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Dr. Shankar Chatterjee
Professor & Head (CPME)
NIRD & PR, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 0030, Telangana, India
The paper was presented at the Expert Group Seminar on “Crop Insurance Policy for Madhya Pradesh” (16-17 May 2015) held at Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University of Social Sciences, Mhow, Madhya Pradesh. The article is the revised version of the paper. In this paper for the benefit of farmers some issues have been covered. An analysis has been made how agricultural marketing has been carried out by the self-help group members in Telangana so that farmers get their due price and marginal and small farmers’ group as studied by the author in Karnataka has been presented here. A case of creation of water –bodies on individual agricultural land of marginal and small farmers’ land from Bankura district of West Bengal under MGNREGS which changed economic life of many farmers is presented here. In addition, the author by observing crop like ‘teff’ in Eritrea, and vegetables like avocado, artichoke and asparagus grown in Peru has suggested that, attempt may be made to grow such vegetables and crop, in our country as these vegetables are having high price in international market and teff is good for health and also can sustain in semi-arid area.
Key words: Farmers, Hapa, SHG, Teff and Vegetables.
Mahatma Gandhiji once said, “India lives in her villages”. Still today it holds good as Indian culture, food, society, etc., can be observed only in rural India. But among these, most important is that the occupation of the villagers as the villagers in India is earning their livelihood mainly through agriculture and allied activities. According to 2011 Census, of the total population of India 121 crore, 83.3 crore live in rural areas while 37.7 crore people reside in urban areas which in relative term can be said 70 per cent of the country’s population lives in rural areas. The state wise data reveal that Uttar Pradesh is much ahead while maximum number of people living in rural areas is considered – 15.5 crore. Against the backdrop, Mumbai tops the list as five crore people live in urban areas. Agriculture provides employment to 56 per cent of the Indian workforce where as its contribution to the gross Domestic Product is around 15 percent. Again, looking at the land holding data it is observed that as per 2010-11 of the total holdings of 137757 numbers, marginal holding constituted 92356 numbers (67%), smallholding-24705 (18%), Semi-medium-13840 (10%), medium -5856 (4%) and large holding-1000 (1%). The statistics further divulge that marginal holdings had increased substantially over a period of time i.e. from 64.8 percent (83694 nos.) in 2000-01 to 92356 numbers (67%) in 2010-11. Against the backdrop, in case of all other holdings, the same has declined (NIRD&PR, 2015). The farmers’ problems in India mainly lie with marginal and small farmers. In this regard one important news item from the Times of India (18 April 2014) may be referred which is mainly findings of a research study carried out by the British researchers.
“British researchers have said they have found few of the main reasons behind India’s farmer suicides. Investigations by researchers from the Cambridge University’s Department of Sociology and University College London’s Department of Political Science has found that rates of suicide are highest in areas with the most debt-ridden farmers who are clinging to tiny smallholdings – less than one hectare – and are trying to grow cash crops such as cotton and coffee that are highly susceptible to global price fluctuations. Farmers at highest risk have three characteristics: those that grow cash crops such as coffee and cotton; those with ‘marginal’ farms of less than one hectare; and those with debts of Rs 300 or more. States in which these characteristics are most prevalent had the highest suicide rates. These characteristics accounted for almost 75% of the variability in state-level suicides”.
The news item has further quoted one Sri Kennedy, a researcher, “Small scale farmers who cultivate capital-intensive cash crops – which are subject to massive price fluctuations – are particularly vulnerable to accruing debts they can’t repay. Many male farmers – who are traditionally responsible for a household’s economic well-being – resort to suicide because they can’t support their families”. According to the researchers, “In Gujarat, where cash crops are mainly cultivated on large-scale farms have low suicide rates”.
This review discussion has shown the path that small holders experimenting with capital intensive cash crops have been suffering and finally many of them committed suicide. So to prevent suicide, I feel ‘prevention is better than cure’ which in details are discussed here.
In the Twelve Plan Document issues related to agriculture has been explicitly analyzed. By quoting from the plan document it may be stated that “The average farm sector growth in the Eleventh Plan period may be a little over 3.0 per cent. This is a marked improvement from the average growth of about 2.0 per cent during the Tenth Plan period. ……Since agriculture is a State subject, the Centre will have to work hand in hand with the States to bring coherence in policies and strategies. Seeds and irrigation are the priority areas, which can be catalysts for raising productivity on the supply side. On the demand side, there is urgent need to remove most of the controls that have denied a unified and seamless all India market for most agri-products (12th Plan document).
Another important point to be noted is that for development of agriculture judicious use of water is sine qua non. “Agriculture accounts for 80.0 per cent of water needs at present, and there is considerable scope for increasing efficiency of water use in this area. This requires better management of water in areas of large and medium irrigation projects. It also requires putting in place more holistic aquifer management strategies” (ibid).
For the minimum price support of the farmers, an innovative model developed in the undivided Andhra Pradesh is presented here as well as crop diversification is also suggested from the two countries, in addition a case of development of water conservation measure from West Bengal. The based on feasibility as well as local situation, the Government of Madhya Pradesh may implement in the nook and corner of the villages of the State at least in distress districts like Annupur, Ashoknagar, Balaghat, Betul etc. It may be mentioned that according to the Report of the Expert Group on Agricultural Indebtedness (Banking division, Dept. of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Govt. Of India, July 2007), out of 100 agriculturally less developed and distressed districts in India, in Madhya Pradesh there are 18 districts .
As the State is having the Madhya Pradesh State Co-operative Marketing Federation, popularly known as MP Markfed which is an APEX body of Marketing Co-operative Societies established in 1956, a registered body under the Madhya Pradesh State Cooperative Societies Act, 1960 so it can play a lead role for minimum price support to the farmers. MP Markfed was setup with the objective of purchase, sale and distribution of agriculture related commodities like fertilizer, seed, pesticide, agriculture machineries and procurement of food grains under minimum support price schemes from primary agriculture credit co-operative societies, marketing co-operative societies and farmers in the NeGP-Agriculture Mission Mode Project Software Requirement Specifications Madhya Pradesh State Agricultural Portal remote areas (NeGP, 12). Markfed has a vast marketing network comprising of 7 zonal offices, 41 district offices and 426 distribution centres at 244 different locations and supported by 280 Marketing Societies and 4526 Primary Agricultural Credit Co-operative Societies.
In view of this it is suggested that MP Markfed should come forward and through self-help groups (SHGs) minimum price support to farmers as observed in Telangana may be initiated.
To provide farmers with minimum price support for their produce, Andhra Pradesh Government (undivided, now a part is Telangana) under its organization viz., Society for Elimination of Rural Poverty (SERP) initiated innovative steps through self-help groups (SHGs) from 2000. Even after creation of Telangana, SERP has been crated separately both for Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. However, SERP worked on a comprehensive multi-dimensional poverty alleviation strategy by focusing equally on the ‘Livelihoods Value Chain and Human Development Indicators’. Keeping this in mind, SERP of undivided Andhra Pradesh worked on a unique structure of community based organization by organizing 11.4 million rural women into 1.27 million SHGs, 38646 Village Organizations, 1098 Mandal Samakhyas (Mandal Federation i.e. cluster of villages)and 22 Zilla Samakhyas (District Federation (serp.ap.gov.in).
Regarding price support to the farmers, the procurement and marketing of the agricultural goods were meticulously planned by establishing procurement centers through Village Organizations (VOs, federation of SHGs at village level) under the umbrella of SERP so that marginal and small farmers get remunerative prices. It is pertinent to mention that maize and paddy were the two major crops which farmers used to sell as observed in the field by the author. Initially in 2004-05, procurement at village level was started with maize and observing its success, Andhra Pradesh Civil Supplies Corporation was entrusted the responsibility of procurement of paddy from 2005-06 through Village Organization. And every year specific dates (average 45 days duration each in Kharif and Rabi) were notified and willing famers can sell their goods through SHGs which is very transparent. The major objectives of marketing support through SHGs inter alia, were:
Initially marketing efforts were initiated with the procurement of Neem fruit in one Mandal and red-gram dal in five Mandals in 2001 of Mahabubnagar district, (then Andhra Pradesh now Telangana) subsequently the process was spread over to 21 districts of undivided Andhra Pradesh involving 50 items purchased through Village Organizations (VOs). And later on maize and paddy were included. To get an idea about the benefits reached to the farmers following table may be seen at a glance.
Although table is self-explanatory but few important points as observed from the table are:
Case: This study was carried out in last week of December 2012 at Eklaspur village, Manthani mandal, Karimnagar district of then Andhra Pradesh now Telangana. In Eklaspur village, the marketing Centre was meant for procurement of paddy as in the village and nearby areas mainly paddy is cultivated. During the time of visit, Meghna Village Organization (as there were two VOs and each year one VO is given the task) was assigned the task. As a part of marketing system the farmers had to bring paddy at their own cost at the Centre, in addition they have to pay at the rate of Rs. 20 per quintal, if the labourers upload/download paddy who are normally available at the site. Before coming to the Centre, each farmer was given a token mentioning the date for selling the paddy in order to avoid chaos. The Eklaspur village Centre started its operation from 7 November 2012 and closed on 4 January 2013, except Sundays all the days were open for operation. For smooth functioning of the activities like other cases, 5-member committee from the members of VO was formed to oversee marketing process and each was assigned a specific task and in addition 2 more members – 1 as book-keeper and 1 Community Resource Person (CRP) – were also involved and thus 7 persons were involved in the process here. Except one male Community Resource Person (CRP), all were women indicating activities were carried out by the women. The job of CRP was to verify the paddy bags with their numbers while uploading to the trucks meant for rice mill vis-a-vis monitoring the movement of trucks till it reaches to the rice-mill. The functioning of the 5 members was- first member checked quality of paddy, confirmation of farmers’ name etc. Second member was maintaining records of gunny bags etc. Third member was supervising weight of paddy and its proper bagging etc. Fourth member was in-charge of loading in the trucks, transportation, truck-sheet maintenance, etc. Fifth member’s important assignment was issuing cheques to the farmers. Generally postdated cheques were given to the farmers for 4-5 days duration. It is pertinent to mention that two grades of paddy were procured – Grade-A variety, price of which was Rs. 1280 per quintal and another was Grade-B variety, price was Rs 1250 for one quintal. For carrying out the activities, each one was paid at the rate of Rs. 200 per day and rough calculation shows each was earning minimum of Rs. 10000 in one season which was their additional income. Moreover some local labourers also were involved in the process and they were earning good amount for loading/uploading. After closing of the Centre on 4 January 2013, data were collected from DRDA and observed that altogether 555 farmers sold their paddy in the Centre and total quantity of paddy sold was 28542 quintals (Grade-A was 3179 quintals & Grade-B was 25363 quintals). In monetary term, total value was Rs. 3,57,72870 – for Grade-A the amount was Rs. 40,69120 and for Grade-B, the value was Rs. 3,170,3750. Total commission generated by the VO was to the tune of Rs. 894322. Total expenditure incurred by the VO was to the tune of Rs. 2.20 lakh and thus the VO could earn a net profit of Rs. 7,74,322 (Chatterjee, 2014).
Issues related to Marginal & Small farmers: Sufferings of Indian farmers can be attributed to many factors inter alia, of which are non-availability of timely loan, marketing of products etc. According to the All India Debt and Investment Survey (AIDIS), the share of total debt of cultivator-households taken from formal sources fell from 64 per cent in 1992 to 57 per cent in 2003. In the same period, the share of total debt taken from money lenders almost doubled from 10.5 per cent to 19.6 per cent, (Agriculture Today 2012). By quoting from the Agriculture Today journal 2012 (March issue), it may be stated that “Money lenders continue to be the base of Indian agriculture”.
In this paper, measures taken by an NGO viz. Shri Kshethra Dharmasthala Rural Development Project (SKDRDP) to improve economic condition of marginal and small farmers is presented. This study was carried out by the author in 2010 directly contacting the NGO and the farmers. The NGO, SKDRDP in Karnataka by forming 5-8 small/ marginal farmers in a self-help group has proved that their economic condition can be improved to a great extent. The experiment was started in 1991 with the change of concept from charity to self-help. The marginal and small farmers (5 to 8 farmers) by forming self-help group under the banner of ‘Pragathibandhu’ (meaning farmers’ friend) by SKDRDP work together for their agricultural development. Based on sustainability of the groups, the SKDRDP extends loan to them with easy rate of interest. In addition, farmers can borrow from bank also, if they desire. Important point under ‘Pragathibandhu’ is free sharing of labour which means each member in a group has to work in others land one day in a week at free of cost and thus in rotation agricultural land of all the members are cultivated.
Although the table is self-explanatory, but regarding value of labour sharing, it may be mentioned that an amount of Rs 733.70 crore of money could be saved by the marginal & small farmers by sharing the free labour under Pragathibandhu. Labour sharing not only helped small and marginal farmers to save some amount but it facilitated to develop fraternity among the group members. The filed study by the author divulged that marginal and small farmers were earlier surviving on hand to mouth by growing only paddy and vegetables and after forming SHG, their quality of life has been changed and almost all of them had TV, refrigerator, gobar gas plant, solar light etc. Regarding growing of crops it was observed that in addition to cultivating paddy and vegetables, other crops like are areca nut and coconut, black pepper, jasmine flower etc., were also grown. To get an idea about the Pragathibandhu,
Sometimes in a dry area a single input can transform life of marginal farmers and this case is from a poor and backward district of West Bengal namely Bankura. The district is spread over to an area of 6,882 square kilometers with a total population of around 36 lakh as per 2011 census. The district is drought prone and due to undulating, lateritic, & porous soil moisture content at subsoil level is low. Due to low irrigation facility cropping intensity on average was 147 percent. Average size of land holding was 1.02 acre and 67 percent of the holding was around 0.53 acre. In view of this, district officials decided and designed under the guidance of an NGO viz., ‘Pradan’ construction of hapa (water tank with average size of – 60x40x12 feet) on individual land belonging to below Poverty Line families (BPL) of marginal and small farmers. These were constructed under Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) through Gram Panchayat and hapas are mainly meant for water conservation approach as well as provide gainful employment MGNREGS workers. It is pertinent to mention that the length, width and depth of one hapa are 60 feet, 40 feet and 10-12 feet respectively and an amount of Rs 48,000 to Rs. 55,000 is required ( as per 2014-15 prices) where around 400 person-days of employment can be created.
