Category Archives: Education

“Food – The Next Big crisis For Humanity?”

Humans have been living on this planet for many centuries and the prior need for their survival is food, water and a place to live. For these necessities they have been traveling for places and working hard to find them. All these factors are an important part for human survival and a disbalance caused by either of them, can lead humans to a condition of uncertainty and a question to their survival. Humans do need energy so as to perform all their basic day to day activities. These foods provide any individual basic proteins, vitamin, carbohydrates and fibres to remain fit and healthy.Food and its need is the important need for human survival, but with the increase in population tHe need for it has increased but production relative to it is significantly less and the resources we do have, humans hardly care and most if it gets wastage. This is an area of concern especially when we do acknowledge the need for it. 

Food wastage has been an area of concern for humans and humans are quite aware for the same, but still we hardly take any action in reducing it but the main question do arises is that why and where do this Food wastage occur:

  1. The prior places are marriage and various other functions, where Food is prepared in heavy quantities, while people eat less, most of the food gets wasted. 
  2. Hostel, where the taste is the major issue. Since students don’t like the food they consume, it results in wastage. 
  3. People usually prefer to take more food initially, which if it doesn’t taste good, goes in the bin. 
  4. People do not know their ideal eating food quantity. So they usually prefer to take note of it. 
  5. There are various other places and reasons for the wastage of these food resources which surely needs to be addressed and taken care of. 

We do know and discuss that food is an essential part for our life, and we want to save it. But there are hardly any steps taken in these areas. Various NGOs and other organizations as well as government policies are working in order to save this essential resource. But people need to be aware of their approach and their deeds. These organizations and policies would be effective enough if people do perform and do activities on their own so people do need  to:

 

  • Next time approach which would include small quantities initially and if they like it, they can prefer taking it again. 
  • Taste would be the prior thing which needs to be cared for.
  • People must test their eating abilities and the amount they can have at a time. Which surely directs them to be a water of the quantity which best suits them and need to take the same quantity so as to prevent any wastage.
  • More and more awareness must be increased in the places of more wastage and people must be made aware for it to stop.
  • Also the places where the most food is wasted, must be given to people or places where people lack food.

 

So it’s time to understand that this resource is an essential component for our survival and this we need to take the desired steps in order to save these. Any wastage must be prevented and in case food wastage, it must be restored for future use or given to people in need for the same. Future is an era of possibilities and humans would be able to see a better and improved phase of life but it’s only possible if we do have resources to feed them. So we must work together in this area and this will save humanity and save this essential and important resource. 

 

Financial Literacy for girls

We all are aware that education is a very important tool for all of us, to build our personality, to shape our future. It really does not matter whether we get this education from school, or from outside school, education has a key role to play behind the success of any person. But now, from school time, we are told about that education that will help us earn money by working for it. Hard-work, dedication, and skill in a particular field are told to be the requirements to be a good employee, focusing on which can help us earn money and grow. Schools and society hardly teach teenagers about the importance of financial literacy in one’s life. There is no school where students are made aware of financial literacy and its importance. But, indeed, it is a very important skill needed to get out of the ‘rat-race’.

If we want to become financially literate, surely we won’t be spoonfed. We need to be alert, aware, curious, as well as creative enough to gather the knowledge. One needs to understand that hard work and dedication can’t get us to everything in life. Studying hard, getting a government job, with a secure future can sound peaceful, but once people get to it, people often complain about their work, problems like not getting promotions, lack of holidays, and a lot more. Employers are often blamed. But it is not employers’ fault, it is our fault that we lack financial education to get out of this “trap”. Yes, but, smart work and the desire to constantly learn and grow is what that can help us get out of the ‘rat-race’. The trick is to “stop working for money and make money work for us”.

A very major is issue is financial literacy is lacking too much in girls. Yes, there exists girls who are financially literate but the fraction is too low. The general mindset that society has is that there exist a father and husband in a girl’s life and they can very well take care of the finance part for them. It is common that things like fashion, cooking skills, etc are discussed with and among girls but it is quite uncommon to find them discuss stocks, investment, and finance. Apart from these, being financially literate comes with the power to overcome fear and take risks. But, it is quite difficult for a girl to take risks as a society often don’t recognize their potential. We need to overcome this mindset that keeps girls dependent on others. It is the need of the girl as well as the need of the society that they stand out strong and work for their own financial goals. Girls need to be aware and they need to become financially literate. It is also known that girls can better handle finance than boys. So, why one should not use this potential. Financial literacy for girls is also a very important and crucial step towards women empowerment. They also need to understand finance and work for their financial independence.

