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Essay_Writing_Tips

Creating the summary:

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Revealing the main idea:

Right from the start, you should not hit approximately the plant In order to make people excited to read your essay, you must expose to them your main point. Write down this idea in the starting paragraph, but don’t give out too many details. You will discuss these details in the approaching paragraphs, so keep the readers ‘connected’ and wanting to read more.

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The last review:

When you finished your writing, set your paper sideways and get a good sleep. Let the paper sit there for more than a few hours, and read it again only when you are in fact rested. This way, you will right away mark any mistakes or any ideas that you don’t like and want to modify. Writing the perfect essay is complex, but not impossible with a little exertion!

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Process of intensification, its advantages & disadvantages!

Housing is one of the largest component of urban land use in the city, which determines well a city functions in near future. Land use planning is done for judicious use of land means judicious use of residential areas. Increase in population by natural growth or migration & increasing activities & facilities in cities have put tremendous pressure on urban land. Thus it becomes very important to utilize the scarce resource of land in a planned manner. This is one of the factors affecting land value.

Housing density is the measure of intensity of occupation of land compared to the total land area available within planning boundary. Density indices by themselves do not have any connection with the living conditions of the area but they do establish a distinct relationship between the people and the amount of land they need to attain a certain standard of living. The built form in the city is representatives of its progress and prosperity. While planning for residential areas it is equally important to focus on the transportation aspect as well. Having an efficient and working road network is vital. Presence of well-planned traffic island & Traffic Volume Count Study are basic steps which can be taken for better and manageable traffic movement.

Factors leading to Organic Intensification:

Social Aspects – Like changes in community structure, family structure & way of living.

Economic Aspects – factors like income, occupation pattern, affordability, expenditure pattern, cost factors & financial pattern

Locational Aspects – Along transport corridors, nearness to employment centers etc., which results in appreciation of property values.

Technological Aspects – Emergence of new building materials and new construction techniques. Awareness about the need of data collection, data processing cycle, methods of data processing & information processing cycle.

Legal Aspects – the different norms, standards, rules and regulations of various housing agencies.

The approaches for determining the residential densities have been changing over the time. The earlier approaches have been explained at the city level. But today, as more & more population started concentrating in the cities, the study outlook shifted from the city level to smaller levels – the sector or area level, which finally decides the overall density.

Urbanisation in world

INTRODUCTION:

Intensification:  Intensification occurs when an existing building, site or area within the existing urban area is developed or redeveloped at a density higher than what currently exists. This can occur through:

  • Redevelopment of sites, including the reuse of brownfield and greyfields sites;
  • Development of vacant and/or underutilized lots within previously developed areas;
  • Expansion or conversion of existing buildings, such as office buildings to residential

Buildings & the

  • Construction of new developments that combine a mix of uses for a more efficient use of land.

Expanding Cities and Urban growth

Process of Intensification: The process of intensification of residential areas is a dynamic process, which is a result of the changes in life cycles of the residents i.e., the changing needs, capacities/affordability and incomes of a household. There are two ways of intensification:

  • Incremental addition to the built form
  • Addition in the size of the household i.e., to accommodate more number of people.

This “progressive development” is a global process. The concept of incremental housing has now gone beyond its objective. There is a shift from the need of people to their greed.

Besides the “Organic Intensification”, which involves investment of individual resources & is a natural phenomenon/ a natural self-defined process leading to a differential growth rate, intensification can be done in a planned way with changes in development controls and policies.

Consequences of Unplanned / Organic Intensification:

Overcrowding – Increase in densities result in overcrowding, decrease in organized open space per person, thus congestion.

Environment & Services Deterioration – Stress on infrastructure & deterioration of environment.

Increase in Informal Housing Stock – including slums and unauthorized colonies.

Transformation in City Character – Loss of traditional housing stock, identity & image of urban form due to redevelopment.

Traffic Problems – Increasing volume of traffic, lack of parking space, and increase in built space.

Increase in Land Prices & Rent – There are various factors affecting land value, phenomenon of speculation leading to hike in land price & rents. Urban poor are most affected.

Advantages & Disadvantages of Planned Intensification / Redensification

Advantages:

Research carried out in Europe, the U.S.A and Australia has led to the advocacy of cities which are spatially compact, with a mix of uses. This urban model is claimed to have a number of benefits in comparison with more sprawling development. Compact cities are argued to offer opportunities to reduce fuel consumption for travelling as homes, work and leisure facilities are close together. They are also favored because urban land can be reused, while rural land beyond the urban edge is protected. A good quality of life is argued to be sustained, with high concentration of people providing social conditions conducive to vibrancy, liveliness and cultural production and consumption.

Various advantages of intensification as a result of urban planning:

  • Urban sprawl and related problems are controlled
  • Optimum utilization of urban land
  • Saves on land cost and development cost
  • Saves time- No land acquisition required
  • Less commuting for citizens and lesser fuel consumption
  • To develop satellite towns/ cities is 6 times more expensive than to reuse/ rejuvenate the existing one. Generation of funds to invest in infrastructure to address higher densities by involvement of public private partnerships.
  • Compact Neighborhoods have their own social life.

 Urban Pattern

Disadvantages: 

The planner’s perception of intensification often contrast with that of the residents. The residents have a negative perception about intensification.

The differences in perceptions arise mainly because of the impacts identified by planners may not affect the local residents; for example, provision of housing and jobs for people outside the area. Planners tend to be much more positive about the potential of intensification. From their perspective, wider objectives are often achieved despite local problems identified by the residents. The strategic arguments for and against intensification often conflict with experience at local level.

The various disadvantages can be:

  • Upgrading can lead to loss of low cost units.
  • Subdivisions may cause loss of family housing.
  • Conversions / redevelopment may lead to loss of jobs. New jobs may not always be for local people.

Methods of Planned Intensification:

There are various methods in which intensification can be done in a planned way:

  • Increasing the available Floor Space:

            –   By increasing the coverage

            –   By increasing number of floors

  • Reducing the size of dwelling unit
  • Reducing the area under non-residential uses
  • High density development in vacant pockets
  • Faster development of partially developed areas

 

Experience from different countries / cities:

Planned Intensification:

Old visions of compartmentalization of cities result in inefficiencies & violations. Different elements of the city like land use, transport, ecology, and housing should not be addressed separately. It is important to understand the dynamics of the city and the market forces this framing regulations and bye laws accordingly. It becomes desirable to have higher FSI/FAR to encourage taller / larger building in the CBD area where property prices are higher.