The author visited the district as a part of NIRD&PR’s ‘Village Adoption Study’ in three phases – 2012, 2013 and 2015 and observed, after constructing of hapas economic condition of the farmers has been improved. As an example case from one GP, is presented here. At Biradih village of Hirbandh block, Bankura district the data provided by MGNREGS Cell of West Bengal, Government reveal that for 35 households, mostly belonging to marginal farmers as well as marginalized community, were provided with one hapa each benefitting land area of 30 acres by doing irrigation. The marginal farmers’ income on an average in each season went up to Rs. 25000 as plenty of vegetables like tomato, brinjal etc., are cultivated in addition to paddy. Further, water harvesting structure also has facilitated to cultivate fish. To get an idea one Akul Bawri (SC) having slight less than 2 hectares of land was contacted. He informed that before provided with the hapa in 2009-10, maintenance of his family was an issue as sequel he had to migrate to nearby districts for about 3 months. After getting hapa, his income not only scaled up but all the three children were extended good education as they were admitted in a hostel. He no longer was migrating in other districts for livelihood. With net yearly of around Rs. 80,000 he almost regularly consumed fish as fish and rice are favourate diet of the Bengalis.
This case is from a South American country namely Peru where uncommon crops like artichoke, asparagus, avocado etc., were grown and author while visited in May, 2013 observed marginal and small farmers earning substantial amount by cultivating these crops. Such crops on experiment basis may be taken up in the State for the benefit of small and marginal farmers.
Peru is a country with 29 million people spread over to an area of 1,285,216 square kilometers is situated on the Pacific coast of South America. While coffee remains Peru’s most important agricultural export crop, however, more than 60 percent of all agricultural exports are fruits and vegetables in recent years of which asparagus is the largest fruit and vegetable exported from Peru. According to the statistics, Peru’s fruit and vegetable exports were close to U.S. $1.2 billion in 2009, which scaled up from $60 million in 1990. Since 1990, exports have increased at an average annual rate of 16 percent. In the following table, some selected items which are exported in different countries are presented for the interest of readers.
It is suggested here that Government of Madhya Pradesh may initiate to grow such crops if feasible, in the state.
With the increase in population in India demand for food grains has been increasing. On the other hand, because of less rainfall, inelastic supply of agricultural land etc. need of the hour is to experiment to cultivate new crops which require less rain and nutritious also. In this article, based on author’s experience cultivation of teff of which injera (looks like our Indian dosa but big in size) is prepared is discussed. This food is consumed by the people of Eritrea (even in Ethiopia) as staple food. The author stayed two years in Eritrea during late 2000 and studied importance of this crop inter alia, with his teaching job. Eritrea is located in northeastern Africa and it has a land area of 125,000 square kilometers and an estimated population was 42 lakh.
The crop teff is uncommon to Indians albeit, it is the staple food of the people of Eritrea. Recently farmers in Australia and the United States started to experiment with growing of teff as it is having high nutritional value. From teff, the dish which is cooked is known as injera and most of the time mixed with barley or wheat injera is prepared. Injera can be compared with a big size of our dosa prepared in India and it is commonly eaten with sauce, vegetables, meat etc. One injera is shared with 3-4 family members. Teff is a great source of protein and it is gluten free. I suggest Government of Madhya Pradesh should try to introduce the crop wherever feasible. It is pertinent to mention that in Madhya Pradesh only traditional crops are grown such as paddy, wheat, jowar, gram, soybean, sugarcane and cotton.
Agriculture sustains the lives of millions in the world in terms of nutrition and income, but changing rainfall patterns and poor storage can severely cut productivity. Simple innovation can help farmers grow healthier crops and store their produce for longer. But for an invention to work, it has to be affordable and integrate smoothly into farmers’ existing workflow.
To address the issues pertaining to the farmers’ in general and marginal and small farmers in particular State Government in collaboration with Central Government should work hand in hand. Even NGOs and CBOs should take initiative to help farmers whether technically, scientifically or extending knowledge or financially. We have to remember the farmers are our ‘annadata’ (providers of food) so they must be taken care of by the society. Any case of suicide of the farmers because of crop failure or lack of minimum price support is a shocking incident for all the Indians. I suggest prevention is better than cure. So to prevent farmers for experimenting with new crops for earning more money at the initial stage should not be encouraged. And the following suggestions are made is this paper.
 The paper was presented at the Expert Group Seminar on “Crop Insurance Policy for Madhya Pradesh” (16-17 May 2015) held at Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University of Social Sciences, Mhow, Madhya Pradesh. The article is the revised version of the paper.
This study investigates the role of education in the rehabilitation and reformation of inmates of Jos prison. The rehabilitation of prisoners through formal education is necessary. The study adopted the descriptive research design. Therefore, a 23-item questionnaire was developed and administered to 250 respondents comprising of 150 inmates and 100 staff of Jos Prison who were chosen through stratified random sampling. The result showed that the respondents agreed that education for prisoners is very important in the rehabilitation and reformation of inmates. Also, some challenges militating against the smooth operation of formal education in Jos prison were highlighted. Based on the finding, some useful recommendations were made on how to better the education of inmates for effective rehabilitation and reformation.
Key words: Rehabilitation, reintegration, education, prison, prisoner.
A prison can be sociologically defined as a confinement where socially and legally interned people who have wronged the society are kept for reformation, rehabilitation and possible reintegration into the society where they would contribute meaningfully to the development of the society. Ideally and as obtained in other developed climes, the prison is the last place for the transfiguration of those who the society dim unfit to cohabit with it owing to the fact that their stay in the society is inimical to the continued co-existence of the members of the society. Prisons are very important to the survival and continued existence of every society. Infact, the importance of prisons cannot be over-emphasised.
Prisons are designed to keep custody of the legally interned, and by doing so, it helps to keep the society safe from misdemeanants and lawbreakers who disturbs the peace of the society. Many are oblivious of this fact. When criminals and other dangerous elements are locked up in the prison, the society is insulated from their nefarious activities, thereby making the society safe for habitation and cohabitation. Hence, the prison is a vital part of the security set up of every society. Imagine what the society would look like if the content of the prisons in Nigeria are poured out.
According to Gumi (2014), people are sent to prison in order to protect the society from harm. Investing in the physical structures of prisons such as in buildings, protective bars, guards and guns alone may help to reduce crime in the short-term; ultimately it does nothing to make society safer. This is because almost everyone in prison will eventually return to society at the end of their term. If they remain idle during their time in prison, they are likely to become bitter and resentful (Gumi, 2014). If however prisoners are given meaningful things to do and are equipped with the skills and self-belief they need to support themselves upon release, society becomes safer because the rate of re-offending would decrease (African Prison Project, 2014).
Reformation of Prison Inmates can only be achieved through education and skill acquisition training. Formal education becomes a panacea for effecting positive changes in the prison inmates before they are released. Formal education in prison aims at providing the awareness that will enable young as well as mature adults to improve or supplement their knowledge and skills in general subjects. The education of prisoners enhances their abilities to improve their future job and educational possibilities and potentials (Ewulum, Omeriyang and Mbara, 2015).
Education is thus one key aspect of the rehabilitative role in which prisoners can engage while in prison. It is not just a means of keeping the prisoner occupied, but has the capacity to form a stepping stone towards prisoner’s inclusion and reintegration into society. By providing positive learning environments, prisons can support the inmates to make good use of their sentence; to address gaps in their learning skills; to improve their employability; and to change their personal attitudes and perceptions. This in a long run helps them to understand the reasons for and consequences of their actions. All of these factors can reduce their chances of re-offending (Hawley, 2013).
Moreover, access to education is a fundamental human right and prisoners should not be denied the chance to exercise this right (Hawley, 2013). It can therefore be argued that imprisonment, even if it is viewed as justified punishment, should not bring with it the additional deprivation of civil rights, which include education (UNESCO, 1995).
Ogundipe (2008) posits that the Nigerian Prison Service has established practical programmes for reformation and rehabilitation of prison inmates. These programmes include: Vocational skills development Programme (SVDP) which aims at empowering the prisoners who have no formal education background with the practical skills in handworks like carpentry, metal-work, shoe-making, tailoring and others. This would help them to be self-reliant when they are released from prison. The second programme is the Adult Remedial Education Programme (AREP) which is designed to help prisoners who were pursuing one academic programme or the other before imprisonment. These programmes enable prison inmates to learn skills in such vocation as tailoring, plumbing, carpentry, woodwork, barbing, shoe making, and a host of others; and also to be grounded academically to become professionals like Doctors, Lawyers and graduates after discharge. Ogundipe (2008) also stated that through remedial programmes in the various Nigeria prisons, 1,306 candidates sat for the WAEC and GCE examinations as well as NECO in 2006 while in 2007, 1,198 candidates took the same examinations. For this success, the West African Examination Council made Ikoyi Prisons, Lagos one of its examinations centres.
Globally, education has had a consistent presence in correctional facilities over the past 200 years, though the form it has taken and the rationale behind its provision have changed over time. In 1798, education was introduced in the Americas first correctional facility—the Walnut Street Jail—in the context of religious instruction intended to help individuals repent for their crimes and develop spiritually and morally. The late 1800s marked the rise of the reformatory era, and educational offerings expanded beyond religious instruction to emphasize literacy and communication skills, as well as the inclusion of secular courses such as astronomy, geography, and history. Education was further entrenched within correctional institutions with the introduction of indeterminate sentences, which required evidence of self-improvement as a condition of release. Through the 1970s, often considered the “golden age” for rehabilitative programs, educational instruction proliferated, eventually including high school courses and general equivalency diploma (GED) preparation, vocational training in specific trades, life skills programs, academic higher education program, and study release (Gumi, 2014).
Prisoners can be indifferent to education in prison. Research from the United States of America, Ireland and the United Kingdom shows that prisoners are more likely to have literacy difficulties than the general population (Batchelder and Pippert, 2002; Cropsey, Wexler, Melnick, Taxman and Young, 2007; Hurry, Brazier, Snapes, and Wilson, 2005) and tend to have lower than average attainment and poor experiences of compulsory education (Morgan and Kett, 2003; Muth, 2006; Winn and Behizadeh, 2011). In prisons, particularly in the United Kingdom, the curriculum is often restricted so that prisoners are expected to engage in education that is focused on improving narrow literacy skills rather than broader, and potentially more attractive, educational areas (Hurry, Brazier and Wilson, 2009).
Many prisoners, and adults who have similar unhappy experiences of compulsory education, tend to have negative attitudes to learning and can be very resistant to education that is like school (Barton, Ivanic, Appleby, Hodge and Tusting, 2007; Belzer, 2004; Kilgore, 2001; Maclachlan, Hall, Tett, Crowther and Edwards, 2008). This is especially true of provision focused only on narrow literacy skills such as spelling and thus such courses tend to promote little learning and a great deal of resentment amongst prisoners. On the other hand, Hurry, Brazier and Wilson (2009) found in their study of English prisons that prisoners became engaged and participated in more effective learning when the programme was more contextualized and active. Research from across the UK also shows that creating an environment where learning operates from an individual’s ‘strengths’, rather than their ‘deficits’ is the most effective (Crowther, Maclachlan and Tett, 2010; Entwistle and Smith, 2002). This involves building on and extending the knowledge and skills that individual’s already have, an approach that has been found to be very uncommon in prisons in studies in the US and the UK (Batchelder and Pippert, 2002; Kilgore, 2001).
This research, therefore, seeks to assess the role of education in inmates’ reformation and rehabilitation in Jos Maximum prison; and to determine the extent to which prison inmates have been exposed to formal education with a view to improving their rehabilitation and reformation. The research also exposed the challenges faced by the prison adult school in Jos prison.
The study employed the use of a descriptive research design. Descriptive research design was chosen because it enables the researcher to generalize the findings to other prisons across the country. The population of the study is made up of all the prisons staff and inmates in Jos prison. Jos prison as at 1st July, 2015 has 243 staff and 721 inmates. Therefore, the total population for the study was 964. The sample used for this study consisted of 250 respondents: 150 inmates and 100 prisons staff who were selected through the purposive sampling method. The sample is made up of 204 males and 43 females. The age of the respondents ranged from 18-59 years, with a mean age of 34.5 years. Eighty-seven (87) of the inmates were Muslims, while one hundred and sixty three (163) inmates are Christians. Only convicted inmates serving short and long term sentences were used for the study. Those awaiting trails were left out of the study because they are not qualified for rehabilitation and reformation programmes.
The research made use of a self structured questionnaire which was developed by the researchers. The questionnaire was subjected for validity by two experts in criminology from the University of Uyo; and other two senior prison officers working in the Plateau state headquarters of the Nigerian Prisons Service. Comments and recommendations of the experts were incorporated in the final construction of the instrument which ended up with 23 items. The instrument yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.76 using the test-retest reliability method and was considered high enough. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics and percentages. While simple percentages was used to analyze research question one, mean score was used in Research question two. Decision rule for Research question two was based on 4-points numerical values assigned to the responses: Strongly Agree (SA) = 4-points, Agree (A) = 3 points, Disagree (D) = 2 points and Strongly Disagree (SD) = 1 point. Items which had mean rating of 2.50 and above were agreed on. Conversely, items which had less than 2.5 were considered to be disagreed on.
