We, at IJR, initiate a call for research paper in all areas of science, engineering and technology every month. From original research papers, survey papers, case studies and academic or scholarly articles to extended versions of previously published papers in conferences, scholarly journal or academic peer reviewed international journals, we welcome high quality work that focuses on research, development and application in the aforesaid areas.
International Journal of Research is a one-stop, open access source for a large number of high quality and peer reviewed journals in all the fields of science, engineering and technology. Scientists and engineers involved in research can make the most of this growing global forum to publish papers covering their original research or extended versions of already published conference/journal papers, scholarly journals, academic articles, etc.
The published papers are made highly visible to the scientific community through a wide indexing policy adopted by this online international journal. Hence, they can freely be accessed and utilized by everyone for the development of science and technology. Being a part of an eco-friendly community, IJR favors and promotes e-publication of papers to truly present itself as an online ‘GREEN journal.’
IJR, a Journal of Multidisciplinary Educational Research focuses on critical and creative research. This journal seeks to promote original research and cultivate fruitful dialogues between previous and innovative thoughts.
International Journal of Research (IJR) promotes original academic research in Humanities, Culture, Comparative Education, Social Sciences, Rural Development, Engineering and Technology, Sciences, Art, Commerce and Management. Providing an insight, to transform lives is the motto. One can utilize the opportunities and face challenges of this changing world.
The million development goal laid its emphasis on “people centered approach” to recognize human and social capital for sustainable development. These include economic strategies and many other emerging trends.
Goal is to create sustainable improvement in the quality of life among the common people.
Stake holder oriented programs, to facilitate increase in per capita income of individual facilities
To empower people in the areas of health, economy, polity and education.
To publish original empirical research and theoretical studies on adult education, lifelong learning, extension, and economic relations studies.
To generate interest in civil society movements, studies on democracy, problems of marginalized sections, cross border terrorism, violation of human rights, ecology, environment and issues in governance at the regional and national level.
The object is simple and that is to provide a forum for scholarly dialogue on a broad range of topics significant to our times and cultures.
Laxmi Vilas Palace was built by Maharaja Sayajirao III of the Gaekwad family (who ruled the Baroda State). Maharaja Sayajirao summoned a British architect, named Charles Mant, in his court in order design the Palace.
The palace was built in the year of 1890. The construction of the palae took a long time of twelve years. The palace was named after the beloved third wife of Maharaja Sayaji Rao III. The total cost of the construction of the palace was twenty-seven lakh rupees, which was a handsome amount at that time.
The size of the Laxmi Vilas palace is expected to be the four times bigger than the size of Buckingham Palace, England. The architecture of the place outlines the elements of Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture. The palace covers in total 500 acres and entails several establishments within the palace complex some of them are LVP Banquets & Conventions, Moti Bagh Palace and the Maharaja Fateh Singh Museum building.
It also contains a number of modern amenities like elevators, and more. The interior of the palace has a very close resemblance to a European Country House. It is believe that the Lakshmi Vilas Palace has more number of stained glasses comparing with any other palace in the world. Today it stands tall in Vadodara, Gujarat. Many tourists, throughout the world, pay their visit to this palace to admire its beauty and grandeur.
Humankind has been on the constant journey of uplifting their standards of living. This species is known to carefully analyze its surroundings and bring about the required changes for maximum betterment.
For an improved strategy that helps lead lifestyles, it is essential to pay extra attention to crucial aspects. One such significant section is urban planning. It is a process that requires examining and strategizing the proper use of elements like water, land, resources, and so forth.
In simple terms, it is related to curating an infrastructure that is best suitable for a sustainable lifestyle. In this article, we will learn about urban planning and some of the essential segments of its history.
What Do You Understand By Urban Planning?
As mentioned above, urban planning is related to curating a fruitful infrastructure that clearly defines the vital resources available to humankind. Urban planning is both a technical as well as a political process that requires ample amounts of knowledge.
The history of urban planning stretches to that of human existence. To carry out excellent urban planning, one requires appropriate information regarding engineering and architecture. Moreover, this field also needs adequate audience participation. Thus, it is essential to instill utmost discipline while dealing with urban planning.