Examples of Planned Cities:

Atlanta (U.S)

Population – about 2.5 million in 1990

Built Up area – of 4280 sqkm

Longest possible distance – 137 km

Barcelona (Spain)

Population –  about 2.5 million in 1990

Built Up area – of 162 sqkm

Longest possible distance – 37 km

This gives the manifold advantages like: Significant number of trips on foot or by bicycle; offices, schools, shops- all are close by; existence of strong community feeling.

Hong Kong’s new housing development has high densities of 3750 pph. It may not be ideal, but provide a much better living condition than the solid congested slums.

Bangalore: 290 inhabitants per hectare. The city is going American way i.e., its turning into a spread out city. It is impossible to promote metro due to the vast sprawl. The cost shall be prohibitive & the system if set will be a huge waste.

France, Netherlands & the U.K all have policies to encourage compact cities in the name of sustainability.

Author Bio:

Shubham Aggarwal (Founder, PlanningTank) is an Urban Planner from India working to improve the human settlements through the website. PlanningTank is the Urban, Regional, and Rural Planning Knowledge base which provides insight into to urban & rural areas, data processing & GIS.

 

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Do Ethical leadership and organization culture influence the organizational commitment? Mediating role of Employee Sociability

Hamza Zulfiqar1, Tabraiz Salahuddin2, Abdul Haseeb3, Muhammad Hatim4, Muhammad Azeem5

 1,2,3MBA, Department of Management Sciences, University of Sargodha, Gujranwala Pakistan

 4PhD Student, School of International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia,

5PhD Student, School of Business Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Visiting Lecturer. Department of Management Sciences, GC University Faisalabad, Sahiwal Campus Pakistan

 Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of ethical leadership and organizational culture on organizational commitment by considering the mediating role of employees’ sociability. Survey questionnaire method was used to collect the data and questionnaires distributed to 300 employees in NGO by using simple random sampling technique. CFA and SEM statistical techniques have been for analysis. Findings revealed that ethical leadership and organization culture have affirmative and significantly relationship with employees’ organizational commitment. Moreover, employees’ sociability significantly and partially mediates the relationship between ethical leadership, organizational culture and organizational commitment. Furthermore, this research provides the insight to the NGOs regarding the importance of ethical leadership and effective organizational culture to make employees commitment that ultimately influence the overall organizational effectiveness.

Key words: Ethical leadership, Organization culture, Employee sociability, Employee organizational commitment

 

 

 

Introduction

Ethical leadership and organizational culture play significant role to shape the employees behaviors and outcome. Employees are the main asset of any company and consider is a good number costly object that is human capital. The important ways to give intention to the employee you have to, because companies can increase competitive advantage through their employee’s commitment. Elevated levels ethical leadership behavior connected to higher levels of employee organizational loyalty [25].

The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the effect of ethical leadership and organization culture on employee organizational commitment with mediating role of employee sociability.

Literature Reviews

Ethical Leadership

Integrity and ethical principles of employees are cornerstone of ethical leadership [4]. Tentatively, here are three essential behaviors to clarify how people turn into leaders: Trait theory is a state of affairs where some character personality may show the way people naturally into leadership roles. Employees are the major possessions of every company. Then it gives more significant attention on employees because companies can gain significant competitive advantages through the involvement of employees as well as commitment [6]. Furthermore, ethical leadership demonstrated that ethical value of every organization employee directly relate with organization commitment [27]. Ethical leaders are consideration to be amenable and open, own traditional leadership character such s integrity, sincerity, and honesty [27].

Organizational culture

 

Organization norms, values and beliefs have strong affect upon performance and sustainability [26]. Organizational culture can improve performance ability in a large scale if it can be understood that what sustain a culture [13]. Certain characteristics of organization culture have been established in which set of norms, values and beliefs helps in perfect association between them [14]. Beliefs and values shared within the organization is a pattern of employees [15]. The attraction of organization norms, values and beliefs have strong affect upon performance and sustainability [26]. In addition, suggested that organization culture has generally been interrelated to management [17]. Four dimensions of organization culture were as followed [13]:

Power distance: It is defined as degree of employee and management behavior that have been based upon perfect relationship between formal and informal set of planning action.

Individualism: In this dimension difference between organization interest and self interest have perfectly been matched.

Uncertainty avoidance: The uncertainty and ambiguity based upon tolerance helps in mitigating willingness of people.

Masculinity: It comes in avoidance of caring and promotion rather than level of success based upon challenges, insolence and ambition..

Employee Sociability

The basis of employee sociability was distinct when the capability to recognize and deal with persons and have the correct feat in human dealings [9]. Some researcher creates out those employees who fanatical a high emotional intelligence helped to enhance the business performance [23]. Emotional intelligence declared as the capacity to mutually know one’s own emotions and to understand others’ emotions [1]. Identified that the emotional intelligence leads to an efficient understanding others, so it lead to potential to create strong connection with others and easily settle in to contiguous atmosphere.

Organizational Commitment

There were a mixture of definitions and dimensions of organizational commitment exist [16]. Organizational commitment is distinct as a position in which an employee identifies with a meticulous organization and its goals and desires to uphold association in the organization [2]. Organizational commitment is crucial element of employees outcomes and play great role to enhance overall organizational performance [31]. Organizational commitment is directly associated with  the context in which employees are working; as employees were found to powerfully provoked and loyal in the development of setting, owning, and implementing the organization’s vision [8].

There are three dimensions of the organizational commitment [3]. The first “affective factor”: Identify the connection of employee’s feeling with the organization and its goal. It described from helpful effective knowledge as well as entity and managerial worth.  The Second “normative factor”: Facilitated that organizational commitment base on ethical responsibility, and traditional value of devotion and responsibility. It intended that a worker feel they have liability to organization; they could surrender their individual benefit to stay with the organization. The third “continuity factor”: described that Continuance obligation is the believed monetary worth of enduring with an organization compare to leaving it.

