Call for Papers – IJR Journal

International Journal of Research (IJR) with ISSN 2348-6848 is a Peer Reviewed Journal. Prime Focus of the Journal to publish articles related to the current trends of research. This Journal provides the platform with the aim of motivating the students and personnel in the Social Sciences and Humanities, Medical Science and Engineering. 
Note: We accept manuscript in English language only.

International Journal of Research considers review and research articles related to: 

Social Science and Humanities: Arts and Humanities, Physical Education, Library Science, History, Anthropology, Management, Commerce, Home Science, Museology, Sociology, Hotel Management, Tourism, Mass Communication, Accounting, Education, Economics, Law, Philosophy, Finance, Political Science, Visual Arts, Performing Arts, English, Hindi, Kannada, Sanskrit, Uzbek, French, Russian and all other languages. 

Science: Engineering (All Branches), Chemistry, Computer Science, Earth and Planetary Science, Energy, Psychology, Mathematics and Statistics, Physics, Material Science, Architecture, Geography and Geology, Botany, Zoology, Agricultural, Biological Sciences, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Environmental Science, Ecology, Archaeology, Biodiversity and Conservation, Entomology, Limnology, Ichthyology, Malacology, Immunology and Microbiology, Neuroscience, Marine Biology. 

Health Science: Medicine and Dentistry, Nursing and Allied Health Science, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Pharmaceutical Science, Veterinary Science, Veterinary Medicine, Ayurveda. 
On the behalf of International Journal of Applied Research, I would like to extend my regard to the all follow researchers and scholars and wish prosperity in their field.

How to Submit Papers in IJR

Send papers for publication to

Krakow Barbican: A must seen site in Poland

By Shivam Pathak

In the long list of Poland’s prime destinations for tourists the Krakow Barbican has a very important place. Its
architectural beauty is very impressive. Basically it is a fortified military outpost which was in yore times was once linked to the city walls. The Krakow has in total four stories. It is made up of brick and stone. The whole structure includes a large circular tower, an interior open space, and seven watch towers.

The structure has a lot of significance in terms of historical perspective because the gateway leads into the Old Town of Krakow (the bygone capital of Poland), Poland. The structure was constructed in the year of 1498.Today many exhibitions are placed here. It is one of the few surviving remnants of an old sophisticated network of fortifications that formerly surrounded the royal city of Krakow.

Its architecture outlines the elements of Gothic-style barbican. At present the Krakow Barbican is under the protection and supervision of the Historical Museum of the City of Kraków. Apart from this, the Krakow Barbican is one of the only three surviving fortified outposts in Europe. Krakow had also witnessed a lot of wars, such as- the war of 1587, the war of 1655, the war of 1657, and the Polish–Russian War of 1792. The Krakow Barbican is a must seen establishment, so whenever you travel to Poland please visit this site, who knows its beauty would enrapture you too.

Chor Minar: A Prominent Structure of Uzbekistan

By Shivam Pathak

Among the prime tourist destinations in Uzbekistan Chor Minor has an important place. It is also known as the Madrasah of Khalif Niyaz-kul. Its beauty and majestic look are quiet enchanting. In Persian language the name of the monument means “Four minarets”, which is in reality analogues to the building’s architecture of four towers. The Chor Minar has a lot of significance in terms of historical perspective because in yore times it was a gatehouse for a now-destroyed madrasa in the historic city of Bukhara, Uzbekistan. It is situated north-east of the Lyab-i Hauz complex. At present the Minar is under the protection and supervision of the govt. of Uzbekistan. The Minar has also been listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in the year of 1990. It was built by Khalif Niyaz-kul, an affluent Bukharan somewhere in 19th Century. It is also believed that the Minar complex was also served as a ritual and a shelter place. Its delicate and sophisticated design is quiet impressive. One of the four towers collapsed due to an underground brook, in year of 1995. Exigency assistance was rendered by UNESCO under the World Heritage Fund. The collapse of the tower was rather
catastrophic for the whole structure of the Minar. Later consequently the entire structure of the Minar was destabilizing. Soon without any exposition the structure was vanished from the list of sights and later on reappeared as one of the most popular sights of the city (through the reconstruction of non-traditional materials) , yet the event
has been kept secret. Therefore whatever the situation was and is like, but this historic Minar has a certain place in everyone’s heart.

