Nickson Moseti Ongaki, Dr. Okibo Walter Bichanga & Dr. Willy Muturi


Against the wider background of increasing interest in the improvement of management and leadership practices in public schools, this paper focuses on the involvement of students in leadership beyond the traditional structure of school prefects. It also seeks to show how the school administrators can be retrained in fresher insights into leadership and management in order to make their institutions responsive to changing trends in administration. Furthermore, the paper seeks to interrogate the prefect system of student representation in secondary schools, its process and outcomes. New ways of conceptualizing leadership are discussed in relation to students’ roles as active agents in improving learning especially in light of the April 2001 educational legislation that prohibited school corporal punishment. The abolition of corporal punishment in schools as (Ng’ang’a 2002:4) has argued, has left a gap which cannot be filled and this has led to the prevalence of diverse disciplinary problems in schools. Schools are compelled to operate within the regulatory framework of the Ministry of Education which may at times conflict with their peculiar needs, situations and circumstances. To this end, schools are somewhat constrained in combating the rapidly escalating problems with discipline. Furthermore, parental attitude toward educators and school authorities exacerbate the disciplinary control in schools due to parents’ skepticism towards disciplinary measures. This paper proposes the idea of ‘democratic governance” as one of the novel ideas that can make school system relevant to changing realities. It further introduces the concept of “Leadership by Students” (LbS) to underscore the fundamental need by education authorities to conceptualize a school system where each student is given a leadership role in the school as an important way of ending the prefecture system which is responsible for the school strikes and a skewed view of leadership where a few dominate the majority. This paper argues that a perception of leadership as a relational process of influence rather than a hierarchical power structure gives credence to the view that students’ leadership is developed more within a climate of democratic governance than dictatorship. Schools and networks of schools are suggested as important sites for the enactment of leadership as influence through the lateral modalities of power such as negotiation and persuasion which may contest and change existing structures of student leadership. In recent years the term “student voice” increasingly has been discussed in the school reform literature as a potential avenue for improving both student outcomes and school restructuring (Harber & Meighan, 1989; Harber, 1995; Ruddock & Chaplain, 1996). The concept addresses a core voice that has been missing in the discussion of school reforms – the dilemma of ownership. Student voice initiates public schools to reevaluate who gets to define the problems of a school and who gets to try to improve them (Trafford, 2006; Flutter & Ruddock, 2004; Apple & Beane, 1995; Chapman, 1995).  A key challenge for policy workers is to understand how different school governance structures and educational reforms impact on the role of student leaders and most importantly on the ability of school leadership to provide effective teaching and learning, (Hargreaves, 2003).  Since 2001, Zawadi Leadership Project in Secondary Schools under the auspices of Zawadi Counselling and Research Centre has been conducting research and seminars on LbS in 20 selected schools from Nairobi and its environs. These studies have found out that the school prefecture system in public schools is an important cause responsible for the rising cases of school strikes. These studies have adopted a multi-method approach including both quantitative and qualitative data analysis. This paper looks outward, focusing on the imperatives of student leadership rather than inward, on school heads and governing boards.  (604 words)

Key Words: leadership by students, democratic governance, educational governance, management and leadership practices, negotiation, persuasion, school prefects, school restructuring, student voice.


In this paper, WE argue that a lack of democracy in schools coupled by an authoritarian education system which creates a sort of police system of student governance is the main cause of these school strikes and unless this fact is assimilated by education policy makers, there will be no end in school strikes in Kenya. Consequently, this presentation is a condensation of research and training findings spanning a period of 8-years (2001-2009) that interviewed members of school communities who include: headmasters-also referred to as principals, teachers, students, parents, members of board of governors (bogs), prefects and parents. Furthermore, this presentation probes the prevailing school culture defined as “historically transmitted patterns of meaning that include the norms, values, beliefs and myths understood by members of the school community” especially as it pertains the role and place of student leadership in the overall school leadership and management structure. The research question pervading the entire spectrum of this discussion is: How best can the students’ voice be heard in the public school system? And the title for this innovative project is: “Changing Trends in Student Leadership in Public School System: Introducing the Concept of Leadership by Students (LbS)”


“Democratic Management” is the new concept that ought to be incorporated by schools’ in order for them to fit in the “new school order realities” and in order for the students’ voice to be heard. The word “democratic” is used to stress the openness of schools and educational systems; the term “management” is used to underline the technical and instrumental dimensions of governing. We govern those things or beings, the behaviour of which cannot be predicted totally. We manage things or beings, the behaviour of which is easier to predict. When we govern, we negotiate, persuade, bargain or apply pressure, because we do not have full control of those we govern. When we manage, we tend to instruct and order because we think we have strong and legitimate power to do so. Thus, as schools are becoming more and more open institutions, rooted in specific local social and economic settings, and characterized by a complex array of different needs and interests, then governance rather than management is what should characterize relations with students. And since so many factors cannot be controlled by executive powers alone, an open and democratic approach is the only way to a successful and sustainable leadership in a modern school.

From 2001, Zawadi Counselling Centre has been conducting a series of researches and training seminars on the minority Prefectorial System of governance and management in 20 secondary schools in Nairobi and its environs and how best to improve governance and management in schools. One of the ways in which Zawadi Counselling Centre has helped initiate this concept of democratic management in schools is through the LbS concept which involves all students in leadership and management of their respective schools. Furthermore, such an involvement lends credence to the concept of “the naked public square” where leaders are publicly elected by the majority students to represent the student body under an agreeable formulae as opposed to the culture of secret selection by the few (headmaster and teachers) using an unknown formulae where the select few student leaders make major decisions affecting every student becomes the norm. The LbS concept will make school strikes a thing of the past since dialogue born of democratic governance will be the in-thing in human relations. The LbS idea is an important aspect of the concept of “transformational leadership” which focuses on the importance of teamwork and comprehensive school improvement as an alternative to other modes of leadership. Transformational leadership is contrasted with instructional leadership which encompasses hierarchies and leadership structures and usually excludes teacher development, and, transactional leadership which is based on an exchange of services for various kinds of rewards that the leader controls, at least in part. Advocates of school reforms also usually advocate altering power relations. The problem, explain (Mitchell & Tucker, 1992) is that we have tended to think of leadership as the capacity to take charge and get things done. This view keeps us from focusing on the importance of teamwork and comprehensive school improvements. Thus, “instructional leadership” is “out” and “transformational leadership” is “in”.

The research literature identifies productive high schools as those that educate all of their students well, have a clear vision of their teaching and learning goals, and take action on those goals (Silins, 2000). They also have high expectations for all students. Productive high schools are built on humanized, intellectual relationships for learning. Students are viewed as individuals and they know that the adults in the school care about them both personally and academically. This way of viewing students is reflected by a number of local private secondary schools most of which do not have this Prefectorial System. These private schools are used as control group in Zawadi. Research has shown that school strikes are more pronounced in “prefects run schools” than in “non-prefects run institutions”, where student voice is respected, acknowledged and encouraged (Mangi, Otieno & Ng’ang’a, 2003:30). The concept of democratic governance can benefit schools in primarily preparing young people to become participating, democratic adult citizens. The LbS is in my view, one of the best ways to introduce the culture of democratic governance in our schools.


Research by Zawadi has revealed that many school principals may be ill-prepared to cede ground for a new paradigm shift in student understanding of their role in running of schools. An aspect of this paradigm shift is the flexibility in the learning environment brought about by among other factors the rise and rise of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), which unfortunately seems escape the perceptions of minders of the traditional school system best represented by the public school system in Kenya. The developments in the growing ICT culture among especially secondary school and college going youth is significantly affecting the education culture defined in this context as “shared interpretations about beliefs, values and norms of a learning environment which affect the behaviors of members of a school community”. One area which is being affected by this ICT changes is the move from traditional learning environment focused on the teacher as deliverer of knowledge to new open learning environments focused on the learner as information seeker. The role of the teacher and learner change in the new learning environment; the teacher becomes: a facilitator, coach, guide and co-learner. The learner becomes; an information server, explorer, problem solver, co-teacher. (Grabinge & Dunlop, 2000:8-38).

In other words, the image of the teacher as the sole purveyor of knowledge is fast becoming obsolete and with it, the belief that a few select student administrators famously called “prefects” personify student leadership and can effectively instill student discipline and order. What is generally missing in majority public schools and some private schools is the culture of a data driven school improvement which seeks to answer the ageless question: is it good because we have been doing it for a long time, or is it good because we have tangible evidence of its worth? In other words, can data use improve education? Studies by Zawadi have shown that generally speaking unpopular “good and bright” students are often favored for the positions of school prefects by the school administration (headmaster and teaching staff). But the truth of the matter is that the popular “bad and less bright” students often have the sympathies of the students in general. And because of these sympathies, this category of un-selected student leaders, have the ability to unbalance the school order. Unfortunately, the school system as currently constituted has failed to recognize and utilize their hidden potential for leadership, and where administrators are concerned that their continued stay in school may disturb the status-quo, they have expelled them. The chasm between the traditional model of education and the emerging ICT based model of shared learning was clearly brought to the fore by the infamous school strikes of June 2008 where a reported 300 schools were rocked by violent strikes (Daily Nation, 2008).

What was striking in this national shame was that the mobile phone, a modern product of ICT, was a major culprit in the sense it was used to communicate the strike, student to student and school to school. But what is perplexing was the response by top education officials in explaining the reasons behind the strikes and the panacea for the same.

But even more worrying was the findings by David Koech, the chairman of Parliamentary Committee on Education. According to Koech, “drug use, insecurity schools and parents’ neglect of their children were some of the major reasons behind the strikes in schools”. Furthermore, the House Committee recommended radical changes in the education system which includes among other things, “pocket to be banked with the school to avert cases of drug abuse” (East African Standard, 2008). Earlier on Education Minister Sam Ongeri had introduced tough measures in schools which “banned the use of mobile phones in schools by students and ordered the removal of music systems and DVDs from school buses among other measures” (East African Standard, 2008). These measures are based on partial conclusion of the problem. Conclusions by top education officials failed to recognize the crucial role that can Subordinate Staff play to fuel skirmishes in schools. In fact, little attention has been devoted to the recognition of the office of Subordinate Staff in schools. The traditional triangle concept of describing key actors in a school as consisting of, Teachers, Students and Parents is misleading. Studies by Zawadi have noted the huge influence the Subordinate Staff (Supporting Staff) bear on the school system, given that they tend to stay longer as employees of schools as compared to the triumvirate of Teachers, Students and Parents. This aspect of ‘permanency’ by Subordinate Staff means that they understand better the school culture. And if this cooperation between the Subordinate Staff and students becomes a conspiracy to commit evil, the results can be catastrophic. That is why there is need to reconfigure the triangle of relationships and include the Subordinate Staff as the fourth independent and critical element in the school architecture. To include this segment as a core member of the school community will affect education policies and could eventually become an important step in the democratization of schools. The success of the Zawadi Counselling Centre Leadership initiative was demonstrated during the infamous school strikes of 2008. All the 20 schools which have undergone this leadership and management for change programme did not indulge in this strike.


But how can schools contribute to the (LbS) initiative? From 2001, the Zawadi program conducted a series of researches and trainings in leadership and management in 20 selected schools within Nairobi and its environs. The total cost involvement from 2001-2009 was $200,000 and involved 18-25 specialized personnel. Prior to the involvement with this secondary school project, we considered expanding the project to include primary schools, colleges and universities. But a lack of enough specialized personnel for such a mammoth project coupled by inadequate finances meant that we could only limit ourselves to secondary schools in Nairobi. The selected schools were grouped in four groupings: schools from rich neighborhoods; schools from Eastlands neighborhoods; schools from slums; private schools.  Another criterion was based on gender considerations. Thus, girls’ schools were balanced proportionately with boys’ schools. Three mixed schools were selected. Two major approaches were used: training seminars and research. In the initial pilot study in 2001, a focus group session was conducted in one selected school where the research was carried out. Ten principals participated in the exercise of which the main purpose was to highlight the essence of student leadership seen collectively as the entire student population and not selectively as in few student representatives chosen only by the principal and the teaching staff. In order to conduct the nomothetic research a questionnaire was designed and applied. The nomothetic deductive method is the one that is used by researchers who want to learn something about social regulations – things that apply to people in general (Hardin,1985).

For the purpose of empirical investigation (2001-2009), a total of 1000 students, 300 teachers, 150 members of BOGs of 15 schools, 85 subordinate staff and 200 prefects were included. To obtain information regarding the interviewees’ perceptions and experiences of what ails the school system, a questionnaire was administered using the medium of the English language. The questionnaire was scored quantitatively by means of appropriate statistical techniques such as frequencies, percentages, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi square analysis, and included an open question that was evaluated qualitatively. The scoring of the questionnaire was done electronically. The reliability of the questionnaire was between 0.93 and 0.97 which may be considered as very good. The ideographical research was carried out by means of focus group interviews, semi-structured interviews with principals, teachers, students, subordinate staff, members of boards of governors and prefects of schools that were involved in the 8-year study. to find more about the participants’ experiences, thoughts, and general feelings regarding what they thought about the concept of LbS.  In order to lend ethical consideration to the empirical study, certain measures have been considered. This was done by obtaining permission from all relevant stakeholders.

Our study conceptualized four levels of a successful implementation of the LbS initiative within a democratic governance model. At the first level, appropriately called the “Entry Point”, there was need by school management to recognize and accept that a new paradigm of LbS is gradually and perceptibly replacing the old model of authoritarian and militarian leadership where age and seniority are taken for granted as acceptable substitutes for wisdom and know-how. In the second level of implementation, we recognized the growing importance of leadership and management practices in schools. Thus, we sought to reeducate the school administrators on the three salient principles of leadership and management, namely, cooperation, competition and conflict. At the third level is the development of human values and behaviors of mutual respect, rights and responsibilities and, above all, trust. At this third level, the school is seen as an important bearer of democratic values. It is an open school, with regular communication with higher authorities to give them good grounds for future decisions. Student members in school councils or school boards are given special training in meeting procedures. In fact, by the end of the 4-year school cycle, each student must have served as a school leader at the various levels of leadership available in the school. The student leaders also get a budget of their own to run their offices. Both formal and informal consultations produces systemic and structured information flow and sharing of responsibilities even in difficult areas of budgeting, curriculum development, strategic planning, school-based teacher training, student self-improvement trainings, evaluation, and teaching. At the fourth level we propose that there be a deliberate reconstitution of the school prefect structure by setting up a LbS-student council where all students are represented, with a number of representatives for the student body meeting regularly, perhaps with a chairman and a secretary as the only leading positions. But the council can also be organized much more elaborately by having a Senate with two representatives from each class and chaired by the Vice-president and The Cabinet, led by the President, who has the executive power. President and Vice-president are elected by the student council without undue interference by the school principal or teachers. Their mandate comes from the Senate which is itself elected after every school term to give chance for as many students to participate in its deliberations. Then there is the Court which has one member from each class. The Court acts as mediator in conflicts between students and between students and teachers. The objective of the Court is to reach consensus between conflicting parties. Members of the student council are given special training and support in their work by the school head. One of the outcomes of this system of student leadership is greater mutual respect and trust between teachers and students. Also, the teachers tend to see students more as equal partners in the learning process.

This research experienced four major drawbacks in the form of: limited financial resources; non-cooperation from some school heads, teachers, and BOGs; inability to meet the Parliamentary Committee on Education and top education officials; limitation in the generalization of the research findings given that this investigation was conducted in a certain geographical zone. How these bottlenecks were overcome is as follows: we were able to work on a shoe-string budget For the obstinate principals, teachers and BOGs, sustained training seminars which were professionally conducted gradually thawed their resistance. We are currently making good progress in meeting the House Committee on Education and top education officials. In recent times we have been having a series of discussions with two potential donors signaling that there is hope that we might conduct country-wide research.


Before the program came into life, the situation in the schools involved in this study was one where there was a preponderance of the traditional learning model where the headmaster is king and the rest, including teachers’ are his/her acolytes, existing only to do his biddings. Some of the factors that have led to the success of the program include:

  • the “easy to identify with” questionnaires and focus groups interviews;
  • the spirit of confidentiality which even under duress we have chosen to upheld;
  •  the program’s longevity and consistency which has created confidence among participants’ and served to market the group to other schools;
  • the practicality of the LbS proposal and its widespread acceptability among the student population;
  • the high professional standards exhibited during the seminar trainings and by the research environment;
  • the moral and ethical dispositions by members of our team;
  • being known and recognized by the relevant educational officials.


This program has taught us valuable lessons. Initially we made the mistake of thinking that because we understood the problem clearly, the schools will follow suit and immediately there will be a revolution. We now know better. The process of influencing a change of policy which must deliberately involve all the stakeholders in the education sector is as convoluted as it is necessary. Again, we made the mistake of believing that training seminars are enough in changing thinking and relating patterns among people. Now we know better. Humans are a complicated lot and in our African-Kenyan experience of ethnicity and politicization of all sectors of work, every initiative, every person, every word and gesture is judged on the basis of the ethnic backgrounds and/or political affiliations of the initiators of a program and not on the merit or lack of it of a particular initiative. And no institution is so riddled with this cancer as the school system. We have also on the need to include and cooperate with like-minded organizations for peer review reason. Initially when we begun, there was virtually no organization, at least in Nairobi and its environs, that was directly involved in conducting research and training. In terms of recruiting personnel for research and training undertaking we have learnt not to recruit based on what appears on the CVs, but to subject candidates to both written and field work experience in order to gauge their suitability for the task. The program was publicized by word of mouth. The overall aim of the program is to have the community own the ideas and then take charge of their own destiny.


The development of LbS within democratic governance will ensure that our program nourishes learning and creates conducive learning environment. In determining the sustainability of this our program we note the following significant weaknesses regarding the education sector vis-à-vis the development of student leadership: lack of clear definition of good student leadership program in secondary schools in particular and schools in general; inadequate preparation programs for students in leadership and management; absence of collaboration between schools and higher education institutions, public and private sectors; absence of a national sense of cooperation in preparing student leaders. The Zawadi consultative team has just finished drawing the Action Plan for our program for the next 5-years phase (2011-2016) where we have comprehensively discussed how to tackle the preceding “significant weaknesses”. Broadly, the Zawadi Leadership Project 2011-2016 Action Plan (Ng’ang’a & Otieno: 2010) proposes a five-pronged approach in addressing the LbS concerns: Active, sustained, and constructive engagement with Parliament; Ministry of Education and other stakeholders in the education sector; media, church and international NGOs involved with education. The focus is to agitate for the change of policy to allow the wind of democratic governance to sweep through the school system and obtain for students a more active role in leadership and management of their schools. I will argue how the LbS could be replicated or adapted in other organizations or settings in line with the seven principles of sustainable leadership by Hargreaves and Fink (2006), which borrow from the environmental and corporate sustainability literature to frame sustainable leadership in terms of energy restraint, renewal, and release. The seven principles by are as follows: Sustainable leadership creates and preserves learning that lasts and engages students intellectually, socially and emotionally; Sustainable leadership secures success over time. The challenge is to let go, move on and plan for ones own obsolescence; Sustainable leadership sustains the leadership of others; Sustainable leadership addresses issues of social justice and is an interconnected process; Sustainable leadership develops rather than depletes human and material resources It develops all its students rather than lavishing rewards on selecting or rotating a few already proven stars; Sustainable leadership develops environmental diversity and capacity; Sustainable leadership undertakes activist engagement with the environment. It develops sustainability by how the school leadership sustains itself and other around it to promote and support learning.