Organization Culture and Employee Organization Commitment

 

Previous studies proved that organization culture directly affected employee organization commitment [18]. “Organizational culture” was an important element of any cooperate business, which contributed to establish expectation, trust, communication between employees and organization as well as build employee organizational commitment. Many other writer gave conclude that there will be probable connection with between organizational culture and employee organizational commitment. In detail, organizational culture tended to influence employees’ work effort and commitment directly. Individuals who fit the organizational culture would commit to organization longer than others and people who worked in a strong culture felt more committed [6]. In addition, studies also signified that there is be probable connection between organizational culture and employee organizational commitment and showed strong relationships between organization culture and employee organizational commitment [20].

Ethical leadership and Employee organization commitment

Previous studies explored that ethical behavior of leader related to lower role conflict, higher satisfaction, which then leads to lower turnover intention and higher organizational commitment [10]. Ethical leadership could affect strongly to the morale and loyalty of employees. The reason was that a leader’s behavior be always viewed as representative of whole organization, and then the leader might impact on employee’s organizational commitment. In another research, there was a positive relationship on the effect of leader’s ethical action on the commitment of employee towards organization [5]. In the same consideration, there were evidences determined that ethical climate significantly related to lower turnover intentions and higher employee commitment [24].

Employee sociability and employee organization commitment

Emotional intelligence was extensively and positively connected to organizational commitment [12]. The consequences indicate that employee sociability, involvement and mission culture have optimistic relations with employees’ organizational commitment [18]. It can also predict crucial work related outcomes such as organizational commitment [11].

Theoretical Framework

 

Hypotheses

 

H1: There is a significant and positively relationship between ethical leadership and employees organization commitment.

H2: There is a significant and positively relationship between organization culture and employee organizational commitment.

H3: Employees sociability significantly mediates the relationship between ethical leadership and employee’s organizational commitment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Methodology

The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the effect of ethical leadership and organization culture on employee organizational commitment with mediating role of employee sociability. Current study is descriptive and quantitative in nature.

Measures

 

Ethical leadership 15 item scale adopted from [30]. Employee Organization Commitment is independent variable and 4 item scale adopted from [22]. Employee sociability is measured by 12 items scale [26]. Organizational culture measured by 5 item scale [19].

Data Collection

 

Simple Random sampling technique was used to collect data. The survey will be delivered directly to 150 full time employees working.

Questions were designed comfortably for respondents. Questions were designed comfortably for respondents.

 

Demographics

Mostly respondents were between the age group of 26-44 whose percentage is 54%. Following to this 38% and 8% were age group of up to 25 and age group of 46-55 respectively. Furthermore respondents were53.3%, 46% and 0.7% belonged to Bachelors’, Masters’ and others category of educational level respectively. 48.7%, 48.7% and 2.7% respondents were doing their jobs as permanent employees, contractual employees and others respectively. 47.3% respondents have 2-5 years length of service and 22%, 19.3% and 11.3% respondents have 5-10 years, up to 1 year and more than 10 years length of service at visited NGOs respectively.

 

 

 

Results

Descriptive, Reliability and Correlation Analysis

Table1

 

Table 1 The above-mentioned table 1 is representing the descriptive statistics, reliability and Pearson correlation among all understudies variables. The highest correlation existed between organization culture and ethical leadership which is valued at 0.421. It is reflecting that ethical leadership and organization culture are positively related with each other with a moderate standard deviation. All other variables named as organization culture, employee sociability are also correlated with each other. The mean values are showing the trend of responses that most of them are laid towards agreeableness. Results indicate that alpha values for all variables are under acceptable range to prove data reliability.

Fit Indices for CFA & SEM

Fit Indices CFA SEM
Chi-square/df 2.91 2.90
P-value .04 .04
GFI .921 .920
AGFI .890 .887
CFI .912 .900
RMSEA .071 .068
     

Table 2

 

Table 2 is presenting the results of model fitness from both CFA and SEM dimensions. Goodness of fit index is given at the first place which represents the variance covariance matrix and as its value is greater than 0.90 so it is declaring a good fit of the model. AGFI is adjusted GFI whose value is greater than 0.8 which is quite good to prove that model is good fit. CFI is representing the comparative fit index which is showing more realistic values that are proving that model is near to absolute fit due to greater than 0.9 values. RMSEA is root mean square error of approximation whose value is lesser than 0.10 so that is also indicating the good fitness of model.

SEM Regression Weights

Table 3

Independent Variables Effects EOC
 

 

EL

 

 

 

Direct Effect .136*
Indirect Effect .423*
Total Effect .581*

 

Direct Effect .226*
OC Indirect Effect .123*
  Total Effect .481*

 

CFA has been utilized for measurement model, while the hypothesis being illustrated would be tested through the SME mediation model. Findings revealed that ethical leadership has significant and positive association with organizational commitment (B= 0.136, P<0.05) and supported to H1. Similarly, results also proved positive and significant association between organizational culture and organizational commitment (B= 0.226, P<0.05) and supported to H2. In addition, findings also purported that employees’ sociability significantly and partially mediate the relationship between ethical leadership and organizational commitment as total effect is 0.581 with p<0.05. Moreover, employees’ sociability also significantly and partially mediate the relationship between organizational culture and organizational commitment as total effect is 0.481 with p<0.05.

Conclusion

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of ethical leadership and organization culture on employee organizational commitment with mediating role of employee sociability. Study results enlightened that ethical leadership and organizational culture play significant role to shape the employees behaviors and outcome. Study result also proposed that employee sociability is important factor that significantly contribute to have positive outcomes. The study result has been show that ethical leadership directly and indirectly influence the employee’s organization commitment. And these finding are supported by previous study [19]. The study result enlightened that ethical leadership directly and indirectly influences the employee’s organization commitment.

Limitations & future directions

 

This study has a few limitations that ought to be recognized. The main constraint of this study is that control of time this research could not get all employees. So, this study can be more precise and perfect by expanding sample size.. We take only NGOs that were working and located in district Gujranwala. For future researcher which is interested to know deeper affect of this model should be build more comprehensive model for this study and broader effect of organization commitment. In addition, this type of research should be conducted in other organization which is relater with ethics and diversify culture.