VR and AR mainstream means for sustainable development

For the privileged few, augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) have become commonplace, increasingly used in everything from entertainment and online commerce to healthcare. Many communities, however, still do not experience the real impact of these transformational technologies because of an innovation gap that compounds our digital divides.

Imagine the value of this technology for sectors such as education, mining and tourism, all of which were effectively shut down during the current COVID-19 pandemic. The current global health crisis has shown us how a failure to digitize value chains across sectors has significantly affected social conditions worldwide and highlighted – even exacerbated – the digital divide.

  • An estimated 3.7 billion people globally are offline and many more do not enjoy a full digital experience;
  • Connecting more people to AR and VR technologies could transform everything from education and healthcare to mining and tourism;
  • To take AR and VR mainstream, the right technologies must be enabled and local knowledge and support systems must be established.

There are two concrete ways to help close the digital divide and enable inclusive digital economies:

  • establish a sound enabling environment for digital transformation, and
  • foster collaborative digital innovation systems that address “Main Street” problems.

AR/VR is mainstream – but only for a small segment of our digital world

For novices, virtual reality and augmented reality can be considered as simulated experiences, where a scenario is replicated in a digital environment and where users are able to interact with that virtual world using computer-based objects.

If you ask young people about VR or AR, they will probably tell you about that latest headset on the market to play video games or engage with social media. You may have come across the technology yourself without really knowing it: virtual clothes shopping, virtual apartment visits, virtual tourism even high-end industrial solutions, such as professional flight simulators. The potential of AR/VR systems is boundless – yet for the moment, access and impact are limited to the very few communities who can afford them.

Heights of British Machinations in India

By Shivam Pathak

British Raj in India was a pillar that stood on the pedestal of lies and trachery. The history furnishes plethora of accounts appertaining to this matter. In this article some famous art of treachery and lies of Britishers will be covered. Before moving forward it is very important for us to understand that a country which called itself civilized was in no way it considered itself during the British Raj in India. One of the most intriguing accounts was one when Britishers, during their initial days on the Indian soil, won over a rich Punjabi merchant of Calcutta named Amin Chand by fawning him in order to cement relations with his acquaintances ( it includes several Nawabs of Bengal). This in totality provided Britishers an opportunity of enjoying some sort of liberty under the nose of Nawab courtiers. As the time passed by, when Britishers faced the fury of Siraj-ud-daula’s (then the Nawab of Bengal) threat because of which the former arrested Amin Chand under suspicion, without whom they could never sat foot on Bengal’s soil. Second instance is more pathetic than the first one. After the death of Shuja-ud-daula, his son (the new Navab wazir of Oudh) Asaf-ud-daula was put under a heavy pressure of paying a largesome amount of money to the Britishers. When Asaf-ud-daula was extremely afflicted by the British austerities, he approached Warren Hastings and asked for compensation. Instead of getting compensation, Warren Hastings sowed the seed in his mind of robbing his own mother and another Begum of his father with her. After certain tactics, Begums were coerced to hand over their treasure, which today is worth of 12,00,000 Euro. Such was the greed of Britishers who corrupted a son’s mind to rob his own mother. The last in line was Britishers tactics of using the seal on which was engraved-” Fidvi-i-Khas Badsha-i-Delhi”(the special servant of the king of Delhi) till the year of 1942 though the emperor was a titular monarch, and the real power vested in British authority. In this article we are not providing other instances otherwise a full book is required. These three examples serve best to let people know that how civilized the Britishers were of that time, that they were not able to keep any promises and had no power of openly challenging the valour of Indians of that era.

The information used in this article is outsourced from Pandit Sunderlal’s book of four volumes “Bharat Mein Angrezi Raj”, which was originally written in Hindi but later translated into English.

10 Writing Hacks You Need to Become a Great Writer

Writing is a rather complex process with its own characteristics and tricks. Not all writers can make their text striking by making it stand out from the crowd. However, there are some helpful literary devices you can use. Besides writers, they are used by students, journalists, marketers, copywriters, and other professionals. With their help, text can become more interesting, memorable, and vivid.

