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Call for Paper – September 2017 Edition

Submission open for September 2017 Edition:

Last Date of Research Submission : August 21, 2017

Authors are cordially invited to submit papers to the upcoming edition Volume 4, September 2017 Edition. The manuscript/ paper can be submitted via email to editor@edupediapublications.com  The email must bear the subject line “IJR: Paper Submission”. If you face problems with paper submission, please feel free to contact the editor at editor@edupediapublications.com Vide circular IJR/2017, a maximum of 3 co-authors can participate in any IJR paper submission. A maximum of 8 pages are allowed for any paper/ manuscript. Manuscripts submitted to this journal will be deemed as they have not been published and are not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

Paperwork

Vide circular IJR/2017, International Journal of Reseach (IJR) is integrating a secondary review process starting from the February 2011 edition onwards. With the inception of the new refereeing process, the minimum review time is being extended to twenty five days. Researchers should submit the articles early for timely review intimations.

Topics:

International Journal of Research is cross-disciplinary in nature.

Paper Template:

Publication of any articles/ manuscript in International Journal of Research requires strict conformance to the paper template. However, initial submission of an article or manuscript for review need not be compliant with the template.

Once the paper is selected, the authors will be asked to submit the camera-ready paper. The camera-ready paper is the final version of the article/ manuscript that will be published in the International Journal of Computer Applications Digital Library. While submitting the camera-ready, the authors must take extreme care so that the paper strictly conform with the prescribed template of International Journal of Computer Applications.

Copyright Transfer:

Once any manuscript is selected for publication in International Journal of Computer Applications, the authors must submit the copyright transfer document to IJR.  Please refer the comprehensive set of guidelines while filing the copyright form.

Authors are responsible for ensuring that nothing in their papers infringes any existing copyright. If previously copyrighted material is included, authors must provide evidence that the copyright holder has given permission for its use. A provision for the same is available in the IJCA Copyright transfer document. The authors are requested to verify the manuscripts before submission to curtail any future infringement claims.

Formal Conditions of Acceptance:

  • Papers will only be published in English.
  • Each article/ typescript must be accompanied by a statement that it has not been submitted for publication elsewhere in English
  • Previous presentation at a conference, or publication in another language, should be disclosed.
  • All papers are refereed, and the Editor reserves the right to refuse any typescript, whether on invitation or otherwise, and to make suggestions and/or modifications before publication.

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Call for Paper – August Issue 2017

International Journal of Research (IJR)(ISSN: 2348-6848) is a brisk multidisciplinary educational research platform providing those individuals an ideal intricate opportunity to accomplish their desires who long for a refined betterment in their respective arenas. Designed to usher the sublimity around the globe we engage our noble efforts for the enlightenment of multidisciplinary issues contemplatively. We bring forth this electronic journal monthly and promote the vivid research entries with precise and apt touches and by bridging the gulf between perception and the inception.Join us to sail beyond horizons or to ride beyond stars for bring off contouring destinies.

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Socio-Economic Issues of Women in Contemporary India

Deepak Kumar

Deptt. of Public Administration

women issues

ABSTRACT: Women, in India, in general have never been allowed to fully blossom and putting their just part in the socio economic development.  Their potential has always been undermined, disvalued and neglected. So making women more progressive, this is the time to unleash the ‘hidden entrepreneurial capabilities’ of women. Economically secure women will no less than a fountain of resource to the nation which will bring more employment opportunities, more gross domestic product and more financial inclusion to the system. Women entrepreneurship can certainly strike some core issues of social indignity like the ‘patriarchal mindset’, it can lessen the ‘domestic violence’ against women, it can also improve ‘maternal -infant healthcare’ system, as presence of such issues in 21st century is really a misfortune to live with. Plus an economic status of women leads to the betterment of her social status also. An empowered woman can improve the environment of awareness, as today most of the women’s rights are not in vogue because the awareness level is way below .why society is giving a secondary stance to women in labor and business activities? Why they have been taught to follow rather than lead? A nation can be called a developed one only when the women is getting equal opportunities in financial matters, is getting proper social representation and her dignity is duly taken care of.

