Category Archives: Business and Management

LEADERSHIP IN MANAGEMENT


As you know, management involves getting work done through the people and by virtue of their positions, managers can issue orders and instructions to their subordinates to get the work done, but it is also necessary to ensure that subordinates put in their maximum effort in performing their tasks and hence managers have to regulate and influence the subordinates behaviour and conduct at work and it is through the leadership role of managers that employees may be induced to perform their duties properly and maintain harmony in group activities. A manager, having formal authority, can direct and guide his subordinates and command their obedience by virtue of his positional power but as a leader, a manager can influence work behaviour by means of his leadership ability to get the cooperation of all members of the group. Leadership may be defined as a process of influencing group activities towards the achievement of certain goals. Thus, the leader is a person in a group who is capable of influencing the group to work willingly and he guides and directs other people and provides purpose and direction to their efforts and according to eminent writers Hodge and Johnson Leadership is “ Leadership is the ability to shape the attitude and behaviour of others whether in formal or informal situations” and According to Livingston Leadership is “ Leadership is the ability to awaken in others the desires to follow a common objective”.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERSHIP

Managerial leadership mainly possess the following characteristics:

  1. Leadership is needed in all walks of life, such as economical, social, political and industrial spheres.
  2. It is the duty of the leader to maintain proper discipline among his subordinates.
  3. It is a continuous process whereby the manager influences, guides and directs the behaviour of subordinates.
  4. A true leader is responsible for including encouragement and confidence among employees of any organization.
  5. The success of a manager as a leader depends on the acceptance of his leadership by the subordinates.
  6. The manager-leader is able to influence his subordinate’s behaviour at work due to the quality of his own behaviour as a leader.
  7. The leader leads his group with authority and confidence.
  8. The leader establishes the relationship between an individual and a group around some common interest.
  9.  A true creates a bond of friendship between organization and subordinates.
  10. Leadership helps others in choosing and attaining specified goals to the maximum satisfaction of both the leader and the follower.
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SOME IMPORTANT QUALITIES OF LEADERSHIP

1. Knowledge and intelligence

 A leader, to be effective, must have knowledge of group behaviour, human nature and activities involving technical and professional competence. He must have an intelligent perception of human psychology and the ability to think clearly and argue cogently on points of dispute.

2. Integrity and Honesty

A leader should possess a high level of integrity and honesty and he should be a role model regarding ethics and values.

3. Motivation Skills

A leader should be an effective motivator and he should understand the needs of the people and motivate them through satisfying their needs.

4. Self-confidence

Confidence about one’s leadership ability makes it possible for a leader to analyse and face different situations and adopt a suitable style and Lack of self-confidence often prevents managers to adopt a participative style and repose trust in their subordinates.

MASLOW’S NEED FOR HIERARCHY THEORY


Abraham Maslow
an eminent US psychologist, offered a theory of motivation called the ‘Need Hierarchy theory’ and he felt that wide range of needs which motivate them to strive for their fulfilment and human can be categorised into five types as- Physiology needs, security needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualisation needs.

HIERARCHY OF NEEDS

Motivation is concerned with the behaviour of a person or group of persons and nay behaviour is need-based, what is this need? A need is  a feeling that something is required and this feeling creates mental tensions and this tension in mind is transformed into want and to satisfy this want the person who feels the need (he or she who is  deprived of something), acts in one or another way to satisfy this want and satisfaction of a particular want releases the tension and then the behaviour to satisfy that want ceases, but in the meantime, some other need may be felt and thus need causing tension, tension causing the behaviour, satisfying the felt-need is a continuous process and needs are of different kinds and these have varying influences on motivation, for example:

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Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, a scalable vector illustration on white background

1. Basic Physiological Needs:

  Basic needs such as food, water, clothing, shelter, sleep and sexual satisfaction are included in this set of needs and these are the primary needs for sustaining human life itself and according to Maslow until these needs are satisfied to the extent necessary to sustain life these needs remain the motivating force.

