605, and was succeeded by his son Jahangir, a lover of literature, architecture and the fine arts. His successor, Shah Jahan is considered one of the greatest Mughal Emperors, and many believe that under his reign, the Mughal Empire reached its peak.Shah Jahan was imprisoned by his son Aurangzeb, who is considered one of India’s most controversial king. After his son Bahadur Shah Zafar died, the Mughal Empire declined significantly. The last ruler of the empire was exiled by the British East India Company in 1868.

The Mughals made several contributions to the culture of India, including the development of the Mughlai cuisine, large scale urbanisation, and the magnificent Taj Mahal. The Empire is considered to be one of the greatest ones in India

online learning

When the COVID-19 pandemic struck, and the number of cases began to rise, the entire country went into lockdown. Educational institutions were the first to be shut down, and the situation was chaotic. Every student in the country was worried about their classes and their grades since they could no longer attend school. But a few weeks later online classes were implemented. Students and teachers could communicate through their devices. The current role that technology plays in education is a huge one. The idea of integrating more technology into our education system has been speculated for years, and it took an actual pandemic for us to see what technology-based learning would look like. The question which now arises is: Is this beneficial, and can we continue with such a technology-dependent system?

There are many advantages to online classes. Firstly, they are much more flexible than traditional ones. The most appealing benefit of online education is that students get to work from any place they want. They can create and manage a schedule which is much more beneficial for them. Many students are intimidated by the idea of speaking in public, and get anxious if they have to talk in front of large groups of people. Online learning makes it much easier for them to speak and present their ideas without having to look at tens and hundreds of faces. 

Some people also think that online classes are cheaper since they don’t have to spend money on books due to the availability of PDFs, and reduced cost of transportation. They have more resources than before, and their learning is not limited to just one textbook. Moreover, online learning allows a student to learn at their own pace. In traditional classes, it was difficult for all the students to understand the lectures and follow the lessons. Now, a student can simply look back at recordings of their lectures if they wish to, and can even clarify doubts through live chats. 

However, every coin has two sides. With the many advantages of online learning, come the disadvantages. In a country like India, where so many of our people are poor, not everyone has the resources to access online classes. Online classes are more favourable to those who can afford a good computer and steady Wi-Fi. Unavailability of devices and network issues can also prove to be a hindrance in the learning of the poor. Online classes tend to increase the communication gap between the students and the teachers, due to lack of any face-to-face interaction. Many teachers and students also find it difficult to familiarise themselves with platforms like Zoom or Microsoft Teams.

Online classes have also lead to a major increase in the screen times of students. Long hours of being glued to your device can have adverse effects on your health like headaches and eyesight issues. Students are also finding it difficult to give examinations, which is why people were against the idea of online exams. There is also a high chance of distractions, and students can easily lose track of their studies.

This transition to online learning was not a smooth one and showed us that we are not ready for our education system to be more technology-based. If we are to adopt such a system in the future, then we have to make sure that each student in this country has access to the resources required for online classes. We also have to ensure that our dependence on technology doesn’t grow more than it needs to. A lot of changes are required before we can successfully integrate technology into our learning system.

Independence day: how far has the golden bird soared

“Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom.”

– Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Tryst with Destiny

15 August 1947, a day immortalised as the first independence day of India. This was the very day we gained our independence after almost 200 hundred years of British oppression. The path to independence was not an easy one. It cost us millions of lives, and years of bloodshed to regain something which shouldn’t have been taken from us in the first place. The sacrifices of those who fought for our noble land are honoured and remembered, as we celebrate the 74th Indian Independence Day in 2020. In these past 73 years of freedom, a lot has changed as we have struggled to find our own identity and fix the damages done to us.

Let us look back to what was happening 73 years ago. On 20 February 1947, it was announced by the British Prime Minister Clement Attlee that their government would grant full self-governance to British India by June 1948 at the latest. This was a result of the realisation by the labour party that due to the exhaustion of their resources by the Second World War and lack of international support, they could no longer control restless India. Yet, the day of independence was not all pretty. Communal riots, rampage and bloodshed on both sides of the border led to the loss of between 250,000 to 1,000,000 lives. Amidst all this, the first Prime Minister of independent India, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru delivered his famous speech, Tryst With Destiny, to commemorate our independence. This speech is considered one of the greatest speeches of the 20th century.