The pre-classical era witnessed several cities being laid down according to a strategic plan. Many of these cities tended to develop organically over time. Some of the most prominent cities designed in this period were Harappan, Minoan, and Egyptian civilization. If we talk about the first recorded urban planning description, it goes back to The Epic of Gilgamesh.
The streets of many cities known to humankind were built and laid out in the forms of rigid right angles and grid patterns. Some archaeological evidence also suggests that many houses were designed to shield from the noise and improve the standard of living. Additionally, most of the homes have their very own water well. This suggested the remains for sanitary purposes. Furthermore, some archaeologists also interpret that these cities had well-organized drainage systems as well as agricultural land.
The disintegration of the west Roman empire dates back to the 5th century. Since then, the general improvement is noted to have appeared in the 10th and 11 centuries. This time was interpreted as politically stable and economically beneficial. It was then when trade and craft flourished, and monetary benefits were revived in the economy. During this era, hundreds of towns were built. Moreover, many of the pre-existing towns were expanded. Without a doubt, these new towns have played a significant role in maintaining the geographical structures of Europe.
The Era Of Industrialization
The late 19th century saw a boost in the industrial sector. This was a result of the rapid population growth, business enterprises, frequent profits, and so forth. Giant cities developed during this era, and a subtle exhibition of luxury as well as poverty was observed. The growing status difference led to the rise of corruption as well as the poor sections of society like the slums, etc., saw a rise.
The poor standards of living resulted in poverty, and that posed a threat to society. Since then, individuals have started to focus on the betterment of public health. This was followed by the creation of better and strategic plans for water supplies, sewage, and so forth.
Soon, the first housing reform was enacted in the late century. However, the implementation was slow and steady as the government provided funding after a long gap. With housing improvement, new and erect structures were observed in the economy. These were more stable and improved standard of living.
The progressive era saw the need for urban recreational planning. It was during the early 20th century structures like parks were built. These places were created with the motive of providing relief and peaceful places for relaxation. A little time later, numerous playgrounds started to emerge that facilitated a dedicated area for children as well as adults. Soon the separation of roads was also witnessed. There was a specific section for all the pedestrians as well as the vehicular traffic. This provided more structure as well as rigidity to the society.
Benefits Of Urban Planning
Urban planning plays a major role in the social-economic level as a political connection of the society. This type of planning requires the proper utilization of resources in order to extract maximum benefit from them. Below, we have mentioned a few benefits of urban planning, depicting its importance in today’s society.
Urban planning resulted in better connectivity of towns, cities, neighborhoods, and so forth. This resulted in enhanced land values of the well-connected cities. Furthermore, it also resulted in enhancing people’s safety as well as security. This is so because urban planning facilitated better surveillance and prominent health benefits.
The proper use of urban planning increased the capacity of buildings as well as neighborhoods and thus led to an adequate use of spaces. This, in turn, increased the adaptability of land resources. Therefore, urban planning resulted in more fruitful use of economic spaces like buildings. It promoted the diverse use of public spaces and encouraged individuals to utilize non-renewable resources for better living standards properly.
3. User participation
Improved urban planning boosted the public consultation process. It encouraged individuals to participate in urban design projects and give their opinions through numerous surveys and design workshops. Therefore, planning promoted user participation. This, in turn, boosted a proper fit between users as well as the urban design. The participants were encouraged to come out and give their opinion about the effective use of resources. This boosted the decision-making process and provided a sense of participants to the individuals.
4. Better standards of living
Urban planning directly affected the standards of living. Increased use of urban planning emphasized a more realistic approach in society. This led to the enhancement of economic spaces. Therefore, urban planning encouraged more audience participation in cultural as well as community activities. Better standards of living also meant several health benefits along with strategic use of the public space. Furthermore, urban planning also resulted in the enhanced personal safety of individuals.
Urban planning has played a significant role in the betterment of the standards of living. Additionally, urban planning has been a part of society for a very long time now.
After carefully examining the various aspects of urban planning, we have briefly summarised the entire information in the above-mentioned article. We have talked about urban planning, its various elements, along some benefits. We trust that this article would be beneficial and provide you with adequate information related to urban planning.
The Eiffel tower is an epitome of Paris, France. Its main focus is its height, which is 984ft. Gustave A. Eiffel commissioned the construction of the tower to enter it in the world’s fair, being held that year in Paris. The construction began in the year of 1889 and completed in the year of 1910.