Financial literacy is very important for the progress of any individual or society. It helps you get out of the trap where you start working for money and can never get out of the trap. It prevents us from becoming slaves to money and become master of it.

WORLD YOUNG SKILL DAY

“Youth is happy because it has the capacity to see beauty. “Older men declare war. “Stories you read when you’re the right age never quite leave you. “The surest way to corrupt a youth is to instruct him to hold in higher esteem those who think alike than those who think differently.”

UNO ADDRESS ON WORLD YOUTH SKILL DAY

World Youth Skills Day 2020 will take place in a challenging context. The COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown measures have led to the worldwide closure of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) institutions, threatening the continuity of skills development.

It is estimated that nearly 70% of the world’s learners are affected by school closures across education levels currently. Respondents to a survey of TVET institutions, jointly collected by UNESCO, the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the World Bank, reported that distance training has become the most common way of imparting skills, with considerable difficulties regarding, among others, curricula adaptation, trainee and trainer preparedness, connectivity, or assessment and certification processes.

Prior to the current crisis, young people aged 15-24 were three times more likely than adults to be unemployed and often faced a prolonged school-to-work transition period. In post-COVID-19 societies, as young people are called upon to contribute to the recovery effort, they will need to be equipped with the skills to successfully manage evolving challenges and the resilience to adapt to future disruptions.

Why is World Youth Skills Day important?
Rising youth unemployment is one of the most significant problems facing economies and societies in today’s world, for developed and developing countries alike. The latest Global Employment Trends for Youth 2020: Technology and the future of jobs shows that since 2017, there has been an upward trend in the number of youth not in employment, education or training (NEET).

In 2016 there were 259 million young people classified as NEET – a number that rose to an estimated 267 million in 2019, and is projected to continue climbing to around 273 million in 2021. In terms of percentage, the trend was also slightly up from 21.7% in 2015 to 22.4% in 2020 – implying that the international target to reduce the NEET rate by 2020 will be missed.

Designated by the General assembly in 2014, the World Youth Skills Day is an opportunity for young people, technical and vocational education and training (TVET) institutions, and public and private sector stakeholders to acknowledge and celebrate the importance of equipping young people with skills for employment, decent work and entrepreneurship.

IS PARANORMAL ACTIVITIES RELATED TO SCIENCE?

Paranormal events are purported phenomena described in popular culturefolk, and other non-scientific bodies of knowledge, whose existence within these contexts is described as beyond normal experience or scientific explanation.

Proposals regarding the paranormal are different from scientific hypotheses or speculations extrapolated from scientific evidence because scientific ideas are grounded in empirical observations and experimental data gained through the scientific method. In contrast, those who argue for the existence of the paranormal explicitly do not base their arguments on empirical evidence but rather on anecdote, testimony, and suspicion. Notable paranormal beliefs include those that pertain to extrasensory perception (for example, telepathy), spiritualism and the pseudoscience’s of ghost hunting, cryptozoology, and ufology.

PARANORMAL RESEARCH

Approaching the paranormal from a research perspective is often difficult because of the lack of acceptable physical evidence from most of the purported phenomena. By definition, the paranormal does not conform to conventional expectations of nature. Therefore, a phenomenon cannot be confirmed as paranormal using the scientific method because, if it could be, it would no longer fit the definition. (However, confirmation would result in the phenomenon being reclassified as part of science.) Despite this problem, studies on the paranormal are periodically conducted by researchers from various disciplines. Some researchers simply study the beliefs in the paranormal regardless of whether the phenomena are considered to objectively exist. This section deals with various approaches to the paranormal: anecdotalexperimental, and participant-observer approaches and the skeptical investigation approach.

ANECDOTAL APPROACH

Charles Fort, 1920. Fort is perhaps the most widely known collector of paranormal stories. An anecdotal approach to the paranormal involves the collection of stories told about the paranormal. Charles Fort (1874–1932) is perhaps the best-known collector of paranormal anecdotes. Fort is said to have compiled as many as 40,000 notes on unexplained paranormal experiences, though there was no doubt many more. These notes came from what he called “the orthodox conventionality of Science”, which were odd events originally reported in magazines and newspapers such as The Times and scientific journals such as Scientific AmericanNature and Science. From this research Fort wrote seven books, though only four survive: The Book of the Damned (1919), New Lands (1923), Lo! (1931) and Wild Talents (1932); one book was written between New Lands and Lo!, but it was abandoned and absorbed into Lo!