It doesn’t matter if you’re going to write articles and stories professionally or if you just want to master literary tricks for writing essays. In any case, we suggest that you familiarize yourself with them.

By the way, if you need writing hacks for dealing with writing assignments, we suggest, first of all, familiarizing yourself with paper samples. You can buy essay papers on different writing services. They will help you improve your own writing and develop your literacy.  

Use of aphorisms

An aphorism is a phrase or thought, which carries a philosophical meaning. Quite often, you can see that the aphorism has an unexpected conclusion, which makes the expression even more vivid and memorable. 

Use irony

Irony is a satirical statement that provides a meaning opposite of the language used. The use of irony can mislead a person, and he or she will perceive what is happening from a different angle. For example: “Yes, I see you are working tirelessly today.” This is a phrase you can say to a lazy person who doesn’t want to do anything.


By using epithets in the text, you can make the expression brighter. The epithet itself is able to maximally emphasize the feature of the subject. For example, you can emphasize a girl of unprecedented beauty.

The presence of epithets gives a feeling of special semantic depth, which is filled with irony, bitterness, sarcasm, and bewilderment. Authors often use such techniques when writing poetry, press releases, and essays. But in prosaic creations, you can also find similar effects.

Applying metaphors

What could be better than using a metaphorical comparison in the text? The metaphor is based on a comparison of two objects with common features, but it used in a figurative sense. For example: My house is a honeycomb of rooms.


A simile is used to relate objects that have common features, using linking words such as “like” or “as.” For example: He ran as fast as a horse.

There are several basic ways to create simile:

  • with the help of comparative conjunctions “how,” “if,” “like,” “exactly”;
  • using an adjective or adverb in a comparative form;
  • using the word “similar.”

Using an allusion

This method is used to hint at another reference or outside work, be it political, historical, literary, or otherwise. For example: John was a Romeo looking for his Juliet. 

The main thing is not to confuse an allusion with a quote. The latter is an accurate reproduction of someone’s words. For example, the phrase “The die is cast” refers to Julius Caesar. But, this is not an allusion, although the phrase itself is widely used by many in everyday speech.

Many authors use this stylistic device in their works. It allows them to briefly describe the characters, their actions, or the situation in general. Moreover, the image turns out to be much more colorful than if it was described in your own words.

Applying repetition

Repetition is the use of certain phrases or words multiple times in the same sentence. Most often, repetitions are used to add more emotion. For example: You poor, poor girl!

This stylistic device is carried out at different levels of the text as a unit of speech. In literature, several types of repetition are distinguished:

  • phonetic (repetition of the same vowels and consonants);
  • morphemic (repetition of morphemes and parts of a word);
  • lexical (word repetition);
  • syntactic (using the same type of syntactic constructions).

If the same vowel sounds are repeated in a poetic line, then assonance is used in it. The repetition of consonants is alliteration. 

Authors can resort to lexical repetition if they want to highlight an important word from a personal point of view for a more accurate expression of a thought or to give it more expressiveness.


Personification is often used in writing fairy tales and stories. It implies expression in a figurative sense, when an inanimate object is endowed with the properties of humans. For example: He could feel the book sigh with relief after he saved it from the garbage bin.

By the way, if you noticed, a verb is often the personification. This is the hallmark of this literary device. It is the verb that “animates” a specific noun, endowing it with certain properties. In this case, it also adds expressiveness and brightness to the text.

We can also see examples of personification on TV screens or street banners every day. Advertisers have long started to use bright images to give life to a product that needs to be sold.

Use of portmanteaus and combining words

This technique involves combining two separate words into one, which produces unusual combinations. For example, the Batmobile. In reality, the Batmobile refers to the car of Batman, who is a fictional character.

Oxymoron use

An oxymoron is a figure of speech that combines opposing words. For example, hot snow or a living corpse.

Despite the rare use of this term in everyday life, it has long been known in the academic community, and its use in fiction has its roots in antiquity. Many writers do not even suspect that they use it in their works.

Often, many writers use this stylistic device in the titles of their works. In fact, an oxymoron in literature is a way to attract the attention of the reader, vivid examples of which eloquently show the great expressive potential of this technique.