 

 

References:

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Assessing the Prospects of Green Marketing in India

Dr. Rouf Ahmad Rather

Lecturer

Department of Commerce and Management

Gandhi Memorial College  Srinagar , J & K

Abstract 

The word “eco-friendly” has become a slogan of today’s marketing practices of different companies throughout the world. Green marketing is gaining noteworthy attention from both marketers and consumers. Given that a cautiously crafted green marketing strategy can earn trustworthiness with customers and provide a stage for revenue growth, it’s an area worthy of additional reflection. This paper is an effort to present a picture of green marketing prospects in India.

Key words: Green marketing, Environmentally friendly product, Awareness, India

 

Introduction

Green marketing generally aims to promote eco-friendly products and a safe environment where people could stay. Right now green marketing is widely becoming a phenomenon throughout the world as concerns on our environment have begun to escalate in the past few decades. Every year, the population of people who are turning towards green brands or environmental friendly products are increasing, so, magnifying the phenomenon exponentially. Thus, businesses in almost every industry nowadays are flaunting the “green” features of their products and services in every chance they get. The success, however, of any green marketing strategy is heavily reliant on the consumers it would like to target.

 According to the American Marketing Association, green marketing is the marketing of products that are presumed to be environmentally safe. Thus green marketing incorporates a wide range of activities, including product modification, changes to the production process, packaging modifications, as well as changing advertising. Still defining green marketing is not a simple task where several meanings intersect and contradict each other; an example of this will be the existence of varying social, environmental and retail definitions attached to this term. Other similar terms used are Environmental Marketing and Ecological Marketing.

 According  to Polonsky (1995)’s definition, “Green or Environmental Marketing consists of all activities designed to generate and facilitate any exchanges intended to satisfy human needs or wants, such that the satisfaction of these needs and wants occur, with minimal detrimental impact on the natural environment”. Thus “Green Marketing” refers to holistic marketing concept wherein the production, marketing consumption an disposal of products and services happen in a manner that is less detrimental to the environment with growing awareness about the implications of global warming, non-biodegradable solid waste, harmful impact of pollutants etc., both marketers and consumers are becoming increasingly sensitive to the need for switch in to green products and services. While the shift to “green” may appear to be expensive in the short term, it will definitely prove to be indispensable and advantageous, cost-wise too, in the long run.

Green Marketing Practices in India

Nike is the first among the shoe companies to market itself as green. It is marketing its Air Jordan shoes as environment-friendly, as it has significantly reduced the usage of harmful glue adhesives. Kansai Nerolac Paints has been at the forefront of paint manufacturing for more than 88 years pioneering a wide spectrum of quality paints. Kansai Nerolac has worked on removing hazardous heavy metals from their paints – among this lead being the most prominent metal. Kansai Nerolac does not add any lead or other such heavy metals in its manufacturing process.

Dell has been one of the vendors who focus on producing green IT products. They have a strategy called “Go green with Dell” to sell these products in the market. It also comes in an eco-friendly packaging with a system recycling kit bundled along. Talking about the green commitments of the company, Sameer Garde, Country GM, Dell India, says, “Dell is also actively pursuing green innovations that will be of value in 2009 from data-center efficiency to the use of eco-friendly materials for everything from chassis design to product packaging.

Eco Hotels (Ecotels) is a certification system promoted by Hospitality Valuation Services (HVS) International. This system is based on 5 main criteria: environmental commitment, solid waste management, energy efficiency, water conservation, and employee education/community involvement. In India we have Eco-hotels like Orchid, Rodas, Raintree etc. believing and practicing green marketing. According to Harish Tiwari of Infinity Infomatic Pvt Ltd, a well known distributor, who says, “We don’t find any difficulty in selling green products because the knowledge for these products has increased in us as well in customer. They are ready to pay higher for these products once they convinced.” In May 2007, IBM launched Project Big Green to help clients around the world improve the efficiency of IT and better optimize their data center resources. IBM has software and services technologies to help businesses reduce data center energy consumption and cut energy costs by more than 40 percent.

The Introduction of CNG in New Delhi, the Capital of India, as it was being polluted at a very fast pace until Supreme Court of India forced a change to alternative fuels. In 2002, a directive was issued to completely adopt CNG in all public transport systems to curb pollution. The Gas Tech Electronic Products (Pvt) Ltd. has invented LPG Kit for motorcycles/scooters (4 stroke and 2 stroke).Can be fitted in 50 cc to 375 cc air cooled , single cylinder 2 stroke as well 4 stroke vehicles with cent % fuel efficiency, with clean exhaust and zero pollution.

Significance of Awareness in purchasing of green products

Generally speaking awareness comprises a human’s perception and cognitive reaction to a condition or event. Awareness does not necessarily imply understanding, just an ability to be conscious of, feel or perceive. To create more awareness for the consumers, many companies can be involved in programmes that support the environmentally friendly products. The consumers with respect to high to average level of green product awareness show high to medium level of green buying behavior and consumers having awareness to small degree and not at all show low green buying behavior. Hence there is an urgent need to make consumers aware about green products in order to speed up the green buying behavior among all consumers. (Rouf & Rajendran 2014)

The media are playing a significant role in creating awareness and educating people about the benefits of environment conservation to the society (Lalit & Kanokthip, 1998). In developing awareness of a green product, companies attempt to augment consumer knowledge of the product and its environmental attributes in the hope of bringing about purchase behaviour. But still now the exact nature of the relationship between environmental knowledge and environmentally sensitive behaviour is still to be established (Arbuthnott & Lingg, 1975). Consumer awareness might be useful when the manufacturer’s objective is to overcome resistance to new environmentally safe packages. Advertising of the new advantages and benefits of such products helps its consumers become more aware of the damage to the environment and they tend to change their buying habits. Unless consumers are aware of the advantages of green products, manufacturers‟ effort to introduce this product to the market will be wasted efforts (Kassaye & Dharmeda 1992).