Reported events that he collected include teleportation (a term Fort is generally credited with coining); poltergeist events; falls of frogs, fishes, and inorganic materials of an amazing range; crop circles; unaccountable noises and explosions; spontaneous fireslevitationball lightning (a term explicitly used by Fort); unidentified flying objects; mysterious appearances and disappearances; giant wheels of light in the oceans; and animals found outside their normal ranges (see phantom cat). He offered many reports of OOP Arts, the abbreviation for “out of place” artefacts: strange items found in unlikely locations. He is perhaps the first person to explain strange human appearances and disappearances by the hypothesis of alien abduction and was an early proponent of the extraterrestrial hypothesis.

Fort is considered by many as the father of modern paranormalism, which is the study of the paranormal.

The magazine Fortean Times continues Charles Fort’s approach, regularly reporting anecdotal accounts of the paranormal.

Such anecdotal collections, lacking the reproducibility of empirical evidence, are not amenable to scientific investigation. The anecdotal approach is not a scientific approach to the paranormal because it leaves verification dependent on the credibility of the party presenting the evidence. Nevertheless, it is a common approach to investigating paranormal phenomena.

PARAPSYCHOLOGY

Participant of a Ganzfeld experiment which proponents say may show evidence of telepathy. Experimental investigation of the paranormal has been conducted by parapsychologistsJ. B. Rhine popularized the now famous methodology of using card-guessing and dice-rolling experiments in a laboratory in the hopes of finding evidence of extrasensory perception. However, it was revealed that Rhine’s experiments contained methodological flaws and procedural errors.

In 1957, the Parapsychological Association was formed as the preeminent society for parapsychologists. In 1969, they became affiliated with the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Criticisms of the field were focused in the creation (in 1976) of the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (now called the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry) and its periodical, the Skeptical Inquirer. Eventually, more mainstream scientists became critical of parapsychology as an endeavour, and statements by the National Academies of Science and the National Science Foundation cast a pall on the claims of evidence for parapsychology. Today, many cite parapsychology as an example of a pseudoscience. Parapsychology has been criticized for continuing investigation despite being unable to provide convincing evidence for the existence of any psychic phenomena after more than a century of research.

By the 2000s, the status of paranormal research in the United States had greatly declined from its height in the 1970s, with the majority of work being privately funded and only a small amount of research being carried out in university laboratories. In 2007, Britain had a number of privately funded laboratories in university psychology departments. Publication remained limited to a small number of niche journals, and to date there have been no experimental results that have gained wide acceptance in the scientific community as valid evidence of the paranormal.

PARTICIPANT-OBSERVER APPROACH

ghost hunter taking an EMF reading (Electro Magnetic Field), which proponents claim may be connected to paranormal activity.

While parapsychologists look for quantitative evidence of the paranormal in laboratories, a great number of people immerse themselves in qualitative research through participant-observer approaches to the paranormal. Participant-observer methodologies have overlaps with other essentially qualitative approaches as well, including phenomenological research that seeks largely to describe subjects as they are experienced, rather than to explain them.

Participant-observation suggests that by immersing oneself in the subject being studied, a researcher is presumed to gain understanding of the subject. Criticisms of participant-observation as a data-gathering technique are similar to criticisms of other approaches to the paranormal, but also include an increased threat to the objectivity of the researcher, unsystematic gathering of data, reliance on subjective measurement, and possible observer effects (observation may distort the observed behaviour). Specific data gathering methods, such as recording EMF readings at haunted locations have their own criticisms beyond those attributed to the participant-observation approach itself.

The participant-observer approach to the paranormal has gained increased visibility and popularity through reality television programs like Ghost Hunters, and the formation of independent ghost hunting groups that advocate immersive research at alleged paranormal locations. One popular website for ghost hunting enthusiasts lists over 300 of these organizations throughout the United States and the United Kingdom.

SKEPTICAL SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION

James Randi is a well-known investigator of paranormal claims. Scientific skeptics advocate critical investigation of claims of paranormal phenomena: applying the scientific method to reach a rational, scientific explanation of the phenomena to account for the paranormal claims, taking into account that alleged paranormal abilities and occurrences are sometimes hoaxes or misinterpretations of natural phenomena. A way of summarizing this method is by the application of Occam’s razor, which suggests that the simpler solution is usually the correct one. The standard scientific models give the explanation that what appears to be paranormal phenomena is usually a misinterpretation, misunderstanding, or anomalous variation of natural phenomena, rather than an actual paranormal phenomenon.

The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI), formerly the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP), is an organization that aims to publicize the scientific, skeptical approach. It carries out investigations aimed at understanding paranormal reports in terms of scientific understanding, and publishes its results in the Skeptical Inquirer magazine.