The practical part to these principles which guides the successful implementation of the LbS idea is this: first and foremost create a platform/an assembly where all the students can without inhibitions voice their concerns guided by the democratic ideals of Listening, learning and transforming. Again as in my preceding conclusion, the concept of LbS will ensure that schools become centers of creativity and innovation guided by the undying principles of freedom, democracy and individuality. By using the LbS idea, schools will become centers of participative decision making where power is consensual and facilitative manifested through others instead of over them. (Leithwood 1992 & Sigor 1992).


The human person is multi-dimensional and cannot be defined unilaterally without risking to devalue him and to consider him inconsequential to the structures and systems he is supposed to annihilate, create and re-create in his search for what is meaningful within his historical and cultural contexts. The public school system as currently formulated and practiced in Kenya does not respect the collective student voice which is swamped under a traditional, daddy-is-always-right system of doing things with a small class of student leaders famously called prefects expected to represent student leadership abilities as a collectivity.  The LbS initiative is an attempt to change this way of conducting student and school affairs. Furthermore, the promotion of holistic education and learning has in recent times become the buzz-word among educationists keen on changing the current state of affairs where student voice is muzzled prompting the venting of student anger through devastating strikes. Bronfenbrenner & Evans (2000:115-125), have introduced the five-system bio-ecological model to explain this multifaceted nature of human interactions. These five systems include: Microsystem (refers to family, peers, school, roles and relationships in the immediate environment); Mesosystem (relationship between home, schools, neighborhood, child care centres); Exosystem (community health services, parks, recreation centres, informal groups); Macrosystem (ideology, values, laws, regulations, customs and culture); and, Chronosystem (includes all aspects of time and how they impact on development).

Analysis of the questionnaire responses from the interviewees in relation to student participation in leadership and management conducted by Zawadi Leadership Project from 2001 to 2009 reveal the following dimensions which indicate well functioning schools. These are: Trusting and Collaborative Climate -The extent to which the school’s climate and culture is one that supports collaborative work, sharing of information and open communication; Taking initiatives and risks-The extent to which the school leaders and school structures support experimentation and teachers, student and supporting staff feel valued and rewarded for taking the initiative; Shared and Monitored Mission-The extent to which teachers and students especially participate in all aspects of the school’s functioning, including decision making and review, sharing a coherent sense of direction and acknowledging the wider school community; Professional Development-The extent to which staff draw on available knowledge and skills to continuously improve their performance; Vision and Goals-The extent to which the principal works toward whole staff consensus in establishing school priorities and communicates these priorities and goals to students, staff and supporting staff giving a sense of overall purpose; Culture-The extent to which the principal promotes an atmosphere of caring and trust among staff, sets a respectful tone for interaction with students and demonstrates a willingness to change his or her practices in the light of new understandings; Structure-The extent to which the principal establishes a school structure that promotes participative decision making, supports delegation and distributive leadership and encourages teacher and student council autonomy for making decisions; Intellectual Stimulation-The extent to which the principal encourages staff to reflect on what they are trying to achieve with students and how they are doing it; facilitates opportunities for staff to learn from each other and models continual learning in his or her own practice; Individual Support– The extent to which the principal provides moral support, shows appreciation for the work of individual staff and takes their opinion into account when making decisions; Performance Expectation-The extent to which the principal has high expectations for teachers and for students and expects staff to be effective and efficient.

The foregoing is the essence of the public school restructuring process which ultimately does the following:

{1} Develops a vision that unites projects;

[2] Identifies outcomes that will be assessed;

[3] Obtains the active support of the community;

[4] Redefines the role of principals from power wielders to facilitators;

[5} Changes the basic organizational practices to better meet the needs of at-risk students.        (4, 409 words)


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1Ogunsanya B.G.                   2Adewunmi Olusola A.          3Olagbegi  Moses


This study examines the level and determinant of under-five mortality in remote Area of Ikorodu Local Government, Lagos state, Nigeria. The survey was carried out through self-administered questionnaires on selected 200 respondents. A multiple stage sampling was used to select the eligible respondent. 4 wards were selected at random from the 7 wards at Ikorodu Local Government Area. Thereafter four streets were randomly picked at random from each of these houses were selected on each street using systematic random sampling method with the interval once a house is chosen. A house hold was selected randomly from a house that has more than one household. In any polygamous household the respondent were chosen among the wives by lettering method. Data collected was analysed electronically, using SPSS 21.0. The analysis revealed that eighteen (18) of the twenty four (24) indicators paired under study were significantly correlated while twenty three (23) of the twenty six (26) indicators paired were found to be significant indicators of under five years mortality in Nigeria.

Keywords: Indicators, Mortality, Nigeria, Significance, Under Five, Years.


            Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population per unit time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1000 individuals per year, in that entire population, or 0.95% out of the total. It is distinct from morbidity rate, which refers to the number of individuals in poor health during a given time period (the prevalence rate) or the number who currently have that diseases (the incidence rate), scaled to size of the population.

A condition such as tuberculosis can cause morbidity and mortality (disease and death). A mortality rate is a death rate. There are a number of different types of mortality rates such as:

  • The foetal mortality rate: The ratio of foetal deaths to the sum infant mortality rate.
  • The maternal mortality rate: The number of maternal deaths related to child bearing divided by the number of live births or by the number of live births.

There has been increasing interest in measuring under-five mortality as a health indicator and as a critical measure of human development. In countries with complete vital registration system that capture all birth and deaths under-five, mortality can be directly calculated. In the absence of a complete vital registration system however, child mortality must be estimated using surveys that ask women to report the births and death of their children. Two survey methods exist for capturing these information: Summary Birth History and Complete Birth History. A summary birth history requires a minimum of only two questions: how many live births has each mother had and how many of them have survived. Indirect methods are then applied using the information from these two questions and the age of the mothers to estimate under-five mortality going back in time prior to the survey. Estimates generated from complete birth histories are review as the most accurate when survey are required to estimate under-Five mortality especially for most recent time period. However, it is much more costly and labour intensive to collect these detailed data especially for the purpose of generating small area estimates.

The main tenets of the fourth and fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4 and 5) are to reduce under-five mortality rate and improvement in maternal health which by implication increases the chance of child survival. Child mortality is a fundamental measurement of a country’s level of socio-economic development as well as the quality of life especially of the mothers. Under-five mortality rate (5q0) represents the probability of a child who survives to age one, dying between age one and age five (Adlakha & Suchindra, 1984; National Population Commission and ICF Macro, 2009; World Health Organisation (WHO), 2011). Almost half of the child mortality (42%) in the world occurs in Africa and about 25,000 under-five children that die each day are concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia (WHO, 2011). Under-five mortality rate (U5MR) is generally 29 times higher in developing nations compared to developed countries (Black & Liu, 2012; Gambrah & Adzadu, 2013; Marx, Coles, Prysones-Jones, Johnson, Augustin, Mackay, Bery, Hammond, Nigmann, Sommerfelt et al, 2005). Globally, under-five mortality has dropped significantly by almost 45 percent between 2009 and 2011 but this progress is not the reality for all countries. Despite much progress in advanced countries, Nigeria has failed to make significant progress in checking the rising mortality rate among the under-five. Currently, about half of the world’s under-five deaths occur in Nigeria, India, Congo, Pakistan and China (National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), 2011; World Bank, 2013).

Statistics revealed that up to 20 per cent of child deaths in sub-Saharan Africa still occur in

Nigeria. Also, the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4) report indicated that under-five

mortality in Nigeria increased from 138 per 1,000 live births in 2007 to 158 per 1,000 live births in 2011 (National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), 2011; World Bank, 2013).

Under-five mortality rates within Africa also vary. In some countries, one-quarter to one-third of children die before reaching the age of five. Also, within the under-five age group, there are specific periods of increased vulnerability. For instance, 60 percent of under-five mortality can be attributed to deaths that occur during the first year of life, of which the first 24 hours of life is the most vulnerable period, followed by the first week and then the first month (Marx et al, 2005). Among the suspected factors that have contributed to drastic reduction of under-5 mortality in advanced economies include but not limited to improvement in socio-economic and environmental conditions and strategic implementation of child survival interventions (Finlay, Özaltin & Canning, 2011; Kyei, 2011; United Nations Children’s Fund, 2010, 2011, 2012).

Child mortality can be associated with two categories of acquired ailments: one is a heavy load of infectious diseases and the other, those diseases that are caused by inadequate nutrition (Cooper, Hickson, Mitchel, Edwards, Thapa & Ray, 1999; Katona & Katona-Apte, 2008). Socio-economic factors including immunizations, exclusive breastfeeding and the adoption and usage of insecticide-treated nets have been revealed by several studies have strong predictors of child mortality especially in the developing countries. Included among these proximate determinants are the risk of morbidity and mortality, education of mother, sanitation facilities, access to safe drinking water and maternal and child health care services (Uddin, Hossain & Ullah, 2008). However, despite these known factors, under-5 mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa is abysmally far above the prevalent rate in other countries of the world.





The purpose of this study is to examine the level and determinant of under five mortality in remote Area of Ikorodu Local Government, Lagos state, Nigeria.

The specific objectives are:

  1. Identification of socio-economic health and behavioral factors affecting under-five mortality in remote area of Ikorodu local government.
  2. Determining the significance of selected mortality indicators.
  3. Determining the correlation significance of the selected mortality indicators.



This study covers some selected indicators of under-five years mortality in Nigeria. The indicators were correlated and put to paired test to achieve the set purpose.

The study survey was carried out through self administered questionnaires on selected respondent. A multiple stage sampling was used to select the eligible 200 respondents. Four (4) wards were selected at random from the 7 wards at Ikorodu Local Government (case study) Area. Thereafter four streets were randomly picked at random from each of these houses were selected on each street using systematic random sampling method with the interval once a house is chosen. A house hold was selected randomly from a house that has more than one household. In any polygamous household the respondent were chosen among the wives by lettering method.


According to UNICEF (, every single day, Nigeria loses about 2,300 under-five year olds and 145 women of childbearing age. This makes the country the second largest contributor to the under–five and maternal mortality rate in the world.

Underneath the statistics lies the pain of human tragedy, for thousands of families who have lost their children. Even more devastating is the knowledge that, according to recent research, essential interventions reaching women and babies on time would have averted most of these deaths.

Although analyses of recent trends show that the country is making progress in cutting down infant and under-five mortality rates, the pace still remains too slow to achieve the Millennium Development Goals of reducing child mortality by a third by 2015.

Preventable or treatable infectious diseases such as malaria, pneumonia, diarrhoea, measles and HIV/AIDS account for more than 70 per cent of the estimated one million under-five deaths in Nigeria.

Malnutrition is the underlying cause of morbidity and mortality of a large proportion of children under-5 in Nigeria. It accounts for more than 50 per cent of deaths of children in this age bracket.

The deaths of newborn babies in Nigeria represent a quarter of the total number of deaths of children under-five. The majority of these occur within the first week of life, mainly due to complications during pregnancy and delivery reflecting the intimate link between newborn survival and the quality of maternal care. Main causes of neonatal deaths are birth asphyxia, severe infection including tetanus and premature birth.

Similarly, a woman’s chance of dying from pregnancy and childbirth in Nigeria is 1 in 13. Although many of these deaths are preventable, the coverage and quality of health care services in Nigeria continue to fail women and children. Presently, less than 20 per cent of health facilities offer emergency obstetric care and only 35 per cent of deliveries are attended by skilled birth attendants.

This shows the close relationship between the well being of the mother and the child, and justifies the need to integrate maternal, newborn and child health interventions.

It is important to note that wide regional disparities exist in child health indicators with the North-East and North-West geopolitical zones of the country having the worst child survival figures.

Under-five mortality rate (U5MR) is the probability of a child born in a specified year dying before reaching the age of five if subject to current age-specific mortality rates and expressed as a rate per 1,000 live births (United Nations Children’s Fund, 2012; United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, 2013). It also refers to as the death of infants and children under the age of five. Child mortality has remained a national and global concern and its import in socioeconomic rating of country’s development cannot be overemphasised. Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia face the greatest challenges in child survival, and currently accounted for more than 80 per cent of global under-five deaths (United Nations Children’s Fund, 2012). Several factors had been identified as contributors to the increasing levels of child mortality in most developing countries. Studies have shown that there is a close relationship between educational attainment and lower mortality rates (Antai, 2011; Fayehun & Omolulu, 2009; National Population Commission and ICF Macro, 2009). This was further established through the results in the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) Report (2009), that children born to mothers with no education have the highest under-five mortality rates (209 deaths per 1,000 live births), while mothers with secondary education have 68 per 1,000 live births.

Although, there are vagaries of statistics and estimations for child mortality for different countries and the world by different sources, the patterns and trends are specifically similar. Among the general patterns is that the global under-five mortality rate has declined by almost 47 percent between 1990 and 2012 (measuring 90 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990 and 48 in 2012) while the trend in sub-Saharan Africa is apt to increase (United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (2013). Globally, several causes of under-five mortality were noted among which are: pneumonia which contribute up to 17 percent of the entire death, preterm birth complications that cause about 15 percent of child death, intrapartum-related complications (10 percent), diarrhoea (9 percent) and up to seven percent due to malaria (United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, 2013). Also, a survey carried out in Bangladesh shows that child mortality rate was highest (1.64%) for the children of illiterate mothers and lowest (0.54%) for the children whose mother’s educational level is secondary and above (Uddin, Hossain & Ullah, 2009). Educated mothers are more likely than non-literate mothers to ensure a healthy environment, nutritious food, and have better knowledge about reproductive health at conception and health care facilities for their children. Literate mothers will give birth to healthier babies because they themselves tend to be healthier and are likely to experience lower mortality among their children at all ages (Pandey, 2009).

Several of diseases causing child mortality have connections with hygiene condition and unclean environment these are not limited to dirty feeding bottles, utensils, inadequate disposal of household refuse, poor storage water, to mention but few (Jinadu, Olusi, Agun & Fabiyi, 1991; NBS, 2011). Other reports have shown that maternal education is a significant factor influencing child survival (Caldwell, 2009; Osonwa, Iyam, & Osonwa, 2012). Children from poorer or rural households are reported to be more vulnerable than their counterparts from other regions (United Nations Children’s Fund, 2010). A child born to a financially deprived and less educated family is at risk of perinatal death or within the first month of life. The reasons for these are obvious since the mother may be poorly nourished during pregnancy, had little or no antenatal care and likely to deliver in ill-equipped health facility. Besides, the level of competition over resources when the family is large could enhance poor care among the family members including the very young ones. All these factors are further aggravated by limited access to health services due to poor income and low levels of maternal education, often leading to the non-immunization of the child (Policy Project/Nigeria, 2002).




The most widely available type of data on child mortality is report by mothers on the number of children still surviving. Frequency distribution, bivariate correlation analysis and paired t-test were employed as analysis techniques for the study.



From the analysis, 59(29.5%) of the respondents were currently in the age bracket of 30-34 years while only 1(0.5%) of the respondents was in the age bracket of 15-19 years. 81(40.5%) had their first marriage in the age bracket of 20-24 years while 7(2.5%) had their first marriage in the age bracket of 30-34 years. 72(36.0%) of the respondents were civil servants while 7(3.5%) were into Nursing. 73(36.5%) delivered their children at private hospital while 15(7.5%) deliver at home. 53(26.5%) have 4 children while only 1(0.5) has more than 10 children. 107(53.5%) have pregnancy interval of two years between children. 101(50.5%) of the respondents have only primary education while 4(2.0%) have post secondary education.

Table 13 revealed that there is a negative but imperfect correlation between indicators Paired 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 16, 17, 20 and 23, while there is a positive but imperfect correlation between Paired 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 21, 22 and 24. However, of these correlations, only correlations for Paired 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 23 and 24 were significant at 0.05 level of significance.

Table 14 revealed that twenty three (23) of the twenty six (26) indicators paired were found to be significant indicators at 0.05 level of significance.


From the analysis of the research study, it can be concluded that eighteen (18) of the twenty four (24) indicators paired under study were significantly correlated while twenty three (23) of the twenty six (26) indicators paired were found to be significant indicators of under-five years mortality in Nigeria.



  1. Care during labour and child birth should be provided by a skilled attendance. Early recognition of slow progress in labour and timely interventions to prevent prolonged labour and intra partum foetal distress which can reduce mortality.
  2. Poor sanitation, lack of accessible clean water and inadequate personal and domestic hygiene are responsible for an estimated 88 percent of diarrhea cases everywhere. Proven prevention measures that can significantly reduce the burden of diarrhea include early and exclusive breast feeding (a non-breastfeed child is 10 times more likely to die diarrhea in the first 6 months of life than an exclusively breastfeed child).
  3. To accelerate progress and achieve improved health outcomes for all children ensuring universal-access to high quality care safe water and sanitation, safe and nutritious food and safe housing is crucial as is access to education, social security and other social services.

  1. In addition, investment in women’s health and education and in the empowerment of women and the poorest and most disadvantage population groups is vital to ensure an effective response to under-five mortality rate.



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[2]        Antai, D., (2011). Regional Inequalities in Under-5 Mortality in Nigeria: A Population-based Analysis of Individual and Community-Level Determinants. Population Health Metrics, Vol. 9, No. 6, 2011.

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[11]      Marx, M., Coles, C., Prysones-Jones, S., Johnson, C., Augustin, R., Mackay, N., Bery, R., Hammond, W., Nigmann, R., Sommerfelt, E., Lee Benntt, H.J., and Lambert, R. (2005). Child survival in Sub-Saharan Africa: Taking Stock. Washington DC, USA: Support for Analysis and Research in Africa (SARA) Project.

[12]      National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) (2011). Nigeria: Monitoring the situation of children and women. Nigeria Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011Summary Report. National Bureau of Statistics, Abuja Nigeria. 2011.

[13]      National Population Commission and ICF Macro (2009). Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey 2008. National Population Commission, Federal Republic of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria and ICF Macro Calverton, Maryland, USA. 2009. P630

[14]      Osonwa, O.K., Iyam, M.A., & Osonwa, R.H., (2012). Under-Five Mortality in Nigeria: Perception and Attitudes of the IKWERRES in Rivers State towards the Existence of “OGBA – NJE”. Journal of Sociological Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2012. ISSN 1948-5468.

[15]      Pandey, M. J. (2009). Maternal Health and Child Mortality in Rural India. ASARC Working Paper 12. Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi, INDIA.

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[17]      Uddin, M., Hossain, M., & Ullah M.O., (2009). Child Mortality in a Developing Country: A Statistical Analysis. Journal of Applied Quantitative Method, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2009.

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[19]      United Nations Children’s Fund (2010). Levels and Trends in Child Mortality – Report 2010. Estimates Developed by the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. United Nations Children’s Fund. 2010.

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Fighting Cynicism in Organizations: The Role of Job Autonomy

Sarah Shaharruddina, Dr Fais Ahmadb,


This research examined the role of job autonomy in influencing the level of organizational cynicism. By using a survey method through the questionnaires distribution, 504 data set was utilised for the analysis. Several statistical techniques such as factor analysis, reliability test, correlation analysis, and regression analysis were conducted in this research. Through the data analysis, this research indicates a negative relationship between and organizational cynicism. With based on the analysis result, this research suggests that job autonomy could be favourable towards decreasing the level of organizational cynicism.

  1. Introduction

Some of the research on positive workplace attitudes such as  job satisfaction and organizational commitment have gained numerous attention by scholars for decades. Recently it is shown that researchers have increased interest towards paying attention on a negative workplace attitude such as organizational cynicism (Bashir,2011).  The issue relating to organizational cynicism has become the topic of interest for researchers more the past several years ago.