3.0 Results and findings
The results of the study were presented according to the research questions. Out of the 250 copies of the questionnaire distributed and returned, 3 were badly filled and discarded while the remaining 247 copies were presented and analyzed in tables using descriptive statistics and percentages.
3.3 Discussion of Results
Result of research question one show that education is very important in the rehabilitation and reformation of inmates’ of Jos prison. This is in tandem with Gumi (2014) who posits that formal education is cardinal to the rehabilitation of prison inmates. The result also agrees with Omoni and Ijeh (2009) that the issue of vocational and formal education cannot be overemphasized in the rehabilitation process of prisoners. The aim of imprisonment is not only for punishment, but to prevent offending and reoffending. In the society today, the leading cause of crime and criminal behaviours is lack of empowerment. Education in prison can reduce recidivism as inmates will be empowered with the academic knowledge that can make them stay off crime and lead law-abiding lives. Table 2 shows that 72.1 percent of the respondents strongly agreed that education in prison play a cardinal role in the rehabilitation and reformation of inmates. Also, 17.8 percent of respondents agree with the assertion. This shows that, about 89.9 percent of the respondents supports that education is paramount in the rehabilitation and reformation of inmates.
Table three showed that the respondents agreed that all the challenges listed therein militate against the smooth running of the prison adult school in Jos prison. These problems ranging from lack of enough teachers to time constraints are the major challenges bugging down education in the prison. This is in agreement with Ewelum, Omeriyang and Mbara (2015) who found out that the major challenges militating against the reformation of prison inmates in Anambra state include: lack of professional educators, lack of staff training, poor funding, among others. Nigeria prisons according to The Nation (2010) are “living hells.” Most prisons are bedeviled by poor facilities like classrooms, stationery and books, lack of qualified educators to teach in the prison schools, among others. This scene is reflected in all prisons structures in the country. This has led to the non-performance of the schools in our prisons. From table three, it is obvious that some of the maladies affecting the administration of formal education in Jos prison include; lack of enough teachers, frequent transfer of prisoners and teaching staff, lack of stationery and books, and poor funding. Other challenges as agreed by the respondents are lack of external assessment by examination bodies like WAEC/NECO/JAMB, poor library and time constraints.
It is obvious from the result of this study that the prison is a very important agent of rehabilitation and reformation of the social misfits. It is also a component of the criminal justice system charged with the responsibility of confirming, reforming and rehabilitating prison inmates so that they would become better citizens when released from the prison. This study reveals that education in prison is very cardinal in the rehabilitation of inmates. However, it was discovered that several challenges ranging from lack of enough teachers to time constraints hinder the smooth running of the prison adult school in Jos prison. These maladies have led to the non-performance of the school and explain why the rate of recidivism in Nigeria is at increase. For this reason, recommendations were proffered on how to resuscitate education as a tool of rehabilitation in Nigerian prison thereby improving the service delivery of our prisons system.
After a careful analysis of the role of education in the rehabilitation and reformation of prison inmates, this study came up with the following recommendations:
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of Kamiti prison, Kenya. Unpublished M.sc thesis. University of Nairobi, Kenya.
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MKPUGHE CHRISTIANA IFEYINWA (DR)
This study focused on the effect of socio-economic status of parents on the academic performance of students in Technical Colleges in Delta State. Two research hypotheses were formulated. There is no significant difference between Academic Performance of Students from poor background compared to those from wealthy homes, there no significant correlation between students from intact homes and that of broken homes. Recommendations were made based on the findings.
Keywords: Profession/Vocation, Educational level, Socio-Economic Status and family type.
The role parents in the upbringing of the child cannot be overemphasized and as such it’s socioeconomic status is of vital importance. Students have shown that parental influence manifests itself in parental values and experience, education, vocation/profession of parents, religion and socio-economic background of parents. Parental socio-economic status and intelligence have either facilitating or inhibitory effect on the child depending on the traits inherited and the environment in which he is brought up. The self and work roles begin early in life and the home in conjunction with it’s related social system have great influence on them. The parents or family provides the initial social encounter through socialization process, also provides the 3models with which the child can identify, usually a child may consciously or unconsciously, learn from the parents by imitation. Parental set standard may greatly affect the life’s of adolescents and so motivate them to be achievement oriented. Thus a family where some particular careers are of great priority tend to orient it’s children in achieving that goal.
Therefore, the socio-economic status of a parent goes a long way to mould a child’s personality both morally, academically, economically, socially, spiritually or otherwise. Jacquelynm and Eccles and Pamela Daviskean (2005)
Statement of the Problem
The socio-economic status of parents can motivate or hamper the child’s academic performance in schools. For students to have excellent performance in schools, they should be reared in a home free quarreling and rancor, should have enough parental security and financial security, readiness to learn to the part of the student a good learning environment and learning materials. A lot of problems are faced by students in Technical Colleges in Delta State.
The Concept of Socio-economic status
This study focused on the effect of socio economic status of parents on students in Technical. Colleges in Delta State. The concept of socio economic status based on socio-economic factors represnts one of the major systems of stratification. Social stratification arises out of the recognition in all societies people are ranked or evaluated at a number of levels of social class is common to most societies ancient or modern. Infact almost every community has within it, groups which think of themselves being somewhat alike.
The member of these groups may exhibit similarities in choice of food, housing, dressing, language, occupation, income values, social behaviour and even colour or race. Farooq (2011) emphasized that the social class of parent is a dominant factor in the academic performance. The academic abilities and the socio-economic background of youth impose considerable constraints upon the performance of students and on the type of vocation they can make. He able boy from a middle class family has a wider range of possibilities open to him than a boy from a poor socio-economic class. Okoh, (1980) in his work say that students have shown that children from low income homes come to school with a two-fold handicap.
Their innate intelligence is under developed in certain aspects that are important for success in present day educational systems and their personality is structured that they are not likely to do well in school. The child from the low social class according these studies has not his spare time carefully organized for. He has a very notion and is incapable of planning and pursuing long term projects. To such a child, luck, rather than vigorously planned work appears to be reason for success.
According to Rothesetein (2004) the social class of parents are fundamental to the individual’s educational and vocational decisions. He went further to explain that social membership influence and is influenced by occupational membership. Other factors identified which exert considerable influence on the individual include sex, family age, race, culture school and economy. Azhar Nadeem, Naz Perveen & Sameen (2015) testifies to the fact that much of the child’s educational development starts at home, before he actually starts the formal education, to him the middle class homes are always able to provide the necessary prerequisites success. For example, they can provide good environment, motivation, the necessary financial help and also hi1ighted some facts on the influence of socio economic status of either the parents, home or environment on the occupational preference of youths. They postulated that a child’s particular socio-economic inheritance may a direct and important effect on the occupation open or life attractive to him. The economic an occupational level of the home affects performance of the students, Farooq (2011).
The study was organized under the following headings
Occupation of Parents
This involves the type of work or job done by the parents of these student this go a long way to affect the performance of those students. There are parents whose work do not give time for their children as such the students are affected negatively Duke, (2000), Sewell, William and Robert, Hauser (1975). Most time you discover that most students or children are influenced by the occupation of their parents or stimulated by what they find their parents doing, parental or family set-standard may greatly affect performance of their children either positive or negatively even in the occupational choice of their children later in their lives and so motivate them to be achievement oriented. Thus a family where some particular careers are of great priority, tend to orient it’s children towards achieving that goal. In some families because the family head is a lawyers the children will want be lawyer or even doctors, nurse or teachers or accountants because their parents are one or have set such standard for them. Studies have shown that a child’ particular socio-economic inheritance may have a direct and important effect on the career open or attractive to him than does his physical inheritance. The economic and occupational level of home affects the vocational goals of the youth by influencing their aspirations to be similar to those held by their parents and by Halsey, Health and Ridge (1980) discouraging aspirations to levels much above or below the parental occupational. The child’s biological endowments in terms of personality traits are transmitted to him in form of genetic inheritance. If both parents possess high intellectual capabilities and transmit the traits for indigence to the child, that, child is very likely to be highly intelligent and benefit from education which will likely enhance his opportunity for occupations on the hand, a child of very low intellectual parents who inherited this trait may turn out to be an imbecile who may later find it difficult to be properly educated and be gainfully employed. So, the occupation of parents has a vital role to play in the lives students in Technical Colleges. Halsay, health and Ridge (1980).
Parental socio-economic status and intelligence have either facilitating or inhibitory effect on the child depending on the traits inherited and environment in which he is brought up. The self and work roles begin early in the life and home in conjunction with its related socio system have great influence on the them. The family comprising of parents, siblings, relatives, friends and neighbours, providing the initial social encounter through socialization process, also provides the models with which the child can identify. Usually the child may consciously or unconsciously learn from the parents by role playing or imitation. Parental background with talk about whether parents of children is high socio-economic status, middle or low socio-economic status as a long way to play in the performance of students in technical Colleges. Azhar, Nadeem, Naz, Perveen and Sameen (2015).
A family could be classified as either of high or low socio-economic status. The question might be asked how do we dichromize between high and low socio-economic family background Owalabi (1988) criteria for classifying Nigerian parents could be adopted, here. For him parents who are professional senior civil servants, graduates and non-graduates teachers, clerks, traders and businessmen and women of appreciable income parent who have post primary and higher education are referred to as being of high socio-economic status while parent who are craftsman artisans and farmer and parents who have no schooling or have elementary education are referred to as being of low socio-economic status. Differential access to education theory is apparently true in Nigeria, thus, children of low socioeconomic families do not have as much access to education as children of high socio-economic family background are found mostly in good quality post primary institutions such as the Federal Government Controlled Colleges which are adequately provided with qualified teachers and materials to Ramey and Ramey (1994) the disadvantage of brilliant children from poor homes. One of the implications of such differential access to education could be that children from high socio-economic families especially in careers of greater social demands and status.
Also it was discovered that some students who failed the West African School Certificate (WASC) Examinations who would have preferred to go back to their schools or other schools to repeat the year were prevented from doing so because of the inability of their parents to meet up-financially the cost of their going back to school. He further revealed that consequently, such students went into the teacher training colleges which were free thereby choosing teaching as career circumstantially while others went into other unskilled jobs. Finally parental family background plays important or affects the child performance the school. Ramey and Ramey (1994).
Types of Family
Under types of family we are looking at whether, the children or child is born into a polygamous home, monogamous family and so on. The type of family which the students are born into can affect them either positively or negatively. A child born by polygamous parents will find it very difficult to meet up with the financial demands of his school. Since there are a lot of children and wives to take care and as such the financial responsibility on the family will be very high such child will be affected negatively except the family is buoyant. Femi Ogushola and Adewale (2014).
Also even in a monogamous homes if the number of children in the family is large there will be great financial responsibility on the parents. The child may be affected negatively but if the numbers of children are reduced the parents will able to meet their needs easily considering the family income. Also in families where the breadwinner of the house is late (either the men or women). There will high financial responsibility especially on our women if it was the man who died. So, the children will be affected negatively and it will hinder their academic performance in the school, Anderso and Sullivan (1998).
The wealth of family
The wealth of the family is of paramount importance, if the family is wealthy, children’s needs whether academic or otherwise will be met easily without much stress but where the family poor, the academic need of the children will not be met easily, this goes a long way to affect the child performance negatively. There are situations where the parents of students may not have money to pay their children’s school fees and children are sent of out of school for non-payment of school fee and other necessary fees, in such cases, the child or students may not be allowed take their examination. The wealth of the family talks about the family income whether it is high or low. Ramsey and Ramsey (1994), Memon, Joubish and Khurram (2015)
A child from broken home is never happy or a child from a home where there quarreling and fighting is never happy because of the environment that he or she is coming from. Also a child whose mother left the house because the frequent fighting and quarrellings in home or immoral behaviours of their father, will never be happy in school and will not concentrate in his studies, his mind will easily go back to the occurrence of home or a child that is under care of his mother and not being accepted by his stepfather because he is not that man’s child will never be happy in the class and invariably, will not do well in his studies.
Furthermore, a child living with the father, where the mother is no longer in home may receive ill-treatment from the father’s wife or wives especially if is the wicked and bad type. Such child will never be happy in class and if a child not happy, there is every tendency that child or student’s performance will be affected negatively except for a determined child who Wants to excel through work undermining the situation at home.
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
There has been a general motion that increase, monetary rewards and academic ability are the major influences on the performance of students. The socio economic status of parents is hardly linked with these factors. The finding of this study will be beneficial to government, parents teachers and the society at large. It will serve as a guide to administrators and education planners when making decisions it will affect students.
It will serve as an eye opener on the effects social economics status of parent on their children and how the negative effects can be corrected. This study will help educational or guidance counselors to identify students whose parents are from the lower social class and profit solution to their problems. It will also help students in career choices and the available resources at their disposal.
Definition of important Terms
This is the description of the methods used in carrying out the study, which include, the following headings.
Design of Study
This design of study employed is the survey method, survey study is a descriptive research method. It is aimed at discovering relative, incidence, distribution and inter-relationship of educational, sociological, physiological, political and economical variables. The researcher examined the opinion attitudes or feelings of individual about a particular problem.
Population of study
The population of this study comprises is all the Technical Colleges in the State (Delta), Sample of the study
The study was carried out in randomly selected Technical Colleges in the State. The randomly selected schools induce specific the no before history
The instrument used for this study was questionnaire. It consists of two sets. That of teachers and the students. The teacher questionnaires consist of twenty items is divided into section A & B section A consists of personal data of the respondents while section B deals with the questions based on the hypothesis. The teacher questionnaire consists of two sets. That of teachers and students. The teacher questionnaire consist of twenty. It is divided into section A & B, section A consists of personal data of the respondents while section B deals with the questions just as in the teacher questionnaire.