It is an undeniable fact that in the past 73 years we have made a lot of progress. If we look at the economy, we can see that the standards of living and income levels have grown tremendously. The gross domestic product (GDP) increased from Rs 2,939 billion during 1950-51 to an estimated Rs 1,40,776 billion in 2018-19. At the same time, the income of the average Indian worker has gone up to Rs 92,565 during 2018-19 from just around Rs 7,513 during 1950-51. In 1991, the economic liberalisation  of our economic policies was initiated, to make the economy more market- and service-oriented, and expanding the role of private and foreign investment. Our economy is one of the fastest-growing economies of the world. Literacy rates have increased significantly, from 18.3% during the 1950s to 73% in 2011. So much more has been done, which makes one’s chest swell with pride.

Although it is pleasing to see the progress which has been made, our country is not perfect. People are still being discriminated against. Colourism in India which has been fuelled due to events under British colonial rule, where British officials consistently demeaned dark-skinned Indians and favoured light-skinned Indians for jobs is still prevalent. Even though our economy is growing fast, the growth in India is not inclusive enough. The rich are getting richer, while the poor suffer. India is also not very safe for women due to the increasing number of assaults against women. Sexist practices like dowry and female foeticide are still happening in the remote areas of the country, even though they have been banned. The number of lynching cases has also grown up, which is incredibly saddening.

Nobody likes to look at the negatives, yet we cannot ignore the problems with the system. An Indian citizen has to address these problems and work for the betterment of their country. 

This independence day, we stand together for our country, and celebrate and salute the brave and the fearless for the sacrifices made by them to help us achieve our freedom. Jai Hind!

S-400 missile to China

The S-400 Triumf, previously known as the S-300PMU-3, is an anti-aircraft weapon system developed in the 1990s by Russia’s Almaz Central Design Bureau as an upgrade of the S-300 family. It has been in service with the Russian Armed Forces since 2007. Considered to be the most advanced missile defense system in the world, the S-400 ‘Triumf’ system is capable of destroying targets at a distance of up to 400 kilometers and a height of up to 30 kilometers.

In 2017, the S-400 was described by The Economist as “one of the best air-defense systems currently made”, and Siemon Wezeman of Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) said it “is among the most advanced air defense systems available.” China, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, India, and Qatar expressed their appreciation for the S-400 system, and China was the first foreign buyer to make a government-to-government deal with Russia in 2014.

Amid a global uproar against China – coronavirus, a military standoff with India, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the South China Sea, US – in just the past six months, Moscow has now announced the suspension of S-400 surface-to-air missile systems to Beijing, with the resumption of deliveries yet to be ascertained.

Russia has announced the suspension of S-400 surface-to-air missile systems to China and said the resumption of further deliveries is yet to be ascertained. Citing Chinese newspaper Sohu, UAWire reported, “This time, Russia announced the postponement of the delivery of missiles for the Chinese S-400 system. To a certain extent, we can say that it is for the sake of China. Getting a gun is not as easy as signing an invoice after receiving a weapon.” “They say that the work on delivering these weapons is quite complicated. While China has to send personnel for training, Russia also needs to send a lot of technical personnel to put the weapons into service,” Sohu said.

Post-Russia’s announcement, China has reportedly said that Moscow was forced to make such a decision as it “is worried that the delivery of S-400 missiles at this time will affect the anti-pandemic actions of the People’s Liberation Army and does not want to cause trouble to China.” In 2018, China received the first batch of S-400 missile, a military-diplomatic source told Russia`s TASS news agency. Meanwhile, it should be noted that the suspension comes merely days after Russia had accused China of espionage, despite the two nations sharing considerably good relations over the years. This assertion had come up after Russian authorities had found the president of its St Petersburg Arctic Social Sciences Academy, Valery Mitko handing over classified material to the Chinese intelligence.