There are many writing hacks, but when reading articles or stories, we do not always notice their use. However, they make the author’s speech brighter, more expressive, and exciting. In addition to these techniques, there are others, so while developing your talent as a writer, try to familiarize yourself with all of them.

Richard Liu; One of China’s Influential Billionaires

Richard Liu is the founder and present CEO of the e-commerce company, His name is familiar to every stock merchant in China and is among the most influential business world characters. This article aims at giving you an in-depth look at Richard Liu’s role in the sudden demand for JD stocks.

The company is the second-largest online trading platform in China. It is Beijing-based and first traded on NASDAQ in 2014. In 2019, the firm reported revenue of $83.5 billion with over 441 million active users. We would be lying by saying Liu did not have an impact on their success.

How Much is Richard Liu Worth?

According to, his net worth is $19.9 billion. Relatively, his value is equivalent to 10.7M troy ounces of gold or 347M barrels of crude oil. What might shock you is that Richard Liu did not have the most luxurious childhood or upbringing.

Most of his fortune is from his stake in, an online platform which he founded. His business-oriented mindset has seen him hold massive shares in other multinational companies like Max Smart and Rising Holdings. In 2014, Liu authorized the acquisition of fifteen percent of JD stock to Tencent holdings. It is the cash from this transaction that translates to almost all the cash investment proceedings by him.

Liu’s Biography

Richard Liu was born in 1973 in Eastern China’s Jiangsu province. Fast forward to his undergraduate life, where he studied at Renmin University and graduated with a degree. While there, he familiarized himself with computer coding and continued improving his new skill. Business-wise, Liu tried out a campus restaurant, which failed and left him in debt.

Without losing hope, Liu ventured into the technology field and started making computer parts sales in 1998. He later closed the retail store after the SARS epidemic greatly affected the Chinese market. It is here that he switched focus to online sales via 360 Buy.

He dedicated his efforts to improving this platform hence its success today. After a considerable amount of success, Liu rebranded to in 2014. It has over 200 million active users who shop for a wide variety of products. They include clothes, books, and electronics. Now is among the most successful e-commerce platforms in the world.

JD Stock

Everyone stock merchant knows the buy value of JD in the market currently. Its past performance and efficient leadership promise nothing but excellent investment value. For this reason, we have come to observe the recent spike in buy transactions concerning this stock.

Analysts predict that JD will maintain its upward trend for a considerable duration. It automatically makes the JD stock a strong buy.

Richard Liu, the founder of, deserves all the association with its success. It is through his excellent leadership skills and a sharp business kind that JD stocks are in demand. Contact us; we are open to having your thoughts on the viability of JD stocks.

Everything You Need to Know About Online Homework Help

“Should I trust someone to do my homework?” is something that almost every student in Australia has asked at least once. If you have a lot of assignments to work on, one of the best ways to handle those is to use online assignment help that will be able to complete all the assignments instead of you. But can such help actually complete your homework on a high level? Find out everything about such services on this page.

Can I Trust Someone to Do My Homework: Reasons to Hire Online Homework Helper 

If you are not sure if you can trust the assignment help with your “do my assignment for me AU” request, here are some of the benefits of getting such assistance. Remember that these are true when it comes to using trustworthy services like AU.Assigncode that many students choose: 

  1. You will get all the answers you need. No need to stress out about not getting something right: your homework solver will provide you with the solutions you are looking for.
  2. Your grades will go up. If you would like to improve your grades, you can use homework writing help for this goal. Your assignment will be taken care of by an expert who knows how to do your homework right.
  3. There will always be someone to share a piece of advice with you. If you don’t understand how the assignment was completed, you can share your thoughts with the homework help. As a result, you will get a full explanation of your assignment.
  4. More free time. Australian assignment help will be working on your assignments while you will get a chance to focus on other important tasks and complete other tasks. 
  5. It does not cost a lot. You won’t have to pay a lot for the online homework help to get done with your assignments. There are many great deals and sales that you can find online. You don’t have to limit yourself since using online homework help will not hurt your budget and you can continue saving money. 