Administration of Instrument
The entire questionnaire was administered by the researcher through a visit to the sampled schools. This enable the researchers to get responses from teacher and students. In each school were given questionnaires were collected by the researcher. About two hundred questionnaires were distributed.
Method of Data collection or Analysis
The data collected were tabulated and analysed using the chi-square test of contingency. It’s formula is given as
x2 = ∑(O -E)2
Where X2 = Chi-square
∑ = Summation sign
O = Observed data
E = Expected data
This test has a level of significance of 0.05 with degree of freedom as one (1) and two (2) where necessary.
Validation of Instrument
The questionnaire is the outcome of the intensive process of validation. The questionnaire is carefully designed to meet the targeted goal, the questionnaire was submitted to two lectures and it was properly scrutinized and deleted substandard questions (if any). Thus; this helped in selecting the needed basic objectives of study. The items were pruned appropriately and as such the questionnaire was described as valid in content and context.
Data Analysis, Presentation of Result
It deals with analysis of data in respect of the questionnaires already administered on the proposed sample. The analysis, presentation of result and discussion was pointed towards verifying the hypothesis earlier formulated.
Testing of the hypothesis
Hypothesis One: Ho1 states that there is no significant difference between academic performance of students from poor background compared to those from wealthy homes. To test the above hypothesis the chi-square of test contingency was employed which was performed at 0.05 level of significance.
The test result is presented in the table below:
Table One: Distribution of the findings analysis on the response of students of Technical College on the effect of family
The x2 was computed as 0.37 the critical value of the df(1) = 3.38 and 0.05 level of significance. The hypothesis was accepted because the calculated value is lower than the expected value.
Hypothesis Ho2: There is no correlation between students academic perfirmance form intact homes and those from broken homes.
Distribution of The Findings
Table two: Analysis on the response of students of Technical Colleges on the effect of broken and intact homes on academic performance.
Where X = stands for intact homes
Y = Broken homes
The hypothesis is rejected because from the calculation — I shows a very high relationship and are both affected by socio-economic status of parents
Summary of findings
Discussion of Findings, Conclusion And Recommendation
The findings from analysis will be discussed as follows;
The finding of the researcher says that there is no difference between academic performances of students from poor background compared with those from wealthy.
This result is in line with the view of Hill et al (2004) which states Socio-Economic status of parents does affect student’s academic performance but makes possible for both children from rich and poor families to compete with each other.
The findings of the research states that there is no significant difference between the academic performance of children from intact homes and those of broke homes. This shows that whether the students are from intact homes or broken homes, it has nothing to do with their academic performance. There are cases where even when students are living with parents, their parents never have time to check their children’s work; are always too busy, never found at home, only at nights to move very early the next morning, the children hardly have a taste of their parents also there are cases where even when children may not be living with the parents or is living with one of the parent, is determined to make the best of the situation by hard work and much studies, such a child might do well.
This shows that both are affected by socio-economic status. According to Azhar, Nadeem, Naz, Perveen and Sameen (2015) stated that the child’s educational development should start from home, before he actually starts the formal education. Proper attention should paid to educational development of the children for better performance at school.
The study showed that there is relationship between socio-economic status of parents and the choice course made by the students, so parents should try as much as possible to supervise the work of their children, and counseling them into making right career choices, these should be not based or the wealth of family. Also hypothesis one shows that there was no significant different between the performance of children from intact home and broken homes. This reveals that once a child is determined work or study, making use of the human and material resources available to him, whether broken home or not, the sky is his limit, they are encouraged to be serious with their studies whether living with their parent or not. Parents should strive to live together for proper up bring of their children, in order to avoid having dropouts and nonentities as children.
Parents as well as government should provide good learning atmosphere for the students to enhance better performances of the students, on the other hand students should make use these learning materials provided for them by the government and parents and stop perambulating around the streets of Nigeria, and stop forming different cults and nefarious groups that does foster their academic performance in schools. Teachers also have a role to play by making sure these students are well taught, occupied with assignments and class-work so as to create sense of seriousness in them. These assignments should be marked and recorded as continuous assessment. Quizes and test via examination should also be administered by the teachers. Workshop practice should also be taught in all the technical colleges to make them self-reliant and practically oriented.
The recommendations are made based on the findings and conclusion of this study.
Nisha Yadav, U.V. Kiran
Occupational stress is stress involving work. Occupational related stress is the response people may have when presented with work demands and pressures that are not matched to their knowledge and abilities and which challenge their ability to cope. Occupational stress results from the complex interactions between large systems of interrelated variables. Occupational stress contributes not only to life stresses, but has an impact on health among security guards. Occupational stress among security guards was assessed in the present study. Occupational stress of security guards has a strong impact on the physical health and their performance at job. Hence the present study focuses on occupational stress among security guards. The study was carried out in Lucknow on the male and female security guards using multistage sampling technique. A total sample of 180 security guards was selected from three areas- Banks, academic institutions and residential security. Modified version of occupational stress scale developed by Srivastava A.K. (1976) was used. From the findings of the study, it can be concluded that the security guards profession is very difficult. Security guards suffer from high stress and face problem and dissatisfied with their job and salary. Security guards continuously work for long hours and they are not satisfied with their salary.
Keywords: Occupational stress, Security guards, Physical and Psychological health
Occupational stress relates to the experience of stress in one’s place of work, occupation or employment. Occupational stress is defined as adaptive response to an external situation that results in physical, psychological and or behavioral deviations for organizational participants. Occupational stress is a state of tension that is created when a person responds to the demands and pressures that come from work, family and other external sources, as well as those that are internally generated from self imposed demands, obligations and self criticism. The terms work stress, job stress, or occupational stress is used interchangeably (Dollard 2003). Employers and governments have had increasing concern about occupational stress for over twenty years (Le Fevre, et al. 2003). In the past decade, effects of economic globalization and rapid technological changes have resulted in increased workloads and a faster pace in the work place (Dollard 2003).
Stress has been defined in different ways over the years. Originally, it was conceived as pressure from the environment, then as strain within the person. The generally accepted definition today is one of the interactions between the situation and the individual. It is the psychological and physical state that results when the resources of the individual are not sufficient to cope with the demands and pressures of the situation. Thus, stress is more likely in some situations than others and in some individuals than others (Michie, 2002).
According to Selye H (2006), stress is defined as a non-specific response of the body to any demand, positive or negative, made upon it. Thus, occupational stress is any discomfort which is felt and perceived at a personal level and triggered by instances, events or situations that are too intense and frequent in nature so as to exceed a person’s coping capabilities and resources to handle them adequately (Malta, 2004).
Stress related with a job or occupation is called occupational stress. Stress is a universal phenomenon, excess of which results in intense and distressing experience. Occupational stress refers to a situation where occupation related factors interact with employee to change i.e. disrupts or enhance his / her psychological and or physiological conditions such that the person is forced to deviate from normal functioning. Occupational stress is generally defined in terms of relationship between a person and his environment. There is potential for stress when an environmental situation is perceived as presenting demand which threatens to exceed the person’s capabilities and resources for meeting it. Every occupation has some stress, which may differ in its degree (Bhatt, 2013).
Security guards give service within several ranges of tasks. In the line of duty in various work settings, guards may be expected to maintain order and to detain criminal violators while appointed to a single property or placed on patrol for various sites or territories. Concisely, a security guard may encounter a variety of situations, locations, and behaviors. With such a heavy responsibility and important duties, it is very important to make sure that the security guards are mentally and behaviorally healthy and safe. Security guard is one of the fastest growing occupations worldwide. Security guard is defined as a privately employed individual, usually uniformed, who is personally hired or paid to protect a defined area of property and people via various direct or indirect methods. The range of duties includes monitoring, guiding, maintaining, and most importantly, preventing crimes.
Security guard is one of the occupations with high risk to get involved in incidents at work such as violence and crime. The needs for public interaction when working, as well as working pattern such as shift working hour and solitary work, contribute to increased risk of incident at work. In addition, presence of other risk factors may elicit the probability for incidents to occur.
Occupational stress is considered a challenge for the employers and because high level of stress results in low productivity, and other employee problems it is necessary that managers find a way of addressing the issue of occupational stress (Elovainio et al, 2002).
RATIONALE OF THE STUDY
The study mainly intends to measure the depth of the amount of occupational stress and burnout one may experience on the other side. The concern for employee’s wellness in the workplace has extended with the focus shifting from employees with challenges to focusing to every employee. Research has been conducted on occupational challenges such as stress.
Security guards working in an organization face physical as well as psychological stress due to the tedious work involved in their job. Occupational stress results from the interaction of the worker and the conditions of work. Views differ on the importance of workers characteristics versus working conditions as the primary cause of occupational stress. The differing viewpoints suggest different ways to prevent stress at work. Difference in individual characteristics such as personality and coping skills can be very important in predicting whether certain job conditions will result in stress. In other words, what is stressful for one person may not be a problem for someone else. This view point underlines prevention strategies that focus on workers and ways to help them cope with demanding job conditions. Hence the present study was undertaken to assess impact of various parameters on the occupational stress among security guards working in various sectors and formulate a regression model.
Multi stage random sampling technique was followed in the present study. The present study was conducted in different areas of Lucknow city. The independent variables considered for the study were various sectors, gender, age, work experience. With the aid of modified version of occupational stress scale developed by Srivastava A.K. (1976) was used. A total of 180 security guards were selected from Lucknow district. Information was collected using interview method. The data was coded, tabulated and analyzed using the PAS software. Regression analysis was used for the statistical analysis of the data.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Linear regression is a statistical procedure for predicting the value of a dependent variable from an independent variable when the relationship between the variables can be described with a linear model. Occupational stress is phenomenon tested across male and female security guards to look into variation in the level of stress.
The following independent categorical variables were considered in the analysis: working institutions, gender, age (<45- >60) and work experience (<1- >5) years. Linear regression analysis with occupational stress as the dependent variable was used to examine the impact of each factor on occupational stress.
CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF THE STUDY
The research questions were addressed using linear regression model. The study variables were regression on occupational stress through entering demographic variable (working institutions, age, gender, work experience). This equation model was reported using occupational stress as the dependent variable.
Regression analysis was done using enter method all independent variable were entered at a time.
From the model it is elear that among all the variables, gender is the most influencing variable, where in females security guards were found to have high occupational stress in comparison to male security guards. Major impact on the dependent variable showing a β value of .406 at p= .000.
The statistical significance of the variable age when introduced into the analysis was found to be a fair predictor of how this affected stress in the large population of security guards.
From the model it is elear that among all the variables, working institutions influence are found to have average impact on occupational stress in comparison to age and work experience.
From the model it is also elear that among all the variables, work experience is negatively influencing with increase in work experience, the occupational stress was found to be lowered.
For the purpose to check impact on dependent and independent variables of the study, regression analysis was carried out. The value of R Square was found to be 635a showing that gender variables have strong (40.6%) effect on occupational stress. The table value of coefficients came up as positive indicating that intrinsic and extrinsic variables have positive effect on occupational stress. The value of intrinsic factors was higher (66.98) than the extrinsic factors (16.3%) which means that intrinsic factors have greater influence on occupational stress compared to extrinsic factors.
The findings on the effects of working facilities stress factors on the performance of employees in public universities in Kenya confirm that there is a statistically significant influence of workplace facilities on employee performance. This implies that a positive increase in the conditions of workplace facilities leads to an increase in employee performance. These results supports those of Botha & Pienaar (2006) who reported that income, heavy workload, lack of workspace, lack of resources (including equipment and material to do tasks), absence of proper company procedures, insufficient time to perform duties, meeting deadlines imposed by others, have been introduced as stressors related to work environment.
Occupational stress results from the complex interactions between large systems of interrelated variables. A study conducted on “Occupational stress among bank employees” revealed that private bank employees had high occupational stress due to role ambiguity, role conflict, under participation, powerlessness, low status, strenuous working condition than nationalized bank employees. Thus, the nature of job and working conditions are responsible for level of stress that
employees faced in various sectors. (Niharika & Kiran, 2014)
Occupational stress results from the complex interactions between large system of interrelated variables. A study conducted on “Occupational stress among security guards” revealed that there was highly significant difference between male and female security guards. Female security guards had more difficulty in managing their work and family as compared to male security guards. It was also observed that female security guards have stressful occupation experience because they had to make balance between their family and occupation. In the other case, male security guards have less stressful experience because they were only focused on the occupation. The result obtained on the occupational stress among male and female security guards. Female security guards had to face a lot of problem like difficulty on their work, nose irritation, mosquitoes disturb at night, night shift, less salary, guarding large area, summer and rainy season not comfortable and risky job. Due to occupational stress female security guards were highly affected by occupational stress. (Yadav & Kiran, 2015)
The study indicates a positive relationship as a predominant model of impact on occupational stress among security guards, working in various sectors. Some researchers regarded occupational stress as extra-work variable and hence it should be excluded when examining the impact of some variables on occupational stress. In an age of highly dynamic and competitive world, security guards are exposed to all kinds of stressors that can affect them on all realms of life. The growing importance of interventional strategies is felt more at organizational level. Highly significant negative relationship also is observed between independent variables and occupational stress. If organization encourages the implementation of programs and friendly policies they will be successful in reducing the turnover because work life balance practices can be helpful in attracting new security guards.
The results of occupational stress indicate negative impact on people, society and organizations. High levels of stress will cause negative effect on employees physical and mental well being ultimately shows effect on their performance. Most security guards were not satisfied with their occupation because they considered it too difficult relative to the low salary they receive for it. Female security guards have high occupational stress than male security guards as they have to face problems, psychological in nature along with physical problems.
Occupational stress” Journal of Managerial Psychology, Volume 18, Pp. 726-744.
