Working For Academic Writing Services: Pros And Cons

Academic writing services and online writing services have become increasingly popular for the last years. Today, you can always find essay helper online sites that offer assistance in writing your thesis, dissertation and other academic writings. For students who have difficulty constructing a presentable academic paper, such services are great help.

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It is not only students who can benefit from these services, the writers, proofreaders or editors that help them benefit as well. This is because in a way, working for academic writing services is a lot like working as a university’s writing specialist or tutor. Universities and colleges also have writing assistance services, which work quite similar to private academic writing services.

The Pros

What advantages or benefits does working for an academic writing services offer you? If you are a great writer and looking to provide for yourself or family through it, a writing job in WritingJobz and similar writing services will give you many opportunities to do so.

Flexible Schedule

Most academic writing services are online. This means you can work at home as long as you have necessary tools, such as a reliable computer and Internet connection. Working as a writer, proofreader or editor in these services allows you to choose your most comfortable time for work.

Payouts are On Time

Do you remember working full-time with delayed salary? This isn’t the case with online writing services. You will always get paid on time without having to wait until the end of the money. With every project you get paid, which often you can withdraw anytime you want.

Wide Array of Writing Jobs

Whether you are working as freelancer or full time writer, you can have access to thousands of writing jobs. You can also choose the kind of topic or subject to write about, academic such as college and graduate papers or those related to business. There’s a job for everyone and it’s your choice what you want.

Access to Most Recent Researches

If you are a passionate researcher or educator, having access to the most recent researches and studies is definitely an advantage for you. Being able to review scholarly writing is also a great service the academic and scientific community. To be an expert in this field could earn you recognition and other benefits.

 A Great Career Path Leading to Success

Reviewing scholarly articles and scientific papers can lead to a great career path. If you do a great job in reviewing a paper for a journal, you are likely to have more articles to review heading your way. Time and again if you do an excellent job, it will lead to career positions such as chief editor or maybe in editorial boards.

The Cons

Working for academic writing services has its rewards but it also definitely has its own disadvantages. Before you consider working as proofreader or editor of an academic, business or scientific writing, you need to consider seriously the full implications of the tasks that will be in your hands.

Time Constrictions

One of the major concerns of reviewing scholarly and scientific writing is time. Reviewing these papers takes a lot more time than what most scientists and academics expect. Time is especially sensitive for pre-publication reviews, as being tardy with work and missing your deadline can hinder the publication process.

Taking Jobs That Do Not Match Your Specialization

There are times you will have to take on jobs that do not match your specialization. In most cases, this situation is not fair for the authors and you. It can also result to an unproductive use of your time. Since you are not familiar with the job, it will be difficult to tackle this.

If you find it a great way to spend your time and earn money to review articles, working as a writer for academic writing services is great. It can advance your career in the scientific and academic community as well as let you earn a well-paying income.

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A guide to professional essay writing service | Academic Writing

Essays are known to everyone. Each student has written number of essays which formed a part of their regular school or college curriculum. Essay writing is the well-known type of academic writing which a student is supposed to work upon at school level and even in college.

Apart from essays, articles, research papers, thesis, dissertations, art work, 3 D models, paintings, songs and music too can form a part of academic project. A student involved in technical studies is required to undertake study which involves research, analytical reasoning and rational decision making whereas a person studying literature will be more concerned about articles and essays. A music or arts student will be doing something creative which may or may not include writing stuff.

content writing

Considering the diverse need of course, different form of projects are assigned which are collectively called coursework. Students are evaluated and given grades based on their performance in the work assigned. Major submissions have a considerably high weightage and significantly influence your overall grades. Some students enjoy working and takes it as challenge which it becomes difficult for some to submit the project on assigned date.

Students take different approach to getting the work done. This includes doing the work themselves, taking help of friends, seniors or professional who work on paid basis. Decision depends on the need and varies from person to person. Taking help of paid service saves you time and provide you quality work, these services include essay writing service, dissertation & thesis service, research and survey services.

Wiring services can be of great help especially when you face time limitations, some unavoidable situation which keeps you occupied, quality concerns, lack or loss of interest in the assigned topic etc. Though taking paid help is not advisable and look down by many but it can be of great help for some. It is considered better to engage in such service then losing out on your entire semester for some unavoidable result. Another situation include limitation on part of data collection or a very vast topic which cannot be covered easily or by a single person alone but yet needs to be worked upon.

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If you plan to take such help then few things must be kept in mind which includes

  • Price/ Cost involved – Prices charged by various services differs and the differences can be large. So checking the prices is essential so that the charges are not exceptionally high.
  • On time performance of service engaged – Getting your work done on time is the most important factor. If you miss the deadline than your assignment becomes useless or you lose significant marks on your submission. Thus checking the reliability of the service is necessary.
  • Reviews from previous users – Clients and previous users are the best judge in all cases. No matter how much a service claims and brags about them, previous users and customers will give you a real picture.
  • Quality and samples – Feel free to ask for sample writing so that you are confident that you will get the desired quality. This is of utmost importance when you are taking help to get high quality content.
  • Educational qualification and experience of writers – You should have an idea about who will be working on your project and the educational qualification. You cannot expect an undergraduate student working on Ph.D. thesis. Level of research required and understanding of topic varies accordingly.

If you are certain that you need professional help then do work out on the above points so that you get your work done at nominal cost and get your work done on time. Taking an informed decision is always necessary and advisable. The true and actual need of taking help of paid service can only be identified by you!

Ubud, The Ultimate Tourist Destination

Ubud is undoubtedly the cultural capital of Indonesia. Many tourists come to this place to see the traditional dance and drama of Balinese culture. It is also home to the Balinese royal family and has various museums that display the rich culture and heritage of the region. Let us see some of the top attractions of this place.