Organizational cynicism is believed as one of a big problem that organizations have to deal with, which should be taken into account and serious consideration by the organizations. However, despite the existence of this problem, it is important for the researchers to investigate what factors that lead towards the development of organizational cynicism This issue is something that cannot be ignored, as it could bring a continuous negative effect on employees and organizational efficiency. (Tekin, & Bedük, 2015).  With this regards, it is important for every organizations to find better solutions in reducing this phenomenon which may hinder organizational and employees success.

The lack of job autonomy given is believed to be one of the major factors that influencing organizational cynicism among the employees. It is suggested that more studies on organizational practices need to be further investigated whether it can reduce organizational cynicism among employees (Chiaburu, 2013). In viewing the level of job autonomy and its influence on organizational cynicism, it is believed that low autonomy could influence the level of organizational cynicism. For example, as cited in Bashir (2011), a lack of autonomy creates melancholy (Stets, 1995) and frustration which results towards misbehaviour and felony (Agnew, 1984) creating serious problems for the organization. Although employees are hardworking and take seriously on their work, but still they seems to less satisfied and lack of passion which cause them to be less committed to the organization. These problems happened as employees feel restricted from working freely and be a part in decision making regarding their own work by themselves. (Naqvi, Ishtiaq, Kanwal & Mohsin Ali, 2013).  In handling with the issue of organizational cynicism, job autonomy  is believed to be one of the necessary weapons  to reduce negative attitude, as employees will not be strictly controlled in their job (Meyer,1987). Furthermore, autonomy also will enable employees to have more freedom in terms of controlling their work and to form procedures on work assessment (Dee,Henkin & Chen,2000).

Although job autonomy has been found to negatively related with organizational cynicism (Avey, Hughes, Norman and Luthans ,2008), there are some inconsistencies found in the past research which seems difficult to confirm the association of these two variables. This can be due to the understanding that job autonomy sometimes is considered as a risky option and this is why not every  employees are  willing to be empowered with autonomy (Bashir; 2011). For example, job autonomy is somehow becoming quite difficult to handle as it requires a high level of trust and accountability on the individuals. It was found that if a high level of trust is required, autonomy turns out to be risky especially when there is least supervision takes place (Langfred,2004). On the other hand, job autonomy may cause employees to be more vulnerable to emotional exhaustion. This is happened if the workload exceed employees’ capacities, where employees will feel trapped and emotionally distressed (Fernet, Austin, Trépanier, & Dussault, 2013). Based on the inconsistencies found, it is relevant for the present study to continuously investigate and discover the influence of job autonomy on organizational cynicism.

  1. Literature Review and Hypothesis Development

Some of the research on positive workplace attitudes such as  job satisfaction and organizational commitment have gained numerous attention by scholars for decades. Recently it is shown that researchers have increased interest towards paying attention on a negative workplace attitude such as organizational cynicism (Bashir,2011).  The issue relating to organizational cynicism has become the topic of interest for researchers more the past several years ago.

Organizational cynicism is viewed a as general or specific attitude characterized with anger, disappointment, and also a tendency to distrust individuals, groups, ideologies, social abilities or institutions (Andersson ,1996). This kind of attitude mostly experienced among employees who believe that their organization is lack of honesty.

Wanous, Reichers and Austin (1994) have specifically described organizational cynicism as “encompassing pessimism about the success of future organizational changes based on the belief that change agents are incompetent, lazy or both” (p.269).  In the context of organizational change management perspective, Ince & Turan (2011) viewed organizational cynicism as an attitude that arise in the workplaces due to the mis-managed of change efforts and it is believed that organizational change is considered as one the major factors of organizational cynicism (Nafei,2013).

Dean (1998) define organizational as “ a negative attitude toward one’s employing organization, which involves a ‘belief’ that organization lacks of integrity and negative affect toward the organization which has tendencies to disparaging critical behaviors toward the organization that are consistent with these beliefs and affect” (p.345). The term of organizational cynicism which defined by Dean (1998) is known as the most commonly cited in the literature and it is conceived as representing an attitude rather than an enduring trait. It is because, organizational cynicism is known as a state variable which may change depends on the experience faced by employees.

Job autonomy is   the extent of power that employees have to delegate their own task and other job activities, which specifically concerns on the voluntary power and freedom towards the work goals,  task elements arrangement and determining the process and the pace of task that are conducted (e.g. Kwakman, 2003; Xanthopoulou, Demerouti, Bakker, & Schaufeli, 2007). It has been   generally defined it as “the degree to which the job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and to determine the procedures to be used and  carried out (Hackman & Oldham 1975; Marchese & Ryan, 2001; Morgeson, Delaney-Klinger &Hemingway, 2005; Parker, Axtell & Turner,2001; Dysvik and Kuvaas 2011; Humphrey, Nahrgang, & Morgeson, 2007). On the other hand, it is  also specifically refers to employee’s self rule and independence in terms of decision making (Hackman &Oldham, 1976)

2.1       Job Autonomy and Organizational Cynicism

            It is found that the high level of job autonomy brings employees to feel well adapted with the situational factors compared with other employees who experience less autonomy (Gellatly & Irving, 2001).  In comparison with those who have little job autonomy, those who with more job autonomy will show more satisfaction with variation aspects of the work context (Oldham & Hackman, 1981), positive affect, self confidence and internal motivation (Hackman & Oldham,1976).

Besides, it enables employee to expand their creativity (Oldman & Cummings,1996)  and  less emotional dissonance (Abraham 2000).  Having jobs with adequate autonomy in the organization could equip employees to experience more engagement as autonomy helps to decrease emotional dissonance (Karatape, 2011).   On the other hand, as job autonomy is important towards employee wellbeing, it gives employees more opportunities to adapt themselves with stressful situation and assist them to make decisions on how and when to respond to job demands. With such benefits, employee will face less burnout (Bakker and Demerouti ,2007).

Research has also indicated that job autonomy has a huge impact in influencing employees work attitude (Naus,2007). This is because employee who are empowered to control over their work will be able to meet the job demand and adapt with ambiguity that placed on them which also may reduce the role ambiguity that they have faced (Çekmecelioğlu, 2011). On the other hand, Çekmecelioğlu et al, (2011) also found that job autonomy helps to build the level of employee self confidence, creativity and performance. This may encourage employees becoming  more independent to carry out their task. As other benefits, autonomy may give employees more opportunity to show their extra role behaviour such as OCB (Runhaar , Konermann & Sanders,2013)

H1: There is negative relationship between job autonomy and organizational cynicism.


This section  discussed the sample  of the study, scales of variables and process of analysing the obtained data.  Finally, discussion of the findings, conclusions and suggestions of the future research are made in the light of the findings.

3.1       The sample population

The survey based on a disproportionate stratified random sampling technique  was carried out, as it could reduce the sampling error due to the imbalance of population in certain groups (Babbie,1995;& Butcher,1973). The  samples for this study were chosen based on the selection of  the immigration officers (uniform based employees) of the Immigration Department of Malaysia  (IDM),  who work under the  security and defence group, ranging from the upper position of employees  scheme grade,  KP 48 to the lowest KP17 (as shown in Table 1). About 800 questionnaires have been distributed to four selected Immigration states offices and 504 usable data  (63% of response rate) were chosen in this study for the analysis.

3.2       Measures

The data was collected using a questionnaire survey. The first section contains demographical information such as age, gender, qualification, experience and more. The second section is about organizational cynicism which consist of 14 items adopted from Dean,(1998). The alpha reliability for this variable  was 0.868, and sample items included such as “I believe my organization says one thing and does another”, “My organization’s policies, goals, and practices seem to have little in common”, “When my organization says it’s going to do something, I wonder if it will really happen”, “My organization expects one thing of its employees, but rewards another”. “I see little similarity between what my organization says it will do and what it actually does”. “When I think about my organization, I experience aggravation.”, “When I think about my organization I get angry.”, “When I think about my organization, I get tension.”, “When I think about my organization, I feel a sense of anxiety”, “I complain about what is happening in the work to my friends beyond my institution.”, “We look at each other in a meaningful way with my colleagues when my organization and its employees are mentioned”, “I often talk to others about the ways things are run in my organization”, “I criticize my organization practices and policies with others”, “I find myself mocking my organization’s slogans and initiatives”.  How ever, after the Factor Analysis has been conducted, the item number 11 was removed due to high crossloading. Therefore, only 13 items were proceed for the next stage of analysis.

The third section relates to job autonomy, adopted from Karasek, (1979),  and the alpha reliability was found to be at 0.735. The job autonomy items included “My job requires high level of skills”, “My job requires me to learn new things”, “My job requires non repetitive jobs” and “My job requires creativity”, “My job allows me freedom to decide how to organize my work”, “My job allow me to make decisions on my own”, “My colleagues are helpful in assisting in one’s own decisions”, and “I am allowed to say over what had happened”.


Based on the correlation analysis depicted in Table 3,  job autonomy was shown to be negatively correlated with organizational cynicism ( r = -0.106 , p < 0.01). Based on the results, the negative relationship indicates that high job autonomy is more likely to reduce organizational cynicism than with lower job autonomy.

 Meanwhile, the regression results shown in Table 4 indicates that job autonomy has a significant influence upon organizational cynicism (b=0.101, p =0.001; Sig = 0.022 p<0.05). Therefore, this finding confirms that organizational cynicism could be overcome when job autonomy is given focus attention.

  1. Discussion

The  hypothesis result of this research is accepted, where job autonomy is negatively significant in influencing organisational cynicism. As expected, Job autonomy is functioning as an important role to hinder organizational cynicism. This is consistent with the previous research  finding that job autonomy are likely to result in positive outcomes such as increase in job satisfaction and commitment (Naus,2007). Relevant and as demonstrated by the present study, job autonomy  would help to prevent  the possibility of employees from easily developing a cynical attitude, where employees feel more trusted by the organization to carry out tasks. Hence, the presence of job autonomy could result in a higher level of  employees’ intrinsic motivation and more committed employees will be. This finding supported the previous study which showed increase in job autonomy was significantly allied with an upsurges in job commitment (Khamisabadi,2013).

The finding of the present research that depicted a significantly negative influence of job autonomy and organizational cynicism was also evidenced in previous research where it  supported that employees who have more autonomy in their job shows more positive feelings, and self confidence (Hackman & Oldham, 1976), less mental stress (Karasek, 1979), and  less emotional dissonance (Abraham,2000). Additionally,  as been captured by Naus, (2007), the restriction in terms of autonomy could hinder employees self expressive behaviours, which it will potentially evoke opposition and resistance that could lead to negative attitudes and behaviours such as cynicism towards the organization. This problem occurs when there is a  very strict structural controls in terms of rules and procedures  and tight organizational control that impede employees capabilities, work competency and ideas to perform the job. This might cause negative feelings among the employees where they feeling forced to follow all those overly strict procedures which limit their freedom in contributing their ideas and decisions.

Based on the findings that have been obtained,  this study therefore confirms  that,  job autonomy is negatively significant in influencing organizational cynicism,  where  employees who perceive lack of job autonomy will feel more frustrated with their  role and career, which it will ultimately affect their level of commitment and satisfaction level. In the mean time,  the absence of job autonomy cause employees to develop a negative belief about their organization that they are not valued and appreciated, this in turn may also result towards negative emotions and behaviour among the employees.

5.1       Limitations and Direction For The Future Research

There are few limitations of the research that should be acknowledged. First, since all the measurement scale used in this study was adopted from the past studies, factor analysis showed that one item from the dependent variable  was not permanent due high crossloading. How ever, the scale showed satisfactory reliability in this study.

Second, this research is mainly quantitative in nature, where quantitative research is generally little is known about “why” and “how” regarding the antecedents and consequences of the relationship among the variables. Nevertheless, this approach still does not jeopardize the whole findings of the present research as quantitative research could help in generalizing the result by using a large sample size.

Since this study has significant implications for both theoretical and practical contributions, future researchers also should consider to expand the organizational cynicism research by adding organizational culture as a moderating variable. This is to test whether organizational culture could moderate the relationship between the independent and dependant variable. Furthermore, to investigate if there is any type of organizational culture that could weaken or strengthen the relationship between job autonomy and organizational cynicism.

Another useful extension for the future researchers to highlight is to conduct more research into investigating the consequences of organizational cynicism For example, by examining whether organizational cynicism could influence the level of employees engagement, employee deviant behaviour and employees’ union commitment.  . This can be examined by having organizational cynicism as a mediating variable.

5.2       Conclusion

This research summarizes that job autonomy is negatively related with organizational cynicism, where organizational cynicism may reduce if job autonomy is high and given focus attention. Additionally,  it gives an important indication that job autonomy appears to be something that is need to be highlighted in organizational cynicism research context, whether it is beneficial or risky to the employees.  With these findings, this research contributes a new knowledge in the organizational cynicism research.


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         M.A.Dambatta,1 O. A. Sogbesan,2 A.U.Fagge,1Suleiman I. Dutse,1A.U. Shuaibu3


 The effort was made to make this research project to become reality this was achieved by visiting (Fagam-farm) a case study area. With a view to explore how fish production mitigate poverty among the populace of Kano state and to identify the challenges facing the farmers  and marketing operation of fish produced, the socio-economic characteristic of the fish farmers of Fagam co-operative farm, the fish production form, marketing strategy and the co-operative  goals. Based on the above observation made, recommended that, female are not involves in the sector due to the religion purposes and the majority of the respondent are single within the age category of (8-25). Most of the respondents possess an educational certificate of secondary level were minority of them possess Qur’anic, primary and tertiary certificate. Also majority of the respondents are within the extended family and their family size are in the category of (5-10) where others are in the category of (11-15) it indicated that, all the respondents that interviewed in Fagam farm are purely Muslim in religion whereas no any Christian that work or employed in the farm. The highest numbers of pond that they use in Fagam farm are concrete ponds while others are earthen and plastic pond. Also the type of ponds size dimension are all largest size and the higher percentage of practical culture method they practice is mono-culture while the less percentage is poly culture and all the pounds were constructed manually. The type of feed they used is only imported and the majority type of farming management consider is intensive system while the minority is semi-intensive and the cost of feeding poor circle obtained is 100% high, because the farm has a big size and they practice intensive management system which consumes more capital than the other management system included in the farm.





Aquaculture continues to grow rapidly every day, and then became bigger industry every year. So, understanding the basic part behind aquatic production facilities is of increasing importance for all the working in this industry. Aqua-culture requires knowledge and skill of the many general aspects of production such as spawning, production of Nutrition etc (Anderson; 2004). Fisheries constitute an important sector in Nigeria agriculture providing valuable food and employment to millions of population and also serving as a source of livelihoods mainly for women. In coastal communities eg processing teenagers helps Sule and Raji (2011). Nigeria has a coastline of 3,122km (Earth trends, 2003) shared by 8 states (lagos, Ogun, Ondo, Delta, Bayelsa, River, Akwa-ibom and Cross-River respectively) out of total of 36 states in the country. Coastal fisheries are important and contributed at least 40% of fish production from all source. In Nigeria between 1995 and 2008 (FAO, 2010). According to the fisheries society of Nigeria, small scale fisheries provide more than 82% of the domestic fish supply, giving livelihood to one million fishers folks and up to 5.8 million fisher folks. In the secondary sector comprising processing preservation, marketing and distribution. The total contribution of fisheries to Nigeria’s gross domestic product is estimated at about $US 1 billion. According to estimates, Nigeria requires about 2.1 million metric tones (mm+) of fish/year but produce only 0.65 metric tons and imports over 990 metric tons/years at a value of US $800m to meet this short full (Ajiboso, 2009). Considering Nigerians has availability of water resources human capital and other natural endowments. The federal department of fisheries (FDF, 2004).


General objective

The broad objective of this study is to evaluate the fish production, poverty mitigation and co-operative goals of Fagam fish co-operative farm at Mariri, Kumbotso L.G Kano state, Nigeria.

            The specific objective includes:

  1. Identify the challenges facing the farmers and marketing operation fish production.
  2. describe the socio-economic characteristics of the fish farmers of Fagam co-operative farm
  • To study production demand and cost of feed in the production circle.




Kano state lies between latitude 130N (north) 110S (South); and longitude 80W in the (west) and 100E (east). Kano state is made up of fourty four (44) local government areas. E.G Albasu, Bunkure, Danbatta, Gaya, Wudil, Kumbotso, Doguwa, etc. The total land area of Kano state is 20,76059 kilometer with an average population of 9,383,682 (2006 census). Kano has mean height of about 472.45m above the sea level (Olofin and Tanko, 2002).  According to Kurawa (2003) the temperature of Kano state usually range between a maximum of 330c and a minimum of 15.80c although sometimes during the harmattan it falls down to a slow as 100c. Kano has two seasonal periods, which consist of 4-5 months of wet season and a long dry season lasting from October-April. The movement of the south-west maritime air masses originating from the Atlantic Ocean influences the wet season which starts from May and end in September. The commencement and length of wet season varies between northern and southern parts of Kano state. The average rainfall is between 63.3mmt to 48.2mmt in May and 133.4mmt, 59mmt in August, the wettest months. The movement of tropical maritime air masses from the south west to the north determines the weather of Kano state during the wet season. The air mass carries a lot of moisture from the Atlantic Ocean this moisture condenses when it is forced to rise by convection or over a barrier of high lands or air mass, it then fall back as rain. The period of the height occur when the sun passes over West Africa between March and June. The dry season starts from October and last till about April of the following years. Temperature are low during this period and because the sun is in the southern hemisphere and because of movement of the desiccating continental air mass, which originated from sahara area and  below from the north east carrying along with it then harming kano state(kurawa,2003). According to Kurawa (2003), the vegetation of Kano state is the semi-arid savannah. The sudan savannah to the sand witched by the sahel savannah in the north and the Guinea savannah in the south. The savannah has been described as the zone that provides opportunity for optimal human attainment. This is because it rich in faunal and floral resources, it is suitable for both cereals agriculture and livestock rearing and the environment is relatively easy for movement of natural resources and manufactured goods.




Fagam farm was opened in the year 2004 as a fish farm with seventy (70) employees/personnel. And they started by using earthen ponds, those were two hundred (200) in numbers and stocked five hundred thousand (500,000) fish in all ponds. In which each one out of ten ponds stocked four thousand, five hundred and fourty five (4,545) fishes. Only one pond stocked or contained four thousand, five hundred and fifty (4,550) fishes respectively.. And an additional pond for hatchery is up to twenty six (26) followed by eight (8) nursery ponds. The method of fish culture they practice is “Intensive fish culture”. And also Claries and tilapia are the type or species of fishes been cultured. In the year 2008 fagam re-employed additional thirty (30) employees/personnel. In the year 2013 they reduced the number of employees by three (3) people. Up to now 2014, the employees/personnel are (97) in number and all the descriptions above are still in progress.


Harvesting of fish is carryout at every six (6) month when the fishes reach table size for consumptions patterns. The price of fish is N600/1kg; the fingerling is sells to the wholesaler at the price of N20-25 per 1 fingerling depending the amount which the producer needs. And the juvenile is also sale as wholesale at the price of N30-35 per 1 juvenile. The price depend upon the number or quantity of fish that a buyer buy or purchase i.e the higher the quantity the lower the price. Fagam farm is located at Kano east Maiduguri Road, yan-ice street in Dulo area in Kumbotso local government of kano state.


  1. Insufficient power supply
  2. High cost of feed
  3. Inadequate found
  4. Lack of proper organization
  5. Lack of training personnel 6. Finance  7.Lack of proper storage/cool room



The production and co-operative goals in fagam fish farm at Kano state, Kumbotso L.G.A was conducted irrespective of their socio-economic characteristics and demographic information e.g age, sex, marital status, educational attainment, employment, religion etc. questionnaire and interview were prepared to obtained the parameter of the respondents.