CSI’s Richard Wiseman draws attention to possible alternative explanations for perceived paranormal activity in his article, The Haunted Brain. While he recognizes that approximately 15% of people believe they have experienced an encounter with a ghost, he reports that only 1% report seeing a full-fledged ghost while the rest report strange sensory stimuli, such as seeing fleeting shadows or wisps of smoke, or the sensation of hearing footsteps or feeling a presence. Wiseman makes the claim that, rather than experiencing paranormal activity, it is activity within our own brains that creates these strange sensations.

Michael Persinger proposed that ghostly experiences could be explained by stimulating the brain with weak magnetic fields. Swedish psychologist Pehr Granqvist and his team, attempting to replicate Persinger’s research, determined that the paranormal sensations experienced by Persinger’s subjects were merely the result of suggestion, and that brain stimulation with magnetic fields did not result in ghostly experiences.

Oxford University Justin Barrett has theorized that “agency”—being able to figure out why people do what they do—is so important in everyday life, that it is natural for our brains to work too hard at it, thereby detecting human or ghost-like behaviour in everyday meaningless stimuli.

James Randi, an investigator with a background in illusion, feels that the simplest explanation for those claiming paranormal abilities is often trickery, illustrated by demonstrating that the spoon bending abilities of psychic Uri Geller can easily be duplicated by trained stage magicians. He is also the founder of the James Randi Educational Foundation and its million dollar challenge that offered a prize of US$1,000,000 to anyone who could demonstrate evidence of any paranormal, supernatural or occult power or event, under test conditions agreed to by both parties. Despite many declarations of supernatural ability, the prize was never claimed.

PSYCHOLOGY

In “anomalistic psychology”, paranormal phenomena have naturalistic explanations resulting from psychological and physical factors which have sometimes given the impression of paranormal activity to some people, in fact, where there have been none. The psychologist David Marks wrote that paranormal phenomena can be explained by magical thinkingmental imagerysubjective validationcoincidence, hidden causes, and fraud. According to studies some people tend to hold paranormal beliefs because they possess psychological traits that make them more likely to misattribute paranormal causation to normal experiences. Research has also discovered that cognitive bias is a factor underlying paranormal belief.

Chris French founder of the Anomalistic Psychology Research Unit. Many studies have found a link between personality and psychopathology variables correlating with paranormal belief. Some studies have also shown that fantasy pronenesscorrelates positively with paranormal belief.

Bainbridge (1978) and Wuthnow (1976) found that the most susceptible people to paranormal belief are those who are poorly educated, unemployed or have roles that rank low among social values. The alienation of these people due to their status in society is said to encourage them to appeal to paranormal or magical beliefs.

Research has associated paranormal belief with low cognitive ability, low IQ and a lack of science educationIntelligent and highly educated participants involved in surveys have proven to have less paranormal belief. Tobacyk (1984) and Messer and Griggs (1989) discovered that college students with better grades have less belief in the paranormal.

In a case study (Gow, 2004) involving 167 participants the findings revealed that psychological absorption and dissociation were higher for believers in the paranormal. Another study involving 100 students had revealed a positive correlation between paranormal belief and proneness to dissociation. A study (Williams et al. 2007) discovered that “neuroticism is fundamental to individual differences in paranormal belief, while paranormal belief is independent of extraversion and psychoticism“. A correlation has been found between paranormal belief and irrational thinking.

In an experiment Wierzbicki (1985) reported a significant correlation between paranormal belief and the number of errors made on a syllogistic reasoning task, suggesting that believers in the paranormal have lower cognitive ability. A relationship between narcissistic personality and paranormal belief was discovered in a study involving the Australian Sheep-Goat Scale.

De Boer and Bierman wrote:

In his article ‘Creative or Defective’ Radin (2005) asserts that many academics explain the belief in the paranormal by using one of the three following hypotheses: Ignorance, deprivation or deficiency. ‘The ignorance hypothesis asserts that people believe in the paranormal because they’re uneducated or stupid. The deprivation hypothesis proposes that these beliefs exist to provide a way to cope in the face of psychological uncertainties and physical stressors. The deficiency hypothesis asserts that such beliefs arise because people are mentally defective in some way, ranging from low intelligence or poor critical thinking ability to a full-blown psychosis’ (Radin). The deficiency hypothesis gets some support from the fact that the belief in the paranormal is an aspect of a schizotypical personality (Pizzagalli, Lehman and Brugger, 2001).

A psychological study involving 174 members of the Society for Psychical Research completed a delusional ideation questionnaire and a deductive reasoning task. As predicted, the study showed that “individuals who reported a strong belief in the paranormal made more errors and displayed more delusional ideation than skeptical individuals”. There was also a reasoning bias which was limited to people who reported a belief in, rather than experience of, paranormal phenomena. The results suggested that reasoning abnormalities may have a causal role in the formation of paranormal belief.