Ubud, The Ultimate Tourist Destination

Agung Jagatnatha Temple of Ubud

The temple is dedicated to Sanghyang Widi Wasa and happens to be the biggest temple of the region. The Temple Management organizes two festivals every month based on the lunar cycle. You can visit the place during full moon day and get to enjoy special ceremony. In the same way, you can also consider visiting the temple on the new moon day and take part in the traditional rituals. The unique part of the temple is the Shrine that is designed in the form of a Lotus Throne. This is also commonly known as Padmasana according to local culture. It consists of Empty Throne made of white coral material. It has amazing stone carvings and other inscriptions that describe various stories of Hindu gods.

Mountain villages of Bali

The amazing hamlets host different communities that have their own culture and dialect. They are also known locally as Bali Aga Villages. The region is famous for music and arts of the primitive culture. If you want to visit this place, make sure that you follow the instructions of the local people completely. Outsiders are not allowed to stay in the place after evening hours as the local people strictly follow the traditions even to this day. The best time to visit this place is during the months of June and July when the three day festival of Udaba Sambah is held in Tenganan village. The unique cultural aspect of this village is that it prohibits polygamy and divorce.

Health Resorts

Bali is one of the premier locations for health and wellness holidays and is home to some of the best retreats in the world. Bali Weight Loss deserves a special mention as it has received world renowned recognition and is said to have even beeb attended by Michelle Obama.

Bird Park of Bali

The amazing Bird Sanctuary is home to more than 250 species of birds from Indonesia and other regions of the world. It is also rich in flora and has more than 2000 topical plants. Bird lovers come to this place to catch a glimpse of various birds including Barred Eagle Owl, Wreathed Hornbill, Jawa Hawk and the Bali Starling. The unique aspect of this Sanctuary is that the birds are comfortable with tourists walking around the place and you can enjoy your time during the vacation. The best time to visit this place is during the early morning hours when the birds are most active.

Elephant Park of Bali

This is the best place to visit in Bali if you love adventure sports. You can indulge in white water rafting and trek and cycle through the amazing jungles of Bali. You can also enjoy the amazing ride on the Sumatran elephants to get the complete view of the surrounding villages. Tourists often come to this place to enjoy the beautiful view of paddy fields along the Melangit River. In the background, you can also get to have a glimpse of the Blue Sea at the Nusa Penida Island.

Kite Festival of Bali

July is the best place to visit the Padang Galak Beach of Sanur to watch the annual Kite Festival of Bali. You will be surprised to see many international teams coming to this place to compete with local teams. Participants from as many as 11 different countries take part in the event to compete in different categories. Points are given for the successful launch of the kite and the duration of flight. Along with that, the grace with which the kite is handled is also considered while announcing the winners.

Stone sculptures of Batubulan market

This is the best place to visit to get amazing stone sculptures of the region. You can get any variety ranging from contemporary to traditional in different sizes at this place. The unique feature of this market is that the craftsman can custom design the sculptures according to your choice. You will have complete flexibility with regards to choosing the size and material of the sculpture. However, the region is traditionally famous for soft volcanic rock sculptures. Earlier, they were used as ornaments for various temples and even the palaces of the region had many decorative items made of this material.

Badung Market of Bali

This is the largest Market of Bali and is open throughout the day. You can get to buy the best articles that signify the arts and crafts of this region. It has 4 levels with each one dedicated to selling different varieties of products. You can get to buy fresh produce on the ground floor and the upper levels are dedicated to different textiles and handicrafts. You can also catch a glimpse of the Badung River that is situated next to the market. Make sure that you bargain to get the best deals in this place.

These are some of the top attractions of the region. You can get in touch with the leading travel agencies of the region to get suitable transport and accommodation facility during your vacation. The local people of the region are very friendly and you need not worry about anything during your holidays. However, it is a good idea to maintain appropriate dressing sense considering the traditional mindset of the local people.

SCHOOL CLIMATE—THE POSSIBLE REASON FOR EDUCATIONAL STRESS OF AIDED SCHOOL STUDENTS OF KERALA

JENY RAPHEAL

school climate

             The National School Climate Center (NSCC) (1996) defines school climate as the quality and character of school life. School climate constitutes patterns of students’, parents ‘and school personnel’s experience of school life and reflects norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and organizational structures. Schools differ in their climate and this climate has definite role in determining the well-being and happiness of students. When we notice considerable difference in the educational stress levels of students studying in government, aided and public schools there is enough reason to trace for its causes in the school climate of those schools.

     A survey was made in two Aided, two Government and two Private schools of Thrissur district in Kerala state. 261 higher secondary school students participated in the survey.

Aided Aleemul islam higher Secondary school, 43
Chaldean Syrian Higher secondary School, 56
Private Nirmalamatha Central School CBSE, 41
Sandeepany Vidhya Niketan ICSE, 21
Government Anchery Govt Higher Secondary School, 48
Government Model Boy’s School, 52

            Contrary to the usual norm prevailing among parents and teachers, private school students exhibited comparatively lower levels of stress than their counterparts in Aided and Government Schools. Aided school students had highest level of stress.

            The survey which conducted during September-October 2017 probed five dimensions of educational stress namely   pressure from study, workload factor, worry about grades, self-expectation and despondency. The standardized tool used for the study was a five point Likert scale developed by a group of educational researchers presided by Jiandong Sun in 2011. Before the survey it was translated into Malayalam and all statistical procedures for asserting validity and reliability were duly performed.