Another 250 apps are going to be banned in India

India Government could ban more than 200 other applications in country. Last month, the Indian government banned 59 Chinese apps in India, after that they are planning to banned other 250 also because of users privacy and national security violations. This includes PUBG, zili, allibaba express,Capcut, FaceU, Meitu, LBE Tech, Perfect Corp, Sina Corp, Netease Games and other 250 apps. As per the report these apps are included in the activities that were “prejudicial to sovereignty and integrity of India, defense of India, the security of the state and public order.” Report said, government will follow a proper procedure before such bans, then likely to act on it soon.

Rafael aircraft coming to India from France

The Dassault Rafale is a French twin-engine, canard delta wing, multirole fighter aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation. Equipped with a wide range of weapons, the Rafale is intended to perform air supremacy, interdiction, aerial reconnaissance, ground support, in-depth strike, anti-ship strike, and nuclear deterrence missions. Many of the aircraft’s avionics and features, such as direct voice input, the RBE2 AA active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, were domestically developed and produced for the Rafale program. Originally scheduled to enter service in 1996, the Rafale suffered significant delays due to post-Cold War budget cuts and changes in priorities. The aircraft is available in three main variants: Rafale C single-seat land-based version, Rafale B twin-seat land-based version, and Rafale M single-seat carrier-based version.

The Rafale is being produced for both the French Air Force and for carrier-based operations in the French Navy. The Rafale has been marketed for export to several countries and was selected for purchase by the Indian Air Force, the Egyptian Air Force, and the Qatar Air Force.  Due to its great capabilities, the first batch of 5 raflaes arrives in India in two days.

On the one hand, when there are neighbors like China and on the other hand, when there are neighboring countries like Pakistan, India needs to work on both its army and the Indian Air Force. In such a situation, 5 Rafale aircraft was given to the Indian Army yesterday. These Rafale aircraft flew from France yesterday and reached the UAE airbase Al Dhafra today. Here their maintenance and refueling work will be done. After this, these fighter aircraft will fly and arrive at Ambala Air Force Base tomorrow. With this aircraft joining the Indian Air Force, the morale of the Indian Army will be greatly elevated. However, the condition of the Airforce is not good right now because there is a shortage of squadron. This thing has been told in many reports. But with Rafael joining the Indian Army, it can play a decisive role in winning a war.

“You can call them (Rafale) both beauty and the beast,” said Indian Ambassador to France Jawed Ashraf after interacting with the IAF pilots at the airbase before they set off for India. “Delivery of 10 aircraft has been completed on schedule. Five will stay back in France for a training mission. The delivery of all 36 aircraft will be completed on schedule by the end of 2021,” the Indian embassy in Paris said in a statement. India and France signed a Euro 7.87-billion ( ₹59,000 crores approximately) deal on September 23, 2016, for 36 Rafale jets. The IAF official said the air-to-air refueling of the aircraft will be undertaken with dedicated tanker support from the French Air Force. “Our air force pilots tell us that these are extremely swift, nimble, versatile, and very deadly aircraft,” said Ashraf while congratulating the IAF pilots on becoming the first ones to fly one of the world’s most advanced fighter aircraft. The envoy thanked Dassault Aviation, the manufacturer of the aircraft, for delivering the fleet on time, the French government and the French Air Force for extending all required support.

Google removes 11 apps from Play store infected with Joker malware; uninstall them now

Researchers have said that with small changes to its code the Joker malware to get past the Play store’s security and vetting barriers.

Late last year we saw the Joker malware surface and spread like wildfire. The latest report from Check Point’s researchers has discovered a new variant of the Joker Dropper and Premium Dialer spyware in the Google Play Store. These were found hiding inside of seemingly legitimate applications. This new updated Joker malware can download additional malware to the device, which in turn subscribes the victim to a number of premium services without their consent.

Meantime, Google has removed 11 apps from the Play Store infected with the notorious Joker malware. The applications include include com.imagecompress.android, com.relax.relaxation.androidsms, com.cheery.message.sendsms (two different instances), com.peason.lovinglovemessage, com.contact.withme.texts, com.hmvoice.friendsms, com.file.recovefiles, com.LPlocker.lockapps, com.remindme.alram and com.training.memorygame.