This study sought to assess the knowledge of education practitioners of the education legal framework obtaining in Zimbabwe. The participants in this study were sampled from workshops on financial management for teachers, school heads and School Development Committees in Masvingo district. The educational legal framework in Zimbabwe is composed of a number of statutory instruments as well as the Education Act Chap 25; 04 and the Zimbabwean Constitution. From this plethora of legal instruments guiding the Zimbabwean education system this study confined itself to the Zimbabwean constitution, Education Act Chap 25; 04, SI 87 of 1992, SI 70 of 1993 and Administration and finance Circular 6 of 1994. The study concludes that teachers, school administrators and SDCs know that education is a fundamental right. However, the study also revealed that teachers, school administrators and SDCs
were conversant on the legal instruments obtaining in Zimbabwe.
Key words: Education legal framework, Education Act, SI 87 of 1992, Zimbabwe
This study sought to assess the knowledge of education practitioners of the education
legal framework obtaining in Zimbabwe. The participants in this study were sampled
from workshops on financial management for teachers, school heads and School Development Committees in Masvingo district. The educational legal framework in Zimbabwe is composed of a number of statutory instruments as well as the Education Act Chap 25; 04 and the Zimbabwean Constitution. From this plethora of legal instruments guiding the Zimbabwean education system this study confined itself to the Zimbabwean constitution, Education Act Chap 25; 04, SI 87 of 1992, SI 70 of 1993 and Administration and finance Circular 6 of 1994.
2.0 Legal Instruments
These are many pieces of legislation which were taken together form the education legal framework. This section takes a cursory analysis of the education legal framework.
2.1 The constitution of Zimbabwe
The Zimbabwean constitution as amended by the Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 20) Act enshrines that education is a fundamental right. Section 19 (2) states that, “The state must adopt reasonable policies and measures, within its limits of the resources available to it, to ensure that children-(d) have access to appropriate education and training.” Thus, the supreme law of the country acknowledges and protects the right of children to education. The Constitution is read together with the Education Act which provides that primary education is compulsory in Zimbabwe.
2.2 The Education Act (Chap 25; 04)
The Education Act (hereafter the Act) was passed as Act 5 of 1987 and has been amended by quite a number of times. The Act has been amended by Act 26/1991, Act 24/1994, Act 19/1998 and Act 22/2001. Section 4 of the Education Act as amended recognizes education as children’s fundamental right. Mapuva and Mapuva (2014) state that, “The right to education in Zimbabwe has traditionally been a creature of statute, with the Education Act forming the legislative framework for the provision of education in the country.”Section 36(1) of the Education states “The responsible authority of every registered school to which a grant is made in terms of section thirty five shall establish a committee, to be known as a school development committee. Thus, it can be argued that it is jurisprudent on education practitioners to be knowledgeable of this legal instrument. In addition, section 36(1) of the Education Act proscribes for the establishment of school Development Committees (SDCS). Therefore, this entails that the Education Act provides a legal framework for the participation of parents in the education of their children. The Education Act can be viewed as covering all the essentials of the education system in Zimbabwe. Consequently, it can be reasoned that knowledge of this Act for education practitioners it fundamental.
2.3 Stationary Instrument 87 of 1992
The statutory instrument is derived from the Education Act (Section 36) which provides for the establishment of School Development Committees for registered non-governmental schools. Statutory Instrument 87 (1992:613) spells out some of the objects of the SDC as to:
Therefore, according to this legal instrument the SDC is an organ that promotes participation and empowerment of both teachers and parents in the improvement of the quality of education. In addition, SDCs have the mandate to charge and administer levies from parents of students enrolled in their schools (Statutory Instrument 87 of 1992:621). Hence, it is essential that education practitioners be conversant with this legal instrument as it provides for the role of parents in the affairs of the school.
2.4 Statutory Instrument 70 of 1993
SI 70 of 1993 is also derived from the Education Act, just like SI 87 of 1992. The statutory instrument provides guidelines for parental involvement in government schools. Statutory Instrument 70 of 1993:494 empowers School Development Association (SDA) to;
Hence, it can be revealed that SDAs are empowered to make full use of locally available resources to improve the provision of education in schools. There are a few schools which are government schools in the area under study.
2.5 Administration and Finance Circular 6 of 1994
The Administration and Finance Circular 6 of 194 is a manual on financial administration in non-governmental schools. According to Gumiro (1994) the manual contains detailed but very basic accounting procedures and other administrative matters which all school heads and SDCs need to be well acquainted with for the proper administration of the school. The Under Secretary (Revenue and Suppliers), Gumiro (1994) states that one copy of the circular should be kept by the head and another by the SDC chairperson. The distribution of the circular and explanation by the Under Secretary expounds glaringly the importance of the knowledge of its contents to the school administrator and SDCs. Thus, it becomes imperative that teachers, school heads and SDCs be conversant of the circular to a greater extent. The increase in the number of newspaper articles on alleged abuse of school funds reveals tellingly that there is non-conversance and non-adherence to the circular in schools. Examples of newspaper headlines include; Three school heads suspended over fees mismanagement (Newsday, 10 July, 2014); Two school heads jailed over fraud (The Herald, 16 July, 2012) and Three headmasters fired, four under investigation for abusing school funds (Bulawayo.24.com, 11 April, 2013).
3.0 Purpose of the study
The overall aim of the study was to analyse the knowledge of education practitioners of the legal framework obtaining in the education system in Zimbabwe.
4.0 Context of the study
The researcher used a case study approach. Yin (2003:13) states that the case study investigates, “contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context, addresses a situation in which the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident, and uses multiple sources of evident.” The researcher carried out the study in Masvingo district. The participants were drawn from workshops on school financial management that were carried out in the district. The workshops drew five participants from each and every school, the head and deputy head and a teacher as well as the chairperson and vice-chairperson of the SDCs. The researcher purposively sampled participants from the teachers, head and deputy heads and SDCs who participated in the workshops. A purposive sample of 40 participants was selected by the researcher based on the knowledge of the population and the purpose of the study (Patton, 1990). The researcher utilised a questionnaire which had both open and closed questions. The questions covered by the questionnaire included aspects on education in the Zimbabwean Constitution, the Education Act, SI 87 of 1992, and SI 70 of 1993 and the Finance and Administration Circular 6 of 1994.
The majority of participants (80%) revealed that they knew that education was a fundamental right according to Zimbabwe’s legal framework. However, only 40 % of the participants were able to identify the legal instruments which provide that education was a fundamental right.
In addition, all the participants revealed that at their respective schools they had a file with all the four legal instruments. The teachers, school administrators and SDCs indicated that they had the Constitution of Zimbabwe, Education Act, SI 87 of 1992 and the Finance and Administration Circular Number 6 of 1994. However, only 50 % of the participants indicated that they were conversant with the dictates of the legal instruments.
Furthermore, 90 % of the participants revealed that they did not know that the Education Act had been amended Act 19/1998 and Act 22/2001. This finding shows that schools were still utilizing the Education Act as amended by Act 24/1994 that is the revised edition of 1996.
70 % of the participants revealed that they only heard about SI 87 of 1992 during SDC elections. Statutory Instrument 87 of 1992 covers procedures, qualifications and disqualifications of members for SDC membership. Therefore, the study revealed that the SI was mainly used as an election tool while negating its other core objects already alluded to in this paper.
Moreover, the majority of participants (80%) stated that they had attended only one workshop which covered the legal instruments pertaining to the education system. Thus, the study revealed teachers, school administrators and SDCs prior to the workshop which was used for this study had not attended any other workshop covering legal instruments obtaining in the education system.
From the preceding discussion of the main findings of this study the researcher concludes that teachers, school heads, deputy heads and SDCs know that education is a fundamental right. The study also concludes that education practitioners and SDCs & SDAs were not up-to-date with amendments to the Education Act as revealed by the lack of knowledge on amendments by Act 19/1998 and Act 22/2001. In addition, the study concludes the schools in Masvingo district have copies of the legal instruments obtaining in the education system in the country.
The researcher makes the following recommendations from this study;
Anjali Sharma, Dr. Jyotsana Khandelwal
ABSTRACT – 70 % of India Population Lives in 627000 Villages in rustic Areas.90% of the Rural Population is amassed in towns with a Population of under 2000, with agribusiness being the principle Business. This demonstrates the Potential India and needs to bring the much – required Volume Driven Growth. As far as possible in the Urban Market has come to and now advertisers are moving Rural. They are taking after “GO RURAL” Strategy.
There is an increment in Income of Rural People , development in rustic interest is required to expand twofold overlay each Quarter in light of the fact that buyers are climbing towards premium items. Notwithstanding, in the later past there has not been much change in the volume of premium cleansers in extent to economy cleansers, in light of the fact that increment in costs has driven a few shoppers to search for less expensive substitutes. The Maximum Advertisement is Personal Care Category originates from Toiletry Soaps .It will be additionally great to see some ground substances about country promoting before advertisers wander into rustic markets with their brands. Like in urban territories, People who sit in front of the TV in rustic zones, likewise impact the decision of numerous individual consideration items.
Key Words: Advertising, Rural India, Market Segmentation, Consumer buying behaviour.,
Foundation of study: The latrine cleansers business sector is evaluated at 530,000 TPA including little imports. Hindustan UniLever is, obviously, the business sector pioneer. The business sector is littered over with a few, driving national and worldwide brands and an expansive number of little brands, which have constrained markets. The famous Brands in the provincial ranges incorporate Lifebuoy, Lux, Cinthol, Liril, and Nirma, Santoor. Latrine cleansers, in spite of their dissimilar brands, are not all around separated by the buyers. It is, in this way, not clear on the off chance that it is the brand faithfulness or experimentation tricked by high volume media battle, which support them. A result is that the business sector is divided. It is clear that this must prompt an exceptionally aggressive business sector. Latrine cleanser, once just a urban marvel, has now entered for all intents and purposes all ranges including remote provincial regions. The incremental interest streams from populace expand and ascend in utilization standard affected as it is by a more noteworthy sympathy toward cleanliness. Expanded deals incomes would likewise grow from up degree of value or per unit esteem. As the business sector is constituted now, it can be partitioned into four value portions: premium, prominent, rebate and economy cleansers. Premium cleansers are evaluated to have a business sector volume of around 80,000 tons. This deciphers into an offer of around 14 to 15%. Be that as it may, by quality it is as much as 30%.
Market Segmentation: Soaps are likewise arranged into men’s cleansers, women’s cleansers and basic cleansers. There are a couple claim to fame cleansers as straightforward Glycerin cleansers, shoe cleansers, uniquely seasoned cleansers, cured cleansers and child cleansers. Forte cleansers are high esteemed yet appreciate just a little share of the business sector in worth terms.
The business sector is developing at 7% a year. This implies the incremental interest era is 5% far beyond the populace development. With expanding attention to hygienic measures, the business sector could develop at a rate higher than 8% yearly. Interestingly, 60% of the business sector is presently sourced from the rustic segment. This implies the change between the two fragments is not substantial. Since upper-end business sector center is the urban ranges, edges originate from the urban area.
Variables influencing purchasing conduct: Price is the most critical component which impacts the purchasing conduct of purchaser, by which a customer goes for the different section of cleanser like premium, mainstream, sub-famous and carbolic which are fundamentally chosen by the expense consider and fat substance the cleanser. The purchasing recurrence is either month to month that is finished by the families or if there should arise an occurrence of single guys it is more than once in a month. The events when premium cleansers are obtained are typically when there are celebrations and functions. Moti Soaps are typically introduced amid celebrations and events for presents and endowments. The special procedures support deals. Different strategies like the value off’s, purchase one get two free, free endowments and different plans support deals in short run furthermore help in clearing stocks. One of the essential focuses a cleanser advertiser ought to note is that the cleansers are normally acquired by ladies in urban territories as a large portion of the everyday utilization of individual consideration items are made by ladies. A point to note is that ladies utilize more individual consideration item than men do and thus premium cleansers are for the most part focused at them. Men ordinarily settle on buy choices in country territories. Henceforth the advertiser needs to receive diverse procedure for such a business sector.
Advantages looked for by different clients from different brands are:
Magnificence – Lux; Freshness – Liril, Cinthol
Characteristic – Medimix, Margo
Child – Johnson and Johnson, Doy
Cream – Dove, Doy Care (saturating)
Sedated – Dettol, Savlon,
Glycerin – Pears, Emami
Infiltration: One of the components, which influence the interest of cleansers, is the entrance, which the items have in business sector. In the event of cleansers this has not been a noteworthy issue as the entrance in the provincial zone is as high as 97% and that for urban zone is around 99%. In this manner the roughly the entrance is around 99% for general India.
The cost of the premium fragment items is twice that of economy portion items. The economy and well known portions are 4/5ths of the whole cleansers market. The infiltration level of can cleansers is 88.6%. Be that as it may, the per capita utilization of cleanser in India is at 460 gms for each annum, while in Brazil it is at 1,100 gms for every annum. In India, cleansers are accessible in five million retail locations, out of which, 3.75 million retail locations are in the rustic ranges. In this manner, accessibility of these items is not an issue. 70% of India’s populace dwells in the provincial ranges; consequently around half of the cleansers are sold in the rustic markets.
Development: With expansion in expendable wages, development in country interest is relied upon to increment in light of the fact that buyers are climbing towards premium items. In any case, in the later past there has not been much change in the volume of premium cleansers in extent to economy cleansers, in light of the fact that increment in costs has driven a few shoppers to search for less expensive substitutes. The real players in individual wash (Soap) business sector are HUL, Nirma and Godrej.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Publised by WPP COMPANY ( OGLIVY INDIA ) Developing markets, for example, India are a vital wellspring of development for Unilever. The organization is receiving exceptional advertising ways to deal with expansion utilization of its items in these districts, situating itself as a moral brand that advantages more extensive society.