2. Security or safety Needs:

Security is means “the feeling which involves being able to hold on to that one has. Being sure that one will be able to fare as well in future as in the past”. Thus these needs include being free from physical danger and the fear of losing a job, proper food, clothing or shelter.

3. Affiliation or Belonging Needs:

These include the need for love i.e. the need for affection and desire for association with others and the need for affiliation or acceptance becomes more prominent and becomes a motivating force.

4.Esteem Needs:

These needs include the desire to enjoy social approval, self-assertion and self-esteem and such a knowledge (Gratification of need for esteem) contributes to a feeling of self-confidence, worth or capability and it generates satisfaction such as power, prestige and status and status is the relative ranking that a person holds in a group or organization.

5. Self-Actualization Needs:

This refers to the desire for self-fulfilment and achievement and it is the desire to become what one believes to be capable of becoming and he wants to maximise his potential and to accomplish something and this need is regarded by Maslow as the highest in his hierarchy of needs.

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ASSUMPTIONS OF MASOW’S THEORY

Maslow’s theory is based on the following assumptions:

  1. People’s behaviour is based on their needs. The satisfaction of such needs influences their behaviour.
  2. People’s needs are in hierarchical order, starting from basic needs to other higher-level needs;
  3. A person moves to the next higher level of the hierarchy only when the lower needs is satisfied; and
  4. A satisfied need can no longer motivate a person; only next higher need can motivate him.

MOTIVATION IN MANAGEMENT


The term motivation is derived from the word motive and motives are expressions of a person’s needs and hence they are personal and internal and in this context, the term need should not be associated with urgency or nay pressing desire for something and it simply means something within an individual that prompts him to action and motives or needs are ‘whys’ of behaviour and they start and maintain activity and determine the general direction of the person and motives give direction to human behaviour because they are directed towards certain goals which may be conscious or sub-conscious. Motives are directed towards the achievement of certain goals which in turn determine the behaviour of individuals and this behaviour ultimately leads to goal-directed activities such as preparing food and a goal activity such as eating food and in other words, unsatisfying needs result in tension with an individual and engage him in search of the way to relieve this tension.

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INTERRELATED TERMS

While discussing motivation, we need to understand three interrelated terms- Motive, Motivation, and Motivators.

1. Motive- A motive is an inner state or desire which energies an individual to move o to behave towards the achievement of goal and motive arises out of needs of an individual and it causes restlessness as he wants to fulfil his motive.

2. Motivation- It is a process of inducing people to perform to their best ability to accomplish a goal and it is a psychological phenomenon which arises from the feeling of needs and wants of individuals and it causes a goal-directed behaviour.

3. Motivators- Motivators are the incentives or techniques used to motivate the people in an organization and common motivators used by the mangers are increment, bonus, promotion, recognition, respect etc. 

 Motivations may be defined as the complex of forces inspiring a person at work to intensify his willingness to use his maximum capability for the achievement of certain objectives. According to Koontz and O’Donnell “ Motivation is a general term applying to the entire class of drivers, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces and to say that managers motivate their subordinates is to say that they do those things which they hope will satisfy drives and desires and induce the subordinates to act in the desired manner”

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FEATURES OF MOTIVATION

1. Motivation is an internal Feeling/ instinct

Motivation is a psychological phenomenon which generates from within an individual and needs are the feelings arising in the mind of a person that he lacks certain things and such feelings affect the behaviour of that individual and causes him to do work and hence, motivation is the process of making an individual feel his needs.

2. Motivation produces goal-directed behaviour

Motivation is a power which leads the employees to the achievement of their goal and the behaviour of the motivated employees clearly shows that they are inclined towards the achievement of their goal.

3. Motivation can either be positive or negative

Positive motivation provides positive rewards like an increase in pay. Promotion, recognition etc. Negative motivation uses negative means like punishment, stopping increments, threatening etc., which also may induce a person to act in the desired way. 

CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT

OBJECT OF THE ACT According to the preamble, the Act is to provide for better protection of the interests of consumers and for that purpose to make provision to make provision for the establishment of consumer councils and other authorities for the settlement of consumer’s disputes and for connected therewith.

BASIC RIGHTS OF CONSUMERS [SECTION 6] The basic rights of consumers that are sought to be promoted and protected are;

a) The right to be protected against marketing of goods and services which are hazardous to life and property:

b) The right to be informed about the quality, quantity, purity, standard and price of goods, or services so as to protect the consumer against unfair trade practices;

c) The right to be assured, wherever possible, access to variety of goods and services at competitive prices;

d) The right to be heard and to be assured that consumers’ interest will receive due consideration at appropriate forums;

e) The right to seek redressal against unfair trade practices or restrictive trade practices or unscrupulous exploitation of consumers; and

f) The right to consumer education.

Complainant means

(a) a consumer

(b) any voluntary consumer association registered under any law;

(c) the Central or any State Government

(d) one or more consumers, where there are numerous consumers having the same interest; or

(e) in case of death of a consumer, his legal heir or representative, Who or which makes a complaint.
An association of persons to have locus standi as consumer, it is necessary that all the individuals forming the association must be the consumer having purchased the same goods or hired the same services from the party.
In case the affected consumer is unable to file the complaint due to ignorance, illiteracy or poverty, any recognized consumer association may file the complaint as per the above clause (b). Thus, rule of ‘privity of contract’ or ‘locus standi’ , which permits only the aggrieved party to take action, has very rightly been set aside in the spirit of public interest.


Complaint [Sec.2(1)(c)]
Complaint means any allegation in writing made by a complaint that – (i) an unfair trade practice or a restrictive trade practice has been adopted by any trader; (ii) the goods bought by him or agreed to be bought by him be suffer from one more defects; (iii) the services hired or availed of or agreed to be hired or availed of by him suffer from deficiency in any respect; (iv) the trader has charged a price in excess of the price;

(a) fixed under any law; (b) displayed on the goods or any package containing such goods; (c) displayed on the price list exhibited by him; or (d) agreed between the parties. (v) goods which will be hazardous to life and property when used are being offered for sale to the public; (vi) services which will be hazardous to life and safety of the public when used, are being offered by the service provider. With a view to obtain any relief provided by law under this Act.


The Changes After 1991 In India

Today India is one of the most powerful nations in the world. Our progress in education, science-technology, business, economy, the defense system is really noticeable. India is always a unique country but India also passed many tough situations, this achievement comes after so many hardships, struggles, and fights.before 1991 the political situation in India is unstable, after 1991 certain changes in the Indian economy, science-technology held to be very important In the history of India.

Indian Economy: we wanted to establish an Economy based on social justice through planning for a National planning commission was established that would coordinate development through the policy of the Five Year Plan. The government started Economic Reforms are called as Economic Liberalisation. The foreign Invest In India increased, the field of information technology opened several avenues of employment in the country . Liberalization, Privatizati, and Globalization, India under its New Economic Policy approached International Banks for development of the country. These agencies asked Indian Government to open its restrictions on trade done by the private sector and between India and other countries.

Science and Technology: The experiment in the co-operative dairy movement By Dr.Verghese Kurien led to increase in milk production in India. This is called as White Revolution. Dr.Homi J.bhaba laid the foundation of the Indian atomic Power Programme. India insisted on using atomic energy for peaceful purposes like generation of electricity, pharmaceuticals and defense.

Change In Social Field: changes related to the women empowerment movement and other related to the policies regarding the uplift of deprived sections of the society

SUPERVISION OF MANAGEMENT

Supervision is an important aspect of the directing function and it involves the managerial task of observing the subordinates at work to ensure that they are working according to plans and policies of the organization, keeping the time schedule and supervision also includes helping subordinates to resolve their work problems. Managers at all level are in direct contact with subordinates and oversee their work performance and the top management supervises the work of middle-level managers, who in turn supervise the first-line managers or supervisors and the first-line managers are in direct contact with the operatives and thus, all levels of management are generally engaged in supervising the work of their immediate subordinates. According to R.C. Davis “Supervision is the function of assuring that the work is being done in accordance with the plan and instructions”. Supervision includes the following three elements:

  1. Commanding
  2. Guiding
  3. Controlling

This is the reason why, “Supervisors are known as a friend, philosopher, and Guide of workers”.