Research has shown that people reporting contact with aliens have higher levels of absorption, dissociativity, fantasy proneness and tendency to hallucinate.

Findings have shown in specific cases that paranormal belief acts as a psychodynamic coping function and serves as a mechanism for coping with stress. Survivors from childhood sexual abuse, violent and unsettled home environments have reported to have higher levels of paranormal belief. A study of a random sample of 502 adults revealed paranormal experiences were common in the population which were linked to a history of childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms. Research has also suggested that people who perceive themselves as having little control over their lives may develop paranormal beliefs to help provide an enhanced sense of control.

Gender differences in surveys on paranormal belief have reported women scoring higher than men overall and men having greater belief in UFOs and extraterrestrials. Surveys have also investigated the relationship between ethnicity and paranormal belief. In a sample of American university students (Tobacyk et al. 1988) it was found that people of African descent have a higher level of belief in superstitions and witchcraft while belief in extraterrestrial life forms was stronger among people of European descent.[74] Otis and Kuo (1984) surveyed Singapore university students and found ChineseIndian and Malay students to differ in their paranormal beliefs, with the Chinese students showing greater skepticism.

According to American surveys analysed by (Bader et al. 2011) African Americans have the highest belief in the paranormal and while the findings are not uniform the “general trend is for whites to show lesser belief in most paranormal subjects”.

Polls show that about fifty percent of the United States population believe in the paranormal. Robert L. Park says a lot of people believe in it because they “want it to be so”.

A 2013 study that utilized a biological motion perception task discovered a “relation between illusory pattern perception and supernatural and paranormal beliefs and suggest that paranormal beliefs are strongly related to agency detection biases”.

A 2014 study discovered that schizophrenic patients have more belief in psi than healthy adults.

NEUROSCIENCE

Some scientists have investigated possible neurocognitive processes underlying the formation of paranormal beliefs. In a study (Pizzagalli et al. 2000) data demonstrated that “subjects differing in their declared belief in and experience with paranormal phenomena as well as in their schizotypal ideation, as determined by a standardized instrument, displayed differential brain electric activity during resting periods.” Another study (Schulter and Papousek, 2008) wrote that paranormal belief can be explained by patterns of functional hemispheric asymmetry that may be related to perturbations during fetal development.

It was also realized that people with higher dopamine levels have the ability to find patterns and meanings where there aren’t any. This is why scientists have connected high dopamine levels with paranormal belief.

CRITICISM

Some scientists have criticised the media for promoting paranormal claims. In a report (Singer and Benassi, 1981) wrote that the media may account for much of the near universality of paranormal belief as the public are constantly exposed to films, newspapers, documentaries and books endorsing paranormal claims while critical coverage is largely absent. According to Paul Kurtz “In regard to the many talk shows that constantly deal with paranormal topics, the skeptical viewpoint is rarely heard; and when it is permitted to be expressed, it is usually sandbagged by the host or other guests.” Kurtz described the popularity of public belief in the paranormal as a “quasi-religious phenomenon”, a manifestation of a transcendental temptation, a tendency for people to seek a transcendental reality that cannot be known by using the methods of science. Kurtz compared this to a primitive form of magical thinking.

Terence Hines has written that on a personal level, paranormal claims could be considered a form of consumer fraud as people are “being induced through false claims to spend their money—often large sums—on paranormal claims that do not deliver what they promise” and uncritical acceptance of paranormal belief systems can be damaging to society.

BELIEF POLLS

While the validity of the existence of paranormal phenomena is controversial and debated passionately by both proponents of the paranormal and by skeptics, surveys are useful in determining the beliefs of people in regards to paranormal phenomena. These opinions, while not constituting scientific evidence for or against, may give an indication of the mindset of a certain portion of the population (at least among those who answered the polls). The number of people worldwide who believe in parapsychological powers has been estimated to be 3 to 4 billion.

A survey conducted in 2006 by researchers from Australia’s Monash University sought to determine what types of phenomena that people claim to have experienced and the effects these experiences have had on their lives. The study was conducted as an online survey with over 2,000 respondents from around the world participating. The results revealed that around 70% of the respondents believe to have had an unexplained paranormal event that changed their life, mostly in a positive way. About 70% also claimed to have seen, heard, or been touched by an animal or person that they knew was not there; 80% have reported having a premonition, and almost 50% stated they recalled a previous life.

Polls were conducted by Bryan Farha at Oklahoma City University and Gary Steward of the University of Central Oklahoma in 2006. They found fairly consistent results compared to the results of a Gallup poll in 2001.