Unilever’s Lifebuoy ‘Swasthya Chetna’ (‘Health Awakening’) effort is one case. This teaches individuals on the significance of wellbeing and cleanliness in averting loose bowels and urges them to embrace a basic hand-washing administration utilizing cleanser. Swasthya Chetna is India’s biggest ever country wellbeing and cleanliness instruction program. HUL have done forceful publicizing techniques to advance its “Swasthya Chetna” Program.
Lifebuoy wellbeing officers went to 43,000 Indian towns and schools more than five years where they utilized item shows, intelligent visuals, rivalries and dramatization workshops to spread the wellbeing and cleanliness message.
The project has come to 110 million country Indians since it started in 2002. Consciousness of germs has expanded by 30% and cleanser use has expanded among 79% of folks and among 93% of youngsters in the ranges focused on. Cleanser utilization has expanded by 15%.
The crusade got acknowledgment for its development and adequacy, winning Silver in the Rural Marketing Advertisers Association of India recompenses in 2006, and the excellent prize at the Asian CSR honors 2007. It was additionally perceived by the Indian government who made a unique version postal spread devoted to the crusade. .
Publised in Business.in.com by Sawmya roy on August 18,2009 – Godrej No. 1. is a hit however, from the stables of Godrej Consumer Products Ltd. It asserted the number three spot in the latrine cleanser classification for the quarter finished June 2009, eating into business sector pioneer Hindustan Unilever’s (HUL) piece of the pie.
It is currently the third most elevated offering cleanser behind Lifebuoy and Lux. Lifebuoy and Lux, both HUL items and business sector pioneers, saw piece of the pie decrease by very nearly 2 percent to 16 and 15.4 Santoor additionally stakes case to the number three spot. The ACNielsen Repot demonstrates Godrej No. 1 in the number three opening, yet just as far as volume. Since it is a markdown brand, it tumbles to number five as far as worth. Santoor and Dettol take the third and fourth spots on the Neilson Report Table.
Can cleansers have risen as the most promoted item in the individual consideration classification in the first 50% of 2009, abandoning summer skewed class top picks’ similar to talcum powders and thorny warmth powders/creams by an impressive edge. The main 10 rundown saw three of the brands from latrine cleansers – Lifebuoy Swasth, Chetna 07, Godrej No.1 Papaya Lotus and Lux Pink Soap.
The adjustment in pattern is on the grounds that customary summer classifications like talcum powder has come to stagnation because of purchasers’ work day towards different classes like the antiperspirants. The movement from talcum powders to latrine cleansers amid summers is additionally on the grounds that cleansers too are progressively being situated as a quality included, corrective class which could guarantee enduring scent, smooth skin and even decency at times. As per industry gauges, the cleanser portion is one of the greatest FMCG classes in India with washing and latrine cleansers constituting around 30 for every penny of the cleanser business sector..
Hindustan Unilever (HUL) is the greatest sponsor in the individual consideration class crosswise over print and TV media. Latrine Soaps had a 1/fourth partake in the whole individual consideration promoting in print, while the classification drove the publicizing with 30 for each penny offer on TV. HUL publicized with 42 brands in which Lux cleanser, Fair Lovely Multivitamin and Pepsodent Complete Germi Check had the most extreme share.
GCPL is the second biggest shower cleanser maker in India, after Hindustan Unilever. The organization guarantees its Godrej No.1 brand is the top rated Grade 1; latrine cleansers ,have a higher fat substance than washing bars) and the business sector pioneer crosswise over north India. Rustic deals’ commitment to aggregate income has expanded to 42%, and GCPL has picked up a rate point each in piece of the overall industry of hair shading and cleansers. Godrej expanded its Market Share with the Advertising in Rural Areas with their Discount Schemes. GCPL dependably have been for the most part concentrating on “Tweak item and correspondence; construct acknowledgment through exhibition; assemble verbal exchange for the brand; and manufacture access through advancement and a savvy appropriation channel.” Conventional knowledge says rustic shoppers need redid items intended to suit their needs, their conditions and their wallets. Be that as it may, they likewise need items like those accessible in urban markets, such a variety of trust that little bargains in item quality are satisfactory. “Rustic purchasers need the same item as urban customers. On the off chance that you bargain on quality to make it reasonable now, they will avoid your image when their pay levels increment.
The arrangement lies in altering the measure of the offering, not the item itself. GCPL has done quite recently that, presenting littler bundles of the same items, at value focuses provincial customers can manage. Littler bars of cleanser, home grown henna bundles for 10 pennies, sachets of powder hair color and talcum powder for 20 pennies go about as passage focuses for country shoppers, who return for bigger packs when their financial plans license. Offers of shopper items in rustic markets top instantly after the harvest and amid celebrations and the wedding season (September through December), when a large number of India’s 600,000 towns are in a have-money will-spend mind-set.
Gone are the days when the rustic customer was content with utilizing mustard oil and plain cleanser. Today, he/she is looking for uncommon marked items for every day skin and social insurance needs. Rustic buyers crosswise over pay sections are demonstrating a checked affinity towards spending on premium top notch items, which are supported by solid brand values, For occurrence, take sustenance items. Not just has the interest for cream rolls gone up in provincial markets, the offer of moment noodles, too,is developing almost twice as quick in the country business sector contrasted with the urban one. Besides, in each six country purchaser of hair color now uses hues other than dark something, which would have been named liberality 10 years prior. Indeed, even apparently urbane brands in classifications like antiperspirants and cleansing agents are said to be developing much speedier in country India than urban. 
It have been out that Advertisement assume a critical part in Purchasing of latrine Soaps in Rural India. With regards to Rural Market individuals are more disposed towards security on the grounds that when asked to the respondents, they said they see the Fear Appeal and change to a brand and the battle by Hindustan Unilever Limited (Swastya Yojna) have assisted them with gaining them a piece of the overall industry in Rural Market. TV Media is the Most Effective Media in light of the fact that larger part of the respondents said that they are affected by TV notice’s as opposed to some other Media. Offers assume a vital part in impacting the clients and numerous organizations have been fruitful by giving different Offers to the last client, the offers may be Discounts, Coupons, etc…The Frequency of the notices Influence the obtaining Behavior of the Customers .i.e, when the same Advertisement is Shown Again and once more, it would tend the clients to purchase the Product. The Jingles, Tagline additionally plays a vital in buying Behavior on the grounds that individuals in rustic territories would effortlessly relate it with the brand. Promotions Campaigns with Celebrity and mascots impact individuals in Rural Market to purchase the Product.
Organizations like Hindustan Unilever, Godrej have great vicinity in the provincial business sector on account of their consistent Advertising and Sales Promotion endeavors, so for organizations like Nirma, Wipro, Reckitt Benkiser to pick up piece of the overall industry they have to expand their Promotion endeavors.
There is a discernment that individuals in the country markets are exceptionally value delicate, yet according to the study it was discovered that when it came to toiletry cleansers individuals were prepared to bargain for cost, if the nature of the item was great. There are numerous new contestants to the country market or in the latrine cleanser industry, For Eg: ITC have come up in can cleansers and they have to do thorough publicizing in rustic regions to pick up acknowledgment in the provincial business sector. With regards to Rural Area, People are more inspired by Offers and Schemes, so it would be a decent move for the organization to turn out with offers and plans frequently. There is dependably a feeling of apprehension in psyches Of Rural individuals , so organizations can exploit this and promote the Product. Eg: HUL did it with their Swastya Chetna Program for their Soap “Lifebuoy” and picked up piece of the overall industry from this move. On the off chance that the organizations need to taste Success in Rural Markets, they need to turn out with Separate Campaigns in provincial Areas, a completely new Campaign in Rural Market. Illustration: Godrej thought of Project Dharti for their Godrej No: 1 Soap and they have picked up piece of the overall industry out of it. There is Rise in Demand for Medicated Soaps in the business sector ,so it would be useful for organizations to present sedated cleanser as their new variant.
A hygienic practice is a broader term that insists not only on cleanliness but also on hygienic culture in general. Hygienic culture arises from one’s own practices and way of life. When these practices become habits, they automatically become character. Therefore this paper is an eye opener for the readers to maintain good hygienic practices in their day to day lives and thereby to experience good health and happiness. Results indicate that washing hands with soap after changing diapers for children ,touching the pet animal, washing hands after touching the currencies and coins, habit of nail biting, not brushing teeth twice a day, scratching the heads, walking barefoot require the attention of the sample respondents through which they are easily susceptible to diseases arising out of unhygienic practices. Therefore this paper recommends a few suggestions like creating awareness among the fisherfolk regarding the impact of poor hygienic practices in the form of street plays , role plays, advertisements and T.V. programmes through which the sample respondents learn the art of preventing or minimizing unhygienic related diseases like Dengue, Allergies, Chronic Diarrohea, Nausea, Hepatitis, Scabies etc. Thus the life of the fisherfolk who contribute 0.83 per cent to India’s total GDP and 4.65 per cent to agricultural GDP of our country could be sustained.
Key words: Hygienic practices, personal and household hygiene, unhygienic related diseases.
*Assistant Professor of the Department of Commerce, Holy Cross College (Autonomous), Roch Nagar, Nagercoil, Kanyakumari District, TamilNadu, South India.
Practice makes a person perfect. A human being learns hygiene through his/her own culture, habits and practices. When these practices become habits, they form the character of an individual and it becomes the way of life. As an outcome if the inhabitants as well as their surrounding are free from unhygienic aspects, they can minimise the unhygienic related diseases. Hygiene refers to the set of practices that keep oneself and one’s living and working area clean in order to prevent illness and maintain freshness and sound health. Hygiene is an old concept related to medicine, as well as to personal and professional care practices. It is also related to most aspects of living, although it is most often wrongly associated with cleanliness. Hygiene is also the name of a branch of science that deals with the promotion and preservation of health. Hygiene practices vary widely, and what is considered acceptable in one culture might not be acceptable in another. The ancient Greeks spent many hours in bathing, using fragrances and make-up in an effort to beautify themselves and be presentable to others. In fact, hygiene is actually a scientific study. Maintaining a high level of hygiene helps to increase self-esteem and confidence and also minimise the chances of developing imperfections. The word ‘Hygiene’ is derived from the Greek word ‘Hygeia’ meaning the goddess of health. Hygiene enables man to maintain good health and to improve that health for long living. Man makes a healthy relationship with the environment by practising hygiene. It is a key part for quality assurance to ensure perfect health and happiness of oneself and one’s household. In general, hygienic practices keep away bacteria, virus and germs and prevent the spread of disease-causing organisms.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
India is recognized as a global power in the key economic sectors. Despite these economic advances, poor hygienic practices and inadequate sanitary conditions that are prevailing in our country hamper the growth of the nation. Sanitation and hygiene are still a major concern, especially in the rural areas. According to United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) report, in India only 31 per cent of the population uses improved sanitation. According to the Public Health Association, only 53 per cent of the population washes hands with soap after defecation, 38 per cent washes hands with soap before eating and only 30 per cent washes hands with soap before preparing food. Wash Interventions significantly reduce diarrhoeal morbidity as it is well known that poor wash causes diarrhoea, which is the second biggest cause of death in children under five years. Unhygienic surrounding invites mosquitoes and flies. As a result, people are prone to both communicable and non communicable diseases. As per the statistics of the World Health Organization (WHO) diarrhoeal diseases remain a leading cause of illness and death in the developing world. Every year, about 2.2 million people die of diarrhoea; 90 per cent of these deaths are among children, mostly in developing countries. A significant number of deaths are due to a single type of bacteria, Shigella, which causes dysentery or bloody diarrhoea. It is readily controlled by improving hygiene, water supply and sanitation. At this juncture a few questions arise in the minds of the researcher like what are the personal hygienic practices that are prevailing among the sample respondents in the study area. How do they take care of household cleanliness and is there any significant difference between personal and household hygiene. To find fitting answers to this problem the research study is undertaken.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of this paper deals with the hygienic practices of the sample respondents in the study area. The following are the specific objectives of the study.
Ho 1: Opinion regarding “personal hygienic practices” is equal to average level.
Ho 2 : Opinion regarding “household hygienic practices” is equal to average level.
Ho 3: There is no significant difference in mean score of personal hygiene and household hygiene
This study is based on both Primary and Secondary data. The primary data were collected from the three coastal taluks (i.e Agaeesthwaram, Kalkulam, Vilavancode) in Kanyakumari District wherein the coastal belt is located. These belts consist of 47 villages and from each taluk two villages were selected for this study: one with the highest population while the other village with the lowest population. From each taluk, 75 sample respondents were selected. Out of which 50 sample respondents were from the village of highest population and 25 sample respondents from the village of lowest population on the basis of multistage random sampling. The selected villages are Kanyakumari (H) and Siluvaiyanager (L) of Agaeesthwaram taluk. Colachel (H) and Chinnavalai (L) of Kalkulam taluk. Neerodi (H) and Helen Colony (L) of Vilavancode taluk. Further, from these six villages 225 samples are chosen on the basis of proportionate stratified random sampling. The collected data had been analyzed with the help of the statistical tools like percentage analysis, one way ANOVA, one sample t-test and paired sample t-test. The secondary data were collected from various books, journals and websites.
(H) Indicates the village with the highest population in the taluk and (L) indicates the village with the lowest population in the taluk
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Demographic profile is one of the important variables which decide about the practices and usage of the respondents. The following table clearly depicts the demographic profile of the respondents with hygienic practices in the study area.
Note: ** denotes significant at 1% level
*denotes significant at 5% level
Since p-value is less than 0.01, the null hypothesis was rejected at 1% level of significance in case of personal hygiene and 5% level of hygiene in case of households hygiene. Hence, it is concluded that there is a significant difference between age group and hygienic practices. The younger generation that is below 25 are conscious and careful about hygienic practices through an awareness of social media and their social gathering in public places. Hence they are clean and careful about the hygienic related diseases.