Joker malware: Everything you need to know

The researchers have said that with small changes to its code the Joker malware to get past the Play store’s security and vetting barriers. This time along the Joker malware has adopted an old technique from the conventional PC threat landscape to avoid detection by Google. The newly modified Joker virus uses two main components to subscribe, app users to premium services. These components are: Notification Listener service and dynamic dex file loaded from the C&C server.

To minimize the Joker’s code, the developer hid the code by dynamically loading it onto a dex file, while at the same time, ensuring that it is able to completely load when triggered. The code inside of the dex file is encoded as Base64 encoded strings, that start decoding and loading as soon as the victim opens the affected apps.

The original Joker malware communicated with the C&C, and then downloaded the dynamic dex file, which was loaded as casses.dex. However, the new modified version of the code is embedded in a different zone, with the classes.dex file loading a new payload. The malware is triggered by creating a new object that communicates with the C&C.

@martin_christopher

Will facebook Rival Instagram give tough competition to Tiktok after the launch of feature “Reels” in India

After the banning of Tiktok and 58 other Chinese apps in India, the demand for short video apps is increasing. This is the best time to grab this opportunity for the existing app companies as well well as to launch the new apps which provide a short video creation feature.

Though after the government banned TikTok in India other homegrown apps like ShareChat, Roposo, Chingari are also being used by the people of the country more, Instagram also takes the advantage of this situation and launches a feature of short video creation named “Reels”.

In Brazil, Germany and France are the countries where this feature is successfully tested. India is the next one.

This feature will be rolling out in India after 7:30 IST today. Just like IGTV, users will also have a Reels section on their profile page, where all their content can be viewed at once.

The feature Reels lets users create a video of 15 seconds or less. Users can also use creative filters on it, can share it beyond his/her followers. Similar to TikTok, Reels provide options like audio from Instagram Music library, speed, effects, and timer.

Shah says the product comes from the realization that 45 percent of videos on Instagram are 15 seconds or less. “We also realized that stories are not the only place where they wanted to share these videos as they wanted them to stick on for longer and be distributed beyond their followers,” he said in the video call.

The new feature lets users shoot video, add filters and music from Instagram’s catalog and share it beyond the platform. Users will be able to share Reels in Explore, and also on Feed with followers. There will be no monetization avenues for now.

To create Instagram Reels, a user would need to open the camera option in the app. After clicking on Reels from the bottom of the screen, the app throws up several easy-to-use tools to record and edit a 15-second video.

Creators can choose to use the in-app music tracks, or even use custom audio for their videos. There are also options to speed up or slow down parts of the video. There’s an Align option that helps creators maintain their position in front of the camera while recording multiple cuts in a single video. It also has an array of augmented reality effects that can be used to make videos more fun.

According to Facebook India Vice President and Managing Director Ajit Mohan, videos make up a third of all Instagram posts in India. Out of that, around 45 percent of the videos posted are of 15 seconds or less.

Calling Reels as the “future of entertainment,” Facebook’s Vice President of Product Vishal Shah said that the superior goal of Reels was to push Indian content creators and help them become potential “global stars.”

Instagram says that it has been working with popular content creators and public figures to populate Reels content. When the test starts rolling out, users can check out content posted by the likes of Ammy Virk (3.3 million fans on TikTok), Gippy Grewal (1.7 million), Arjun Kanungo (1.5 million), Radhika Bangia (5.4 million), RJ Abhinav (1.6 million) and Indrani Biswas aka Wonder Munna (630K subscribers on YouTube).

As of now, Instagram plans to learn more from the testing phase and from creators themselves. Monetization options are also expected to be introduced once Reels takes off in India. No official public rollout date has been announced yet.

Goa: The smallest state with magnificent surprises

Did you ever plan out for a vacation? If you’re in India, the first thought in your mind appears with yourself enjoying the beaches of Goa. But now, the lockdown restrictions are removed as of 2nd July 2020. If you can’t visit, don’t worry, being a Goan, I’ll take you on a virtual tour to the paradises in the state of Goa. Are you ready for the journey? Let’s go.