Things to Pay Attention to When Choosing Assignment Help

If you are asking yourself something “So what should I do if I hire someone to do my assignment?”, this article will help you out. Here, you can find some of the most important factors you should take into account when it comes to online homework help: 

  • Price. Good online homework help should not be very expensive or cheap. There are many great offers on the internet, but you should be careful when paying your money to the service. Don’t rush into making a decision: consider different options.  
  • Professionalism. You want to be sure that an expert who will work on your paper or another assignment will be the real professional. This is why you should first talk to the service and decide if their approach is the good one for you. It would also be a great idea to check out some information about the writers this service has hired.
  • 24/7 support. Will this service help you out at any time whenever you have any problems? Services like AU.Assigncode works around the clock, and this is why you should choose them: you will know that if there is an issue, you will get the help you need. 
  • Fast delivery. The online homework help is paid to get done with the assignments on time. This is why you should make sure if they will write your assignments and papers before the deadline comes. Reviews from other students will help you understand that.
  • Quality. To make sure that your assignments will be done properly, you should request samples of papers and other assignments the service has worked with previously. This way, you will understand if the quality that this company offers is actually good.

Get the Best Assistance You Need with Your Homework 

There are many complicated subjects students have to work on: chemistry, physics, algebra, statistics, and other math sciences. Don’t hesitate to message services like AU.Assigncode with your “Help me do my homework” request. 

Remember to research more information about the service first before using it. Don’t hesitate to ask for help when you feel like it’s getting too overwhelming: there are many great sources you can use to get done with any assignments, so just find those that seem like the right choice to you. 

Call for papers (IJR Journal)

IJR invites authors around the world to contribute their scholarly research papers in International Journal of Research (IJR) with ISSN 2348-6848. IJR is open access peer reviewed and indexed journal with high impact factor.

IJR accepts papers of All Fields of Management, Social Sciences, Arts, and Humanities   
Aerial archaeological survey, Archaeological techniques, theory etc., Education, Law, Economics, Accounting, Finance, Human Resource Management, Marketing, Architecture, Epigraphy, History of science, sociology, psychology, Morphology, Museology, Papyrology, Philology, Preparation/conservation, Religion, Underwater archaeology, English Literature, Mathematics

For publication in IJR journal, send papers to

How To Truly Be Happy In Your Relationship

When you’re in a relationship, you need to feel loved and supported by your partner. But, it’s important to note that your happiness shouldn’t entirely depend on them. As corny as this sounds, your happiness starts from within. It’s your responsibility to take care of your happiness, it’s also important to make sure that your relationship is a source of joy in your life.

Here are some ways to fill your relationship with happiness:

–       Be Honest

A lot of relationship problems boil down to problems with communication and honesty. To cultivate a happy relationship and avoid these problems altogether, you need to be honest with your partner. This will help you feel more seen and heard in your relationship, and make them feel less stressed and more in-tune with you. 

–       Be Direct

A lot of people rely on humor and sarcasm to communicate their feelings. Unfortunately, when you attempt to “diffuse the situation,” you are not being direct. You are making room for confusion and miscommunication. If something is weighing on you, be direct so they understand what you are trying to say. It will help you better support one another. 

–       Be Gracious

Everybody has bad days, so it’s normal to not be happy-go-lucky 24/7. But even if this isn’t possible, you should always make an effort to be kind 100% of the time. Kindness is an important part of any relationship – platonic or romantic. Focusing on being positive, despite your mood, will help you maintain happiness in your relationship.

–       Be Patient

Stressing about the future of your relationship will prevent you from being happy in the present. Learn to accept your current state of affairs and be patient about how things develop in your relationship. This will allow you to enjoy your relationship as it is. It’s important to think about your romantic future, but when you start to rush things, it can strain your relationship.

–       Be Forgiving

You and your partner are bound to have disagreements from time to time. While these are normal, you need to be able to move past these differences after they happen. Holding grudges, no matter how big or small, will make you dissatisfied in your relationship. To be happier, direct your energy towards forgiving, taking some space, practicing self-care, and discussing your problems healthily.

IJR Journal is Multidisciplinary, high impact and indexed journal for research publication. IJR is a monthly journal for research publication.

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