Since p-value is less than 0.01, the null hypothesis was rejected at l % level of significance in case of both personal and house hold hygiene. It is concluded that there is a significant difference in case of education and hygienic practices. Now- a-days a good number of fisherfolk are being educated in schools and colleges compared to yesteryears. Hence they are conscious about hygienic aspects and the impact of unhygienic practices.
Since p-value is less than 0.05, the null hypothesis was rejected at 5% level of significance. Hence, it is inferred that there is a significant difference between the sizes of the family with hygienic practices. It is understood that the hygienic practices depend upon the size of the family because when members in the family are less in number, they are able to maintain both personal and household hygiene. So, family size determines the personal and household hygiene practices.
Personal hygiene helps us to keep bacteria, viruses and fungal far away from our bodies. It is an aid to protect our mental health and activity. Good personal hygiene will help us to keep feeling good about ourselves. Since those who do not take care of their personal hygiene i.e., dirty clothes, body odour and bad breath will suffer from discrimination and this will mainly lead to mental problems. The following table clearly depicts the personal hygiene practices of the sample respondents in the study area.
Ho 1 : Opinion regarding “personal hygienic practices” is equal to average level.
Note: ** denotes significant at 1% level
*denotes significant at 5%level
Since, p value is less than 0.01, the null hypothesis is rejected at 1 per cent level of significance. Hence, it is concluded that the opinion regarding personal hygienic practices are not equal to average level. Based on the mean score, the first three highest score is given to washing hands before eating, taking bath daily and washing hands before cooking, are reaching the above average level with mean scores of 4.23, 4.20 and 4.04, respectively. It shows that washing hands help the respondents to avoid bacteria and keep them cleaner and healthier. It is the outcome of influence of media and the literacy rate of women in the houses.
The lowest mean score is given to the habit of nail biting, not brushing teeth twice a day and washing hands after touching the currency (money) with mean score of 1.29, 2.32, 2.22, respectively. It shows that the respondents lack awareness regarding these variables. Studies show that brushing teeth twice a day for at least 3- 5 minutes help people to keep free from bacteria, viruses and illnesses. It reduces plaque by 70 per cent and gum problems by 36 per cent. ( Sobiya Moghul:2012). Brushing the teeth at least twice a day ensures our breath stays fresh and clean smelling (Ruth Taylor: 2014). Hence it requires the attention of the policy makers as well as the well wishers of the fisher folk. Through these aforesaid practices the sample respondents are easily prone to get germs and bacteria which are susceptible to unhygienic related diseases.
Hygiene in home and everyday life settings plays an important part in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. The main sources of infection in the home are people (who are carriers or are infected), foods (particularly raw foods) and water. Household water treatment and safe storage ensure that drinking water is safe for consumption. The following table clearly depicts the practices of household hygiene
Ho 2 : Opinion regarding “household hygienic practices” is equal to average level.
Note: ** denotes significant at 1% level
Since, p value is less than 0.01 the null hypothesis is rejected at 1 per cent level of significance. Hence, it is concluded that the opinion regarding household hygienic particles are not equal to average level. The highest score is given to the variables like Washing the vegetables /meat thoroughly, Drying the clothes in the sunlight, Washing the sink and the bath room daily with its mean score of 4.47,4.41 and 4.17 respectively. It is inferred that through their personal experiences and advice of medical people they follow the basic household practices. While the lowest mean score is given to Cleaning water tanks/pots regularly, Sharing the towels/Using other’s dress and Washing the vessels with hot water 2.88. 2,86 and 1.39 respectively. It is inferred that when one member in the family is affected by communicable diseases, it easily spreads to the others through sharing of towels or clothes. It is concluded that through all these attributes, one is easily prone to health related problems and they are exposed to bacteria, germs and virus. Hence their immune system is very poor and weak. Moreover Cleanliness in the kitchen helps to prevent the spread of diseases ( Dodi Tov:2014). Hence the vessels in the kitchen and plates should be rinsed in hot water which avoids food poisoning. The following clearly shows that whether there is a significant difference between personal and household hygiene of the sample respondents in the study area.
Ho 3: There is no significant difference in mean score of personal hygiene and household hygiene
Since, p value is less than 0.01, the null hypothesis is rejected at 1 per cent level of significance. Hence it is concluded that there is a significant difference between personal hygiene and household hygiene. Based on the mean score, the opinion on measurement of hygiene shows that household hygiene (67.07) is higher than personal hygiene (45.69). From this, it is clear that people are giving more importance to household hygiene than personal hygiene. It is understood the proximity of houses of the sample respondents are very close to one another. Moreover there are no source of outlet of drainage facilities and all these dirty waters run off in the street and fish being a perishable product bring bad smell to these households. Hence for household hygiene more priority is given in the study area than personal hygiene. It requires the attention of the policy makers.
“With the onset of multi-resistant germs increasing, proper hand hygiene is one of the most effective measures to maintain good health.” According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), some scientists estimate that up to 80% of all infections are transmitted by hands. So it is the sole responsibility of every citizen to keep oneself, household and public places clean and free from microorganisms and dirt by washing hands with soap regularly. Then automatically we can experience perfect health and happiness. The Government who is the guardian of the common people should see that the hygienic practices are followed by the people at regular intervals with the help of primary health care services and NGOs. Then the life span of human index might rise and people could experience good health and happiness. Thus our nation would be the trend setter in adherence and maintaining the hygienic practices and proudly we can call our nation as ‘Clean India’.
The author is thankful to the University Grants Commission for financial support to carry out this work.
Product innovation is the dynamic marketing practice which helps the business firm to compete in the market. Every product needs innovation to fulfill the requirements of the customers time to time. India is having the third largest market in the world in case of selling the smart phones. The country holds second largest market after China in this area. Now a smartphone user can perform various operations along with calling through its phone such as the function of remote control of the television set and even various medical tests are also available in many smartphones. Product innovation is enabling the smartphone firms to do business with the interest and confidence in the market.
Key words: Smartphone, Product Life Cycle (PLC), International Data Corporation (IDC).
A business organization survives on its product or service. Every manufacturing enterprise sells its products to the customers for attaining the growth as well as goodwill. Customers purchase the products as per their requirements. Requirements of the customers change as per their aspirations. Every product needs innovation as time passes to fulfill the requirements of the customers. Every product has its life cycle which is called Product Life Cycle (PLC).PLC of any product includes five stages namely, Product development, Introduction, Growth, Maturity and Decline. In the development stage the firm develops the new product with the latest idea. In this stage the business firm suffers investment costs and there are no sales in this stage. In the second stage product is introduces the market. The rate of sales is very slow which results in lower profits. Heavy expenditure is incurred on product promotion. Growth stage includes market acceptance of the product among the customers. A high sale yields high profits. Sales starts to be slow in the maturity stage of the product. Customers prefer some new features in the product in this stage to fulfill their needs in the competitive environment. In the decline stage product has no sale. Hence maturity stage requires product innovation.
Product innovation has the great importance in this modern competitive era. The main reason of the product innovation is the dynamic market. Product innovation is essential to compete in the market. Various changes are performed by the manufacturer in the product under this process. When existing product looks entirely different from its previous look, then this process is termed as innovation. There are various reasons for product innovation like, competition, business growth, market change, maximum utilization of resources, reducing the risk, technological development etc.
Statement of the Problem
Smart phone has brought revolution in the communication world. In this paper, product innovation by the smart phone firms has been analyzed in the context of Indian market. In India communication through mobiles have prominent place. For the purpose of the study, the author has analyzed the innovative practices by the various leading smart phone firms in India. Product innovative practice has the great role to play in the competitive marketing environment. After the technological revolution all over the world, the rate of obsolesce in the smart phone area has increased. Smart phone manufactures have to be alert in the area of product innovation for attaining the fruitful business in the modern environment.
Objectives of the Study
This paper is based the product innovative practices in the area of smart phones. The main objective of this paper is to study the innovative practices by the various smart phone companies in India. Innovative practices lead to enhance the business. An attempt has been made in this study to highlight the impact on smart phone business as the result of product innovation.
This paper is based on three main segments describing the introduction of the concept, objectives and methodology in the beginning part, information about the smart phones business and innovative practices by the various firms in India in the body text and discussion in the ending part of the study. The study is based on information obtained from various published and online sources. Secondary data have been used for the purpose of drawing the inferences.
Smart Phone and Product Innovative Practices
Smart phones have attained the prominent place in the routine life of every person in the modern era. In India smart phone are used at large in the communication process. According to the research firm Canalys, India is having the third largest market in the world in case of selling the smart phones. The country holds second largest market after China in this area. In India, Samsung, Micromax, Motorola, BlackBerry, Karbonn, HTC, Sony, Spice, LG, Huawei and G’Five are the leading smartphones. Manufacturers of these brands are using product innovations for making their phones more competitive.
International Data Corporation (IDC) has depicted in its report that in the second quarter of 2015, India has imported 26.5 million smartphones and this figure is 44 % up for the same period of 2014. This trend shows that the smartphone market is increasing in India day by day
Figure1: Share of Smartphone Vendors in India (2015-Quarer-2)
Source: International Data Corporation AP Quarterly Mobile Phone Tracker, 2015Q2
Samsung is having 23 % share in the Indian market and is leading in the business of smartphones. According to the viewpoint of Mr. Anirbn Banerjee, the Associate Vice President of the Research and Advisory Services Division of CyberMedia Research, Nowadays Indian people giving preference to the characteristic phones which offers high speed and power.
Smartphone firms are focusing on fulfilling the aspirations of the customers by making their smartphone more and more innovative time to time. All the leading companies have launched quad-cores and android phones with high quality cameras. Edge-to-edge display feature has been introduced in the phones for attracting the buyers. Various apps related to various aspects of routine life have been uploaded in the phones. Now a smartphone user can perform multitasks through its phone such as the function of remote control of the television set and even various medical tests are also available in many smartphones.
Many companies has introduced phone cum mini-computers which fulfill the requirements of personal computer. These phone are easy to handle and carry at the workplace and moreover less costly to Desktop and Laptop. This type of revolution has totally changed the market scenario of smart phones in the communication world. This fast changing business environment requires more innovative handsets for the smartphone users.
Product innovative practices have the great importance for competing in the modern business environment. Smart phone market is changing very fast due to technological advances and consumer needs. Smart phones firms are practicing the innovative practices for making their products more useful and attractive for the modern business environment. This marketing practice is enabling the smartphone firms to do business with the interest and confidence in the market.
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Paschal Banga Nade
This study focused at determining the relationship between the language of instruction which is English in this case and the student overall subject performance in secondary schools in Tanzania. A cross-section design was employed and data were collected through the National Examination of Tanzania Website. Three secondary schools from three different regions in Tanzania were purposively selected in this study. The findings show that student performance in English language as the language of instruction has an influence on overall subject performance. The students who scored F and E grades in English language, their respective overall subjects GPA fall under Fail and Pass categories. While the student who scored C and above grades, their overall GPA fall under Credit, Merit and Distinction categories. No significant relationship has been found between language of instruction performance and sex of the students. Further recommendation and analysis has been made clear in this document.
Key words: mastery, language of instruction, academic performance
Learning process is facilitated by using a language that learners understand best as the medium of instruction. Language of instruction is a vehicle through which education is delivered and is an indispensable medium for carrying, or transmitting education from teachers to learners and among learners (Qoro, 2006). Essentially, language mastery / competence is ones’ underlying knowledge of the system of a language – its rules of grammar, its vocabulary, all the pieces of a language and how those pieces fit together ( Bodunde and Akeredolu-Ale, 2010).
Øzerk (1999) argues that linguistic interaction constitutes a significant part of any learning activity and that the quality of the linguistic interaction in learning activities consequently represents an important factor in the learning effect of school subjects. He points to two important processes involved in teaching and learning, which are referred to as input and intake. He explains that input in this respect refers to the intensity, or frequency of the language of instruction the teacher confronts the student with during a learning period. The process of intake decides how much of the total amount of this the student understands and is able to attain. A precondition in transforming input into intake is understanding. Mlay, (2010) noted that children who had a language background of studying English from kindergarten or class one and a home environment that was supportive which allowed them to practice English with family or with friends, had a positive contribution in helping them learn English language while those who started English later (from class three) and usually spoke Kiswahili or their mother tongue at home or with friends indicated that their poor competence in English was due to the weak foundation from primary school.
Still a number of developing countries, especially in Africa maintained a foreign language as the medium of instruction, particularly in post- primary education (Galabawa and Lwaitama, 2005) For example, English is the language of instruction in secondary schools in Tanzania as stipulated in the national education policy of 1995 and of course in the proposed new policy of education of 2014 which state that the medium of instruction for secondary education shall continue to be English, except for teaching of approved languages, and Kiswahili shall be a compulsory subject up to ordinary level. The rationale given in the document as to why English is to be used as the medium of instruction at post-primary education is that most instructional media and pedagogical materials are written in the English language and it is assumed that the situation is likely to remain so for a long time in the foreseeable future (Tibategeza, 2010).
Neke, (2003) noted that the continued use of English language as medium of instruction in post-primary education in Tanzania makes it difficult for students at these levels to understand and internalize scientific and technological principles due to their poor proficiency. Some secondary school teachers teach in Kiswahili to make the subject matter easier instead of English which is officially assigned despite the fact that the examination are set in English (Senkoro, 2005) Criper and William (1984) studied on the level of English across the education system in Tanzania confirmed that the levels of competence in English were insufficient in most schools for effective learning to take place. This study therefore, needs to establish relationship between Language of instruction and overall subjects’ exam performance.