The study discussed above makes it clear that all paranormal activities to the mind games or should be said some illusions related to the mind disorders of seeing someone close whose is dead it happens when you think allot about them and the affection of them create an image of them in your head which you are forced believe it that its true but in reality there is no one.

Is brand conscious actually brand conscious ?

Highlighting the pragmatic and success seeking aspect of the today’s ensembles shouting out with the overrated to the core tag “brand conscious”. The companies believe that being brand conscious is the ultimate solution for all the queries raised and skepticism asked. Very value sensitive factors effect in the choice of product growth and creates glitch in the views about the company which raises the expectations. There opens an interesting window of opportunity that will stay sane and perpetual while longer for companies to establish dominant positions in the masses of Indian markets and their statistics. But at the same time Indian markets are capable of seizing their own golden opportunities by focusing on phony subjects like brand and price consciousness , they lose their powerful and authentic market and consumers who are genuinely into their ensembles. Brand consciousness has just become the need to have a gradual repetition as a social obligation whereas , there’s a lot of gambling and brands aren’t even been scrutinized about their pricing levels which aren’t monetary friendly. There’s so much beyond brand conscious aspect which benefits the stakeholders in a non ethical way.

FRAMEWORK OF BRANDING & PRICING – There’s a lot of statistical date and math involved in the very clean process of pricing which involves the hint of branding. Many companies are reluctant enough to retest the “tried-and-tested” business tactics to make sure that brand conscious actually works. Modest-sized and family strategies are no more a healthy choice of building or laying a stronger foundation to the business economics , it’s all bad money and gambling which brings glory according to the business magnates. Since the class market strategies are the subtle yet rapid growing market consumer groups in the economy all the influential and wealthy business groups stared to follow and take the brand conscious as a must which is apparently just an obligation. Therefore , there are so many other money deprived magnates who try brand conscious just like it and they are up for the grabs.

STORY BEHIND THE EMERGENCE OF NOBEL PRIZE

The Nobel prizes are widely regarded as the most prestigious awards all over the world given to individuals who perform magnificent in the field of Physics, Chemistry, Literature, physiology, peace and Economics. The Nobel prizes, instituted 1901, are bestowed annually by the Scandinavian Committees(Denmark, Norway, Sweden, usually Finland and Island)in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The Peace price is awarded in Oslo, Norway, while the other prizes are awarded in Stockholm, Sweden. Each Nobel prize is regarded as the most prestigious award in its respective field and is administrative by the Nobel Foundation in Stockholm, Sweden.

The story behind the establishment of Nobel prize is also spellbinding. The man behind the foundation of the Nobel Prize is Alfred Bernard Nobel, a Swedish scientist, inventor, entrepreneur, author and pacifist. The foundations for the prize were laid in 1895 when Nobel wrote his last will, leaving much of his wealth to the establishment of the Nobel Prize. Noble amassed a vast fortune during his lifetime and most of his wealth came from his 355 inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous. In 1988, Nobel’s brother Ludvig died while visiting Cannes and a french newspaper erroneously published Nobel’s obituary. It condemned him for his invention of Dynamite and is said to have brought about his decision to leave a better legacy after his death. The obituary stated (“The merchant of death is dead”)and the headlines read, “Dr. Alfred Nobel, who became rich by finding ways to kill more people faster than ever before, died yesterday”.Nobel was left shattered was heartbroken with what he read and thought how he would be remembered after his death. On November 27, 1895, at the Swedish- Norwegian Club in Paris, Nobel signed his last will and testament and set aside the bulk of his estate to establish The Nobel Prizes .On December 10, 1986, Nobel died in his villa in San Remo, Italy from acerebral haemorrhage at the age of 63. Nobel, in his will, stipulated that “no consideration be given to the nationality of the candidates, but that the most worthy shall receive the prize, whether he be Scandinavian or not”. And so, six years later, in 1901, the first Nobel Prizes were awarded to 3 Germans, 2 Frenchmen and a Swiss. Professor Amartya sen(born 1998) was the first Indian to receive the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics in 1998 for his work on welfare economics. He has made several contributions in to this field such as, such as to axiomatic theory of social choice; the definitions of welfare and poverty indexes ; and the empirical studies of famine. All are linked by his interest in distributional issues and particularly in those impoverished.