Challenges in adopting Green Marketing 

Implementing Green marketing is not going to be an easy job. The firm has to face many problems while treading the way of Green marketing. Challenges which have to be faced are listed as under:

  • Green marketing encourages green products/services, green technology, green power/energy; a lot of money has to be spent on R&D programmes. So practicing green marketing initially will be a difficult and costly affair.
  • The customers may not believe in the firm’s strategy of Green marketing, the firm therefore should ensure that they convince the customer about their green product, this can be done by implementing Eco-labeling schemes. Eco-labeling schemes offer its “approval” to “environmentally less harmless” products have been very popular in Japan and Europe. In fact the first eco-label programme was initiated by Germany in 1978.
    • in the beginning the profits will be very low since renewable and recyclable products and green technologies are more expensive. So Green marketing will prosperous only in long run.
    • Many customers may not be willing to pay a higher price for green products which may affect the sales of the company.
    • The firms practicing Green marketing have to strive hard in convincing the stakeholders and many a times there may be some who simply may not believe and co-operate.

The Future of Green Marketing

There are many things to be learned to avoid green marketing myopia, the short version of all this is that effective green marketing requires applying good marketing principles to make green products desirable for consumers. The question that remains, however, is, what is green marketing’s future? Business scholars have viewed it as a “fringe” topic, given that environmentalism’s acceptance of limits and conservation does not mesh well with marketing’s traditional axioms of “give customer what they want” and “sell as much as you can”.  Evidence indicates that successful green products have avoided green marketing myopia by following three important principles:

Consumer Value Positioning

  • Design environmental products to perform as well as (or better than) alternatives.
  • Promote and deliver the consumer desired value of environmental products and target relevant consumer market segments.
  • Broaden mainstream appeal by bundling consumer desired value into environmental products.

Calibration of Consumer Knowledge

  • Educate consumers with marketing messages that connect environmental attributes with desired consumer value.
  • Frame environmental product attributes as “solutions” for consumer needs.
  • Create engaging and educational internet sites about environmental products desired consumer value.

Credibility of Product Claim

  • Employ environmental product and consumer benefit claims that are specific and meaningful.
  • Procure product endorsements or eco-certifications from trustworthy third parties and educate consumers about the meaning behind those endorsements and eco-certifications.
  • Encourage consumer evangelism via consumers social and internet communication network with compelling, interesting and entertaining information about environmental products.

Conclusion

 Green marketing covers more than a firm’s marketing claims. While firms must bear much of the responsibility for environmental degradation, the responsibility should not be theirs single-handedly.  Green marketing requires that consumers want a cleaner environment and are willing to “pay” for it, possibly through higher priced goods, modified individual lifestyles, or even governmental involvement. Until this occurs it will be difficult for firms alone to lead the green marketing revolution. It must not be forgotten that the industrial buyer also has the ability to pressure suppliers to modify their activities. Thus an environmental committed organization may not only produce goods that have reduced their harmful impact on the environment, they may also be able to pressure their suppliers to behave in a more environmentally “responsible” fashion.

Green marketing should not be considered as just one more approach to marketing, but has to be pursued with much greater vigour, as it has an environmental and social dimension to it.  And thus green marketing assumes even more prospects and relevance in developing countries like India.

References

Arbuthnott, J. and Lingg, S. (1975). A comparison of French and American environmental behaviours, knowledge and attitudes. International Journal of Psychology, 4(10), 275-

Kassaye. W. Wassen and Dharmeda V.(1992). Balancing Traditional Packaging Functions with the New Green Packaging Concerns. Advanced Management Journal, 57 (4), 15.

Polonsky, M.J. (1995). A stakeholder theory approach to designing environmental marketing

strategy. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing.10 (3), 29‐46.

Lalit M. Johri and Kanokthip S. (1998). Green marketing of cosmetics and toiletries in       Thailand. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 15(3), 265 – 281.

Rouf Ahmad Rather and R Rajendran (2014). A Study on Consumer Awareness of green products and its Impact on Green Buying Behavior, International Journal of Research (IJR), 1 (8), 1483-1493

 

 

How to Write a Brilliant Summary of an Essay

If you are looking for the best tips for the write a good Essay. The mostly to young people face the essential not only to read and memorize some in order but also to summarize several articles varying from short essays to giant papers which should be represented in more than a few lines of the text. Because of that, I wouldn’t think twice over looking for someone to write my paper for cheap and order it at https://dissertationhelp.com/write-my-dissertation.html However, the main problem which students have to manage with is writing a brief summary of the learnt matter. Maybe, you are the one who undervalue such college tasks and choose a creative approach to writing. Take into account that abbreviation is not that simple. According to information, students drop into the same take again and again. Thus, there are some well-organized tips for this type of work below.

Essay writing

Highlighting

The primary step in abbreviation the material is certainly reading. However, only a small part of students know that it is not enough to simply read the essay in order to create a perfect to the point summarization. It happens that youthful people waste hours on reading but do not get the main idea of the bits and pieces or miss essential information.

The quick and easy solution to this problem is highlighting the most significant facts. Take a pen and underline the essential concepts presented in the text. Thus, there will be no need to reread it thousands of times. The interior of your abbreviation will be ready thanks to this simple step. It is a pretty good idea to place behind the main concepts of the essay you have just read. In this way, you will be able to remember these things even weeks later without misplaced anything important.

Generalize

The usual fault which students make in summarizing the piece of writing are adding too many unimportant details which may be misplaced, so the common sense will remain unchanged and clear. It is a huge mistake to create the summarization full of pointless words and sentences which do not carry the essential meaning and cannot help the reader to understand the wording. Keep in mind that overview is an important stage in summarizing any type of writing. You should be able to cut the text and ease all minor things. It happens that some pages may be summed up in a few sentences if you find the crucial ideas which the writer tries to deliver in his or her essay.

Be Careful with Quotes

There are no fears that quotes are important for most of the types of papers. At the similar time, it is important to be careful while quote no matter which from the original source in the summarization. The main purpose of such kind of work is there a paraphrased and edited version of the material you read but not writing a new dissertation with references to this information. Sometimes many references make the summarization look long-winded and meaningless. The reader will not be able to find out the main message of a exacting article while reading such summarizing. It is better to avoid the direct references of the text and put back them with brief paraphrasing.