Statement of the problem
Recently, Language of instruction competency has been blamed as one among the factors that cause poor student exam performance in Tanzania. For example 2010-2014 National Form Four Examination results evaluation has evidenced that English language as subject was ranked second to Mathematics in terms of failure. The evaluation went further by suggesting language of instruction to be changed to Kiswahili language (Kamugisha and Mateng’e, 2014). Godfrey (2014) noted that the learning process in recent years becomes challenging for most students in secondary school as the majority of them largely lack a basic command of English language. Nevertheless, Qorro (2006) observed that only a handful of students take part in active learning and majority of students simply sit and copy notes that their teachers have written on the blackboard. UDSM Academic Audit report suggested that because of serious communication problems, they have to switch to Kiswahili as language of instruction or officially allow bilingual policy adopted at university of Dar es Salaam. Similarly, Senkoro (2005) evidenced that most students have a problem with the language of instruction; also proficiency in language is low and leaves much to be desired.
English language as medium of instruction is noted as an obstacle in learning for secondary school and higher institutions in Tanzania. Students lack proficiency in expressing themselves and therefore limit their participation in the general learning process especially learner centrered approach of learning. Qorro (2006) further assert that, as a matter of efficiency and efficacy, only the language which teachers and students understand can effectively function as the language of instruction. Only when teachers and students understand the language of instruction are able to discuss, debate, ask and answer questions, ask for clarification and therefore construct and generate knowledge.
Studies have concentrated on identifying those competency based limitations such as grammar, fluency in speaking and the presentations in writings, however, the overall mastery/competency relationship on other subjects measured in terms of exam performance at individual level has not being clearly addressed hence creating a gap for this study. Thus, the study therefore needs to establish, indeed, if language of instruction mastery have an influence on overall subjects’ exam performance (evaluated in grades and Great Average Point (GPA)).
Bilingual Late-Exit Education Model
Although teacher quality plays a crucial role in facilitating the acquisition of English by students, it is arguable, based on child development research, that the manner in which the language is introduced to students in the earlier years of their development may be the reason of their inability to develop sufficient competencies in the language in later years (Tikolo, 2012). The presumption here is that cognitive development for language is the foundation of language learning, while other factors such as teacher competency facilitate the development of this already developed foundation.
A late-exit transition model involves the delay of transition from mother tongue as a medium of instruction to a different target language to year five to six (Ouane and Glanz, 2011). An efficient late-exit model which maintains the mother tongue beyond year five to six as a subject can lead to additive bilingualism, where effective first and second language pedagogy is used in the classroom along with adequate content area literacy instruction. It is for that reason, Tanzania employs a late-exit transitional bilingual model where mother tongue (Kiswahili) is the instructional language for 8 years and then a switch is made to English. The official language of instruction in Tanzania as articulated in its Education and Training Policy (United Republic of Tanzania, 1995/2014) in pre-primary and throughout primary education is Kiswahili, the local language spoken across the country, while English is to be taught as a compulsory subject. Thereafter, English is to become the medium of instruction from secondary school onward with Kiswahili taught as a compulsory subject.
Student Medium of Instruction Language mastery and overall subjects performance
Aina et al, (2013) made a correlation between proficiency in English language and academic performance of students in science and technical education, they found that students in technical education performed better than their counterpart in science education; students who passed English language performed better than those who failed both in science and technical education. Similarly, a prediction research done by Kong et al, (2012) indicated that English language proficiency scores are significantly predictive of academic reading test scores for K–12 EL (America) students. However, the magnitude of the relationship depends on the content alignment between the assessments and characteristics of the populations included in the study
Likewise the study that aimed to measure the relationship between English Language subject performance on the Accessing Communication and Comprehension in English State to State (ACCESS) for English Language Learners (ELLs) and Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) have shown that when student characteristics are held constant, a significant positive, though moderate, relationship exists between Els’ performances on the ACCESS for ELLs and CRCT. Also the findings show that the time spent in English language development programs along with disability status and grade levels explain more variance in CRCT scores than students’ ELP scores and gender (Margaret, 2011).
Regarding the students’ proficiency in secondary school in Tanzania (Gran, 2007) noted that the number which is getting within reach of being able to read unsimplified text is less than 10%. It is extremely worrying to find that nearly one third of all students are at the picture book level after four years of official English medium education. These results are a clear indication that throughout their secondary school career little or subject information is getting across to about 50% of the pupils in his sample. Only about 10% of Form IVs are at a level where one might expect English medium education to begin. Commenting on the English situation in Tanzania, Rubanza (2002) asserts that students do lose their English skills after completing their studies because the society they work and live in does not demand the use of the English language. This suggests a major effect of poor implementation of the bilingual education in Tanzania.
Brock-Utne (2005) did a comparative study on the language of instruction in two secondary school classrooms in Tanzania; the two languages were English (Second language) and Kiswahili (first language). As an experiment, the same teacher was teaching the same topic in biology to two different classes of Form I students in a large secondary school. The teacher taught the topics in English to one class and in Kiswahili to another class. In the English class; students were silent, grave and looked afraid, they were trying to guess the answers the teacher wanted. Also miss-pronunciation, miss-spelling, silence/poor cooperation was observed; for instance, Teacher (T): Speak loudly. (It sounded like “lovely”) One of the boys, who had been standing for a long time, tried to read in his book and when the teacher pointed at him. He said: Student (Ss): Bird. (He pronounced it “beerd”) T: Spell it. S: B – I – R – D. The teacher then wrote “bird” on the blackboard and pronounced it “bird”. While in Kiswahili class, students in Kiswahili classroom have demonstrated smiles and much laughter during this lesson and it went quickly (for the teacher, the students and the observers) and students were competing to answer.
Similarly, in a study which instituted treatment as a variety of language of instruction (Kiswahili or English) among secondary form II pupils in four selected schools. Teaching content was selected from the national secondary school syllabus in Biology and Geography. It was found that, the average test scores administered at the end of the teaching period were generally higher in the Kiswahili treatment than those obtained in the English treatment (Galabawa Waitama, 2005).Likewise Kinyanduka and Kiwara (2013) found that 69.5% of students could not understand when taught in English language through classes. Also 78.9% of teachers said that English language was a setback to a student academic achievement. Surprisingly, 64.5% of teachers, 53% of parents and 78.1% of student respondents preferred teachers to use English as a language of teaching and evaluation. In the meantime, 71.4% of students felt that it was better for teachers to use both Swahili and English during classes. This study recommends the use of both, English and Swahili in teaching and evaluation.
Also Peterson (2006) noted positive perception to Kiswahili by students as they expressed that they understand the courses which are given in Kiswahili a lot better than the courses offered in English as it equip them with the availability of terminology/vocabularies, and it is the language they use outside the classroom, and encounter everywhere as part of their daily lives, like at the market, at home, in churches and mosques and school. He further asserts that when English is used as the medium of instruction, on the other hand, students expressed that they learn very little. The main reasons for these difficulties as perceived by the students included problems with understanding the English language structure, for example the difference between writing and pronunciation, and that some of the books provided in English employ complicated language.
Mlay, (2010) assert that one of the reasons why students in secondary schools face so much difficulty using English is their reluctance in the language. She further noted that students are unwilling to actively participate in class discussions because teachers would criticize them or other students laugh at them because of their lack of ability to express themselves in English. However, students who have had early exposure to English from the beginning of primary school are able to cope using English as a medium of instruction in secondary school and their performance tends to be better off in comprehension tests conducted unlike those who started learning English from class three and thus have less exposure in the language.
Vuzo, (2002) pointed out that students can fail to answer well questions simply because they fail to understand the question, not because they do not know the answer. Language can affect a learner’s ability to interpret instructions and questions. It can also lead to failure to express their ideas appropriately. His overall findings from this study indicated that there were differences in teaching and learning when the different MOI were used. Student –teacher interaction in Kiswahili MOI was high on average as the majority of students actively gave answers and quite a number asked questions. In English MOI lessons it was minimal as most students were silent, not asking questions or giving any responses.
Sex relation to Medium of Instruction Language Competency
Razmjoo and Movahed (2009) descriptive statistics analysis show that females outperformed males in language proficiency, but their independent sample t-test revealed that the difference is not significant. On the same vein, Hassani (2005) made clear that there was no significant interaction among motivation, gender, and level of English proficiency. Also Sabatin (2013) found no statistically significant differences in performance in reading comprehension between male and female subjects who have cultural background knowledge and those who do not have any knowledge. Mohammadi (2007) investigated if the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) and Foreign Language Reading Anxiety (FLRA) among Iranian EFL learners correlate and can predict each other and the findings showed that both age and gender affect the FLCA and FLRA. In another study girls showed no advantage in general intelligence, but performed significantly better on all subjects except Physics (Deary et al, 2006).
In contrary, Dayıolu and Türüt-Aık (2004) noted that smaller number of female students manages to enter the university and when they do so, they enter with lower scores. However, once they are admitted to the university, they excel in their studies and outperform their male counterparts. Wilberg and Lynn (1999 ) found that female student tend to have better language abilities including essay writing skills, vocabulary and word fluency which contribute to better course work. Younger, Warrington and Williams (1999) focus on the gender gap in English secondary schools and their analysis was based on the performance of boys and girls in GCSE examinations in the UK and girls were found to get better grades than boys. Their findings was explained by boys’ disregard for authority, academic work and formal achievement, differences in students’ attitudes to work and their goals and aspirations and girls’ increased maturity and more effective learning strategies.
Education, Audio-visual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA) report (2010) showed that recent international assessment studies agree that girls tend to have a higher reading achievement than boys. For instance, among students in the fourth year of schooling girls had significantly higher reading achievement than boys in all countries in Europe except two countries, Spain and Luxembourg, where average achievement was equivalent between the sexes. Also further interesting gender differences regarding reading domains or reading purposes show that Girls have a significantly higher average achievement in literary reading in all European countries (EACEA, 2010). Superior average performance in language by girls at all three ages in reading, writing and talking, with a few specific tasks where boys are superior has been noted. However, overall reading comprehension was differentially easier for the female group than the matched group of males, and males tended to perform better on antonyms and analogies than their female counterparts with equal ability (Song, 2014).
Wilder and Powell, (1989) observed few or no sex differences during the early years, but evidence for a divergence between the sexes starting around age 11. Females scored higher on tasks involving receptive and productive language, fluency, analogies, comprehension of written material, and creative writing. This superiority of females was thought to increase through high school and possibly beyond, and, although the extent of the female advantage tended to vary with the study and the ability under scrutiny, the most commonly cited magnitude was about one fourth of a standard deviation. Although these reviews agree that there are gender differences in verbal ability, they disagree about the kinds of verbal tasks that show such differences and also about the nature of developmental trends in gender differences.
This study employed a cross-section design. The design was chosen since it allows data to be collected at once from different cases. It therefore fit for this study because the data has been collected from three secondary schools which are located in three different regions at one point in time. The target population was all form four graduates who sat for the National Examination in the year 2014 and one of their compulsory subject being English and that subject is a language of instruction for all other subjects they sat for. Three secondary schools were purposively selected because they share the attributes; one being geographical location as they are all located in urban areas and second, their medium of instruction is English and English is one of the subjects they set for that National Exam. The selected secondary schools were Rau (Kilimanjaro), City (Dodoma) and Mwembetogwa (Iringa).
The total of 306 students of the three secondary schools who sat for Form Four National Examination in the year 2014 was selected as a sample size. Primary data was collected through reviewing the Form four National results. Both published and unpublished materials including, books, journals, papers, chapters, reports and thesis were reviewed as secondary data to see the scope, nature of the problem and its relationships with other variables and for consistency and validation of the data. The review of the form four results was done by the researcher. The data were obtained from the National examination council of Tanzania websites (www.necta.go.tz). Both objective one and two were analysed descriptively by using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) program. The association/ relationship between sex and English grades scores likewise GPA score versus English grades scores were computed by using Chi-square model and percentages. Its interpretation and relation with other findings are presented in the findings section.
Findings and Discussion
The review of results show that 10.1% of 306 sample size have exam problems; therefore their results were not disclosed and regarded as missing cases in this findings and the valid cases were 89.9% of the sample size as shown in the table number 1.
The relationship between English subject performance and overall subjects’ performance
The results show that students who scored F grade in English language, their respective GPA largely fall under “fail category”, which is equivalent to 88.3 per cent while it is only 11.7 percent who fall under “pass category” of GPA who scored F grade in English Subject. No any student with F grade in English language fall under credit, merit and distinction category of GPAs.
As grade performance increases the number of student falling under GPA category of fail decreases. For instance the student who scored E their GPA under fail category dropped to 58.2%, and for grade D, it dropped to 4.8%. Unlike decreasing percent for Fail category GPA as grade goes up, the Pass category GPA rises as the grade go higher level; for instance for F grade, percent in pass category was 11.7, for E grades is 41.8% and for D grade is 79.0%. However, starting from C to B+ performance grade in English language, their per cents in Pass category of GPA begin to decline.
It is unfortunate that no student scored A grade in English language for the entire sample size, however, there are two students who scored Distinction category of GPA in overall subjects with their grades in English Language being B and B+ respectively. The following table 4 provides more clarification of these relationships.
Majority of student under study have poorly performed in English language as shown in results. Besides, the correlation performed in assessing the relationship between sex of the student and English language subject performance show no significant relation. In terms of grade category of GPA ranging from pass to distinction; there is mixed variation of results as female performed better in some grades and fail in other grades and similar results was found for male counterpart. This result show improvement for gender balance in Tanzania with the assumption that the factors that affect female students have been worked upon by the government and associated stakeholders
However, significant relationship between English Language performance of the students and the overall student subjects’ performance has been revealed by this study. When student perform better in English language subject, their respective GPA tend to be in the higher category and when student perform poorly in English language and their respective GPA tend to be in lower category especially fail and pass.
The implication of this result is that much of improvement is needed in language of instruction in classrooms so as to achieve better academic results. This means better understanding of overall subject content largely depend on the language that is used for instruction. Alternatively, the government of Tanzania needs to recast its policy for secondary school and higher institution language of instruction by switching to Kiswahili which is the first language to majority of Tanzanians.
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