The mean value of stress level was “above average” for the entire sample of students participated in the study. Graphical representation of school wise comparison are given below

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Why this difference?

             School climate or culture will have a serious role in the educational stress of adolescents. Research findings back this perspective. At the same time socio-economic status of parents is another major factor affecting the educational stress of students. For example, there are studies showing academic anxiety is significantly low among students whose parents have higher educational qualification. Also academic stress and examination anxiety of students usually exhibit an inverse relationship with educational and income levels of their parents. Findings of researches going on in many parts of India keep on reiterating this claim.

Socio-economic status of parents is more or less same

             In Kerala, private schools are where students from high socio economic status flock. In search of better avenues for excellence both in life and education the creamy layer of society opt for CBSE or ICSE syllabus for their wards. At the same time, lately, there is a trend for this group to shift into Kerala syllabus thanks to the differences in the criteria with which the grades scored by students following two syllabuses—Kerala and Central— are estimated at the time of admission for various courses for higher studies. Due to this, affluent parents too are willing to send their wards to aided schools provided; these schools maintain a reputation for their pass percentage. For this reason, one may consider that the socio economic back ground of students studying in aided and private schools are more or less same.

            So there is enough reason to assume that increased stress levels noticed in the students of aided educational institutions is not exclusively due to socio-economic status and related individual differences. It might be due to some peculiarities constituting the very culture or clime of those schools.

School climate can be the reason

 

            School climate has the potential to permeate into overall well-being of the students. For a student, school climate enters into his psychological makeup through teacher-student interactions, peer interactions, class room experiences, parent-teacher communications etc. All these interactions will be laden with the ethos for which school stands for. Educational vision/mission of the institution determines the very texture of all experiences students meet within the school. So difference in educational stress can be a difference in the educational attitude schools foster.

            An in-depth enquiry into the matter will uncover the facts. Educational ministry of Kerala which is hell-bent on raising the standard of educational institutions cannot avoid this angle of exploration. Educational stress among students can jeopardize any well crafted educational policy.

            In all the five indicators of educational stress, aided school scored highest which included pressure from study and worry of grades. The competition among schools to secure 100% pass in board exams and teachers pressurizing the students to meet this end is one of the salient features of working culture of teaching professionals of schools of Kerala. So whenever dealing with student educational stress the role of school climate in it must be probed into.

Difference between Research Paper and Journal Article

Whether you are attending a college or university or pursuing a career in a trade like medicine, there’s a good chance you’ll be hearing plenty about a “research paper” and a “journal article.”

Both forms of writing are popular methods used by educators and employers to gain perspective on a topic or subject from colleagues and students.

To understand the difference between both methods of writing, one should understand what each form is and how people utilize them.

This article will look at both writing styles and dissect the differences between the two.

Research Paper writing service

Research Paper

History professor, Dr. Jane Simonsen once said with regards to research papers that, “the work and design are your own, but you can’t do it without relying on the efforts and wisdom of others.”

Simonsen is correct with her notion. A research paper is a form of writing, usually used in the world of academia by students in colleges or universities assigned to investigate and research a topic, in which they find their conclusion.

The student is encouraged and often required to support their findings with facts from reputable sources. A typical research paper can range anywhere from 5-15 pages in total length.

A student’s work will organize in the structure after compiling all the appropriate information from sources. Instructors often do this to teach the student balance in their writing skills, while encouraging structural discipline and accepted formatting.

Furthermore, according to A Research Guide for Students, research papers take the original information of the topic, and after gathering the data from the investigative stage, the student sums it up with clear and concise analysis and disposition or thesis.

Indeed, most research papers feature a thesis statement from the assigned topic. Also, Purdue.Edu states that a student may be required to write one of the two types of research papers.

Research writing and publication services

Argumentative Research Paper

The student will take a controversial subject, create an intro, inform the audience of the topic and explain their stance known as a thesis.

Analytical Research Paper

The student is required to critique a subject, which is usually in the form of a question mostly known as an essay or exploration.

Summary

A research paper uses all major citation formats (APA, MLA, Chicago), and is aligned with a clear focus, clear thesis, and dives into a topic or subject separating fact and opinion, or reliable and bias while reaching a conclusion or position. You may have heard research paper referred to a research project, research paper, or term paper.

Journal Article

According to Simon Fraser University, a journal article is an article that is written about a very specific topic. Furthermore, you’ll typically see a journal article authored by an expert in some field written by another expert in the same respective field. This kind of writing is also called  “peer reviews.”

A journal article is a short paper on a particular topic that gets mainly published in issues or periodicals. It will often include up to date research on that subject, including recent developments, reviews on a method or product, short papers previewing ideas.

With a journal article, you may find information, for example, on the latest medicine or techniques in a certain field. For example; “The latest methods used in 21st-century medicine to eradicate a headache.”

Other examples of journal articles include peer reviews, case studies, scholarly articles, scientific and social science articles. Journal articles get published in a publication after extensive research in that corresponding field has been done. Publication Manual calls journal articles a way to categorize primary literature or review articles.

The Differences

Now, what are some of the key differences between these two methods of writing?

Research papers are written traditionally by a student at a university or college, and the work is typically assigned. A journal article is an article, about a subject that has recently researched or reviewed and written by an expert in that field.

While both forms utilize the same techniques, a research paper gets done under the evaluation of a teacher or instructor.

Another small difference is the extent of the references used. Most often in a journal article, a reader can expect to find an extensive bibliography, whereas a research paper won’t warrant as extensive of a reference list.

A research paper doesn’t get published in any publication unless it’s in reference on how to write one, where journal article gets submitted to periodicals or magazines.