Republica Federativa do BRasil: A road to independence

By Shivam Pathak
At some point of time almost all countries had faced invasions and colonization, whether it is England (Invaded by Normans), China (Invaded by Mongolians), India (Invaded by Britishers), USA (Invaded by Britishers), etc. But in this article I would shed light only on the invasion and colonization of Brazil by Portugal. Before getting down to my topic I would like to answer one of the questions cultivating in your mind that- why it is so important to study about other countries history of independce from colonization. I will tell you why. I think scrutiny on
other countries history of independence is required for a comparative study of history. If we go deep into this topic we would uncover that the way each country fought against their enemies is quiet distinctive with each-others counterparts. For instance Mexico got indepence from Spain after a lot of bloodshed and armed conflict, but in case of Brazil, the way was rather peaceful and simple. Hope at the end of the topic you will be able to understand this topic in a laconic way.
Portugal, identical to Netherlands was a nation of seafarers and traders. So they always look for opportunities to trade. By following their underlying policy the estado of Portugal recognized that colonialism had bigger merchant capitalist elements, so in 16th century a Portuguese nobleman, Pedro Alvares Cabral hold sovereignty over the aboriginal
lands, part of what is now the territory of the Federative Republic of Brazil, under the sponsorship of the kingdom of Portugal. The expansion
of Portuguese colonization in Brazil took high pace when the monarchy of Portugal sensed constant threat of Spanish invasion of Portugal. Portugal started establishing itself in Brazil with a small trade post, which was then expanded by the considerable efforts of the Portuguese personnel. Early Brazil was divided into 15 colonies and granted to worthy elite
Portuguese. In the first century of settlement, it became evident that it was laborious to use Indians as slave labors because they were not docile, had high mortality when exposed to western diseases, could run away and hide quite easily. So the Portuguese turned to imported Africanslaves for manual labor. The ultimate fate of Brazilian Indians
was pretty like that of North American Indians. They were pushed beyond the boundaries of colonial society. In 1807 when imperial French corps and Spanish military troops invaded Portugal, Prince
Regent Joao 4th fled to Rio to escape the French invasion of the motherland. He brought about 10,000 of the mainland establishment with him- the aristocracy, bureaucracy and some of the military who set government and court in Rio and Petropolis running Brazil and Portugal as joint kingdom. In 1809, the forces under Arthur Wellesley, a British expeditionary (later the Duke of Wellington), expelled French forces from Portugal. In the meantime the status of Brazil was elevated from a
colony to a kingdom. When Portugal was liberated Joa 4th decided to return to his motherland,Portugal ,but his son Dom Pedro 1st denied to accompany him and decided to be in Brazil as its King. So, in 1822 Portuguese crown prince became the emperor of Brazil. Dom Pedro remained heir to the Portuguese throne after Portugal’s acknowledgement of Brazil’s independence in 1825, so that when his father Dom Joao died in 1826, he succeeded to the Portuguese throne. He was unable to wear both crowns according to the terms of the constitution he has vested upon Brazil in 1824. He abdicated in favor of his daughter Dona Maria and promulgated a constitution in 1826, Carta Constitucional, which he inflicted on Portugal. The Carta later marked the uncertain death of the Portuguese Empire. The Brazilian Empire became a Republic in 1889 without any fierce struggle. Later in 1831 Dom Pedro abdicated from the throne due to military takeover. Thereafter, Brazil maintained its status as a Republic.

Sources of information employed in this article entails- an article written on “Brazilian Development Experience from 1500 to 1929” by Angus Maddison, and an article on “In the shadow of Independence: Portugal, Brazil and Their Mutual Influence after the End of Empire (late 1820s-early1840s)” by Gabriel Paquette.