ROLE OF SUPERVISORS

Supervision has special importance only at the lower management level and the question which is now required to be discussed is to what role does a person working at the managerial level, the supervisor play in the organization.

1. Supervisor as a key man

 In every organization, the work of putting the plans into action is done by non-managerial staff who works under the guidance of a supervisor but however, at this level, even a little carelessness may cause the closure of the organization and that is why the supervision is referred to as the key man in the organization.

2. Supervision as a middle man

   In the organization, the supervisor plays the role of a middle man and he acts as a link between the higher-level managers and him workers, and his main job is to prepare a co-operative atmosphere among the two parties in order to facilitate the achievement of the goal of the organization.

3. Supervisor as a human relation specialist

A supervisor is likely to face a number of problems related to human behavior, for which one has to try and find out solutions and he can do so only if he is a human relation specialist.

FUNCTIONS OF SUPERVISOR

1. Planning the work or schedule activity

The supervisor is a low-level manager and he is required to study and analyze the work of his department and decide what, where, which, why, and by whom the work is to be performed. He has to chalk out daily and weekly program and he has also to arrange the raw materials, machines, tools, and equipment and the successful supervisor is an efficient planner.

2. Achieving the target

It is the most important duty of the supervisor to achieve the target prescribed for his department by the management and this can be achieved if the supervisor enables the best possible use of the available resources of the department towards the desired goal.

3. Enbaling standardized output through instruction and guidance

It is the supervisor, who ensures that the actual performance corresponds to the norms and standards laid by the management and the supervisor must satisfy himself as to the quality of the output and he should concentrate on both quality and quantity of goods. 

IMPORTANCE OF DIRECTION IN BUSINESS WORLD


Directing is a very important function of management and its subordinates may not perceive the organizational goals in the absence of directing and the subordinates must be communicated what the organizational goals are, what the employees should do to achieve them, how they should do their jobs etc. Moreover, directing is directly concerned with human beings, so it should be executed carefully to achieve the desired goals. The part played by the manager is rather important as the CEO of the company from the point of managing the workers and the management and Getting things down is in the very nature of Directing.

THE IMPORTANCE

1. The benefit of unity of command

 Due to scientific supervision, effective communication, and proper motivation, there is no problem with conflicting orders or priorities and because of a complete reporting relationship with a single superior, personal responsibility for results becomes greater. Directing involves the management of human behavior and it creates cooperation and harmony among the members of a group and increasing people’s awareness has made managing human beings very difficult.

2. Increases potential

For reasons of physical nature’s productivity of managerial resources is limited, but the productivity and effectiveness of human resources have unlimited potential, and directing helps the enterprise in making use of this potential output of the human resources. Since humans evolve as the time goes by and stating together is an important aspect of keeping going together so everyone needs to understand the aspirations and expectations of their subordinates or their colleagues in order to manage them effectively.

3. Initiates action

All organizational activities are initiated through directing and along with planning, organizing, and staffing, managers must stimulate action by issuing instructions to subordinates and by supervising their work and the aim of directing is to activate employees to work towards the realization of predetermined goals of the organization and thus, without directing, other managerial activities like planning, organizing and staffing remain ineffective.

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4.Optimization of individual efforts

 The ultimate success of an enterprise depends on the optimum efforts put in by all individuals with willing cooperation and through effective supervision, motivation, leadership, and communication directing makes it possible.

5.Means of motivation

The organizational objectives cannot be realized unless people working in an organization are motivated to work willingly and perform well to the best of their abilities and directing is motivating employees to contribute their maximum efforts towards the achievement of organizational goals.