The data include primary and secondary data. The primary data include 50 structure questionnaires. The secondary data include materials such as internet, journal and relevance text-book which can be used to analyze the data obtained in the study. Descriptive statistics tools used involve the use of tables, frequency distribution percentage etc.







In table 4.1 it shows that, all the respondent are male able bodies 50 (100%) whereas no female engage in the activities due to the Islam religion reason and un involvement in the Aquaculture practice. In table 4.2 it shows that, the generality of the respondents are within the age category of 18-25. This is because, most of the cooperative organization are mostly prefer to employ those that have young age for successful achievement of their goals which is tallying the finding of male C. (1985) in study of fish in Dadin kowa in Gombe state where stated that middle age are more better to be employed. In table 4.3 it shows that, majority of the respondent 40 (80%) are single, which revealed that they have the high percentage. While marriage are the surplus percentage up to 10 (20%). In table 4.4 the majority of the respondents 25 (50%) possess an educational certificate of secondary level and 18 (36%) with qur’anic, where 5 (10%) with primary certificate and 2 (4%) with tertiary certificate. The majority of the respondents possess secondary certificate, this is because they don’t have financial opportunity to proceed into tertiary. And qur’anic is the secondary educational level that the respondent have, its because qur’anic study require a few financial activities for governing it.Table 4.5 shows that the highest number that is 40 (80%) of the respondent are within the extended family, its because they do not have financial for getting marital partner. While only 10 (20%) of the respondents are in nuclear family. In table 4.6 it shows that, the family size of majority of the respondents 32 (64%) are within the category of (5-10), this is because they mainly having one wife while 18 (36%) of the respondents are within the family size category of (11-15) because they mainly having (2-3) wives. In table 4.7 indicated that majority of the respondents that interviewed  in Fagam farm are purely Muslims in religion which possess up to 50 (100%) whereas no any Christian that work or employed in the business. In table 4.8 it shows that, the highest number that is 30 (60%) of pond that they use is concrete pond, it’s because it retain water than the earthen pond and concrete pond is easy to manipulate and easy to care than the other types of pond, where 10 (20%) are earthen pond  and 10 (20%) are plastic pond. Table 4.9 shows that, the type of pond size dimensional that practice in the study area, up to 50 (100%) are largest pond in size this indicated that they contain large amount of stocking fish density. In table 4.10 it shows that, the high percentage of practical culture method they practice that is 40 (80%) is monoculture due to cannibalism and they don’t have good skill personnel those can avoid cannibalism while poly culture only 10 (20%) they practice.

Table 4.2.1 Indicated that, all the ponds were constructed manually that is 50 (100%) due to the lower cost as compare to mechanical method. In table 4.2.2 shows that, all the type of feed used that is (100%) is only imported, because it gives more good result than the others. Table 4.2.3 Indicated that, majority of type of farming management consider 40 (8%) is intensive system in order to get good farming result. The other management consider is semi intensive with 10 (20%) due to low production that the system gives as compare to intensive. In table 4.2.4 it shows that the cost of feeding per circle obtained is 50 (100%) that is its high, because the farm has a big size and they practice intensive management system which consumes more capital than the other management system included in the farm.


The research was conducted to asses how production of fish mitigates poverty among populace and to identify the challenges facing the farmers and marketing operation of the fish produced, the socio-economic characteristic of the fish farmers of Fagam co-operative farm and to study productive circle using Fagam fish farm as the research area. According to statistical analysis of data show that, all the respondents were male able bodies that is (100)% where as no female engaged in the activities. Although the generality of the respondents were within the age category of 18-25. And majority of the respondents that is (80%) were single while married were (20%). Also majority of the respondents that is (50%). Were secondary certificate owners where (36%) with Qur’anic and (10%) with primary certificate while (4%) with tertiary certificate.

The highest number that is (80%) of the respondents were within the extended family while only (20%) were in Nuclear family. The family size of majority off the respondents that is (64%) were within the  category of (5-10) where (36%) were in (11-15) family size category. All respondents in Fagam farm that is (100%) where Muslims where as no institution that work in the business. The highest number of pond that they use that is (60%) were concrete ponds while (20%) earthing ponds and (20%) plastic. The type of pond size dimension they use were (100%) largest. The practical culture method they practice is (80%) monoculture while only (20%) as polyculture. However, all the ponds that is (100%) were constructed manually where there was no mechanical construction. Then, the type of feed that use in Fagam farm is (100%) imported only. The type of management consider is (80%) intensive system where only (20%) is semi intensive system. The cost of feeding particle that they obtained was (100%) high.



Conclusively, the result of this research revealed that all the respondents in Fagam farm were male and most of them were within age category of 18-25 which means they have yong age that enable them to do work in the farm hardly and properly than the above age. The study showed that majority of Fagam farm workers were single and majority of them possess. Secondary certificate. The study showed that the highest number of the respondents were within extended family and the family size were within the category of (5-10). And best of the research of showed that all the respondents were Muslim. The study showed the highest number of ponds that they use were concrete pond and the practical culture method that they practice was almost (8%) monoculture and the ponds were all constructed manually. The research indicated that, Fagam fam use only imported feed and the type of management consider that they practice were intensive system and particularly semi-intensive system according to the study, it showed that in Fagam farm the cost of feeding per circle was almost high.


Anderson (2004) Invasion of Nigeria waters by water Hyacinth” Journal of West African Fisheries (1): Pp 4-14.

Federal Department of Fisheries (2004); Fishermen statistic of Nigeria. Federal Department of Fisheries Federal Ministry of Aquaculture Abuja.

Food and Agriculture Organization (1991) of United Nations. The state of world fisheries and Agriculture. FAO. Fisheries department, Rome Italy, Pp. 30.

Ibrahim A. Kurawa (2006); Geography and History of Kano state. Publications of the Research and Delimination Directorate Pp 16-19, ISBN-928-8092-09-08.

M.A Danbatta (2014) Socio-economic and profitability of fisheries enterprises in Kano state, Nigeria unpulished M. Tech thesis in Modibbo Adama university of Technology Yola, Adamawa State, Department of fisheries and   Aquaculture Pp 39-62.

Male. C (1985): Economic analysis of fish marketing in Dadin Kowa, Gombe state Unpublished Msc. thesis university of Maiduguri.

Olafin E.A and Tanko, A.I (2002); Metropolitant kano in Geographical perspective view. Bayero university press, kano Pp 14-45.

Sule O.D; Raji A. (2001) Involvement of fishermen children in fishing activities in Lake chad region. Journal of Arid zone fish Volume (1) 74-88. Pp 74-88.



4.1       GENDER

Variable Frequency Percentage %
Male 50 100
Total 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015

4.2       AGE

Variable Frequency Percentage %
18-25 23 46
26-30 20 40
31-35 3 6
36-40 4 8
Above 45yrs
Total 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015

4.3       Marital Status

Variable Frequency Percentage %
Single 40 80
Married 10 20
Total 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015







4.4       Educational Status

Variable Frequency Percentage %
Primary 5 10
Secondary 25 50
Tertiary 2 4
Qur’anic 18 36
Total 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015

4.5       Family types

Variable Frequency Percentage %
Nuclear family 10 20
Extended Family 40 80
Total 50 100

  Source: field survey, 2015

4.6       Family size

Variable Frequency Percentage %
5-10 32 64
11-15 18 36
26-30 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015

4.7       Religion Practice

Variable Frequency Percentage %
Islam 50 100%
Total 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015





Variable Frequency Percentage %
Concrete pond 30 60
Earthing pond 10 20
Plank or wood pond
Plastic tank pond 10 20
Total 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015

4.9       Pond size dimension

Variable Frequency Percentage %
Largest 50 100
Total 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015

4.10     Practical culture method

Variable Frequency Percentage %
Monoculture 40 80
Poly-culture 10 20
Total 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015

4.2.1    Construction method

Variable Frequency Percentage %
Manual 50 100
Total 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015





4.2.2    Type of feed used

Variable Frequency Percentage %
Imported only 50 100%
Imported and local feed only
Local feed only
Total 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015

4.2.3    Level of management consider

Variable Frequency Percentage %
Intensive 40 80
Semi-intensive 10 20
Total 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015

4.2.4    Estimate the cost of feeding per circle

Variable Frequency Percentage %
High 50 100%
Total 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015



Documenting initiatives on urban transformation in South-East Europe


Florina Jerliu1 and Bujar Bajçinovci 1, *




Rapid transformation of cities and urban spaces in South-East Europe (SEE) since 1990s is closely related to the common experience of post-socialist and/or post-war challenges in the region. Among pressing issues identified as a common challenge in the region is the trend of self-regulation or unchecked urban development, which contrasts the pre-1990s conventional central planning and development format. This has drawn the attention of a wider Europe, which resulted in a number of initiatives, both governmental and nongovernmental, been created to jointly initiate regional projects that aim at developing urban solutions. The emerging criticism developed by such initiatives has played and important role in raising the awareness about the complexity and the need to address the SEE context within the context of Europe as a whole. This paper introduces the nature of urban transformation in SEE through the example of capital cities; it further documents commonly identified urban development challenges by two regional initiatives, NALAS and Archis SEE Network, from the perspective of authors, the first being a member in both networks. Results suggest that the way forward is to foster national legal frameworks in SEE by taking into account the contextual inputs for urban interventions, in terms of both urban policy and case study projects, developed through regional and international cooperation.

Keywords: South East Europe, regional initiatives, urban transformation, self-regulation, unchecked development, urban intervention

1   Introduction

As of 1990s, former socialist countries that make the region of the Southeastern Europe (SEE), and especially those that emerged out of wars in the former Yugoslav Federation have gone through rapid political, social and economic transitions. The most visible effects of such changes are found in capital cities while most complex emerge those being subject to the operations of international processes carried out by the UN.[[1]] Despite contextual differences, the European agenda ranked high in newly formulated state policies, as it guarantees support in overcoming challenges of multiple transitions and investing in economic growth, social wellbeing, as well as acquiring the free movement within European Union countries. As alleged by the EU, all these countries “share the European perspective”,[[2]] which leads to the thought that with all SEE countries becoming candidate, and consequently, member states, the synonym of regional transition would nominally come to an end. However, the ever-growing regional cooperation and networking in SEE has disclosed the fact that the transitional period takes longer, and that the fulfillment of the EU accession criteria doesn’t guarantee the aspired linear, uniform, and successful transition from the former single communist party system and centrally managed state-owned economy, towards a democratic society and market based economy. [1] What is certain is that the development benchmarking and the EU support in this process is highly needed given the fact that the delay in overcoming transitions in SEE shall by default affect European agendas in issues which are crucial to the common institutional, physical and cultural environments.


Among challenges identified through networking initiatives in the region is the rapid transformation of physical environment. Descending practices in shaping urban areas, in many cases to the detriment of agricultural lands, and misuse of natural resources, remain a common denominator for the SEE, regardless of the EU membership status. More specifically, the unchecked urban development has been identified in almost all post-socialist and/or postwar countries in the region, and as such, it has drawn the attention of a wider Europe. Commitments that the SEE countries have taken in this respect, have been addressed and are gradually being met through model projects and initiatives coming from governments and the civil societies. Examples of such engagements are given in this paper in order to document findings and common challenges of urban transformations in SEE.

2   The context of urban transformation in SEE

Although the geographical division of the South-East Europe (SEE) itself is not formally defined by UN [*] [[3]] the term itself has been widely adopted to identify the project designation area by co-financing initiatives and regional networks as a substitute to the geographical and historical term for the Balkan, with the aim of coming closer to the united Europe’s cultural and political orientations. Despite of the number of countries (see: Figures 1-4) that do fall under this region, which commonly varies depending on the cooperation projects or networks, SEE shares rather common challenges in terms of urban regeneration and development issues.


Unchecked urban development has been identified as an issue in majority of SEE countries. The urban self-regulation, commonly referred to housing development without seeking building permit, has been associated with urban growth caused by massive migration of rural population to urban centers. In the case of Kosovo, it is estimated that only during the first two years of the post-war period (between 1999 and 2001) the percentage of urban population increased from 37% to 44%. [[4]] The increasing demands for land for housing in major cities have therefore subsequently affected their outskirts, landscapes and environment in a larger scheme.

This trend has been notable in almost all SEE capital cities. Variations derive depending on the inherited context, mainly being attributed to pre-socialist development level, and infrastructural capacities of cities to accommodate the needs of migration flux, as well as their latter institutional maturity to manage rapid urban changes.



From the left: unchecked development in the outskirts, and urban densification / unplanned construction of the inner-city

While the Adriatic coastline is experiencing new spatial metropolitan-rural interaction and the public space is suffering as a result of this development process, Tirana (Fig. 5) is struggled with consequences of newly formed informal settlements in public land, and Prishtina (Figure 6), Belgrade and Sofia with buildings erected without construction permit. On the other hand, Bucharest is challenged by collective dwellings built in the socialist times, which today are in a critical state in terms both of their structure and social function. Skopje, in the other hand, engaged in building of a new image of the city through an urban plan for city center which has been criticized for its improper neo-nationalistic character. Adding to this the issue of privatization of public space and facilities, which is shrinking and transforming the space in cities, SEE countries are kept in between anticipated modernization/Europeanization trends in one hand, and in the other hand, fragmental and unchecked transformation of urban spaces, which resulted in unsustainable development. Urban solutions therefore are needed for each local context, while looking at possibilities to replicate solutions in both, national and regional terms. In this context, initiatives to document the trends of urban transformation and research scenarios for improvement of urban situations in cities have proved to be helpful in the sense that they provide the ground for collaboration and transfer of knowledge among professionals and decision-makers throughout the region.


3   Regional Initiatives: ‘NALAS’ and ‘Archis SEE Network’

Among initiatives that involved in issues of urban transformation are those launched by the Network of Associations of Local Authorities of South-East Europe, NALAS [[5]], and the Archis SEE Network [[6]]. These two networks are discussed in this paper from the perspective of the member in both networks, which have made possible for the author to expand the initiated strategies for urban regeneration in Prishtina, capital of Kosovo (started in late 2006) resulting in formal cooperation with the city administration, as well as in dissemination about the process and practices, to the local authorities is SEE.


From the left: the map of NALAS member (source:; the map of Archis SEE Network members (

3.1 Network of Associations of Local Authorities of South-East Europe (NALAS)

NALAS is a network which currently unites 16 full members from South-East Europe. At the heart of NALAS are the Task Forces which bring together experts from the region, competent association staff and professionals employed in the local government administration. The Task Force for Urban Planning tackles the issues common in the region, such is integration of informal settlements, inclusion of more stakeholders in the urban planning process and collection and analysis of the right parameters in what is known as ’urban economics‘ [[7]].

Common challenges identified by this Task Force during its meeting sessions since 2009 are generally associated with law enforcement. While urban planning legislation in NALAS member countries are drafted against the European legislation model, provisions that regulate instruments for implementation of urban plans and their management are still being devised. Hence, the identified ‘common challenges’ (Table 1) were analyzed against individual contexts and were used to lay the ground for common recommendations and model projects for the member associations.

Source: Working document: “Common Challenges” (2009) available online for members in NALAS Knowledge Tree (document management system)


As it may be noted from the table above, there are evident problems in urban planning and management issues in SEE countries, which require determination of the local authorities to address the gaps in respective legal frameworks and intervention instruments. In this endeavor, NALAS initiated comparative analysis in the different member associations and resulted with the publication entitled “The Legislation and analysis of the implementation of spatial and urban planning in Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia, Moldova, BiH and Turkey as compares to the case of Denmark”, published in 2009.[[8]] Recommendations that were drawn through this initiative (Table 2) were used to develop specific recommendations for improving relevant national legislative frameworks.


Source: The table is a simplified form of presentation of general recommendations provided in the document NALAS (2009) “The Legislation and analysis of the implementation of spatial and urban planning in Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia, Moldova, BiH and Turkey as compares to the case of Denmark, developed for the purpose of this paper


First two recommendations on the local government role suggest that countries must undertake intense reforms, especially in the area of spatial and urban planning, as they are obliged to provide conditions for sustainable development of communities. In other words, the ongoing decentralization process, including fiscal decentralization should generate mechanisms and means that would enable to meet the needs for the social and economic prosperity. The set of recommendations concerning legal framework on implementation of urban and spatial plans suggest complementation by new laws and by-laws that regulate ownership, illegal settlements and illegally built facilities, as well as protection of cultural heritage sites. The problem of ownership and illegal development has been commonly acknowledged by NALAS member associations as the most striking issues that need urgent attention and regulation. Another concern identified as to being problematic in maintaining proper planning and monitoring system is the frequent changes to the legislation concerning the type, content and direction of plans. The quality of plans and public participation in the planning process are also critical in many countries, as it is the quality of services delivered by the planning authorities. In this context, urgent need for fostering municipal capacities and creating competent planning authorities is addressed by NALAS members.

The NALAS cooperation projects have proven to be important as they directly involve local authorities, whose performance is crucial to the future planning systems. In this context, regional initiatives play an important role in creation of the grounds for faster and more equitable socio-economic development and securing improved standards of living in SEE.


3.2    Archis SEE Network


Activism and independent initiatives of architects, urbanists, artists, sociologists and other professionals from the civil society and academia has become quite noted in the region. The idea to bring together these initiatives within Archis SEE Network (created in 2008) has made possible the exchange of knowledge and best practices in coping with various political and social dimensions of the urban environment, as well as to integrate the issues discussed in international discourse on urbanism. About 27 local initiatives have made their projects available through this network, and have gained a wider audience in SEE and beyond. In doing so, local initiatives have maid possible the exposure of their findings about trends and challenges of urban transformation in local level, as well as their involvement in regional projects.

Figure 5. Study on Prishtina: prototypes of illegal buildings  – illegal buildings constructed after 1999 are indicated with red color. (Courtesy of: Archis Interventions /AI Prishtina)


The criticism about urban occurrences in SEE coming from the civil society plays and important role in relevant information exchange and in shaping opinions about the context of transition in SEE countries, and the challenges they deal with, in the process of internationalization. Furthermore, their active involvement in devising solutions for certain urban issues in local level that may apply in a wider regional context, have raised the awareness of developing agencies and professionals from other parts of Europe.

Among local initiatives that gained attention of the international discourse through documenting informal building trend in the post-war context and providing strategies and problem solutions, is based in Prishtina.  Projects that involve documentation of descending urban trend in the city were initiated in cooperation with European partners,[†] and were jointly developed with regional partners and the local administration in Prishtina. Urban analysis and strategies devised through the local initiative were adopted by the municipality of Prishtina and the model of intervention in Prishtina’s case was disseminated and considered by the SEE local administrations’ network.

The major contribution of this initiative was the launching of the process of legalization of buildings erected without building permit.  The process was based on the qualification of prototypes of uncontrolled construction (Fig. 5, Table 3), [[9],[10]] which later evolved into a set of minimal standards for legalization [[11]], later on incorporated in the Kosovo Law for Treatment of Constructions Without Permit.[[12]]

  1. Conclusion

The context of the post-socialist and post-war associated with unmanaged growth in which the built environment was shaping during the last decades in SEE, have negatively affected the cities’ structures, as well as the perception about their future prospect. This has been identified through documentation of local cases of urban transformations by regional initiatives such are NALAS and Archis SEE Network. Studies and recommendations produced through regional networking highlight the need for upgrading the legal framework and complementary implementation mechanisms. In order to achieve this objective, a fostered planning administration in SEE countries is strongly needed. Also, the institutional commitment and the public awareness to treat the existing illegal buildings and their surrounding by means of qualification and treatment must be firm. In this respect, attention should be given to local initiatives and their researches and projects that more often than not provide urban solutions which can be implementable in a specific context, but can also be replicable in the national or regional context. The illustrated case of initiatives in Prishtina, capital city of Kosovo, has shown that taking into account case study projects coming from the grassroots level may directly affect the fostering of national urban policies and legislation, and beyond.