KEYWORDS: Empowered Women, Financial Inclusion, Dignity, Women Entrepreneurship

INTRODUCTION:

“We cannot all succeed when half of us are held back.” Malala Yousafzai

Indian society, being a male dominated society heavily lacks women participation in workforce and gross domestic product. Currently startups are totally male dominated. Only 6% of all startups are run by women. Many reasons contribute to this deficiency like Patriarchal society, extra attachment to traditional values, Lack of education ,lack of vocational skills, Lack of funding, difficulty in availing loans, poor institutional support to build and guide in business expansion. This whole poor picture can also be justified by structural factors. Early marriage culture deviate women from getting higher education and force them to leave their home. now women again is deprived of  her choice where in-laws pressurize them not to work and she is left limited to only household activities. The informal face of Indian economy is also a factor of women exploitation which makes women afraid of active participation. Regular sexual crimes against women also restrict women participation. Unjust Wage parity, outdoor working ethics and social Discrimination also obstructs their participation. Somehow Choice of work is not offered to Women. Maternal issues are also there, which hinders women’s initiative. Plethora of reason is there still, these reasons must not overshadow the real potential of women in total because if opportunities are there women are always eager to grab them. Just to understand the current scenario it is very important to flash a light over the economic reforms of 1991. Indian economy was reassembled in 1991, but hardly any structural reform was witnessed in women’s side .growth was there, no doubt but we have seen a jobless growth. To increase more opportunities economic growth was needed. Our growth was not sufficient to create more opportunities for women, whatever opportunities are there were grabbed by men.

Some insightful Measures we need to suffocate this gender asymmetry in entrepreneurship.

-We have to install customized window services for supporting startup procedures especially suiting the women needs. More Conducive awareness programs with the help of civil society and NGOs to kill stereotyped mindsets in the society should be channelized.  Ensuring more and more safety and security to women at all organizational levels is needed which can  strengthen the voice of women to take strong stand in adversities.

-Giving some special attraction to women in skill development to foster the present day commercial benefits through skill India mission.

– Bigger incentives should be given to women in establishing MSMEs, and providing cheap and liberal term loans.

– Some Tax breaks should be arranged for women enterprises.

– Least capital gains tax should be imposed on VC and ACs who invest in women startups.

– Creation of some special fund by government to promote women entrepreneurship.

What should be done in long run? 

1) Programs to increase the number of women who take up higher education and technical education (schemes like Pragati and Udaan are steps in the right direction)

 2) Vocational training to women.

3) Creation of an environment which enable them to pursue entrepreneurship (safety, encouragement, rewards)

4) Educating the society to change their mindset and value the organizational skills of women and provide them freedom to contribute towards economic growth of the country.

What is women empowerment?

Women empowerment means freedom of women from the vicious grips of social, economical, political, caste and gender-based discrimination. It means granting women the power and freedom to make life choices. It means replacing patriarchy with parity.  Empowering women to participate fully in economic life across all sectors is essential to building stronger economies; achieve internationally agreed goals for development and sustainability. In this regard, there are various facets of women empowerment, such as given here under:—

  1. Individual empowerment – A woman is a being with senses, imagination and thoughts; she should be given a proper environment to express them freely.

  1. Social Empowerment–society as a whole , belongs to women same as to any privileged  men .there should be no  place  for concepts like ‘gender’ and the onus comes on state to promote gender equality. Gender equality is something in which women and men enjoy the same opportunities, outcomes, rights and obligations in all spheres of life.
  2. Educational Empowerment –empowering women with the knowledge, skills, and self-confidence is the need of hour. This will help women to get aware of their rights and will cultivate a healthy morale to claim them.
  3. Economic empowerment – In India it literally means to get rid of financial dependence from their male counterparts. This economic subjugation leads to social subjugation.
  4. Legal Empowerment–it speaks of a comprehensive legal structure which is sensitive of women rights. It should be based on rule of law, not the rule of land.
  5. Political Empowerment – a participative political system should be there, which is inclusive in all means of social representations. Women can lead only when the decision making opportunities are given to them in government and legislative branch.

Position of Women in India now and then:

A much prestigious position was enjoyed by women in the Rig- Vedic period which was further deteriorated in the later civilizations. Women were denied almost every freedom, they were denied of property ownership and inheritance, they were denied of education, remarriage, spouse selection, social movement etc. these all discriminations further evolved into much grave biased rituals like child marriage, dowry system and Sati Pratha .British period witnessed many changes in women’s empowerment. Educated Indians started advocating their cause. social reformers such as Mahatma Gandhi ,Raja Rammohun Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, and Jyotirao Phule started pan India agitations for the upliftment of women. Their agitations led to the abolition of Sati and formulation of the Widow Remarriage Act .This way the status of women in social, economic and political life began to elevate.

Current Scenario on Women Empowerment: 

After independence, constitution of India provided many liberal ideas for women empowerment; many social, economic and political provisions were incorporated. Women nowadays can participate in almost every sector like education, politics, sports, media, art and culture, science and technology. But still there are some remnants of patriarchal mentality like victimization, humiliation, torture and exploitation. These seven decades after Independence, could not bring such a phenomenal change which can be proud of .however there is no denial that an era of multifarious opportunities has started and any ambitious woman can take a leap on.