6.Provision of a stable and balanced organization

Directing provides effective supervision, motivation, correct leadership, and a well-understood communications, and therefore the organization as a whole work in a balanced way and it lasts for a long time.

7. Integrates employees efforts

At all levels of management, there are subordinates under the managers and the work entrusted to these individuals is interrelated and the performance of each individual affects the performance of others and thus individual efforts need to be integrated so that the organization achieves its goals and the directing functions integrate the activities of the subordinates by supervision, guidance, and counseling.

Work From Home Jobs During the Lockdown

Due to this Covid – 19 when all the offices are closed and employers have transitioned their employees to remote work, one thing that comes out best during this lockdown is that how remote work or work from home can be successful on a large scale.

Let us see some interesting job opportunities which anyone can start from home :

1. Online Educator

If teaching is your passion and you are away from your passion because schools are closed due to this lockdown then you don’t have to worry as you can simply teach online at your homes.

2. Freelance Writer

Many big sites need freelance writers and content creators so if you have good writing skills then this is surely your job. The best part is that this is the job where you don’t have to go to office. Sit at your homes and provide the best content to your employer.

3. Social Media Manager

Many big business house needs someone to manage their social media accounts like Instagram, Facebook, Twitter so that they can grow their business online and can expand their reach. So if you are a pro at managing social media then this is the right job for you.

4. Call-Center Representative

Many businesses need workers who can answer the phone at all hours, assist customers, and process orders or deal with returns. But since more businesses are operating online, a growing number of these jobs are going to customer service at home.

5. Data Entry operator

A wide range of businesses need workers to enter various data into their systems. For this job one should know basics of computer and should have good typing skills. This is the job that you can perform from home. You just have to enter data online and send it to your employers.

6. YouTuber

If you can entertain and influence large audience on YouTube platform then in some time you can also become a successful YouTuber earning a lot of money.

7. Translator

Translator is someone who converts written word from one language to another. For this job one must have a bachelor’s degree and most importantly must be fluent in the language that the job demands. Many sites nowadays need online translators so if this job fits you, you can surely apply.

This was all about the jobs that you can start from home during this lockdown. So I hope you will find the above article useful.

Human Resource Management

Meaning

Human resource management involves procuring, developing, maintaining and appraising a competent workforce to achieve the goals efficiently and effectively. Staffing is an integral part of human resource management. It is also concerned with procurement, development, compensation, integration and maintenance of managerial employees.

The National Institute Personnel Management (NIPM) of India has defined human resource management as ” the part of management which is concerned with people at work and with their relationship within an enterprise. It’s aim is to bring together and develop into an effective organisation of the men and women who make up an enterprise and having regard for the well – being of the individuals and of working groups, to enable them to make their best contribution to its success. “

Objectives of Human Resource Management

  • To procure right person at the right job.
  • To establish desirable relationship between employer and employees.
  • To mould human resources in the structure of organisation effectively.
  • To develop personality of employee through training and development campaigns.
  • To establish harmony in goals within the organisation
  • To establish employee discipline and moral.

Characteristics of HRM

  • Human focus :It is concerned with the effective management of people possessing energy and capabilities. It is individual oriented. It is specially focused on the human oriented approach. The detailed investigation of human resource in organisation is made.
  • Management Function : It involves managerial functions such as planning, implementing and controlling of acquisition, development, utilization and maintenance of human resources.
  • Pervasive Function : HRM is pervasive in nature as it is present in all enterprises. It is performed in all levels of management. The responsibility of human resource cannot be delegated to other. It is practically implemented in the organisation at various levels.
  • Continuous Commitment : It is continuous function of management. In other words, it is not a one- time process. It will continue till the organisation exists. It is continuously monitored at every step of organisation existence.

Duties performed by Human Resource Personnel

  • Recruitment
  • Collecting information about jobs
  • Developing compensation and incentive plans.
  • Training and development of employees.
  • Handling grievances.