A journal article reviews a possible or current idea and writes about the impacts. A research paper may offer a thesis, but it’s not quite as in-depth.

Formatting and lengths, traditionally, are opposites as well. A journal article could be 15 pages, but often it isn’t. The structure in communicating the research will look different than that of a research paper, which may include double spacing and indenting.

Finally, a research paper isn’t authored to present original research, but rather to show empirical data, where a journal article will explain to the reader of its original findings.

Conclusion

In addition to the differences between these methods, there exist some similarities i.e.: they both use clear and concise formatting or grammatical structuring as well as list references and conclusions.

Examples of how the two are different:

Research Paper:

The research paper will have the student’s name, class, date, and instructor all in the left corner of the paper, while the title is centered.

Journal Article:

The journal article will have the title of the work at the top and center. The author/s names will be below, and the format will follow much as a magazine article would.

The key difference is the use of each. One is for practice in writing, and the other is a certain practice for fellow practitioners.

That said, one (research paper) is used more as a way to educate a student on how to write clearly and effectively about a topic, while the other (journal article) is written to educate the reader on a subject or idea.

Submission open for Upcoming Issue of IJR

Submission open for Upcoming Issue

Last Date of Submission : 25th of Month

Acceptance Notification : within 4-6 days after submission

(Fast – Online Peer Review System)

Publication (Online) : within 1-2 days after registration

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Authors are cordially invited to submit papers for the upcoming edition Volume.

Submit article via online IJR – Editorial Management System (EMS) using below mail,

Submit Paper to editor@edupediapublications.com

Author Benefits :

Easy , Rapid ,Transparent publishing process via Online EMS System.

Topics:

  • All areas related to engineering & science research fields are covered under IJR.

 

Paper Format:

Publication of any articles/ manuscript in IJR requires strict conformance to the paper template.

Once the paper is selected, manuscript of the article/ paper will be published in the IJR Digital Library. The paper template can be downloaded from this link.

 

Formal Conditions of Acceptance:

  • Papers will only be published in English.
  • All papers are refereed, and the Editor reserves the right to refuse any manuscript, whether on invitation or otherwise, and to make suggestions and/or modifications before publication.

Submit Paper to editor@edupediapublications.com

Call us 9958037887 or 9557022047

 

Visit us https://edupediapublications.org/

 

Why Does a Custom Essay Help Service Exist?

enjoying-time-writing-an-essay

The growing number of custom writing services available online is more than overwhelming! Do a little research, and you will surely find an affordable essay writing service with the list of the professional writing options that can be reached twenty-four hours a day. Besides, every expensive or cheap essay writing service is striving to do the best to meet your academic writing requirements. But one of the aspects that worry the college and university students in the US, the UK, Germany, Australia, France, Canada or anywhere else is the price they should pay for the options offered by this or that custom writing company. Students’ eyes are blazed the very moment they face the variety of the writing and editing services on the web with the most diverse prices. And the question that pops up is why the cheap writing sources actually exist? Aren’t they too good to be true?

Cheap Academic Writing Services: What’s the Point?

Students do not trust the companies, where they promise to craft an essay, a dissertation, a thesis, a research or a term paper in business, science, law or any other subject at the smallest possible cost. They truly believe that such cooperation can only guarantee a poor quality assignment, a total waste of money, and completely ruined college reputation. But the reality isn’t necessarily like that. At PaperWritingHelp.net, they provide inexpensive assignments that stand for your academic interests! And we can prove that there is nothing wrong with collaborating with the cheap services like this one!

So, what is the reality behind the cheap essays writing service?

  • Affordable writing companies are there to help needy college and university students. It’s not a secret that a student’s budget leaves a lot to be desired. While college students in the USA or Canada can easily buy an English essay for a great sum of money, a lot of their colleagues from other countries find it hard to purchase papers from the website with expensive offers. PaperWritingHelp.net has reliable and committed writers, who are open to deal with your “I’m searching for a reliable essay helper to assist me when researching my topic and write a great paper” requests and charge reasonable prices.
  • The other good thing about cheap custom writing agencies is that they’re a perfect place for a writer, who is just the beginner in the custom writing industry. A lot of companies on the market tend to recruit writers, who already have many years of professional experience. As for the cheap services, they heartily welcome individuals, who have little or no experience at all. And even though they will charge lesser for their papers writing options, the quality of every other assignment delivered to you will be beyond all praises! In other words, the authors get an opportunity to gain the necessary experience and then move to more expensive companies.
  • Free samples are the other reason why so many cheap custom writing companies are available on the Internet and why they are so popular among the high school, college, and university students. A huge resource of professionally researched projects is at your disposal whenever you need them to see how an A+ research paper, coursework, dissertation, PowerPoint presentation, book report or any other project should be researched, arranged, and edited.

Dedicated Customer Care Center

At PaperWritingHelp.net, they’re proud to state that their online Customer Care department is available at your service round the clock! They have hired only experienced, friendly and well-trained experts who are able to assist you with any of the issues you may come up with. They know that it makes every college and university student come back to them over and over again! Feel free to reach them with your concern twenty-four hours a day, and they will either handle it or find a competent specialist, who can deal with it in the most professional manner. You are heartily welcome to talk to their managers whenever you feel the need for it!

Long-Term Potentiation Research Paper

Introduction

Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) is a process, which is mainly attractive for the contemporary neuroscience. In fact, this branch of science is relatively new, but at the same time, it is essential and profound research in this field is nowadays fundamental since they contribute significantly to better understanding of many processes traditionally hidden from a naked eye but which can define the life and normal functioning of a living being.

writing-research-brief383109052In this respect, it is particularly noteworthy to discuss the presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms which are integrally involved in the maintenance of LTP, and one of the primary goals of this paper would be to find out the role of these two different processes in the maintenance of LTP across different time periods and stages.