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Role of RTI in SBI

NEELAM TRIPATHI

Faculty, Department of Management

Mewar Institute of Management, Ghaziabad

 

Role of RTI in SBI
Role of RTI in SBI

ABSTRACT

India is a democratic nation. Here government and financial institutions work framed by the people, of the people and for the people. Even in our preamble of constitution it is clearly mentioned that here all citizens are totally secure and they must receive equality of status and opportunity, justice, having liberty of thought and expression and the dignity of the every individual is assures. So every citizen is legally having right of transparency and accountability of government overall system including banking sector also. These research papers contain analysis of the implementation status of RTI in Indian banking sector with special reference in State Bank of India. Bank is a financial institution which works for the general public. Its functioning is to accept deposits and saving of a common man and also allow them lending or credit facilities. The basic resource of banking sector is collected from the Indian citizen, it is the duty of banking sector to handle this resources very carefully and ensure their proper utilization. Even bank must create transparency and proper accountability in their process, for getting less chances for corruption. Even a lot of people do not know that  any bank may public sector or private sector come under RTI and if customer  have any issues with them, they can file a RTI against them and get any kind of information. Till now there is a need of awareness in Indian citizens to understand RTI and  file RTI to get any information they need. Information which is available in any form material in banking sector comes under RTI. It includes records, documents, memos, e-mails, opinions, advices, press releases, circulars, orders, logbooks, contracts, reports, papers, samples, models, data material held in any electronic form. It also includes information relating to any private body which can be accessed by the public authority under any law for the time being in force. The present era of globalization and highly competativeness, public bodies are also spreading  their wings speedly to become global brands rather in corporate field or banking industry in which State Bank of India possess good reputation in all over the world basically it covers maximum developed countries . Due to heavy involvement of public functions in banking sector, it is vital to fix their accountability and responsibility towards their customers.

Keywords: Right to information, State Bank of India, financial institute, globalization.

Introduction

The Right to Information Act was introduced in the year 2005, it replaced the Freedom of Information Act, 2002. The motive behind the introduction of this act was to set up a government system to provide information to the citizen of the country. It was for the betterment of the right to information. Under this any citizen can ask for information from any public authority, and the public authority is oblige to provide the information within thirty days. It makes compulsive to public authority for maintaining  a computerized record, so it is easier to provide information to anyone who is seeking it. But the earlier times, the information disclosure was restricted in India under the Official Secrets Act, 1923 and some other laws. But by the introduction of the RTI Act these restrictions were loosened up. This Act was passed by the Parliament in June 2005 and came into force from October 2005. it was a central Act. One thing is very interesting about this act was that before its lawfully act by the central government it was already in forced at the state level some of the well known examples are in 1997 Tamil Nadu and Goa, Karnataka and Rajasthan in 2001, Delhi in 2001, Maharashtra and Assam in 2002, MP in 2003, Jammu and Kashmir in 2004, and Haryana in 2005.

Under the RTI act Indian Legislature did not include private bodies directly. But due to public demand or under various different type of circumstances they bound to put certain part of this private regulatory bodies under their authority one of the landmark judicial pronouncement of Sarabjit Roy v. Delhi Electricity Regulatory Commission (1) it was reaffirmed by the Central Information Commission that privatized utility companies are also included under the umbrella of the RTI Act, regardless of their privatization. After studying various blogs and news article one of the finding came out that till now a general public have misunderstanding that those entities which are getting subsidies or are funded by the government are comes under the purview of the RTI Act. But the hidden fact is that any private bodies can falls under the RTI whether or not they are substantially funded or aided by the government. Private entities are fall under the range of the RTI Act by their registration under any public authority through which it comes. An individual can gain any information from a private body, just by identifying the concern Public Authority with whom the private entity is registered. As banks are register themselves through the Reserve Bank of India whether private or public bank and their regulatory functions are comes under RBI and Co-operative Societies register themselves through Deputy Registrar of Co-operative Societies.

Objective of Research:

  • To select the India’s no.1 bank and find out its course of action and responses towards public under RTI.
  • To focus the essential feature of RTI in India’s renowned and must trustable bank i.e, SBI.
  • To find out the relationship of banking sectors with RTI.
  • To create attention of customer towards their right and duties in public sector bank with special reference of SBI

Data Collection:

All the study has been based on secondary data from the website, published news paper articles, court orders related with banking and financial institutions and blogs of renowned authors.

Structure of RTI in the State Bank of India

  • Central Assistant Public Information Officer (CAPIO) These officers send the application or appeal to the Central Public Information Officer or the concerned Appellate Authority for disposal. An Assistant Public Information Officer is not responsible for supply of any information.
  • Central Public Information Officer (CPIO)Central Public Information Officers are responsible for giving information to a person who seeks information under the RTI Act.
  • Appellate Authority (A A)If an applicant is not supplied information within the prescribed time of thirty days or 48 hours, as the case may be, or is not satisfied with the information furnished to him, he may prefer an appeal to the First Appellate Authority who is an officer senior in rank to the Central Public Information Officer.

 

RTI Applicability in SBI

  • Application format :There is no prescribed format of application  is given in RTI Act. The applicant  can use plain paper which  should contain the name and complete postal address of the applicant. However  in cases  information is sought electronically, the application should contain the name and postal address of the applicant. The mode of  application should be  English or Hindi or in the official language of the area in which the application is being made, accompanied by the prescribed fee and specifying the particulars of the information sought.
  • RTI Fee : The RTI fee is to be paid by Demand Draft or Bankers Cheque or IPO in the name of ‘State Bank of India’ and payable at the centre where CPIO is located. Or in other condition  applicant may deposit the prescribed fee in the ‘P & T Charges Recovered Account’ at any branch of the State Bank of India and will attach counterfoil thereof in original with the application / request while forwarding it to the CPIO / CAPIO. A specially designed voucher has been rescribed by the Bank for depositing the RTI fee / additional fee.