[*] There is no formal recognized geographical division of the Southeaster Europe. The Division provided by the United Nations defines regions in Europe into Eastern, Western, Southern and Northern Europe. The division created in late 1990s is programmatic and is linked with development co-funding such is the EU initiative called the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe. The use of this term has grown and is gradually substituting the historical and geographical term of Balkan by the pretext of diminishing the negative connotation that has been generally associated with by the western European countries.

[†] The local NGO Archis Interventions/Prishtina was founded in 2005 as part of the Archis network, together with Archis Interventions/Amsterdam and Archis Interventions/Berlin. Author of the paper is a co-founder/manager of the Prishtina branch.

[[1]] F.E. Ian Hamilton, Natama Pichler-Milanovi, and Kaliopa Dimitrovska Andrews. (eds.). 2005. Transformation of cities in central and Eastern Europe: Towards globalization, United Nations University, p.11, 13

[[2]] South East Europe / Potential Candidates, in:

[[3]] Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings. In:

[[4]] Kosovo Environmental Protection Agency (KEPA), Report on Environmental state 2006–2007, p.20

[[5]] Network of Associations of Local Authorities of South-East Europe (NALAS), in:

[[6]] Archis SEE Network, in:

[[7]] NALAS / Urban Planning, In:

[[8]] NALAS Task Force for Urban Planning (2009). The Legislation and analysis of the implementation of spatial and urban planning in Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia, Moldova, BiH and Turkey as compares to the case of Denmark. In:

[[9]] V. Geci, F. Jerliu, (2007). Archis Interventions The new Prishtina. Volume Magazine, edition 1. Amsterdam. p. 80-93

[[10]] Archis Interventions (2007). The New Prishtina, European Forum Alpbach, In:

[[11]] Archis Interventions Prishtina (2009) Manual on Legalization. In:

[[12]] Law for Treatment of Constructions Without Permit, Law No. 04/L-188, In:


The Empirical Study of the Challenges of Information and Communication Technology on Confidential Secretaries in Nigerian Universities: Lessons from Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Osun State.

 Omisope Bankole Oluwaseun


Information and Communication Technology is fast becoming one of the main drivers of change in organizations all over the world. ICT is said to improve the standard of living and enhance business operations as well as organizational efficiency. It has also transformed and changed the way people work and communicate in organization. It is on this note that this paper examined the challenges of ICT on confidential secretaries in Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. This was necessitated by the need to ensure improved productivity and performance of confidential secretaries in Nigerian universities. Primary and secondary sources of data were utilized for the study. The primary data were collected through structured questionnaires. Respondents were selected from confidential secretaries on CONTISS 05 – 13 in departments, institutes, faculties, units and directorates of the university, thus 50 respondents were sampled from the university. The questionnaires were administered using random sampling technique and analyzed using simple statistical technique such as frequency distribution and percentage secondary sources of data were generated from journals, textbooks, projects, internet sources etc. on the field of ICT and secretarial administration. The study revealed that there are many challenges of ICT on confidential secretaries in Nigeria Universities why aptly explains why there is low productivity and poor performance by confidential secretaries in the discharge of their duties. The study concluded that management of Nigeria Universities should procure the latest model of ICT facilities to enhance secretarial functions and create opportunity for training and re-training of the confidential secretaries to be abreast with the new changes and advancement in ICT.




The world is changing and all that exists in it are changing along with it. ICT is fast becoming one of the main drivers of change in organizations all over the world. (Adebambo and Toyin, 2011). ICT has revolutionized all professions worldwide including the secretarial practice.

Jaiyeola (2007) argues that ICT is like an engine that could be used in so many ways, the same engine that makes the aircraft to move, could make a conveyor to convey finished product from production line to the storage location, the same could be used for automobile, grinding machine etc. It is an implement in the hands of confidential secretaries but enhances and improves its performance.

Buseni (2013) opines that information and communication technology is providing the tools that are revolutionizing the role of secretarial professionals from that on information recorders to business strategist making them much more critical to the success of any organization.

According to Uzoka (2002), information and communication technology is the harnessing of electronic technology in its various forms to improve the operations and profitability of the business as a whole.

The advent information and communication technology has posed many challenges to confidential secretaries in Nigerian universities which has led to poor performance and low productivity in their work place. It is on this note that this paper examines the challenges of ICT on confidential secretaries in Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study are to

  1. review the concept of Information and Communication technology in Nigeria.
  2. identify the secretaries roles and responsibilities in contemporary organization.
  • assess the challenges of ICT to confidential secretaries in Nigerian Universities.

Literature Review

Concept of Information and Communication Technology

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become within a very short time, one of the basic building blocks of modern society. Many countries now regard understanding of ICT and mastering the basic skills and concepts of ICT as part of the core education, alongside reading, writing and numeracy (Iwu and Nzeako, 2012). The rapid rate at which ICT has evolved since the mid-20th century, the convergence and pervasiveness of ICTs gave them a strong role in development and globalization (Nwagwu, 2006).

Iwu and Ike (2009) define ICT as the acquisition, processing storage and dissemination of vocals practice textual and numerical information by a micro-electronic based combination of computing and telecommunication. ICT simply means the use of computer process, store and transmit data. Asharafi and Murtaza (2008) describe ICT as any technology that enables communication and the electronic computing, processing and transmission of information. Herselman and Hay (2003) also refer to ICT as technologies that support the communication and cooperation of human beings and their organizations and the creation and exchange of knowledge. Yu (2010) considers ICT as a range of technologies that allow the gathering, exchange, retrieval, processing, analysis and transmission of information. In order words, ICT can be described as any tool that facilitates communication, process and transmit information and share knowledge through electronic means.

Okwuanaso and Obayi note that ICT has posed several challenges to secretaries in the execution of their duties. They stated further that any office staff of today that is lacking in ICT would find his/her unproductive.

The introduction of ICT has influenced the performance of confidential secretaries in delivery of information, accuracy and effectiveness at the work place. According to Buseni (2013), ICT is seen as a way to promote educational change, improve the skills of secretaries and prepare them for the global economy and information society. He states further that ICT tends to improve the understanding of the secretarial practice and functions, increase quality of secretaries work attitude thereby increase the impact of secretaries on the management of the office.

Confidential Secretaries Roles and Responsibilities in Contemporary Organization 

Scholars and researchers in the field of secretarial studies have identified roles and responsibilities of secretary. Ugiagbe (2009) refers to secretary as an assistant to an executive, possessing mastery of office skills and ability to assume responsibility without directly supervision, who displays initiative, exercises, judgment, and makes decisions within the scope of his/her authority.

Oyeyiola (2005) views a secretary as someone who has a sound general education and has passed through a prescribed programme of training with appropriate skills, attitudes and competencies required for assuming roles in an office.

He points out further that a secretary is an indispensable office worker whose services are essential to the success of a manager or a chief executive officer’s job. The job description may be both primary and secondary in nature. The primary aspect has to do with the general secretarial duties while the secondary aspect is usually to delegate functions and differ within the same job description or even for different job portfolios.

According to Association of Secretaries (1990), a secretary is a clerical worker, who takes and transcribes dictations, make appointment for the employer, meeting people employer, meeting people who call to see him and he is responsible for minor executive or supervisory duties.

A secretary thus, is someone who has a sound general education and has passed through a prescribed programme of training in secretaryship possessing demonstrable personal and business attributes; employable skill in shorthand, keyboarding, document processing, and has been actually employed as such in an organization or is in practice providing information and communication support services needed by clients.

Onifade (2009) opines that a secretary is on assistant to a manager. Apart from the traditional responsibilities, he comes out research, prepares the manager’s itinerary, makes travel bookings and hotel reservations, supervises the junior workers and makes some decisions using his initiatives.

Igbinedion (2010) identifies the secretary’s responsibilities to include; taking dictation and transcribing it into correspondence which is at once dispatched to its business destination. He highlights some forms of these correspondences to include: letters, memos, circulators, orders, quotations, acceptances, contractual terms and conditions, invitation etc.

Each of these items he claims will invoke a response from the addresses, who will perhaps order materials, proceed to manufacture, insure cargoes, book hotels or engage in some other expensive activity which forms part of the intricate network of business life.

Abolade (1999) lists some of the roles of a confidential secretary in either college of education or a university. They are:

  • Taking notes from the head of department;
  • Taking minutes of meetings;
  • Preparing the LPO;
  • Keeping accurate and up-to-date records of students;
  • Organizing current departmental information to make it easily retrievable;
  • Keeping secret departmental information;
  • Typing with accuracy;
  • Making and receiving telephone calls; and
  • Performing other duties as may be assigned by the head of the department.

Some of these functions may be delegated to her clerical staff working with the confidential secretaries in the educational institutions. The entire efficiency and success of the department rest on the organizational ability of the confidential secretary.

Challenges of ICT on confidential secretaries in Nigerian University

Adedire (2014) identifies the challenges of ICT on confidential secretaries. They include:

  1. Poor maintenance and repair culture
  2. Ignorance
  • Lack of support from management of institutions
  1. Illiteracy; and
  2. Lack of science and technology policy

Adegbenjo (2015) also identifies the problems of ICT on confidential secretaries. They are:

  1. It is time consuming
  2. Inadequate knowledge of computer

Francis (2012) states that to be able to cope with the challenges of ICT, every progressive confidential secretary must face the future while living the present fully. Some people wait for others to develop them and wait for years without having some opportunities. Confidential secretaries should no wait for other to move on a life (Ihionkhan, 2009).

Research Methodology

A total of 50 questionnaires were distributed to confidential secretaries on CONTISS 05 – 13 in departments, faculties units, Institutes and directorate of Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife.

All hands were on deck to ensure that the accurate number distributed to respondents were collected accordingly.

Research Instruments

The research instrument used in this study was the “Licat” written scale type of questionnaires with its rating responses statement.

Method of Data Analysis

Data gathered through the questionnaires were interpreted through the use of descriptive statistical techniques such as simple percentage method and frequency distribution to determine the challenges of ICT on confidential secretaries in Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife of Osun State, Nigeria.

Table 1 above showed that 6% of the respondents were for the ages between 25 – 35, 34% of the respondents were for the ages between 36-45, 40% of the respondents were for the ages between 46-55 and 20% of the respondents were for the ages between 56-65. This shows that the highest respondent were from the ages between 46 – 55 while the least respondents were from the ages between 25-35.

Moreover, it was evident from the result of analysis on educational qualification that the highest respondents were secondary school certificate / RSA holders while the least respondents were the OND / NCE holders.

Furthermore, the result of the analysis on sex revealed that 44% were male while 56% were females. It is evident that the highest respondents were females while the lowest while lowest were males.

In addition, 10% of the respondents were single, 76% were married, 10% were divorced and 4% were widows / widowers. This implies that the highest were married while the least respondents were widow or widowers.

According to the results of the analysis on sections in the university showed that 44% were from departments, 20% were from faculties, 20% were from units, 6% were from institutes and 10% from directorates. The results indicate the staff of departments had to highest of respondents while staff of institutes had the least respondents.

Results from Table 2 shows that more than 65% of the respondents attest to the fact that challenges of ICT on confidential secretaries in Nigerian Universities include poor infrastructural facilities, lack of government policies, low level of education, cultural factors and corruption, ignorance about the importance of ICT, lack of proper guidance and training, sophistication and rapid changes in ICT etc.


The study assessed the challenges of ICT on confidential secretaries in Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. It reviewed literature on concept of ICT and roles and responsibilities of secretaries in contemporary organization.

It discovered that challenges of ICT on confidential secretaries Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria include poor infrastructural facilities, lack of government policies, low level of education, cultural factors and corruption, ignorance about the importance of ICT lack of proper guidance and training, sophistication and rapid changes in ICT among others where more than 65% of the respondent supported the assertion.

The study concluded that management of Nigeria Universities should procure the latest model of ICT facilities to enhance secretarial functions and create opportunity for training and re-training of the confidential secretaries to be abreast with the new changes and advancement in ICT


Having highlighted the challenges of ICT on confidential secretaries in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, this paper recommends as follows:

  • University authorities should make computers available to confidential secretaries in order for them to contribute to the growth and development of university.
  • University authorities should endeavor to organize training and development programmes that will further enhance the effective performance of confidential secretaries through acquisition of additional skills in ICT in order to achieve maximum output.
  • Confidential secretaries should always be ready and open-minded to acquire additional training /skills development, bearing in mind that changes occur frequently in the line of their chosen career.
  • Adequate funding should be provided by government in the ICT and infrastructural facilities such as electricity in order to ICT adoption by confidential secretaries in Nigerian Universities.


[1] Abolade, A. O. (1999) Computer Literacy in Secretary Practice in Nigeria: A Dipstick paper. Ilorin Journal of Education (IJE), Vol., 19, pp. 81-83.

[2]Adebambo, S. and Toyin, A. (2011) Analysis of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Usage on Logistics Activities of Manufacturing Companies in South Western Nigeria. Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences (JETEMS), 2(1), pp. 66-72.

[3] Adedire, F. B. (2014) The Influence of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on the Office Technology and Management Profession: Unpublished Diploma Project submitted to Institute of Entrepreneurship and Development Studies Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

[4]Ashrafi, R. and Murtaza M. (2008) Use and Impact of ICT on SMEs in Oman, Electronic Journal Information Systems Evaluation, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 125-138.

[5] Buseni, J. (2013) Effects of Information and Communication Technology on Secretaries’ performance in Contemporary organisations in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Information and Knowledge Management Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 87 – 93.

[6] Igbinedion, V. I. (2010). Knowing the Graduate Office Secretary. Ozean Journal of Social Sciences, No 3, pp. 116-120.

[7]Ihionkhan, C. E. (2009) Technological Skills Acquired in Secretarial Profession: Implications and Challenges for Business Educators and Secretaries. Journal for the Promotion and Advertisement of Office Management / Secretarial Profession. Vol. 4, pp. 149-153.

[8]Iwu, A. O. and Nzeako, R. C. (2012) ICT as a Viable Tool for Entrepreneurship Education. Journal of Educational and Social Research, Vol. 2, No 9, pp. 125-131.

[9]Iwu, A. O. and Ike G. A. (2009). Information and Communication Technology and Programme Instruction for the Attainment of Educational Goals in Nigeria’s Secondary Schools. Journal of the Nigeria Association for Educational Media and Technology 1, No. 1, pp. 10-18.

[10]Jaiyeola, R. (2007) Information Communication Technology as a Tool for Effective performance of Chartered. The Nigerian Accountant, Vol. 40, No.1, pp. 48-49.

[11]Okwuanaso, S. L. and Obayi, T. (2003) Element of Office Automation. Enugu: JTC Publishers.

[12]Onifade, A. (2009) The Third Millennium Secretary and Information and Communication Technology: Nigeria Experience. International Journal of Management and Information System, 13, No 2, pp. 39-48.

[13] Oyeyiola, O. A. (2005) Secretarial Duties and Human Relations. Journal of Secretarial Forum Vol. 4, No 1, pp. 141-150.

[14] Ugiagbe, F. E. S. (2002) An Analysis of Secretarial Office Automation and Word Ethics in National Development Akoka: DIC Company.

[15]Uzoka, F. M. (2002). Effect of Information Technology on Customers’ Satisfaction in Nigeria Financial Institutions. The Nigerian Accountant, Vol. 35, No 4, pp. 5 – 8.

[16] Yu, E. (2010) Information and Communication Technology in Food Assistance (online) Available http: / / stellent / groups / public / documents/ newsroom / wfp 225972.pdf (July 26. 2013).

National Conference on Network Based Secure Emerging Technologies

Name of Conference National Conference on Network Based Secure Emerging Technologies


ISBN NO. for Print Proceedings of Conference 978-1539626459 
Barcode of ISBN no.  isbn_9781539626459
Publisher of Print Proceedings of Conference Papers Edupedia Publications Pvt Ltd, New Delhi
Date of Conference 26th November 2016
Venue of Conference Aurora’s Scientific, Technological & Research Academy
Conference Organizers Name and Details 


1.      Ch. Srilatha – Deputy Director

2.      Pradosh Ch. Patnaik – HOD(CSE)

Phone (Inc. Area code)


Mobile 9553119444
Address Bandlaguda, Chandrayangutta, Hyderabad.
State Telangana
District Hyderabad
Pincode 500005
Website (if any)


An Assessment of the Constraints of Qualitative Secretarial Education in Osun State Polytechnic Iree, Osun State, Nigeria  

Omisope1, B. O., Ajayi1, A., Olodude2, I. I. and Ajayi3, O. A


Secretarial education is an area of institution that has been in existence for several decades and it plays very significant role in economic development of any nation. It is a vocational education that is intended to provide the skills and the manpower for the office and other administrative services required by the society. Therefore, this study reviewed the problems of secretarial qualitative education in Nigeria with a view to identify the qualities and functions of a secretary and examine the constraints of secretarial education in Osun State Polytechnic Iree of Osun State, Nigeria. Both primary and secondary sources of data were utilized for the study. The primary data were collected through questionnaires in which 65 questionnaires were administered to the staff and students of department of secretarial studies of the polytechnic out of which only 50 questionnaires were completed and returned. The questionnaires were administered using simple random sampling techniques such as frequency distribution and percentage. Secondary sources of data were generated from internets sources, relevant textbooks and journal on the field of secretarial studies. The study revealed that there is plethora of problems militating against qualitative secretarial education in Nigeria. They include infrastructural challenges, ill-equipped school environment, admission policy and operational regulation, inadequate secretarial teachers and facilitators, lack of government commitment to secretarial education, low society value for secretarial education etc. The study concluded that graduates of secretarial education with second class upper should be employed as graduate assistants and be given further training in higher degree. Also, federal and state ministries of education should provide facilities for ICT in institutions of higher learning so that secretarial education graduates can be trained and equipped to face the challenges of modern business office.


Secretarial Education

According to Okolo (2001), secretarial education provides students with adequate skills and information needed to function well in office occupation. Amoor and Magaji (2015) opine that secretarial education is a component of vocational education that provides knowledge and skills needed to perform efficiently and effectively in the world of work. They state further that secretarial education involves acquisition of skills, knowledge and competencies and makes the recipient proficient in secretarial profession.

Secretarial education is a tool for alleviating poverty. This means that a secretarial graduate that is well equipped with technological knowledge could be employed and be on his/her own as an employer of labour. Secretarial education is useful to modern business office in private organization (NGOs), governmental organization and Non-Governmental organization (NGOs) in terms of employment opportunity, job creation and self-reliance.

Despite the role of secretarial education in Nigeria, there are still many problems militating against its survival in Nigeria. It is on this note that this study assessed the constraints of qualitative secretarial education in Osun State Polytechnic Iree of Osun State, Nigeria.

Objectives of the Study

The objectives of study are to

  1. examine the concept of secretarial education in Nigeria.
  2. identify the qualities and functions of a secretary
  • assess the constraints of qualitative secretarial education in Nigeria.

Literature Review

Concept of Secretarial Education

Secretarial education is a component of vocational education that provides knowledge and skills for would be secretaries to perform efficiently and in the world of work.

It also involves acquisition of skills, knowledge and competencies that make the recipient proficient in secretarial profession (Amoor, 2009).