The essence of LTP

Before discussing presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms and their role and impact on LTP, it is primarily necessary to briefly define LTP and find out the core of this notion because it will naturally help to better understand the role of both mechanisms in the maintenance of LTP.

First of all, it should be said that LTP is traditionally defined as the long-lasting strengthening connection between two nerve cells (Westbrook and Guthrie 1984). Naturally, such a definition seems to be quite simple, but at the same time, it is insufficient for the profound understanding of the essence of LTP. This is why it is necessary to explain the nature of this notion mostly.

In this respect, it is possible to refer to practice. To put it more precisely, it should be said that the recent experiments have revealed the fact that “a series of short, high-frequency stimulations to a nerve cell synapse can strengthen, or potentiate, the synapse for minutes to hours” (Bliss and Lomo 1973:354). In other words, it is possible to estimate that the time of the strengthening of the synapse may last from several minutes to hours under the impact of specific stimulation on a nerve cell.

However, it should be pointed out that these results were received in the temporary situation while in nature, in living cells, LTP may occur readily under the impact of natural mechanisms and can last much longer than experiments showed. Notably, it can last not only for hours but even for days, months, and years.

Probably, it is necessary to briefly the mechanism of LTP to understand better its significance and the significance of period for which it lasts in nature. So, it should be said that LTP occurs in the result of the interplay of protein kinases, phosphatases, and gene expression. Eventually, this gives rise to “synaptic plasticity and provides the foundation for highly adaptable nervous system” (Otmakhova 2000:4451). Nowadays many specialists working on neuroscientific learning theories estimate that long-term potentiations along with its opposing process, long-term depression, are the cornerstone, the cellular basis of learning and memory.

It is why it is hardly possible to underestimate the value of this process and consequently the importance of further research in this filed, which is relatively new for the modern science because LTP was initially discovered in the mammalian hippocampus by Terje Lomo in 1966. In such a way, the research in this field has lasted even for less than a half of a century, but it does not make these investigations any less significant. It is not a secret that LTP remains in the focus of attention of many specialists.

In this respect, it is necessary to point out that the modern LTP studies seek to “better understand its biology, while other research aims to develop drugs that exploit these biological mechanisms to treat neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease” (Rogan et al. 1997:607). It is why the role of research concerning LTP is vital and, in such a situation, it is particularly important to find out the role of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms in the maintenance of LTP across different time periods.

The role of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms in the maintenance of LTP

Speaking about the impact of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms on the support of LTP, it is necessary to underline from the beginning that there are defined two main phases. The first stage is an early phase which is traditionally defined as protein-synthesis independent phase (E-LTP). Remarkably, specialists note that this step may last for a relatively short period from one to five hours. The second stage is entirely different and, to a certain extent, contrary to the previous one. This phase is traditionally defined as the late phase (L-LTP), and it is a protein synthesis-dependent phase, which lasts for quite a long time from several days to months (Otmakhova 2000).

Speaking E-LTP, as it has been just mentioned above, produces a potentiation of a few hours duration. Specialists explain that it occurs in the result of “making the postsynaptic side of the synapse more sensitive to glutamate by adding additional AMPA receptors into the postsynaptic membrane” (Weisskopf 1999:10514).

In stark contrast, L-LTP results in “a pronouncing strengthening of the postsynaptic response largely through the synthesis of new proteins” (Weisskopf 1999:10515). These proteins include glutamate receptors, for instance, AMPAR, transcription factors, and structural proteins that enhance the existing synapses and form new connections.

Furthermore, it is also necessary to point out that some of the recent researches revealed that “late LTP prompts the postsynaptic synthesis of a retrograde messenger that diffuses to the presynaptic cell increasing the probability of neurotransmitter vesicle release on subsequent stimuli” (Otmakhova 2000:4449). At the same time, it should be pointed out that the conclusions made in the results of the researchers are highly hypothetical since they are obviously insufficient and need to be continued. In fact, it is really hardly possible to estimate that the researches that have been held in recent years are absolutely reliable because firstly, certain time is needed to provide sufficient pieces of evidence of the conclusions of the researches and, secondly, it is necessary to take into consideration the conclusions and results of further researches. To prove the low reliability of the researches, it should be said that the mechanism of L-LTP, which has been just proposed above, are only weakly supported by existing data. Moreover, some specialists in the field of neurobiology even doubt the very existing of L-LTP.

Nonetheless, to support the thesis of the significance of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms in the maintenance of LTP, it is necessary to draw some practical examples of recent researches. For instance, according to the analysis of Esteban (2003) the researcher, is looking for the existence and functionality and existence of presynaptic mechanisms, arguments transmitter release in hippocampal slices. The researcher presented “simulations with a quantitative model glutamatergic synaptic transmission that includes modulation of the presynaptic fusion pore, realistic cleft geometry and a distributed array of postsynaptic receptors and glutamate transporters” (Esteban 2003:122)). Eventually, he concludes that such modeling supports the idea that “changes in the dynamic of glutamate release can contribute to synaptic silencing” (Esteban 2003:218).

At the same time, the research held by Nicoll may be summoned up as follows. First of all, paired-pulse facilitation thought to be emblematic of presynaptic change, not found in perforant path, where LTP occurs. Consequently, not presynaptic and as a researcher estimates both confirmed and challenged. Furthermore, AMPA component of glutamate response increased by LTP, consistent with the postsynaptic mechanism, whereas presynaptic would have affected both. Finally, the research showed that both failure rate and coefficient of variation of release, both consistent with presynaptic effect. By the way, it is noteworthy that Nicoll remarks that “the result is robust, but not conclusive” (2003:726).