Format for the voucher is:

Application Fee
Application fees ……………………. Rs. 10/-
Additional fee – as cost of information
a. Rupees two for each page (in A-4 or A-3 size paper) created or copied.
b. Actual charge or cost price of a copy in large size paper
c. Actual cost or price for samples or models
d. Information provided in diskette or floppy rupees fifty per diskette or floppy
e. Information provided in printed form at the price fixed for such publication or rupees two per page of photocopy for extracts from the publication.

sources: www.sbi.co.in

Types of   information can be taken  from the SBI under RTI

Section 4(1)(b) of the Right to Information Act, 2005

Section 4(1)(b) Information to be published under the Act
(i) The particulars of the organisation, functions and duties
(ii) The powers and duties of its officers and employees
(iii) The procedure followed in the decision making process, including channels of supervision and accountability
(iv) Norms set by the Bank for the discharge of its functions
(v) Rules, regulations, instructions, manuals and records, held by the Bank or under its control or used by its employees for discharging its functions
(vi) Statement of Categories of Documents that are held by the Reserve Bank or under its Control
(vii) Particulars of any arrangement that exists for consultation with, or representation by, the members of the public in relation to the formulation of its policy or implementation thereof
(viii) List of Boards, Councils, Committees and other bodies consisting of two or more persons constituted as its part or for the purpose of its advice, and as to whether meetings of those boards, councils, committees and other bodies are open to the public, or the minutes of such meetings are accessible for public
(ix) A directory of its officers and employees
(x) Monthly remuneration received by its officers and employees, including the system of compensation as provided in its regulations
(xi) The budget allocated to each of its agency, indicating the particulars of all plans, proposed expenditures and reports on disbursements made
(xii) Not applicable
(xiii) Particulars of recipients of concessions, permits or authorisations granted
(xiv) Details in respect of the information, available to or held by it, reduced in an electronic form
(xv) The particulars of facilities available to citizens for obtaining information, including the working hours of a library or reading room, if maintained for public use
(xvi) Names, designations and other particulars of Public Information Officers

                                                  Sources: www.rbi.org.in

Any citizen of country has a right to seek information from any public authority which works for the benefit of public and under its control. This right includes work inspection, any documents and records; taking notes, certified copies of documents and records also consider any certified samples of material held by or under control the public authority. One thing  is important about the seeking information  under the Act  is that  it allow only those information , which already exists and is held by the public authority or held under the control of the public authority. The Central Public Information Officer has no right to create information; or to interpret information; or to solve the problems raised by the applicants; or to furnish replies to hypothetical questions. Even any citizen has a right to obtain information from a public authority which already stored in computer or other device or in e-mail  in the form of diskettes, floppies, tapes, video cassettes or in any other electronic mode or through print-outs provided. An applicant can received information ordinarily in the form in which it is sought. However, if the supply of information would disproportionately or divert the resources of the public authority or may cause harm to the safety or preservation of the records, that form of information may be denied by the public authority. The CPIO should not re-shape the information.

Information which is not to be Disclose under RTI (Exempted information)

The Act provides under Sections 8 and 9, certain categories of information that are exempt from disclosure to the citizens. The following categories of information are exempt from disclosure under Section 8(1)

a. information, disclosure of which would prejudicially affect the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security, strategic, scientific or economic interests of the State, relation with foreign State or lead to incitement of an offence.
b. information which has been expressly forbidden to be published by any court of law or tribunal or the disclosure of which may constitute contempt of court;
c. information, the disclosure of which would cause a breach of privilege of Parliament or the State Legislature;
d. information including commercial confidence, trade secrets or intellectual property, the disclosure of which would harm the competitive position of a third party, unless the competent authority is satisfied that larger public interest warrants the disclosure of such information;
e. information available to a person in his fiduciary relationship, unless the competent authority is satisfied that the larger public interest warrants the disclosure of such information;
f. information received in confidence from foreign Government;
g. information, the disclosure of which would endanger the life or physical safety of any person or identify the source of information or assistance given in confidence for law enforcement or security purposes;
h. information which would impede the process of investigation or apprehension or prosecution of offenders;
i. cabinet papers including records of deliberations of the Council of Ministers, Secretaries and other officers;
j. information which relates to personal information the disclosure of which has no relationship to any public activity or interest, or which would cause unwarranted invasion of the privacy of the individual;

                                                                              Sources: www.sbi.co.in

Rules for the prescribed time limit or disposal  and Appeals Requests:

S.No Situation Time limit for disposing off applications
1. Supply of information in normal course 30 days
2. Supply of information if it concerns the life or liberty of a person 48 hours
3. Supply of information if the application is received through CAPIO 05 days shall be added to the time period indicated at Sr. NO.1 and 2.
4. Supply of information if application / request is received after transfer from another public authority:

(a) In normal course

(a) Within 30 days of the receipt of the application by the concerned public Authority.
(b) In case the information concerns the life or liberty of a person. (b) Within 48 hours of receipt of the application by the concerned public authority
5. Supply of information if it relates to third party and the third party has treated it as confidential. Should be provided after following the procedure given in Section 11 of the RTI Act.
6. Supply of information where the applicant is asked to pay additional fee. The period intervening between informing the applicant about additional fee and the payment of fee by the applicant shall be excluded for calculating the period of reply.

                                                                                       Sources: www.sbi.co.in

Prescribed rules for Appeals :

  • In the normal case the appeal should be disposed off within 30 days of receipt of the appeal.
  • In exceptional cases, the Appellate Authority has a power to take 45 days for its disposal with considering reasons for which it recorded.

Acceptance and rejection of RTI applications in SBI and other Banks

There were data taken from the RTI foundation of India website which the present analysis of RTI application in Banking sector and it gives last data updated up to 2012-13. It present that Only three Banks, Bank of Maharashtra, State Bank of India and Bank of India, showing  a trend of increasing  number of RTI applications  in 2012-13 in comparison to 2011-12. In which Bank of Maharashtra recorded the highest increase in no. of application received it was more than 25%. On the other hand data of 17 other Banks has shows decreased data of RTI requests in 2012-13 in comparison of previous year. On the other hand, both State Bank of India  which having top NPA grosser amongst the 20 Banks and Bank of India which is the 3rd largest bank  witnessed a slight growth in the number of RTI applications received and  they also shown slight declining  in the percentage rejected  RTI applications in 2012-13 as compared to 2011-12. But the trends of rejection rate studied more than doubled in Allahabad Bank, United Bank, UCO Bank and the Bank of Baroda in 2012-13.  Even a Corporation Bank which did not reject any RTI application in 2011-12, had rejected more than one third of its RTI applications received in 2012-13. This study focused that Rejection rates trends were showing decreased rate in 2012-13 in the Bank of India, Indian Bank and Vijaya Bank as compared to the previous year. The latest NPA figures for Banks as in March 2014 on the RBI website despite are not available.