Secretarial education is offered in Colleges of Education, Polytechnic and the Universities primarily to educate and train students to become competent professional secretaries (Aliyu, 2006).

National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) (1989) defined secretarial education as the type of education that equips students with vocational skills, effective work competencies and socio-psychological work skills essential for interpersonal relation.

Adelani (2006) described secretarial education as an area of instruction that plays very significant role in national development and a tool to combat unemployment crisis.

Secretarial education is an aspect of education which leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills for employment in various fields of endeavor. Students of this programme are exposed to courses in the special areas as well as in general education.

In addition to acquisition of vocational skills in secretarial education, the students are equipped with effective work competencies and psychological work skills which are very essential in everyday interactions with others (Amoor, Ibid).

Qualities and Functions of a Secretary

Harrison (1979) gave the business qualities of a secretary as secretarial skills, organizing skills, efficiency, reliability, responsibility, discretion, initiative, tact, diplomacy and punctuality. Lauria (1972) highlighted the personal qualities of a secretary as adaptability, level-headedness, good observance, intuitiveness, flexibility, tact, friendliness, accuracy, thoroughness, fore-thoughtfulness, initiative, self-confidence, good listener, a good telephone personality and a good appearance. Egbokhare (2011) outlined qualities of a good secretary under two classifications of business and personal. Business qualities include secretarial and language skills, organizing punctuality, resilience among others. He stated further that the personal qualities include being smart, tactful, neat, friendly, helpful, well informed or knowledgeable, courteous, polite and observant among others.

According to Abolade (1999), a secretary in a polytechnic or in a university performs inter-alia the following functions.

These are:

  1. Taking notes from the head;
  2. Taking minutes of meeting;
  3. Preparing the LPO;
  4. Keeping accurate and up-to-date records of students;
  5. Organizing current departmental information to make it easily retrievable;
  6. Keeping secret departmental information;
  7. Typing with accuracy;
  8. Making and receiving telephone calls; and
  9. Performing other duties as may be assigned by the head of the department.

Adewale (2001) gave the following functions of a secretary. They include:

  • Setting up and administer systems and procedures for a department or unit.
  • Word processing text and information such as letters, reports, memos etc.
  • Composing correspondence, reports and memos.
  • Performing office duties and arranging meetings
  • Setting up and maintaining file systems.

Problems of Qualitative Secretarial Education in Nigeria

There are myriad of problems facing qualitative secretarial education in Nigeria. Adelani (2006) pointed out some of the problems militating against qualitative secretarial education. They include infrastructural challenges, ill-equipped school environment teachers /facilitators, lack of government commitment to secretarial education, low societal value for secretarial education.

Nwaokolo (1990) stated that secretarial education lacks basic instructional tools for effective and efficient skills training. He stated further that many institutions teaching secretarial education are without computer for instruction in lecturing rooms and offices.

Okoro (2005) remarked that lack of adequate funding is the bane of secretarial education. Schools, colleges and universities find it difficult to implement business education curriculum to its fullest due to lack of fund.

Okomanyin (2002) agreed with the above statement, he states further that secretarial education is capital intensive expenditure in terms of equipment, laboratory workshop as well as manpower training and retraining. Uzo (1998) also agreed that it would be a mere white wash for secretarial education to be included in a school curriculum without a studio equipped with different types of office machines.

Uzo (Ibid) pointed out that instructional materials are essential for secretarial education but many higher institutions teaching secretarial studies lack these materials for effective and dynamic instruction.

Alilaki (2012) opined admission policy is a great challenge to business education and secretarial education in particular. He asserted that entire qualification is compromised to accommodate frustrated candidates who choose to study office education as last resort. He pointed out further that when some of the alumni of colleges of education who major in secretarial education and wants to further their education to university level always have mathematics as a big obstacle militating them and therefore their admission seekers to switch to another field of endeavours.

Moreover, there is inadequate quality and quantity of secretarial teachers and facilators in Nigeria higher institutions. It is unusual for a secretarial graduate to wish to make a career out of teaching when he can conveniently secure a job as a secretary in oil companies, banks and telecommunication companies. This poses or compels higher institutions to employ sub-standard or half-baked graduates to fill existing vacancies. The effect of this is that the half-baked graduate cannot fit in to the world of work and be productive because he has not been put in his rightful place.

Amoor (2009) ascertained that the federal and state governments are not exonerated from the accusing fingers that are partly responsible for the collapsing foundation in Nigerian institutions. This is because its attention and priority is wholly focused on sciences thereby neglecting this aspect of education.

Usman (2008) concurred with the statement and stated that governments at all level must improve the status of secretarial education by giving it’s a high priority.

Lastly, Nigerian parents of today do not encouraged their wards to offer secretarial education at all levels. This is because the society does not place any significant value or dignity on the secretarial profession. In the support of the above statement, Clark (2002) said that secretarial education programs have been deprived of the prestige by the society because of their reluctant to expunge themselves of the colonial grammar education and white-collar jobs where secretarial education graduates are referred to as “typists” because the programme is associated with typing and shorthand.

Research Methodology     

The study was carried out in Osun State Polytechnic Iree of Osun State, Nigeria. Data survey method was used in selecting the respondents for the study. 65 questionnaires were administered to the staff members and students of department of secretarial studies of the polytechnic out of which only 50 questionnaires completed and returned. The questionnaires were administered using simply random sampling techniques such as frequency distribution and percentage. The analysis is based on the Yes or No option.


Result and Discussion    

Based on the data collected and the responses received the results of the analysis are presented and discussed below:

Table 1: Infrastructural Challenges

Responses Respondents Percentage %







Total 50 100%

Source: Field survey, 2016

Table above shows that the entire respondents are of the option that infrastructural challenges are qualitative secretarial education in Nigeria.

Table 2: Ill-equipped School Environment

Responses Respondents Percentage %







Total 50 100%

Source: Field Survey, 2016

Table 2 above clearly shows that 40 (80%) respondents agree that ill-equipped school environment is one of the constraints facing qualitative secretarial education in Nigeria tertiary institutions.

Table 3: Admission Policy and Operational Regulation

Responses Respondents Percentage %







Total 50 100%

Source: Field Survey, 2016

The table 3 above clearly shows that 46 (92%) respondents agree that one of the constraints of qualitative secretarial education is admission policy and operational regulation while only 4 (8%) disagree with this assertion. This shows that admission policy and operational regulation is one problems of secretarial education in Nigeria higher institutions.

Table 4: Inadequate Secretarial Teachers/Facilitators

Responses Respondents Percentage %







Total 50 100%

Source: Field Survey, 2016

The data collected and presented in table 4 above shows that all the respondents agree that inadequate secretarial teachers and facilitators is one the factors militating against qualitative secretarial education in Nigerian higher institutions.

Table 5: Lack of Government Commitment to Secretarial Education

Responses Respondents Percentage %






Total 50 100%

Source: Field Survey, 2016

All the respondents attest to the fact that lack of government commitment to secretarial education is one of the problems of qualitative secretarial education in Nigerian higher institutions.

Table 6: Low Societal Value for Secretarial Education

Responses Respondents Percentage %







Total 50 100%

Source: Field Survey, 2016

According to table 6 above majority the respondents agree that low society is one of key challenges of secretarial education in Nigeria tertiary Institutions.



The study assessed the constraints of qualitative secretarial education in Osun State Polytechnic Iree of Osun State, Nigeria. It reviewed existing literature on concept of secretarial education qualities and function of a secretary and constraint facing secretarial education in Nigeria. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage. It discovered that there are many constraints militating against qualitative secretarial education in Nigeria higher institutions such as infrastructural challenges, ill-equipped school environment, admission policy and operational regulation, inadequate secretarial teachers and facilitators, lack of government commitment to secretarial education, low societal value for secretarial education etc.

The study concluded that graduates of secretarial education with second class upper should be employed as graduate assistants and to give further training in higher degree.

Also, federal and state ministries of education should provide facilities for ICT in institutions of higher learning so that secretarial education graduates can be trained and equipped to face the challenges of modern business office.


In line with the findings, it is recommended that the:

(1)        Seasoned business educators in tertiary institutions of learning and secretarial administrators in office occupation should consistently and persistently organize and sponsor mass media publicity on the importance of secretarial education and secretarial profession. This will certainly go a long way to create public awareness about secretarial education in tertiary institution of learning hence public awareness on the secretarial profession is very important.

(ii)        Secretarial education teachers should acquire new technologies in order to be able to teach secretarial students using relevant equipment.

(iii)       Federal and state ministries of education should provide adequate fund for the provision of equipment and facilities to higher institutions offering secretarial education in the institutions.

(iv)       Graduates of secretarial education with second class upper division should be employed as graduate assistants in order to solve the problems of acute shortage of secretarial lecturers in Nigerian higher institutions.

(v)        Government should review the admission policy through removing problem of mathematics as one of the requisite subjects for admission.

(vi)       Federal and state ministries of education should provide awareness of both the society and students on the benefits of secretarial education to the society and the practitioners with the intention to popularize the profession.


[1] Abolade, A. O. (1999) Computer literacy in Secretarial Practice in Nigeria. A Dipstic Paper.

Ilorin Journal of Education (IJE), Vol.  9, No 2, pp. 81-83.

[2]Adelani, O. (2006) Inhibitory factors to Qualitative Secretarial Education for National

Advancement in 21st Century. Journal of Vocational Technical and Business Education. Vol. 8,

No 2, pp. 20-30.

[3]Alikali, P. E. (2009) Problems of Office Education. Unpublished Seminar Paper Presentation

Faculty of Education, Vocational and Technical Education, Business Education Section August, 2009.

[4]Aliyu, M. M. (2006) Business Education in Nigeria: Trends and Issues. Offa: Tosten Print

Media Ltd.

[5]Amoor, S. S. (2009): Secretarial Education in Nigerian Secondary Schools. The Challenges

and Strategies. Journal of Vocational Studies. Vol. 3, No 1, pp. 7 – 11.

[6] Clark, A. O. (2002) Alleviating Poverty through sustainable Business Education. Research

Journal. Vol. 3, No 4, pp. 104-105.

[7] Egbokhare, F. O. (2011) Challenges of Secretarial Administration in a Globalized world. The

Professional Secretary. Journal of the University Secretarial Staff Association. Vol. 2, No 2, pp.


[8] Harrison, J. (1979) Secretarial Duties. London: Pitman Publishing Limited.

[9] Lauria, M. (1972). How to be a Good Secretary. London: Pitman Publishing Limited

[10]National Board for Technical Education (1989) Current Curriculum and Course

Specifications for Higher National Diploma in Secretarial Studies. Kaduna: Atman Ltd.

[11] Nwaokolo, P. O. E. (1992): Training the Nigerian Youth for Business Occupations.

Business Education Journal. Vol. 2, No 3.

[11] Okolo, C. I. (2001) Teaching Business Education in Distance Education Programme:

Problems and Strategies for improvement. Business Education Journal.

[13] Okomanyin, O. A. (2002) Focus on Technical Education in Nigeria: Aspiration, Perception

and Realization and Refocusing Education. Benin: Dasylva Influence

[14] Usman, H. N. (2008) Business Education National Economic Reform Agenda. Journal of

Education Research and Development, Faculty of Education, ABU, Zaria, Vol. 2, pp. 289-290.

[15] Uzo, A. (1998) Methods of Teaching Business Education Course Aba: Musewall Publishing

Company Ltd. 


Training and Developing Medical Personnel in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia: It’s Effects on Post Ebola Recovery in the Health Systems


Lecturer: University of Makeni & University of Science and Technology Sierra Leone.


Addressing critically medical issues with limited knowledge capacity pose several challenges in the health systems. Such challenges can only be addressed if organisations can invest in training and developing employees’ capacity to enhance outstanding performance. Considering the above facts, this study seeks to assess the significance of Training and Developing Medical Personnel in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia, and to examine its Effects on Post Ebola Recovery in the Health Systems. The fortitude for this qualitative research led to the retrieval of secondary sources published on the subject matter and analysis of retrieved information disclosed the constituents of training and development such as: on-the-job and off-the-job training, methods of training, formal and informal training, evaluating and transferring training. Further analysis reveals that training and developing medical personnel in these West African countries has positive effects on post Ebola recovery since employees will be equipped with the required skills and competences to forecast, identify and minimise or eradicate issues that will prompt unexpected health circumstances in the future. The relevance of this study could aid medical practitioners in the three West African countries and is also noteworthy to public and private establishments.


KEY WORDS: Training and Developing, Medical Personnel, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, Post Ebola Recovery, Health Systems


The role of formal training in organisations today appears to have declined significantly and has been replaced with an emphasis on developing skills (CIPD, 2009). The speed with which skills requirements change in some sectors means that formal, time-consuming, classroom based learning fails to deliver efficiently as required. Furthermore, the growing recognition of human resource development (HRD) as a tool to achieve competitive advantage has raised awareness of the need to embrace learning as a central strategic concern and to be part of the culture of the organisation (Senge, 1990; Pedlar et al., 1997, Garavan, 2007) of which formal training is just one, often small, component. In addition, a government-policy-driven emphasis on individual responsibility for life-long learning and skills development (Leitch, 2006; DIUS, 2007b) gives individuals more responsibility for their own learning with spin-off benefits for the organisation, which reduces the relevance of off-the-shelf, one-size-fits-all group learning. On the other side of this coin is the need to provide employees with workplace-specific skills to reduce the ‘poaching’ of skilled employees which reduces the value of traditional training methods. Employee training equips the employees with adequate skills and knowledge to contribute to the organization’s efficiency and cope with the changes in the environment. There should be a continuous re-assessment of the managerial calibre and skills to cope with environmental changes. Technological changes make the skills obsolete, which necessitates training activities. As a brief review of terms, training involves an expert working with learners to transfer to them certain areas of knowledge or skills to improve in their current jobs. Development is a broad, ongoing multi-faceted set of activities (training activities among them) to bring someone or an organization up to another threshold of performance, often to perform some job or new role in the future (Mahapatro, 2010). Accordingly, strategic concerns and decisions relating to training have moved into the board room. Although trainers and training institutions continue to improve training designs, methods and materials, and develop professional networks and institutions, the policymakers and change managers have taken over the issues of fitting their efforts into overall change strategies, funding and organizational supports. Thus, for ensuring its best possible fit with ongoing change strategies, policymakers and change managers set the specifications which the training has to accomplish (Dwivedi, 2007).  Training has always played an important and an integral part in furthering many kinds of human learning and development. If organizations are to make the best of the training function in their response to and promotion of change, the training function will need to be closely linked with business plans. This means that a detailed training policy needs to be agreed and implemented from the top of the organization and supported by management at all levels. It also means that the training and development function has to be accountable in the same way that other functions are (Buckley and Caple, 2009). Many companies have adopted a broader perspective, which is known as high-leverage training. High-leverage training is linked to strategic business goals and objectives, uses an instructional design process to ensure that training is effective, and compares or benchmarks the company’s training programs against training programs in other companies. High-leverage training practices also help to create working conditions that encourage continuous learning. Continuous learning requires employees to understand the entire work system, including the relationships among their jobs, their work units, and the company. Employees are expected to acquire new skills and knowledge, apply them on the job, and share this information with other employees (Noe, 2010). There has been a considerable shift in the way that individual development is understood and characterised. We have moved from identifying training needs to identifying learning needs, the implication being that development is owned by the learner with the need rather than by the trainer seeking to satisfy that need. This also has implications for who identifies the needs and the way that those needs are met. Current thinking suggests that needs are best developed by a partnership between the individual and the organisation, and that the methods of meeting these needs are not limited only to formal courses, but to a wide range of on-the-job development methods and distance/e-learning approaches. There has also been a shift in the type of skills that are the focus of development activity (Torrington et al, 2005). Hallier and Butts (1999) for example identify a change from an interest in technical skills to the development of personal skills, self-management and attitudes. Lastly, while the focus on development for the current job remains high, there is greater pressure for development which is also future oriented. It has been argued (Reynolds, 2004) that: ‘The transfer of expertise by outside experts is risky since their design is often removed from the context in which work is created.’ This is a fundamental problem and applies equally to internally run training courses where what has been taught can be difficult for people to apply in the entirely different circumstances in their workplace. Training can seem to be remote from reality and the skills and knowledge acquired can appear to be irrelevant. This particularly applies to management or supervisory training but even the manual skills learnt in a training centre may be difficult to transfer. Armstrong (2009), describe this as a problem that can be tackled by making the training as relevant and realistic as possible, anticipating and dealing with any potential transfer difficulties. Individuals are more likely to apply learning when they do not find it too difficult, believe what they learnt is relevant, useful and transferable, are supported by line managers, have job autonomy, believe in themselves, and are committed and engaged. Transfer is also more likely if systematic training and ‘just-in-time training’ approaches are used.


Disease outbreaks and catastrophes can affect countries at any time, causing substantial human suffering and deaths and economic losses. If health systems are ill-equipped to deal with such situations, the affected populations can be very vulnerable. The current Ebola virus disease outbreak in western Africa highlights how an epidemic can proliferate rapidly and pose huge problems in the absence of a strong health system capable of a rapid and integrated response. The outbreak began in Guinea in December 2013 but spread into neighbouring Liberia and Sierra Leone. In early August 2014, Ebola was declared an international public health emergency. At the time the outbreak began, the capacity of the health systems in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone was limited. Several health-system functions that are generally considered essential were not performing well and this hampered the development of a suitable and timely response to the outbreak. There were inadequate numbers of trained and qualified health workers. Infrastructure, logistics, health information, surveillance, governance and drug supply systems were weak. The organization and management of health services was sub-optimal. Government health expenditure was low whereas private expenditure – mostly in the form of direct out-of-pocket payments for health services – was relatively high. The last decade has seen increased external health-related aid to Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. However, in the context of Millennium Development Goals 4, 5 and 6, most of this aid has been allocated to combat human immunodeficiency virus infection, malaria and tuberculosis, with much of the residual going to maternal and child health services. Therefore, relatively little external aid was left to support overall development of health systems. This lack of balanced investment in the health systems contributes to the challenges of controlling the current Ebola outbreak. Weak health systems cannot be resilient. A strong health system decreases a country’s vulnerability to health risks and ensures a high level of preparedness to mitigate the impact of any crises. If this Ebola outbreak does not trigger substantial investments in health systems and adequate reforms in the worst-affected countries, pre-existing deficiencies in health systems will be exacerbated. The national governments, assisted by external partners, need to develop and implement strategies to make their health systems stronger and more resilient. Only then can they meet the essential health needs of their populations and develop strong disaster preparedness to address future emergencies. In the short-term, non-governmental organizations, civil society and international organizations will have to bolster the national health systems, both to mitigate the direct consequences of the outbreak and to ensure that all essential health services are being delivered. However, this assistance should be carefully coordinated under the leadership of the national governments and follow development effectiveness principles (Kieny et al, 2014).



Medical personnel training and development in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia is quite a challenging task as a result of the established medical schools without proper structures, sophisticated scientific instruments/apparatus for practical work and insufficient trained and qualified tutors in handling the prerequisite courses for the various specialties. This situation led to the complications of containing the outbreak since the health systems in these countries lacks the capacity and as a result, brought about the loss of many lives. Considering the critical issues surrounding training and developing the intellectual capital of medical personnel in these West African Countries, this study seeks to examine the elements of training and developing medical personnel in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia and its effects on post Ebola recovery in the health systems.