Spiritual leader Swami Vivekananda quoted that, “There is no chance for the welfare of the world unless the condition of women is improved, and it is not possible for a bird to fly on only one wing.” Thus, in order to achieve the status of a developed country, India needs to transform its colossal women force into an effective human resource and this is possible only through the role enhancement of women in financial structure of our social system. South Korea has encouraged women participation at higher positions which in turn automatically improved their status at lower levels. This country also provided incentives to companies which are gender friendly. India must read such lessons. Plus we need to shatter some myths like if more women come to workforce they will fail both sides, their domestic as well as entrepreneurial. This is grossly under estimated notion as if a woman can manage her home very well; she is naturally having good management skills and can certainly manage an organization as well.

CONCLUSION:

                   ‘’Development will be endangered if it’s not engendered’’

Unfortunately, women in India have always seen as a gender which is best suitable for domestic work and not as a mainstream economic contributor. Thanks to the deep seated patriarchal ideology. This unholy trend is still continuing and is visible in the startup ecosystem where the number of woman entrepreneurs is abysmally low. To balance this Economic development of women is needed, only this is the most effective way to empower and emancipate women, and this In turn will further the economic development of the country by their active participation in labor force. Only the economic empowerment of women can have far reaching effects. It can change the gender equations both inside and outside the house, helping them to overcome the fear of helplessness and powerlessness. Therefore, it is the high time we need to remove this gender asymmetry from our economic system.

REFRENCES:

 

Intensification of Residential Areas

Housing is the largest component of urban land use in the city, which determines the future living patterns. Judicious use of land means judicious use of residential areas. An ever growing population & increasing activities & facilities in cities have put tremendous pressure on urban land. Thus it becomes very important to utilize the scarce resource of land in a planned manner.

Housing density is the measure of intensity of occupation of land and one of the major component in land use plans made for land use planning. Density indices by themselves do not have any connection with the living conditions of the area but they do establish a distinct relationship between the people and the amount of land they need to attain a certain standard of living. The built form in the city is representatives of its progress and prosperity. Thus, it is an important tool for the physical planners.

Row development
Row development

Row development ( CC0 Public Domain image)

The approaches for determining the residential densities have been changing over the time. The earlier approaches have been explained at the city level. But today, as more & more population started concentrating in the cities, the study outlook shifted from the city level to smaller levels – the sector or area level, which finally decides the overall density. Walkability should also be kept in mind while planning.

Intensification:  Intensification occurs when an existing building, site or area within the existing urban area is developed or redeveloped at a density higher than what currently exists. This can occur through:

  • Redevelopment of sites, including the reuse of brownfield and greyfields sites;
  • Development of vacant and/or underutilized lots within previously developed areas;
  • Expansion or conversion of existing buildings, such as office buildings to residential

Buildings & the

  • Construction of new developments that combine a mix of uses for a more efficient use of land.
Development on greenfield
Development on greenfield

Development on greenfield ( CC0 Public Domain image)

Process of Intensification: The process of intensification of residential areas is a dynamic process, which is a result of the changes in life cycles of the residents i.e., the changing needs, capacities/affordability and incomes of a household. There are two ways of intensification:

  • Incremental addition to the built form
  • Addition in the size of the household i.e., to accommodate more number of people.

This “progressive development” is a global process. There is a shift from the need of people to their greed.

The process of intensification is a dynamic process. The unplanned intensification, beyond the carrying capacities of the area causes the problem. Both the planned and unplanned areas all over the world are undergoing illegal intensification without the augmentation of infrastructure to cater to the ever-increasing housing need. The increasing population density, dwelling unit density, plot density, FAR & area under plots, taken as the indicators of intensification, creates stress on infrastructure generating poor environment quality and living conditions for the residents.

The extent of intensification varies in various housing sub systems. The unauthorized colonies, a predominant subsystem, are growing denser. The Aerial photographs have shown a densification of over 70% between 1993 and 2002. The politicians claim, the residents have learnt to co-exist by sharing the available resources and are insisting on the process of regularization of colonies, wherein the colonies are bound to grow vertically, further adding the pressure. Today, the increasing land costs and housing demand have encouraged the residents of the planned colonies to subdivide their plots. Apartments are constructed on the plots deviating the prescribed bye-laws for residential development in the city. These increasing pressures on land raises tremendous problems for the planners to regulate the growth of the city and the carrying capacities remain un-augmented.

Author Bio:

Shubham Aggarwal, founder of PlanningTank is an Urban Planner from India working to improve the human settlements. PlanningTank is the Urban, Regional, and Rural Planning Knowledge base which provides insight into to urban and rural areas. It focuses on educating, engaging and developing the community.

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