The foothills of Western Ghats in Goa

Imagine you are on the Hop On Hop Off Bus, a tourist double-decker bus initiative taken up by the Tourism Department of the state. I tell you the story about what is so unique here. Situated on the South-West of India with a beautiful coastline and people around 1.8 million are present in the area of 3702 sq.km. Being the smallest state of India, don’t go by numbers, it has surprises for you to fascinate with the flora, fauna and its natural biodiversity. Well, with two districts, Panaji is the capital where you will find the paintings of Mario Miranda on the walls of the Municipal Market.

A panoramic view of a beach in Goa

Okay, moving on further, don’t consider language as a barrier to communicate because English is also well-spoken with the national language Hindi. Still, the local languages most widely spoken are Konkani and Marathi. You may also find Portuguese influence in the monuments as well as in the cuisine. I’m sure you’ll be tasting out the mouth-watering food virtually too. The first thing in my mind is rice with fish curry made with love out of the Goan fishes freshly cooked, which are caught during the dawn.

Harvalem Waterfall, Sanquelim, Goa. Also, there are many natural springs present in the state.

Along with this, the famous Ross Omelet, which you will find at every street outlet and restaurant which is somewhat similar to Xacuti, but it’s a pork dish. Still, here it’s usually replaced with chicken or other vegetarian alternatives with local bread known as Pao. Other famous dishes here in Goa are Sorpotel, Vindaloo, along with some Feni, made from cashews or coconut, which may make you feel dizzy. After all, everyone usually comes here to enjoy the alcoholic drinks, but may put you in trouble if you drink them on the beaches. No problem if you’re a teetotaler; there are other alternatives.

The cruise boats with the construction of Atal Setu bridge in the background

We’re also flourished with one of the famous world heritage sites declared by UNESCO, Basilica of Bom Jesus. Also, there are other famous places like Fort Aguada, Se Catherdral, and even ancient temples like Sri Mahadeva Temple in Tambdi Surla and other religions like Jain do have their establishments. Nonetheless, to mention, the beaches of Calangute, Baga, Anjuna are some of them. Also, you can go trekking at Dudhsagar Falls. The nightlife, casinos, and cruises are to be enjoyed if you fall into that category. The lavished exotic hotels are ready to welcome you always; even the people of Goa are amicable.

A glimpse of Church of St. Cajetan, Goa Velha

Let me give you an example, Dr. Edwin Gomes, the head of the medicine department of the famous Goa Medical College (GMC). He has done an incredible job recently by showing his gratitude by hugging more than 190 patients in the hospital after they were treated and found negative for COVID-19. The tour has come to an end, and I hope you visit the state and enjoy the moments.

Positive impact of coronavirus


India’s covid-19 recovery rate crosses 61 percent , which is more than world average 52.4 percent.


World’s largest covid center built in Delhi : World’s largest covid center,10,000-bed named Sardar Patel’s COVID Care Centre and Hospital (SPCCCH) inaugurated at Radha Soami Satsang Beas in Chhatarpur area by LG Baijal.


Air quality Index ( AQI ) has improved in this lockdown period, there has been a massive improvement in AQI of the country.


The Himalayan Range get visible after 30 years . Due to the Lockdown, Air pollution get reduced , now the folk of punjab can see Himalayan Range after 30 years from more than 100 miles away.


The number of deaths decrease from various other diseases.


Togetherness . As whole universe are facing this crisis, there is another positivity of togetherness. Communities are coming together to ensure the healthy lives of each other. No matter, what person they actually are, from a farmer to a celebrity, from a student to a teacher each one is facing this pandemic but still showing their positive lives via online and entertainment and ensures the Happiness and positivi impact on millions of people.


Improving awareness towards health and hygiene. Now people are more aware about the hygiene, health care and their immune system. This is another a good thing that has been the extensively being a part of people lives.  People are washing their hands on repeated basis as advised by governments to contain the spread of the virus, and on the whole being more cautious of their personal hygiene.