The research objectives segment the clustered components in the aim and organise such elements systematically in order to develop a structured review process so as to descriptively explain the relevance of the subject matter. The research objectives are outlined as follows:

  • Describe the definition of training, learning, development and the significance of training and development as investment.
  • Discuss training needs assessment (organisational analysis, task analysis, person analysis) and readiness for training.
  • Explain on-the-job and off-the-job training, strategic training, coaching, mentoring, systematic training, just-in-time training, bite-sized training, human relations training
  • Discuss the features of learning and development strategy, learning culture, the learning organisation, learning theories, contribution of learning and development to organisational performance and comparing learning and training
  • Describe formal and informal learning, the spectrum of learning from informal to formal, motivation to learn, e-learning, blended learning, self-directed learning, evaluating training and transferring training.



Training and human resource development is a key component in every sector of organisations growth. Governmental and non-governmental organisations operations are effectively and efficiently implemented and objectives are achieved as a result of staff diligence, which is accelerated by training and development. Most successful organisations today realise that training is one of the mechanisms that leads to the achievement of competitive advantage and that kin attention should be paid towards it and sufficient funds allocated for its implementation. Considering the facts expressed, this study is important to the three affected West Africa countries since one of the problems encountered in trying to contain the disease outbreak was as a result of lack of sufficient trained and qualified medical personnel. It is also noteworthy to business establishments and to the management profession since well trained and developed workforce accelerates organisations growth.



Definitions of Training, Learning, Development and Significance of Training and Development as Investment

Training is an organized activity for increasing the knowledge and skills of the people for a definite purpose. It involves systematic procedures for transferring technical knowhow to the employees so as to increase their knowledge and skills for doing specific jobs with proficiency. In other words, the trainees acquire technical knowledge, skills and problem solving ability by undergoing the training programme (Mahapatro, 2010).


2.1 Training: Training refers to a planned effort by a company to facilitate employees’ learning of job related competencies. These competencies include knowledge, skills, or behaviours that are critical for successful job performance. The goal of training is for employees to master the knowledge, skill, and behaviours emphasized in training programs and to apply them to their day-to-day activities. For a company to gain a competitive advantage, its training has to involve more than just basic skill development. That is, to use training to gain a competitive advantage, a company should view training broadly as a way to create intellectual capital. Intellectual capital includes basic skills (skills needed to perform one’s job), advanced skills (such as how to use technology to share information with other employees), an understanding of the customer or manufacturing system, and self-motivated creativity (Noe, 2010).


2.1.1 Learning: Learning is the means by which a person acquires and develops new knowledge, skills, capabilities, behaviours and attitudes. As explained by Honey and Mumford (1996): ‘Learning has happened when people can demonstrate that they know something that they did not know before (insights, realizations as well as facts) and when they can do something they could not do before (skills). Learning is a continuous process that does not only enhances existing capabilities but also leads to the development of the skills, knowledge and attitudes that prepare people for enlarged or higher-level responsibilities in the future.


2.1.2 Development: Development involves the processes by which managerial personnel accomplish not merely skills in their present jobs but also competence for prospective assignments of enhanced difficulties and scope. The higher responsibilities embrace complex conceptual thoughts and analyses, and decision making abilities. The development process relates to the pressures, change and growth patterns. Thus, development as applied to managers embraces all those recognized and controlled measures, which exert a marked influence towards the improvement of abilities of the participant to accomplish his present job more effectively, and enhance his potential for prospective higher responsibilities (Dwivedi, 2007).


2.1.3 The significance of training and development as investment: The development of human resource is of utmost significance. While the ‘raw’ human resource can make only limited contribution towards the attainment of organizational goals, the developed human resource—knowledgeable, skilled manpower—can help immensely in the contribution in this respect. Organizations with considerable opportunities for self-development can attract highly promising new entrants. The development of human resource is accomplished through training. Training is a prerequisite to improved performance, preparing human resource for new jobs, transfers, promotions and change-over to modern technology and equipment. In addition to training of new entrants, manpower at all levels requires refresh training from time to time in order to avoid personal obsolescence and improve its competence to hold higher positions. Accordingly, training and development policies and programmes are given top priority, and investment on training, and development has increased tremendously. Thus, these programmes perform a significant educational function and form a valuable source of preparation for performing the present job more effectively and holding new jobs. Indeed, these programmes have become a vital part of the employment costs in modern industrial economies (Dwivedi, 2007).

2.2 Training Needs Assessments (Organisational Analysis, Task Analysis, Person Analysis)

Turning specifically to training, because of the potentially considerable financial and psychological costs involved, a great deal of consideration has to be given to deciding whether to embark on some form of training to meet individual learning and development needs. It is important to appreciate the circumstances which indicate whether or not training is required and there is a need to be thoroughly familiar with the methods, approaches and forms of analysis that have to be used in order to reach the decision to implement training. The criticality of this process cannot be over emphasized bearing in mind the consequences that might arise for organizations which provide too little training or no training at all when a real need exists (Buckley and Caple, 2009).


2.2.1 Organisational Analysis: Organizational analysis involves identifying whether training supports the company’s strategic direction; whether managers, peers, and employees support training activity; and what training resources are available (Noe, 2010). In the broad organizational analysis, trainers compare what the organization is doing and what it should be doing. Trainers focus attention on organizational objectives, skills, inventories, organizational climate, and indices of efficiency, including costs for labour, materials, and distribution (McGehee and Thayer, 1961).


2.2.2 Task Analysis: Task analysis (sometimes called operations analysis) is a systematic collection of data about a specific job or group of jobs used to determine what employees should be taught to achieve optimal performance. Results of a task analysis typically include the appropriate standards of performance, how tasks should be performed to meet these standards, and the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics that employees need to possess in order to meet the standards (Werner and DeSimone, 2012).

2.2.3 Person Analysis: Person analysis helps to identify employees who need training, that is, whether employees’ current performance or expected performance indicates a need for training. The need for training may result from the pressure points, including performance problems, changes in the job, or use of new technology. Person analysis also helps determining employees’ readiness for training. Readiness for training refers to whether (1) employees have the personal characteristics (ability, attitudes, beliefs, and motivation) necessary to learn program content and apply it on the job and (2) the work environment will facilitate learning and not interfere with performance. This process includes evaluating person characteristics, input, output, consequences, and feedback. A major pressure point for training is poor or substandard performance. Poor performance is indicated by customer complaints, low performance ratings, or on-the-job incidents such as accidents and unsafe behaviour. Another potential indicator of the need for training is if the job changes such that current levels of performance need to be improved or employees must be able to complete new tasks (Noe, 2010).

2.2.4 Readiness for Training: Effective training requires not only a program that addresses real needs, but also a condition of employee readiness. Readiness for training    is a combination of employee characteristics and positive work environment that permit training. The necessary employee characteristics include ability to learn the subject matter, favourable attitudes toward the training, and motivation to learn. A positive work environment is one that encourages learning and avoids interfering with the training program (Noe et al, 2011).

2.3 On-the-job, Off-the-job Training, Strategic Training, Coaching, Mentoring, Systematic Training, Just-in-time Training, Bite-sized Training, Human Relations Training.


2.3.1 On-the-job Training: On-the-job training (OJT) is probably the most common approach to training. It can range from relatively unsophisticated ‘observe and copy’ methods to highly structured courses built into workshop or office practice. Cannell (1997) defines OJT as training that is planned and structured that takes place mainly at the normal workstation of the trainee – although some instruction may be provided in a special training area on site – and where a manager, supervisor, trainer or peer colleague spends significant time with a trainee to teach a set of skills that have been specified in advance. It also includes a period of instruction where there may be little or no useful output in terms of productivity. These traditional methods are still very popular ways of teaching new skills and methods to employees, and they can be very effective. However, there are many acknowledged weaknesses that still persist in many organisational practices. There is often a lack of structure and design in the training given, which leads to the passing-on of bad or even dangerous working practices (Cannell, 1997).


2.3.2 Off-the-job Training: Off-the-job/external training, or training that takes place outside the employing organization, is used extensively by organizations of all sizes. Large organizations use external training if they lack the capability to train people internally or when many people need to be trained quickly. External training may be the best option for training in smaller firms due to limitations in the size of their training staffs and in the number of employees who need various types of specialized training. Whatever the size of the organization, external training occurs for several reasons:

  • It may be less expensive for an employer to have an outside trainer conduct training in areas where internal training resources are limited.
  • The organization may have insufficient time to develop internal training materials.
  • The HR staff may not have the necessary level of expertise for the subject matter in which training is needed.
  • There are advantages to having employees interact with managers and peers in other companies in training programs held externally (Mathis and Jackson, 2011).

2.3.3 Strategic Training: Training is used strategically to help the organization accomplish its goals. For example, if sales increases are a critical part of the company’s strategy, appropriate training would identify what is causing lower sales and target training to respond as part of a solution. Strategic training can have numerous organizational benefits. It requires HR and training professionals to get intimately involved with the business and to partner with operating managers to help solve their problems, thus making significant contributions to organizational results. Additionally, a strategic training mind-set reduces the likelihood of thinking that training alone can solve most employee or organizational problems. It is not uncommon for operating managers and trainers to react to most important performance problems by saying, “I need a training program on X.” With a strategic focus, the organization is more likely to assess whether training actually can address the most important performance issues and what besides training is needed.

Training cannot fix all organizational problems (Mathis and Jackson, 2011).

2.3.4 Coaching: The Industrial Society (1999) defines coaching as: ‘The art of facilitating the enhanced performance, learning and development of others.’ It takes the form of a personal (usually one-to-one) on-the-job approach to helping people develop their skills and levels of competence. Hirsh and Carter (2002) state that coaching is aimed at the rapid improvement of skills, behaviour and performance, usually for the present job. A structured and purposeful dialogue is at the heart of coaching. The coach uses feedback and brings an objective perspective. They noted that the boundaries between what a coach, mentor, counsellor or organization development consultant do are inevitably blurred – they all use similar skills. The need for coaching may arise from formal or informal performance reviews but opportunities for coaching will emerge during normal day-to-day activities.


2.3.5 Mentoring: Mentoring is the process of using specially selected and trained individuals to provide guidance, pragmatic advice and continuing support, which will help the person or persons allocated to them to learn and develop. It has been defined by Clutterbuck (2004) as: ‘Off-line help from one person to another in making significant transitions in knowledge, work or thinking.’ Hirsh and Carter (2002) suggest that mentors prepare individuals to perform better in the future and groom them for higher and greater things, i.e. career advancement. Armstrong (2006) describe mentoring as a method of helping people to learn, as distinct from coaching, which is a relatively directive means of increasing people’s competence. It involves learning on the job, which must always be the best way of acquiring the particular skills and knowledge the job holder needs. Mentoring also complements formal training by providing those who benefit from it with individual guidance from experienced managers who are ‘wise in the ways of the organization.


2.3.6 Systematic Training: Armstrong (2006) state that training should be systematic in that it is specifically designed, planned and implemented to meet defined needs. It is provided by people who know how to train and the impact of training is carefully evaluated. The concept was originally developed for the industrial training boards in the 1960s and consists of a simple four-stage model such as:

  • Identify training needs.
  • Decide what sort of training is required to satisfy these needs.
  • Use experienced and trained trainers to implement training.
  • Follow up and evaluate training to ensure that it is effective.


2.3.7 just-in-time Training: Just-in-time training is training that is closely linked to the pressing and relevant needs of people by its association with immediate or imminent work activities. It is delivered as close as possible to the time when the activity is taking place. The training is based on an identification of the latest requirements, priorities and plans of the participants, who are briefed on the live situations in which their learning has to be applied. The training programme takes account of any issues concerning the transfer of learning to the job, and aims to ensure that what is taught is seen to be applicable in the current work situation (Armstrong, 2010).

2.3.8 Bite-sized Training: Bite-sized training involves the provision of opportunities to acquire a specific skill or a particular piece of knowledge in a short training session that is focused on one activity such as using a particular piece of software, giving feedback, or handling an enquiry about a product or service of the company. It is often carried out through e-learning. It can be a useful means of developing a skill or understanding through a concentrated session or learning activity without diversions and is readily put to use in the workplace. But it can be weak in expanding individuals’ intellectual capacity and holistic (or ‘whole view’) understanding of the business – essential qualities to enable employees to respond creatively to the challenges of today’s knowledge economy. It can also be facile and too restricted and relies on the support of line managers, which is not always forthcoming. It is best for training employees in straightforward techniques that they can use immediately in their work or to complement, not replace, longer courses or developmental processes (Armstrong, 2009).


2.3.9 Human Relations Training: Human relations training embraces broad areas including leadership, small group processes, communications, formal and informal organizations, morale and motivation, and building work teams. This method purports to develop among participants an understanding among themselves so that they take into account the needs and aspirations of others. It stresses on attitudes and emotions, and develops leadership styles conducive to high morale and motivation. The human relations training is largely used with supervisors (Dwivedi, 2007).

2.4 Features of Learning and Development Strategy, Learning Culture, The Learning Organisation, Learning Theories, Contribution of Learning and Development to Organisational Performance, Comparison of Learning and Training.


2.4.1 Features of Learning and Development Strategy: A learning and development strategy should be business-led in the sense that it is designed to support the achievement of business goals by promoting human capital advantage. But it should also be people-led, which means taking into account the needs and aspiration of people to grow and develop. Achieving the latter aim, of course, supports the achievement of the former. Learning and development strategy is underpinned by a philosophy and its purpose is to operationalize that philosophy. It is fundamentally concerned with creating a learning culture that will encourage learning and will provide the basis for planning and implementing learning activities and programmes. This concept of a learning culture is associated with that of the learning organization (Armstrong, 2009).


2.4.2 Learning Culture: A learning culture is one that promotes learning because it is recognized by top management, line managers and employees generally as an essential organizational process to which they are committed and in which they engage continuously. Reynolds (2004) describes a learning culture as a ‘growth medium’, which will ‘encourage employees to commit to a range of positive discretionary behaviours, including learning’ and which has the following characteristics: empowerment not supervision, self-managed learning not instruction, long-term capacity building not short-term fixes. He suggests that to create a learning culture it is necessary to develop organizational practices that raise commitment amongst employees and ‘give employees a sense of purpose in the workplace, grant employees opportunities to act upon their commitment, and offer practical support to learning (Reynolds, 2004).

2.4.3 The Learning Organisation: The concept of the learning organization has caught the imagination of many people since it was first popularized by Senge (1990) who described it as follows: The learning organization is one ‘where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning how to learn together. Pedler et al (1991) state that a learning organization is one ‘which facilitates the learning of all its members and continually transforms itself’. Wick and Leon (1995) refer to a learning organization as one that continually improves by rapidly creating and refining the capabilities required for future success. As Harrison (2000) comments, the notion of the learning organization remains persuasive because of its ‘rationality, human attractiveness and presumed potential to aid organizational effectiveness and advancement’. However, Scarborough et al (1999) argue that ‘the dominant perspective of the learning organization concept is that of organization systems and design.

2.4.4 Learning Theories: There are a number of learning theories, each of which focuses on different aspects of the learning process as applied to people in general. The main theories are concerned with:

2.4.4a Reinforcement Theory: Reinforcement theory is based on the work of Skinner (1974). It expresses the belief that changes in behaviour take place as a result of an individual’s response to events or stimuli and the ensuing consequences (rewards or punishments). Individuals can be ‘conditioned’ to repeat the behaviour by positive reinforcement in the form of feedback and knowledge of results. This process is known as ‘operant conditioning. Gagne (1977) later developed his stimulus-response theory, which relates the learning process to a number of factors, including reinforcement, namely:

  • Drive – there must be a basic need or drive to learn.
  • Stimulus – people must be stimulated by the learning process.
  • Response – people must be helped by the learning process to develop appropriate responses, i.e. the knowledge, skills and attitudes that will lead to effective performance.
  • Reinforcement – these responses need to be reinforced by feedback and experience until they are learnt.


2.4.4b Cognitive Learning Theory: Cognitive learning involves gaining knowledge and understanding by absorbing information in the form of principles, concepts and facts and then internalizing it. Learners can be regarded as powerful information processing machines (Armstrong, 2009).

2.4.4c Experimental Learning Theory: People are active agents of their own learning (Reynolds et al, 2002). Experiential learning takes place when people learn from their experience by reflecting on it so that it can be understood and applied. Learning is therefore a personal ‘construction’ of meaning through experience. ‘Constructivists’ such as Rogers (1983) believe that experiential learning will be enhanced through facilitation – creating an environment in which people can be stimulated to think and act in ways that help them to make good use of their experience.


2.4.4 (d) Social Learning Theory: Social learning theory states that effective learning requires social interaction. Wenger (1998) suggested that we all participate in ‘communities of practice’ (groups of people with shared expertise who work together) and that these are our primary sources of learning. Bandura (1977) views learning as a series of information-processing steps set in train by social interactions.


2.4.5 Contribution of Learning and Development to Organisational Performance: Studies on the relationship between learning and development activities and organizational performance have included those by Benabou (1996) and Clarke (2004). The research by Benabou examined the impact of various training programmes on the business and financial results at 50 Canadian organizations. The conclusion reached was that in most cases a well-designed training programme can be linked to improvements in business results and that return on investment in training programmes is very high. A national survey of training evaluation in specialized healthcare organizations (hospices) conducted by Clarke (2004) showed that while there appeared to be some links between training and performance it was not possible to reach firm conclusions about causality. However, the study reached the important finding that where organizations undertake assessment of their training and development (both formal and informal learning) then there is a greater belief in the positive impact training and development has in the organization. While it is possible and highly desirable to evaluate learning, establishing a link between learning and organizational performance is problematic. It may be difficult to distinguish between cause and effect. Hendry and Pettigrew (1986) warn that it is risky to adopt simplistic views that training leads to improved business performance because it is more likely that successful companies will under certain conditions increase their training budget.


2.4.6 Comparison of Learning and Training: Learning should be distinguished from training. ‘Learning is the process by which a person constructs new knowledge, skills and capabilities, whereas training is one of several responses an organization can undertake to promote learning’ (Reynolds et al, 2002). The encouragement of learning makes use of a process model, which is concerned with facilitating the learning activities of individuals and providing learning resources for them to use. Conversely, the provision of training involves the use of a content model, which means deciding in advance the knowledge and skills that need to be enhanced by training, planning the programme, deciding on training methods and presenting the content in a logical sequence through various forms of instruction. A distinction is made by Sloman (2003) between learning, which ‘lies within the domain of the individual’ and training, which ‘lies within the domain of the organization’. Today the approach is to focus on individual learning and ensure that it takes place when required – ‘just-for-you’ and ‘just-in-time’ learning.


2.5 Formal and Informal Learning, The Spectrum of Learning from Informal to Formal, Motivation to Learn, E-learning, Blended Learning, Self-directed Learning, Evaluating Training and Transferring Training


2.5.1 Formal Learning: Formal learning is planned and systematic. It makes use of structured training programmes consisting of instruction and practice that may be conducted on- or off-the-job. Experience may be planned to provide opportunities for continuous learning and development. Formal learning and developmental activities may be used such as action learning, coaching, mentoring and outdoor learning (Armstrong, 2009).


2.5.2 Informal Learning: Informal learning is experiential learning. It takes place while people are learning on-the-job as they go along. Most learning does not take place in formal training programmes. People can learn 70 per cent of what they know about their job informally. A study by Eraut et al (1998) established that in organizations adopting a learner-centred perspective, formal education and training provided only a small part of what was learnt at work. Most of the learning described to the researchers was non-formal, neither clearly specified nor planned. It arose naturally from the challenges of work. Effective learning was, however, dependent on the employees’ confidence, motivation and capability. Some formal training to develop skills (especially induction training) was usually provided, but learning from experience and other people at work predominated. Reynolds (2004) notes that: The simple act of observing more experienced colleagues can accelerate learning; conversing, swapping stories, cooperating on tasks and offering mutual support deepen and solidify the process. This kind of learning – often very informal in nature – is thought to be vastly more effective in building proficiency than more formalized training methods.