There was article presented by Chetan Chauhan in Hindustan Times, New Delhi, has presented an analysis which is presented by one of the Delhi based advocacy group containing over 80,000 applications who filed under the Right To Information Act against 24 major public sector undertaking (PSU) banks it shows huge percentage of rate of rejection increased in 2015-16 as compared to the previous 3 years. It shows approximate 50% rejection rates of the public sector banks. Which is strongly a sign of indication that the banks are more reluctant for providing the information sought. These 24 banks, were blamed for the transparency related to governance constraint enacted law in 2005, reportedly about 40% of the RTI applications filed with the finance ministry. A Reserve Bank of India appointed PJ Nayak committee had cited RTI as one of the “constraints” on the governance in the banks.

This committee has also find out that on the total number of application received by the bank, most of the applications are related with the information of non-performing assets and others are related with the discrepancies of applicants regarding bank account and reasons for not opening an account. According to Nayak committee review related to the RTI load on public sector banks, it was presented that each bank is receiving the average applications in its branch is not more than 2. This committee has projected the debunking constraint theory of banking sector. He supported this theory with  a argument basis  that most banks have sufficient staff to deal with rising RTI applications received and taking suitable action on that  but banks are  reluctant to provide information citing constraint on resources. Even this committee has cleared in its report that there is no any co-relation between non-performing assets of the banking industries and the volume of the RTI applications filed. The banks had opposed RTI applications seeking information about loan defaults citing privacy provisions but the Supreme Court in 2016 directed them to provide information citing larger public interest. Among the banks, the State Bank of India received one-third of the total information requests followed by the Punjab National Bank and Bank of Baroda.

One of the most adorable article was  Written by Utkarsh Anand | Amitabh Sinha & Ravish Tiwari New Delhi | Published: December 17, 2015,  As On 16th December 2015 the supreme court of India strictly bounded the apex body of banking sector i.e., RBI regarding giving up the information by private and public sector banks under the RTI should be taken as the action of trying to covering up the banking action of underhand from the public gaze . A bench of Justices M Y Eqbal and C Nagappan has mentioned that “RBI is supposed to uphold public interest and not the interest of individual banks. We have summarized that many financial institutions have resorted to such acts which are neither clean nor transparent. The RBI in association with them has been trying to cover up their acts from public scrutiny”. Even this committee has given very strong verdict about the RBI attitude toward ignorance of various orders of Central Information Commission and high courts over suspicious disclosure of information relating to banks.

Even court has totally rejected RBI’s arguments for fiduciary relationship with other bank and withholding them to disclose various such informations those will be exempted under the RTI Act and it is also clearly mentioned by the court that RBI is not legally authorize to create fiduciary relationship with any bank or to maximize the benefits of any public or private sector banks. It is the statutory duty of RBI is to uphold the public interest priority basis. It must be act with transparency without hiding any information and give full disclosure all the informations seek by any applicant.

Conclusion:

After reading various articles I came on this conclusion that RTI is a powerful tool in the hand of every citizen and it would deliver significant social benefits. It gives a strong support to the national democracy, provide good governance by empowering the rights of citizens to participate effectively and hold the government officials accountable. This act is not made for just providing the  information only, as in most of the countries it act as an effective watchdog  which ensure that everyone is coming in purview of the Act to work in accordance with rules and regulations, without any irregularities. However, it should be strictly require to implement not only political or government authorities but also on active civil societies and private authorities .Currently, the RTI Act is implemented in India and accepted by the peoples but it is passing through a decisive phase, it strongly require very much more efforts to increase its growth and development. Only doing protest against the lack of implementation of this law alone is not sufficient, even it requires encouragement for the intiatator for its full implementataion, growth  and better result. As currently as per court verdict RBI must be fully support the common people, national economy and government by accepting the full norms of RTI and to create transparency and quick response towards applicants.

Limitations:

  • Unavailability of any previous study which has been conducted to find out the role of RTI and its effective functioning in banking sector.
  • As in this research availability of published data from State bank of India is not available. All data has been taken from the website of well known authors of renowned newspapers.
  • Relevancy of data has not be supported by any authorized published data. Insufficient  availability of current data related to RTI applications  position in SBI.

Suggestions:

Some of the recommendations regarding the role of RTI in banking sector are mentioned below:

  • This act needs more clarification for implementation of specific provisions .As it require step by step action detail for each specific provision.
  • As India is well technofied and having good strength of educated people but till now there is a huge requirement of Mass awareness campaign at Central and state levels. The main objective behind this awareness program is to increase public interest and knowledge about their right to informantion from any public authority, to encourage citizen involvement; and also to increase transparency within the government system.
  • To compulsion all public authorities and training institutions for the incorporation and implementation of training module based on RTI in all training programs related with public awareness.
  • To Develop a consensus on a common set of rules and norms that would enable and encourage public to  apply for information from residing in one state from any other state, rather than going firstly to  study and understand the rules of each state and competent authority separately.

Reference:

  1. Application No: CIC/WB/A/2006/00011 (Right to Information Act – Section 19). 2006
  2. http://asiafoundation.org/2011/09/28/right-to-information-in-india-an-effective-tool-to-tackle-corruption/
  3. http://www.rtifoundationofindia.com/analysis-rti-applications-filed-banking-sector#.WSaQ92ecHIV
  4. https://www.sbi.co.in/portal/web/corporate-governance/right-to-information-act-2005
  5. https://blog.ipleaders.in/right-information-applicable-private-sector/
  6. https://www.rbi.org.in/Scripts/Righttoinfoact.aspx
  7. http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/rti-rejection-rate-in-most-public-sector-banks-increased-in-2015-16/story-baIUPbM9DfwGXLnSCzo51M.html
  8. http://indianexpress.com/article/business/business-others/rbi-must-disclose-all-info-about-banks-under-rti-supreme-court/

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