It exemplifies the early wrought-iron construction on an enormous scale. Almost 7000 tons of iron was used in the construction of this gigantic structure. Before working on Eiffel tower Gustave had also contributed in the construction of the great Statue of Liberty. It is believed that Eiffel Tower is twice as high as the dome of St. Peter’s in Rome or the Great Pyramid of Giza.
The architecture of the tower also sets a best example of civil engineering. The principal feature of the structure is the glass-cage machines made by the Otis Elevator Company of the United States The tower also entails a restaurant, radio and television transmitter.
The Eiffel Tower was the tallest structure in the world before the topping off of the Chrysler Building in New York City in 1929. Today if an individual visits France for a tour and mistakenly doesn’t visit Eiffel Tower then it is believed that his or her visit to France is incomplete. Today billions of tourists throughout the world come to behold its majesty look and structure.
In the heart of China lies a palace, which astounds every person who sees it for once. To Chinese it is known as Zijin Cheng and to others it is known as The Forbidden City. The Forbidden City stands in the capital of China, Beijing, enchanting its onlookers with its great ad majestic look. It served as the royal residence of twenty-four great emperors of China from both Ming and Qing Dynasty.
For over five hundred years it was a ceremonial and political centre of the Chinese Government. It entails nine hundred and eighty buildings in total, each with a distinctive and magnificent appearance. The foundation of a transcendental palace like this, which gives stiff competition to the great palaces of Europe, was set by the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty in the year of 1420.
The construction of the palace took fourteen years and was finally completed in 1420. The Forbidden City witnessed almost every major historic event of China be it World War first, World War Second, Civil war in China, and Cultural Revolution in China etc. In 1860 during the second Opium War (war of the British Empire and the French Empire against the Qing Dynasty of China) Anglo-French forces took the Command of the Palace and occupied it till the end of the war (which was ended in the favor of the British and the French Empire.
In 1912 The Forbidden City was ceased being the political seat of China following the abdication of the last Emperor of China, Puyi. Later in the year of 1949 with the establishment of the People’s Republic of China , the Forbidden City faced several damages as the country was in revolutionary zeal. After this in the year of 1925, the Forbidden City came under the supervision of the Palace Museum.
Apart from all this, if we peruse the palace’s architecture we will find that the palace outlines philosophical and religious elements through traditional Chinese architecture and above all symbolizes the grandeur of the bygone monarchy of China. The Forbidden was listed as the World Heritage Site in 1987. Today it receives visitors from different nations and islands across the world.
The Dubdi Monastery is situated on a hill top surrounded by a green forest. It is an ideal place for lamas to seek meditation in seclusion. In the year of 1701 the Chogyar Namgyal established this monastery of Dubdi, at Yuksom, Sikkim. Dubdi is an important part of of Buddhist religious pilgrimage circuit, which also entails Norbugang Chorten, Pemayangtse Monastery, Rabdentse ruins, Sanga Choeling Monastery, Khecheopalri Lake and Tashiding Monastery.
The monastery was also known as the Hermit’s Cell. The founder of the Monestry was Lhatsun Namkha Jigme, who came a long way from Tibet along with two other. Who in the year of 1642 crowned the first King, named Phuntsog Namgyal,of Sikkim at Norbugang Yuksom.
In short we can say that the Dubdin Monastery played a pivotal role in the founding of the State of Sikkim. The aesthetic outlook and quietness of the monastery adds a distinct setting. Its beauty has a certain attraction in it. It has also been observed as the first and oldest monastery of Sikkim. The statues of three lamas who were the founders of Yuksom are also an integral part of the monastery.
Apart from this, the Monastery has a sophisticated painted interior along with visuals of divinities, saints, and other pious symbols. The monastery also involves a collection of rare manuscripts and ritual texts. Today many Buddhist pilgrims visit this monastery in order to meditate and achieve nirvana in its quiet surroundings.
University of Phoenix Reviews Express How the College Caters to Busy Adults
University of Phoenix was established in 1976 by economist Dr. John Sperling who saw an opportunity to provide busy, working adults with a flexible and affordable way to enhance their education and excel in their careers. Looking back on 45 years of building stronger talent pipelines through educational advancement, University of Phoenix holds true to its mission in providing education to all who seek it.