The role of tetanic stimulation and importance of multiple systems for the control of LTP

On analyzing the research concerning LTP and both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms, it should be said that tetanic stimulation can also play an essential role in this process as well as multiple control for LTP, which is also of paramount importance.

Speaking about the role of tetanic stimulation, it should be pointed out that, depending on its strength, tetanic stimulation can induce LTP and it will be either of a single pathway to a synapse, or cooperatively via the weaker stimulation of many (). Such a phenomenon may be explained by the fact that there is a stimulus threshold, which has to be reached to induce LTP.

Consequently, if one pathway into a synapse is stimulated weakly, it results in insufficient postsynaptic depolarization to induce LTP. On the other hand, when “weak stimuli are applied to many pathways that converge on a single patch of the postsynaptic membrane, the individual postsynaptic depolarisations generated may collectively depolarise the postsynaptic cell enough to induce LTP cooperatively” (Otmakhova et al. 2000:4449).

As for the importance of multiple systems for the control of LTP, it should be pointed out that such operation is needed objectively to receive reliable results of the research. Otherwise, it would be hardly possible to speak about scientific reliability of any research lacking such a system. At the same time, the development of the multiple systems for the control of LTP is another problem specialists currently face researching LTP because the development of such a system is also a severe problem since the research in this field are relatively new. Consequently, there is an absolute lack of reliable multiple methods for the control of LTP, which, as it has been just mentioned above, are essential.

Conclusion

Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms can play a crucial role in the process of LTP. It should be pointed out that the presynaptic mechanism’s maintenance of LTP may be defined in temporal terms as lasting from one to five hours. As for the postsynaptic mechanism, its maintenance of LTP may be defined respectively as varying from several hours to several months. However, it should be emphasized that the data of the research are still insufficient and it is still necessary to continue the investigation in this field.

Our team is grateful to a freelance writer hired by Smart Writing Service for sharing this research paper sample.

Sex With Child Wife Is Rape: Supreme Court

 “Such a girl child has no recourse to law under the provisions of the IPC notwithstanding that the marital rape could degrade and humiliate her, destroy her entire psychology, pushing her into a deep emotional crisis and dwarf and destroy her whole personality and degrade her very soul.”

unsafe women

–     Supreme Court Bench of Justices Madan B Lokur and Deepak Gupta

                                          In a latest verdict grabbing news headlines, the Supreme Court has on October 11 criminalised sexual intercourse by a husband with his wife who is below 18 years of age. It will henceforth be considered as rape. In effect, the judgment has done away with the protection husbands enjoyed under Indian Penal Code Section 375 Exception 2 that allows a husband to have sexual intercourse with a minor wife, provided she is not below 15 years of age. This is welcome in the sense that it will certainly  discourage child marriages in India which otherwise has been rampant in India cutting across religious lines!

                                    While craving for the exclusive indulgence of my esteemed readers, let me inform them that the decision came on a Public Interest Litigation filed by NGO ‘Independent Thought’. A two-Judge Bench of Supreme Court comprising of Justices Madan B Lokur and Deepak Gupta decided to read down the above provision of IPC by inserting 18 years in place of 15 years, to make the exception to IPC Section 375 read as, “Sexual intercourse or sexual acts by a man with his own wife, the wife not being under 18 years of age, is not rape.”

                                          For my esteemed readers exclusive indulgence, let me also inform them that by doing so, the Supreme Court has harmonized the law under IPC with the provisions of the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act 2012 under which “penetrative sexual assault” with a girl below 18 years by a person (even if related to the child through marriage) is a punishable offence under Section 5(n), the punishment for which extends from ten years prison term to even life imprisonment. The Bench read down this exception arguing that it was inconsistent with other statutes dealing with children such as The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act (PCMA), Juvenile Justice Act and the POCSO Act as all these have fixed the minimum age of the girl child for sexual relations at eighteen.

                             To put things in perspective, the Bench of Supreme Court held categorically that, “…In our opinion, sexual intercourse with a girl below 18 years of age is rape regardless of whether she is married or not. The exception carved out in the IPC creates an unnecessary distinction between a married girl child and an unmarried girl child and has no rational nexus with any unclear objective sought to be achieved. The artificial distinction is discriminatory and is definitely not in the interest of the girl child.” It has thus left not even an iota of doubt that henceforth sexual intercourse with a girl who is 18 years of age shall be considered a rape. It shall make no difference whether she is married or not. Undoubtedly, this will go a long way in checking the sexual exploitation of a girl who is below 18 years of age.

                                      Not stopping here, the Bench also added that, “It was also contrary to the philosophy and ethos of Article 15(3) of the Constitution as well as contrary to Article 21 of the Constitution and our commitments in international conventions…and to the philosophy behind dome statutes, the bodily integrity of the girl child and her reproductive choices.” It must be appreciated here that the Supreme Court while rendering this landmark judgment has taken into account the principles enshrined in Article 15(3) of the Constitution as also the commitments which India gives time and again in international conventions of preserving the bodily integrity of the girl child as also her reproductive choices. The judgment added it was “dreadful” that it also “turns a blind eye to trafficking of the girl child..which is such a horrible social evil”. Very rightly said!