Republica Federativa do Brasil: A road to Independence

By Shivam Pathak
At some point of time almost all countries had faced invasions and colonization, whether it is England (Invaded by Normans), China (Invaded by Mongolians), India (Invaded by Britishers), USA (Invaded by Britishers), etc. But in this article I would shed light only on the invasion and colonization of Brazil by Portugal. Before getting down to my topic I would like to answer one of the questions cultivating in your mind that- why it is so important to study about other countries history of independce from colonization. I will tell you why. I think scrutiny on
other countries history of independence is required for a comparative study of history. If we go deep into this topic we would uncover that the way each country fought against their enemies is quiet distinctive with each-others counterparts. For instance Mexico got indepence from Spain after a lot of bloodshed and armed conflict, but in case of Brazil, the way was rather peaceful and simple. Hope at the end of the topic you will be able to understand this topic in a laconic way.
Portugal, identical to Netherlands was a nation of seafarers and traders. So they always look for opportunities to trade. By following their underlying policy the estado of Portugal recognized that colonialism had bigger merchant capitalist elements, so in 16th century a Portuguese nobleman, Pedro Alvares Cabral hold sovereignty over the aboriginal
lands, part of what is now the territory of the Federative Republic of Brazil, under the sponsorship of the kingdom of Portugal. The expansion
of Portuguese colonization in Brazil took high pace when the monarchy of Portugal sensed constant threat of Spanish invasion of Portugal. Portugal started establishing itself in Brazil with a small trade post, which was then expanded by the considerable efforts of the Portuguese personnel. Early Brazil was divided into 15 colonies and granted to worthy elite
Portuguese. In the first century of settlement, it became evident that it was laborious to use Indians as slave labors because they were not docile, had high mortality when exposed to western diseases, could run away and hide quite easily. So the Portuguese turned to imported Africanslaves for manual labor. The ultimate fate of Brazilian Indians
was pretty like that of North American Indians. They were pushed beyond the boundaries of colonial society. In 1807 when imperial French corps and Spanish military troops invaded Portugal, Prince
Regent Joao 4th fled to Rio to escape the French invasion of the motherland. He brought about 10,000 of the mainland establishment with him- the aristocracy, bureaucracy and some of the military who set government and court in Rio and Petropolis running Brazil and Portugal as joint kingdom. In 1809, the forces under Arthur Wellesley, a British expeditionary (later the Duke of Wellington), expelled French forces from Portugal. In the meantime the status of Brazil was elevated from a
colony to a kingdom. When Portugal was liberated Joa 4th decided to return to his motherland,Portugal ,but his son Dom Pedro 1st denied to accompany him and decided to be in Brazil as its King. So, in 1822 Portuguese crown prince became the emperor of Brazil. Dom Pedro remained heir to the Portuguese throne after Portugal’s acknowledgement of Brazil’s independence in 1825, so that when his father Dom Joao died in 1826, he succeeded to the Portuguese throne. He was unable to wear both crowns according to the terms of the constitution he has vested upon Brazil in 1824. He abdicated in favor of his daughter Dona Maria and promulgated a constitution in 1826, Carta Constitucional, which he inflicted on Portugal. The Carta later marked the uncertain death of the Portuguese Empire. The Brazilian Empire became a Republic in 1889 without any fierce struggle. Later in 1831 Dom Pedro abdicated from the throne due to military takeover. Thereafter, Brazil maintained its status as a Republic.

Sources of information employed in this article entails- an article written on “Brazilian Development Experience from 1500 to 1929” by Angus Maddison, and an article on “In the shadow of Independence: Portugal, Brazil and Their Mutual Influence after the End of Empire (late 1820s-early1840s)” by Gabriel Paquette.

Ritesh Agarwal: A successful and inspiring story

Ritesh Agarwal : The founder of oyo rooms , founded by him in 2012 . It is backed more than 700 hotels under its brand . At the very young age of 18 , he started working on it later he rebranded it to oyo rooms ,network of 2,200 hotels operating in 154 cities across India – with monthly revenues of $3.5m and 1,500 employees. It has raised a total of $125million of funding in 4 rounds from 7 investors. Ritesh Agarwal has also won many awards and accolades for his work including the Business World Young Entrepreneur Award. He is a speaker at entrepreneurial conferences and institutes across the world and a fellow of the Thiel foundation. Agarwal holds a high school degree from St. Johns Senior Secondary School.

Weed and its control

Weeds

PATTIKONDA:14/07/2020.

Weeds reduce farm and forest productivity, they invade crops, smother pastures and in some cases can harm livestock. They aggressively compete for water, nutrients and sunlight, resulting in reduced crop yield and poor crop quality.

Certain classes of weeds share adaptations to ruderal environments.soil or natural vegetative cover has been damaged or frequently gets damaged, disturbances that give the weeds advantages over desirable crops, pastures, or ornamental plants.

  • competing with the desired plants for the resources that a plant typically needs, namely, direct sunlight, soil nutrients, water, and space for growth.
  • providing hosts and vectors for plant pathogens, giving them greater opportunity to infect and degrade the quality of the desired plants.
  • providing food or shelter for animal pests such as seed-eating birds and Tephritid fruit flies that otherwise could hardly survive seasonal shortages.
  • causing root damage to engineering works such as drains, road surfaces, and foundations,blocking streams and rivulets.
Dangerous weed which reduce and drain soil nutrients.

Weed control is important in agriculture. Methods include hand cultivation with hoes, powered cultivation with cultivators, smothering with mulch or soil solarization, lethal wilting with high heat, burning, or chemical attack with herbicides.

Weed control methods vary according to the growth habit of the weeds.Perennial weeds regrow from previously established roots, dormant stolons, tubers, rhizomes, as well as the seed.important for non-chemical methods of weed control, such as plowing, surface scuffling, promotion of more beneficial cover crops, and prevention of seed accumulation in fields

Weeds unwanted plant for all.