University of Phoenix is one of the largest for-profit online universities in the United States, and the faculty and staff are focused on student success. Each student is paired with an academic advisor who works to understand their individual educational journey and what they need to succeed in the classroom and beyond.
Students are offered flexible schedules that work around their current obligations, making it an attractive option for working professionals, parents and those who have more on their plates than simply being a student.
Recent reviews highlight the University’s mission to provide education to all. Making education a priority has proven effective and given confidence to so many University of Phoenix students and alumni. Some of the reviews and testimonials praising this flexibility and support are highlighted below:
“University of Phoenix has made getting a degree while working full time possible for me. I have been wanting to make a career change but didn’t know how I would fit time to go to class. Online setup is easy to use, and I can log on when I have time!” – Michelle S.
“I have had a wonderful experience so far with University of Phoenix. I have been able to work, take care of my family, and go to school full time with the schedule offered. I am beyond excited to finally get my degree.” – Amanda C.
“As a single mother, going to University of Phoenix has been remarkably successful thus far. I have been able to balance a career and children while going to school full time. University of Phoenix made it very easy to learn all the tools, and I enjoyed the just starting webinar for tips on how to strengthen time management. Making Dean’s List my first year while in a pandemic and personal responsibilities is a testament of how this University has made it possible to succeed.” – Sarah H.
University of Phoenix offers students one course at a time, setting a manageable pace for learning so students can concentrate on the assignments and curriculum without feeling overloaded between work, family and school. Consistent check-ins with academic advisors help students stay on track. Some reviews highlight the benefits of such structure, like those shared below:
“I was unsure what college courses to take. I talked to my advisor, and he helped me choose a program. The application and getting set up with classes was so easy. I was so nervous to take online courses, but I am so glad I had. The classes are five weeks long and very easy to follow along. The professors are so nice and very clear on expectations.” – Samantha V.
“The courses are paced perfectly, giving students the time to complete assignments, ease of access to information, classes are tailored to provide a degree specific path to success and instructors/facilitators that communicate constructive critiques of work. I am able to login and participate in discussions with others in pursuit of a successful adventure in education. The benefits and changes in experience is providing the skills needed to obtain my goals.” – Daniel T.
“My experience with University of Phoenix is going great and exceeding my expectations. I appreciate the academic advisors keeping up and following through with students. I like this because it’ll help me stay on track with each course to ensure I am able to meet my goal in obtaining my degree. The instructors have been amazing with their weekly feedback and guidance.” – Erene C.
About University of Phoenix
University of Phoenix was founded in 1976 by economist Dr. John Sperling. It is one of the largest for-profit online universities in the country, helping students further their educational journey with flexible and affordable options to obtain a higher degree. The University’s main campus is in Phoenix, Arizona, however, online and on-campus learning options are available across the country.
University of Phoenix maintains an innovative approach to helping working adults enhance their careers by offering flexible schedules, relevant courses and interactive learning options. University of Phoenix serves a diverse student population. For more information, visit www.phoenix.edu.
The Drottningholm Palace is one of the Sweden’s famous Royal Palaces, which has a sensation of distinctiveness. In cold winters of Sweden its beauty gets enhance. It was constructed in the late 16th century. The palace had accommodated the Swedish royal court during summer season, for most of the 18th century. In the year of 1580 the palace was constructed by John III of Sweden for his beloved wife, Queen Catherine Jagellon.
In the year of 1661, a year after Queen Dowager Regent Hedwig Eleonora’s role as queen of Sweden was ended, she purchased the castle. But later on the same year in the month of December the palace was burned to ashes. After this incident Hedwig Eleonora summoned an architect, named Nicodemus Tessin the Elder, to reconstruct the castle. In 1662, the work of reconstruction began in the year of 1662. During the reconstruction of the palace Eleonora died, in 1681.
After the demise of Eleonora, Her son Nicodemus Tessin the Younger continued her work and completed the elaborate interior designs. The reconstruction of the palace was finally completed in the year of 1686.
Even after this, in the past four-hundred years, the palace and its grounds had undergone several renovations, changes and additions. In the year of 1991 the UNESCO listed this palace as a world heritage site. Today this palace is one of the prime tourist destinations in Sweden.