                                       Truth be told, the Bench noted this glaring anomaly in IPC and POCSO. It minced no words in saying that, “A married girl between 15 and 18 years of age could be a victim of aggravated penetrative sexual assault under POCSO Act but she cannot be a victim of rape under the IPC if the rapist is her husband, since the IPC does not recognize such penetrative sexual assault by a husband as rape. Such a girl child has no recourse to law under the provisions of the IPC…However such a victim could prosecute the rapist under the POCSO Act. We see no rationale for such an artificial discrimination.”

                                      One has to appreciate that this was long overdue. There can be no denying this! Supreme Court has thus, no doubt, taken a right step in the right direction. It will certainly help minor victim to pursue rape case against her husband who tend to take her for granted.

                                       Truly speaking, the order also comes as a boost to curb child marriages, as the protection for husbands under the Exception clause of IPC Section 375 was seen by the court to “encourage” child marriages. Interestingly enough, Centre sought to oppose the PIL and submitted that child marriage, though a crime, is a social reality in the country, home to 23 million child brides, with a high prevalence among Scheduled Castes (34.9 percent), followed by Scheduled Tribes (31 percent) and lower wealth index (44.1 percent). It took the plea that with marriage, the girl child consents for sexual intercourse as well. Centre too has a point which cannot be lightly dismissed.

                                             As it turned out, the Bench strongly felt that, “There is no question of a girl child giving express or implied consent for sexual intercourse…those days are long gone when a married woman or girl could be treated as subordinate to her husband or at his beck and call or as his property. Constitutionally, a female has equal rights as male…Traditions that might have been acceptable at some historical point of time are not cast in stone. If times and situation change, so must views, traditions and conventions.” The court was assisted with research by two lawyers Gaurav Aggarwal and Jayna Kothari who displayed ample material on the detrimental effects of child marriage on the girl child’s reproductive, physical and mental health. It even impacts children born of such marriages. Without doubt, this landmark judgment forcefully espouses the woman’s right to be treated on par with men and rejects outright the age old dictum that woman or girl is subordinate to her husband and is like his property. Who can question this?

                                Needless to say, Justice Lokur in his separate judgment said, “India realizes the dangers of early marriages, it is merely dishing out platitudes and has not taken any concrete steps to protect the girl child from marital rape except enacting the POCSO Act.” It is high time and Centre must take with full seriousness what Supreme Court has said and work accordingly. Leaving it to the Centre and States to proactively curb child marriages, he added, “Welfare schemes and catchy slogans are excellent for awareness campaigns but they must be backed by focused implementation programmes, other positive and remedial action so that the girl child can look forward to a better future.” Centre as well as all States must adhere to what the Supreme Court has so rightly said!

                                        It must be added here that Justice Lokur wrote in his judgment which ran into 70 pages that, “The only pragmatic opinion available was to read (this) exception to Section 375 of the IPC in a purposive manner to make it in consonance with the POCSO Act, the spirit of other pro-child legislation and the human rights of a married girl child.” Justice Gupta who wrote a separate judgment concurring with Justice Lokur said the said exception was liable to be struck down as it is “arbitrary, capricious, whimsical and violative of the rights of the girl child and not fair, just and reasonable and, therefore, violative of Article 14, 15 and 21 of the Constitution of India”.

                                  One must bring out here that Justice Lokur while pointing out the injustice and anomaly enshrined in the exception to Section 375 itself which mandated that sex with a girl below 18 years of age, with or without her consent, was statutory rape  made it clear that an unmarried girl child can prosecute her rapist but a married girl child aged between 15 and 18 could not even do that. He went on to say eloquently that, “A child remains a child whether she is described as a street child or a surrendered child or an abandoned child or an adopted child. Similarly, a child remains a child whether she is a married child or an unmarried child or a divorced child or a separated or widowed child. At this stage we are reminded of Shakespeare’s eternal view that a rose by any other name would smell as sweet – so also with the status of a child, despite any prefix”.

                                  It must also be added here that Justice Gupta also clarified that the judgment will have “prospective effect” meaning it will not apply to past cases and that cognizance of such offences can be taken only in accordance with the provisions of Section 198(6) of the Criminal Procedure Code. The provision says that court shall not take cognizance of an offence under Section 376 IPC “if more than one year has elapsed from the date of commission of the offence”. This to check the arbitrary misuse of this provision which has been rightly inserted.

                             To be sure, the Bench, however, clarified that it was not making any observation on “marital rape” of a woman who is 18 years of age and above as the issue was not before the court. The question whether marital rape should be criminalized is pending before the Delhi high Court where the Centre has filed an affidavit opposing this saying that doing so may destabilize the institution of marriage apart from being an easy tool for harassing husbands. I personally feel that marriage does not confer an unfettered licence to rape a woman and it must be punishable doubly as the husband betrays completely the unflinching trust posed by her in him by marrying him. Sex has to be with consent of a woman and not without her consent.

                                 Anyway, coming back to the main topic, this latest judgment also referred to the counter affidavit of the Government of India which drew the attention of the court to the National Family Health Survey – 3 (of 2005) which states that 46 percent of women in India between the ages of 18 and 29 were married before the age of 18 years. On PCMA which under Section 3 says that a child  marriage is not void, but only voidable at the option of any of the parties, the judgment categorically said that, “In other words a child marriage is sought to be somehow ‘legitimized’ by the Union of India and the onus for having it declared voidable or a nullity is placed on the child bride or the groom”. In fact, this Section puts the burden on the child bride or groom to seek a declaration of nullity from a court of law.

                                   In this regard, the Supreme Court lauded Karnataka for its commendable act of amending the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act (PCMA) to make child marriage automatically void. In Karnataka, the husband of a girl child would be liable for punishment for child marriage under the amended PCMA; for penetrative sexual assault or aggravated penetrative sexual assault under the POCSO Act; and if the husband and the girl child are living together in the same or shared household for rape under the IPC.