2.5.3 The Spectrum of Learning from Informal to Formal: The distinction between formal and informal learning may not always be precise. Watkins and Marsick (1993) described a spectrum of learning from informal to formal as follows:

  • unanticipated experiences and encounters that result in learning as an incidental by-product, which may or may not be consciously recognized;
  • new job assignments and participation in teams, or other job-related challenges that provide for learning and self-development;
  • self-initiated and self-planned experiences, including the use of media and seeking out a coach or mentor;
  • total quality or improvement groups/active learning designed to promote continuous learning for continuous improvement;
  • providing a framework for learning associated with personal development planning or career planning;
  • the combination of less-structured with structured opportunity to learn from these experiences;
  • designed programmes of mentoring, coaching or workplace learning;
  • formal training programmes or courses involving instruction


2.5.4 Motivation to Learn: People will learn more effectively if they are motivated to learn. The motivation to learn can be defined as ‘those factors that energize and direct behavioural patterns organized around a learning goal’ (Rogers, 1996). As Reynolds et al (2002) comment, ‘The disposition and commitment of the learner – their motivation to learn – is one of the most critical factors affecting training effectiveness. Under the right conditions, a strong disposition to learn, enhanced by solid experience and a positive attitude, can lead to exceptional performance.


2.5.5 E-learning: E-learning was defined by Pollard and Hillage (2001) as ‘the delivery and administration of learning opportunities and support via computer, networked and web-based technology to help individual performance and development’. E-learning enhances learning by extending and supplementing face-to-face learning rather than replacing it. It enables learning to take place when it is most needed (just in time as distinct from just in case) and when it is most convenient. Learning can be provided in short segments or bites that focus on specific learning objectives. It is ‘learner-centric’ in that it can be customized to suit an individual’s learning needs – learners can choose different learning objects within an overall package. The main potential drawbacks are the degree of access to computers, the need for a reasonable degree of literacy, the need for learners to be self-motivated, and the time and effort required to develop and update e-learning programmes (Pollard and Hillage, 2001).

2.5.6 Blended Learning: Blended learning combines online learning, face-to-face instruction, and other methods for distributing learning content and instruction. Blended learning courses provide learners with the positive features of both face-to-face instruction and technology-based delivery and instructional methods (such as online learning, distance learning, or mobile technologies while minimizing the negative features of each. In comparison to classroom delivery, blended learning provides increased learner control, allows for self-directedness, and requires learners to take more responsibility for their learning—all factors consistent with the recommendations of adult learning theory. In comparison to pure online learning, blended learning provides more face-to-face social interaction and ensures that at least some of the instruction is presented in a dedicated learning environment. Blended learning uses the classroom to allow learners to learn together and to discuss and share insights, which helps bring learning to life and make it meaningful. Blended learning has been found to be more effective than face-to-face instruction for motivating trainees to learn and for teaching declarative knowledge or information about ideas or topics. It appears that blended learning capitalizes on the positive learning features inherent in both face-to-face and Web-based instruction. Interestingly, learners react more favourably toward classroom instruction than blended learning. This may be because blended learning courses are more demanding, requiring a greater time commitment because of the use of two learning approaches (Noe, 2010).


2.5.7 Self-directed Learning: Self-directed or self-managed learning involves encouraging individuals to take responsibility for their own learning needs, either to improve performance in their present job or to develop their potential and satisfy their career aspirations. It can also be described as self-reflective learning (Mezirow, 1985), which is the kind of learning that involves encouraging individuals to develop new patterns of understanding, thinking and behaving. Self-directed learning can be based on a process of recording achievement and action planning that involves individuals reviewing what they have learnt, what they have achieved, what their goals are, how they are going to achieve those goals and what new learning they need to acquire. The learning programme can be ‘self-paced’ in the sense that learners can decide for themselves, up to a point, the rate at which they work and are encouraged to measure their own progress and adjust the programme accordingly (Mezirow, 1985).


2.5.8 Evaluating Training: Training should be evaluated several times during the process. Determine these milestones when you develop the training. Employees should be evaluated by comparing their newly acquired skills with the skills defined by the goals of the training program. Any discrepancies should be noted and adjustments made to the training program to enable it to meet specified goals. Many training programs fall short of their expectations simply because the administrator failed to evaluate its progress until it was too late. Timely evaluation will prevent the training from straying from its goals (Mahapatro, 2010).


2.5.9 Reasons for Evaluating Training: Companies are investing millions of dollars in training programs to help gain a competitive advantage. Companies invest in training because learning creates knowledge; often, it is this knowledge that distinguishes successful companies and employees from those who are not. Research summarizing the results of studies that have examined the linkage between training and human resource outcomes (attitudes and motivation, behaviours, human capital), organizational performance outcomes (performance and productivity), or financial outcomes (profits and financial indicators) has found that companies that conduct training are likely to have more positive human resource outcomes and greater performance outcomes. The influence of training is largest for organizational performance outcomes and human resource outcomes and weakest for financial outcomes. This result is not surprising, given that training can least affect an organization’s financial performance and may do so through its influence on human resource practices (Noe, 2010).

2.5.10 Transferring Training: Trainers should design training for the highest possible transfer from the class to the job. Transfer occurs when trainees actually use on the job what knowledge and information they learned in training. The amount of training that effectively gets transferred to the job is estimated to be relatively low, given all the time and money spent on training. It is estimated that about 40% of employees apply training to their jobs immediately after training. Among those who do not use the training immediately, the likelihood of it being used decreases over time. Effective transfer of training meets two conditions. First, the trainees can take the material learned in training and apply it to the job context in which they work. Second, employees maintain their use of the learned material over time. A number of things can increase the transfer of training. Offering trainees an overview of the training content and how it links to the strategy of the organization seems to help with both short-term and longer-term training transfer. Another helpful approach is to ensure that the training mirrors the job context as much as possible. For example, training managers to be better selection interviewers should include role-playing with “applicants” who respond in the same way that real applicants would. One of the most consistent factors in training transfer is the support new trainees receive from their supervisors to use their new skills when they return to the job. Supervisor support of the training, feedback from the supervisor, and supervisor involvement in training are powerful influences in transfer (Mathis and Jackson, 2011).



Developing the knowledge capacity of medical personnel has a vital role in combating disease outbreak and addressing critical medical issues. Increasing such intellectual capital is important but retaining it posed several challenges since other countries desire trained and qualified medical personnel and are ready to offer attractive employment contract, which their home countries could not afford to pay and as a result, these countries experience brain drain. The retention aspect of trained and qualified medical personnel is not the focus of this research. This study seeks to assess the significance of training and developing medical personnel in the three West African countries and to examine its effects on post Ebola recovery in the health systems. The thrust for this qualitative research led to the retrieval of information from secondary sources published on the subject matter which will be critically examined in order to establish meaningful conclusion.



Training and staff development has a key role in enhancing employee performance. Competitive advantage is achieved as a result of employees’ outstanding performance which is stimulated by the knowledge that resides in them. An organisation that embarks on developing staff intellectual capital is always seen to be the most successful and its operations are sustained in a competitive arena. Achieving strategic objectives has been and will continue to be the desire of every organisation whether private or public and such desire can only be attained if companies consider the relevance of investing in training and development.

The implementation of a training programme requires an assessment of the need for such training which includes organisational analysis which describes the relevance of the training towards organisations strategic objectives, task analysis which discloses the knowledge capacity an employee should possess to be able to perform a specific task and person analysis which identifies the employee that needs training. The aforementioned should be properly analysed in order to determine a successful implementation of a training programme. Also, organisations should be able to establish facts about the employee’s readiness for a training since unpleasant attitude towards training will result to fruitless endeavour.

Organisations should distinguish its training programme since certain skills can be learnt on-the-job whereas others can only be attained through external or off-the-job training. Training conducted on-the-job should be effective and facilitators or tutors administering such programmes must ensure that trainees grasp the content delivered and can demonstrate positive outcome in its implementation on the job. Coaching and mentoring helps in the conduct of training within the organisation and also human relations training shapes an employee’s relationship with colleagues in order to maintain harmonious working relationship and foster team spirit which leads to organisation’s growth. Off-the-job training programmes are most times conducted in situations wherein an organisation does not have the capacity to facilitate a particular training and as a result, hire training consultant or sends employees to training establishments for further capacity building.

Learning is a culture organisations should imbibe and a learning organisation progresses and serves as a model to rivals firms. Organisational performance in a competitive environment is determined by its commitment in learning and discovering new skills, competences and technologies that makes them distinct. Organisations must ensure that it develops a learning strategy (the path way) that leads towards the successful implementation of what has been taught.

Selecting the best method of learning that suits a particular situation and addresses a critical work challenge is of paramount importance. Employees should be motivated to learn so that their performance will be outstanding. Even though some are intrinsically motivated, but also the extrinsic aspect stimulates them and reinforces the intrinsic. Whatever training or learning method used, it should be followed by an evaluation process to ascertain its impact either negatively or positively and must also ensure that it is effectively transferred to the job.


Training and developing the knowledge capacity of medical personnel is relevant in every nation as it helps to improve their performance level and minimise critical medical issues and can also be able to contain unexpected outbreaks. The secondary information retrieved from sources published on the subject matter was critically examined and such content disclosed the significance of training and developing medical personnel. Facts analysed establish that the successful implementation of organisations activities requires diligent workforce, which is empowered by the relevant training and development programme. Sources further disclosed that training and developing medical personnel in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia has a positive effect on post Ebola recovery in the health systems, since the major problem identified in containing the spread of the virus was as a result of lack of sufficient knowledge capacity in the health systems and that trained and developed medical personnel will prevent such spread in the future. Also, a well-trained and developed medical team will be able to forecast and identify unforeseen medical issues in which mechanisms will be put in place to combat identified experiments.

This study emanated from a qualitative perspective and restricted its data collection from secondary sources. Nevertheless, further research could be conducted on similar study, using both primary and secondary data in order to ascertain first-hand information and describe specific components of training and development.


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Managerial Unionism

Dr. Manisha Shekhawat


We have outlined the evolution of managerial unions in India. We have attempted to give a general picture of the boundaries of a typical managerial association. We have briefly described the managements’ reactions to the managerial association. We have examined the main causes for the formation of managerial unions. We have given a brief account of the activities of the managerial associations in general.


                The Evolution of Managerial Unions in India, Boundaries of Managerial Associations, Managements’ Reactions to Managerial Associations, Why Managerial Unionism?, The Activities of Managerial Unions.


Managers and officers in India belonging to such diverse organisations as manufacturing enterprises, commercial banks, insurance companies, research and development laboratories, electricity boards, trading corporations, merchant navy and the civil service are increasing banding themselves into collectivities of associations, which are gaining the aspects of trade unionism. The word ‘manager’ is not the only possible label for this diverse group of people. Industry employs ‘managers’, the civil service and merchant navy have ‘officer’, as do the bank and insurance companies; research institutes and laboratories employ ‘scientists and technologists’, electricity boards and sections of commercial airlines have ‘engineers’. Although called by different names, and doing varied jobs, it is quite clear that these men and women have a great deal in common. They belong to the higher echelons of organisational hierarchy. They are different from the white-collar groups (such as clerks, draftsmen, technicians, salesmen and laboratory assistants whose tasks are routine and repetitive, although non-manual) and the blue-collar employees (who are paid for exertion of physical effort). They may be simply be titled ‘managers’.

In India, collectivities/organisations of managers are popularly known as ‘officers’ associations’. The officer’s associations as well as trade unions exist to protect and advance the work interests of their members. As such, the terms ‘association’ and ‘trade union’ can be used synonymously.

The following sections cover the evolution of managerial unions in India, the reasons for the formation of managerial unions, and the activities of these unions.

The evolution of managerial unions in India-

In India, no coherent chronological account is available of the evolution of managerial unionsim, much less its spread or density. Organisations of managers appear to have been existence for decades, with associations of merchant navy officers, airline pilots and flight engineers dating back to the period around Independence.

The managerial union movement is reported to have grown and spread during the seventies, especially in the coal, steel, petroleum, engineering, chemical, textile, electronics, banking and insurance industries.

Managerial unions, like trade unions is general, suffered a minor setback towards the mid-seventies on account of national emergency. In fact, during the Janata Government regime that followed the Emergency, several officers’ associations were registered as unions under the Trade Unions Act, 1926.

In 1978, the associations of officers in the public sector witnessed a major shift in their character and direction from a rather passive and non-assertive stature to an active and assertive style. This also led to a change in the relations between these associations and the management, which became more cordial in general, though bitterness continued in several cases.

In the public sector, the managerial union movement entered a new phase in the eighties. In the year 1983, the National Confederation of Officers’ Associations (NCOA) was formed mainly to protect the interests of the officers in the Central Public Sector Undertakings (CPSUs).

The economic and industrial policies of the new Government that came to power in June 1991 have created pressures and insecurities for all public sector employees including officers. As such, the role of the NCOA has become all the more important as well as challenging. Officers/managers of giant corporations like coal, steel, oil and power sector enterprises are not members of the NCOA, but they have come closer to the NCOA through their respective industrial federations of officers/managers/executives after the introduction of the New Economic Policy in 1991.

A major development that occurred June 1992 was the formation of a new organisation called the Professional Workers’ Trade Union Centre (PWTUC) to look after the interests of the managerial and supervisory staff, officers and scientific workers. Among the major organisations that have joined together to form the PWTUC are: All Indian Bank Officers’ Confederation, NCOA, All India Life Insurance Officers’ Associations, and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Scientific Workers’ Association. These five organisations together represent about 4.5 lakh professional workers. The most important objective of the PWTUC is security of service for the managerial and supervisory staff.

The private sector managers both in the MNCs and the family-controlled enterprises, have formed their associations. The industries in which managerial unions formed in the MNCs include pharmaceuticals, engineering, chemicals, and consumer products (Glaxo, Guest Keen Williams, General Electric). Among the indigenously owned companies which have officers’ associations are: Grasim, Tata Electric, Mafatlal Group, Kamanis, etc.

Boundaries of Managerial Associations-

It is problematic to determine the limits of association constituency of managerial associations in India. Ramaswamy (1985) descrbies the boundaries of managerial associations with the caveat that his description presents only a general picture of the boundaries of a typical managerial association, and, as such, vast differences do exist in the managerial association boundaries in different organisations or even in different enterprises within the same industry.

According to Ramaswamy, at the base the managerial associations take up from where white-collar clerical and staff unions stop. At the apex, the managerial associations would evidently leave out the top layer of managers who may not join, or be acceptable to the associations. What lies in between these two points is association territory.

      Apex (where top layer of managers are left out)

     Base (where white-collar clerical and staff unions stop)

If we turn our attention to the differences in the boundaries of the managerial associations in different organisations/industries, we may notice white-collar workers (at the base) teaming up with managers in some banks. Similarly, at the apex the reach of the managerial association varies from one organisation to another. In some commercial banks, association membership normally stops at the Regional Manager. In the Life Insurance Corporation, the membership extends a title further, with the Zonal Managers also joining the association. The steel plants and coal mines probably represent the ultimate, with the association membership reaching right up to the level of General Manager.

Managements Reactions to Managerial Associations-

  1. Managements’ response to officers;/managers’ associations in public sector have varied over time. The initial response in almost all cases was one of antagonism and hostility. In the Post-Emergency period there was change in the attitude of the managements towards managerial associations.
  2. As the managements started dealing with the managerial associations, they discovered that the association of officers/managers is not an evil force. As such, many of them gave de facto recognition to these associations and a working relationship got established between managements and managerial associations.
  3. In the private sector, the attitude of the top management towards the managerial associations was in general hostile. Although the managerial associations do continue to exist in this sector, reportedly, they are not quite comfortable with their top managements.

Why managerial unionism?

Some of the major causes for the formation of managerial unions in India are:

  1. Narrowing Wage Differentials-There is a wide-spread feeling among the managers that compared to unionised cadre of workmen they are getting a raw deal from their employers in terms of remuneration. They complain about the narrowing differentials between the emoluments of junior officers and the wages of the senior workmen.
  2. Loss of Identity-Like workers, managers too experience a loss of power, a facelessness among the changes and reorganisation of enterprises in the modern world. Many managers, especially, the junior ones have little access to information pertaining to the company.
  3. Job Insecurity-While one of the hardest things in Indian industry is to terminate the services of a worker, it is not very difficult to remove the managers from their jobs. Even in the public sector, the junior and middle level managers do not have the job security.

Under the industrial Disputes Act, 1947, the workmen enjoy job security, and they are entitled to : a) Lay-off compensation, if laid-off; b) retrenchment compensation, if retrenched: and c) some sort of statutory compensation in case the establishment is closed down or its ownership is transferred.

  1. Perceived Need for Protection from Militant Trade Unionism-As the junior and the middle level managers are responsible for translating managerial decisions into action, they are in the direct line of union fire. The unionised workmen and staff could make it difficult for the managers to take work from them due to their unions’ support and the protection they enjoy from labour legislation.
  2. Bureaucratic Culture-The bureaucratic culture which characterises the working environment of all public enterprises is another factor contributing to the emergence of managerial unionism. In these organisation, the junior and the middle level managers feel lost, as the decisions are taken unilaterally by the higher authorities or concerned Ministries.
  3. Absence of Participative Forum-The government and the managements who are so concerned with the worker’s participation in management hardly give a thought to the managers’ need to participate in management. They use the collective negotiation/bargaining that takes place between their associations and the top management as a participative forum for being associated with the management as closely as possible.
  4. Promotion Policies-The promotion policies of organisations also have had their effect on association formation. The nationalised banks have to fill by promotion three-fourths of the positions at the lowest point in the officer category. The promotion policies in some organisations have a flipside-discrimination in promotion processes; promotions not based on merit etc. Thus, the promotion or lack of it or discrimination in the promotion process has been a major source of dissatisfaction among managers, particularly, public sector managers.
  5. To be a Third Force between the Working Class and the Management-The protection of labour laws, and the privilege of a real manager, the junior and middle level managers have gone for the only option left to them, that is, the formation of the officer’s associations. They would not like to be considered as part and parcel of either of the working class or the mangement, but as a ‘third force’ between these two groups.

The Activities of Managerial Unions-

The activities of managerial associations reflect the character and personality of managerial unionism. The day-to-day activities of managerial activities may be categorised as:

  • Protection, Preservation and Improvement of Occupational Interests-The main thrust of managerial associations is on protection, preservation and improvement of the occupational interests of their members, which include, among other things, opportunities for promotions, pay revision, greivance redressal, improvement of working conditions, and introduction or enhancement of various fringe benefits. While pursuing the occupational interests, some association resort to agitational methods such as strikes, demonstrations, gheraos, displaying posters in vile and objectionable language, processions in the streets etc.
  • Welfare Activities-The welfare activities of the managerial associations, in general, include: establishment and management of cooperative societies, management of officer’s clubs and canteens, organisation of cultural, recreational and sports activities, management of educational trusts, collection of a certain amount as part of managerial association subscription and financing the same for a Group Insurance Scheme of the Life Insurance Corporation, etc.
  • Organisational Interests-One of the important activities of managerial associations is to supplemtn the efforts of the management that are aimed at professional development of manager, by was of organising seminars, and talks on various topics. Another important activity is to help the management in improving the productivity of the organisation.
  • Channel of Communication-Managerial associations are proving to be an effective channel of communication in their respective establishments. By raising the concerns of officers before the management and by presenting the views of the management to the officers (members), a managerial association operates like a bridge for two-way communication.


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