                                      In his separate judgment, Justice Dipak Gupta investigates the reason behind the “magic figure” of 15, the age from which a husband can have sexual intercourse with his minor wife. His research, the Judge notes, revealed that the reason dates back to 1940, when the age of consent for a girl was 16, the age of marriage 15 and the age under the exception clause 15. In 1975, the age of consent was 16, the age of marriage 18, and the age under exception 15. Today, when the age of consent and marriage of a girl are 18, the age under the exception is still 15. He said that the magic figure is based on the fact that it has been existing for a long time.

                                    As it turned out, the lawyer of Centre in August while citing tradition wanted status quo and had contended that the country’s socio-economic realities cannot be ignored and that the exception clause was necessary to “protect the institution of marriage”. To this, the Apex Court responded saying that, “Unfortunately…if a girl child between 15 and 18 years is married, her husband can have non-consensual sex with her without being penalized, only because she is married to him, and for no other reason. The right of such a girl child to bodily integrity and to decline to have sexual intercourse with her husband has been taken away”.

                                      Be it noted, Justice Gupta also answered the question whether the court by invalidating the exception will be creating a new offence which the legislature did not intend to make. He said that, “In my view, as far as this case is concerned, this Court is not creating any new offence but only removing what was unconstitutional and offensive.” It is thus clear that the Supreme Court has not created any new offence but only removed what was unconstitutional and offensive and by doing so if an offence is created, so be it. Justice Gupta also said that child marriage puts a girl’s health at risk. He said that, “When a girl is compelled to marry before she attains the age of 18 years, her health is put in serious jeopardy”.

                         Senior Supreme Court advocate Indira Jaising while calling the verdict “progressive” had said the logical outcome of the judgment was to make child marriages automatically void. However, she said the judgment should not be used to criminalise the “experimentalism of the body” seen among adolescents who are aged between 15 and 18 years. Her point is valid!

                             Another senior Supreme Court advocate Prashant Bhushan while lauding the judgment as correct and harmonizing the IPC with other anti-child abuse laws like POCSO said that, “The judgment reinforces the fact recognized by other laws that a child is not in a position to grant or not grant consent.” Advocate Gaurav Agarwal who is the counsel for the NGO – “Independent Thought” on whose petition the Supreme Court gave this landmark judgment rightly said that, “This would compel families of boys to think twice before getting their sons married to minor girls.” But what if the parents of minor girls misrepresent her age in order to marry her off early? Then certainly they are squarely responsible for it!

                                     Supreme Court advocate Aishwarya Bhati also agreed that declaration of child marriages as void or a complete ban on child marriage is the “necessary corollary” to this judgment. Swati Maliwal who is Chairperson of Delhi Child Welfare also while welcoming the judgment rightly asked that, “What is the point of a Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Andolan if the girl is married off at 15 itself?” Rightly said! Sudha Ramalingam who is a senior advocate said the judgment was rightful as it was now synchronized with POCSO but said implementation would be difficult, especially in cases of child marriage, where there would be tacit approval by the family.

                                All said and done, the Bench asked the Centre and the States to take proactive steps to prohibit child marriage across the country. Centre and States must comply accordingly. The verdict has sent a loud and clear message that, “Sanctity of marriage must not be misused to cover up rape. The government cannot be oblivious to the trauma faced by a girl child married between 15 and 18 or to pro-child statutes and other human rights  obligations.”

                      In a big embarrassment for Centre, the Supreme Court upbraided the government for failing to enforce the PCMA strictly and for not criminalizing a man’s sexual intercourse with his wife aged 18 or below. It castigated and pulled up Centre saying that, “What has the government of India done? It has persuaded Parliament to convert what is otherwise universally accepted as a heinous crime into a legitimate activity for the purposes of Section 375 of the IPC if exploiter or abuser is the husband of the girl child”.

                                 It must be mentioned here that the court was responding to a petition that was only concerned with the “violation of the rights of girls who are married between the ages of 15 and 18 years”. So the court restricted itself only to it and did not elaborate on marital rape by adult man with his major wife who is above 18 years of age.

                            Poonam Muttreja who is Executive Director of Population Foundation of India rightly said that, “While the trauma of forced sex for the minor is in itself an unfair burden, it could also jeopardize her health and that of the infant, should an untimely and unwanted pregnancy occur”. Vidya Reddy of Tulir, Centre for the Prevention & Healing of Child Sexual Abuse wonders if this would actually deny young women medical help. She said since POCSO and the Criminal Procedure Code mandated reporting of an offence and since any sexual contact below the age of 18 was an offence, the health and well being of young people seeking medical care, for a safe delivery for instance, could be compromised and they could be sucked into the criminal justice system. She rightly said that, “This, in many ways, could deny them good healthcare and they may seek alternative forms of treatment as they would not want their families broken up.” In this whole process, the very life of the minor girl can be at stake!

                               It is high time and Centre too must realize that marriage does not confer an unbridled licence to a man to trample upon a woman’s legal and human rights which includes the right to say no to sex whenever she wants with no ifs and buts irrespective of whether she is major or minor and take urgent steps to criminalise marital rape with no exceptions whatsoever! I am very clear in my mind: Sex with woman can only and only be with her consent and under no circumstances whatsoever can be without her consent even if she is above 18 years of age!

Sanjeev Sirohi, Advocate,

s/o Col BPS Sirohi,

A 82, Defence Enclave,

Sardhana Road, Kankerkhera,

Meerut – 250001, Uttar Pradesh.

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ISSN 2348-6848 (Online) & 2348-795X (Print)

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