Built during the time period of 2nd century B.C. to 6th century A.D., these caves are the finest examples of rock-cut caves. Honed out of volcanic ballistic formations while existing in a linear pattern, there are 34 caves, containing the remnants of Buddhist, Hindu, and Jain temples. These walls are equipped with engravings showing the life of Lord Buddha. The purpose of these caves was to provide a sanctuary for the monks to meditate. Ellora in particular is famous for the world’s largest monolithic excavation leading to the discovery of the great Kailasa temple.
VIRUPAKSHA TEMPLE, KARNATAKA
Located in Hampi, Karnataka, and part of grouped monuments, designated as UNESCO world heritage site. This temple was dedicated to Lord Virupaksha, a form of Shiva. The temple is the main center of Hampi and built by Vijayanagara Empire situated near the Tungabhadra River. If we talk about its architecture, you will find a shrine hall with a number of pillars, and three anti-chambers. There are pillared monasteries, courtyards, a few small shrines, and entrances that surround the temple. This temple has found several engraved inscriptions of Lord Shiva and considered a holistic sacred retreat.
Vittala Temple Complex, Hampi, Karnataka
At its prime, the historic temple town of Hampi was one of the richest and largest cities in the world. Today, it is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a key attraction for tourists visiting India. Located within the ruins of Vijayanagara (city of victory), which used to be the capital of the historic Vijayanagara Empire (1336-1646 C.E.). Out of the many building complexes that make up the ruins, the Vittala Temple is particularly well known. Featuring an iconic stone chariot, famous musical pillars, and impressive sculpture work, the temple is a wonder everyone should aim to see at least once.
Tawang Monastery, Arunachal Pradesh
The largest monastery in India and the second largest in the world, Tawang Monastery in the state of Arunachal Pradesh was built in 1680-1681 as per the wishes of the 5th Dalai Lama. Located at an elevation of about 10,000 feet, with a remarkable view of the Tawang River valley and nearby mountains, the majestic three-storey-high building features striking and colourful details as well as an 18-foot-high image of the Buddha. The monastery also has an impressive library featuring several rare ancient scriptures.
Hawa Mahal in Jaipur: A Stunning Palace of Breeze
With a history of over 200 years, Hawa Mahal is perhaps the most iconic monument in Jaipur. What makes this palace one of the top attractions in Jaipur for travelers is its unique architecture that comprises 953 windows. If the Pink City of India is next on your list of holiday destinations, keep aside some time to explore this iconic structure once you step out of your hotels in Jaipur.
A country as diverse as India is symbolized by the plurality of its culture. India has one of the world’s largest collections of songs, music, dance, theatre, folk traditions, performing arts, rites and rituals, paintings and writings that are known, as the ‘Intangible Cultural Heritage‘ (ICH) of humanity.
Unity in variety is one of the major characteristics of Indian culture which makes it unique. A synthesis of various cultures came about through the ages to give shape to what is predictable as Indian culture today.
India is characterized by different castes. People of different castes possess different living standard. Even people of dissimilar castes live life with different standards and values. Each caste has its divide rituals and traditions of marriage and other religious ceremonies.
History of Rajasthan
Rajasthan, one of the most sought-after destinations for domestic and international travelers, exudes an aura of royalty, culture and tradition. With varied locales to offer, ranging from hills, golden desert, lakes and forests, Rajasthan is a land of wonder. Home to the erstwhile Indian royalty, the state has many forts which are reminiscent of the rich lives and opulence of the kings and queens. Architectural marvels in themselves, the forts, temples and other historical sites leave the tourists in complete awe.
Rajasthan is known to be atleast 5000 years old with many parts being occupied by Indus Valley Civilization. Kalibunga in northern Rajasthan is one of the famous excavation sites which have revealed ancient human settlement. Rajasthan has witnessed the rule of the kings since the early 11th century upto 19th century when the British rule took over. During these years, many empires flourished in the state, leading to the development of varied architectural styles, traditions, rituals, clothing styles, cuisines and culture. Many temples, mausoleums, dargahs and forts were built during these centuries, each one outdoing the other.
Culture of Rajasthan
Rajasthan has a collective belief in “Atithi Devo Bhava”, meaning that God resides in every guest. The people of this state are warm, indulgent and happy to assist visitors and tourists in every way. With a lot of people involved in hospitality and tourism here, one will not find any problem in travelling here.
From colourful clothes, jewellery, dances and food, it is a delight to be here.
Clothes :Women like to dress in an attire called “odhni” which consists of a dupatta, blouse and a skirt. Available in different colours and materials, the dressing is attractive and vibrant. Men like to dress in kurta and pajama with a headgear called “pagdi”.
Folk music and Dance :Rajasthan has varied forms of folk music and dances. One of the few folk music groups include Manganiyars, Langas, Banjaras, Mirasis and Jogis. These groups are divided because of geographical diversity and follow their own set of beliefs which are reflected in the music and performing styles. Famous dancing styles belonging to this state are Tejali, Ghoomar, Chang, Bhopa and Kathipuli. Most of these performances revolve either around sagas of bravery or love.
Food :Rajasthan is known for its various hot spices and sweets. Famous eating items include dalbati choorma, kachori, ghewar, laal maas and more. These delectable items are traditionally prepared in pure ghee and have their roots in the royal kitchens. Spices are said to ignite the fire in the bodies of royal warriors and sweets are said to calm the mind.
Handicrafts :Unique handicraft items like blue pottery, metal work, marble and stone statues and decoratives are famous in Rajasthan. Mirror work, embroidery, bati work and tie-and-dye are also famous here. These make for lovely souvenirs for tourists coming here.
Frescoes of Rajasthan
The Shekhawati region of India lies in the eastern part of the state of Rajasthan. The region is very large and has many buildings which were once where the royals of Rajasthan lived. The buildings, mostly havelis, are either abandoned or rented out to the local people
The Shekhawati region is situated in the middle of the former major trade route or the ‘SILK ROAD’ which connected the modern-day India, Pakistan and China. This benefited the local traders, called the Marwari, who built these havelis as a public show of their wealth. With the decline of the Silk Road, the Marwari’s moved on but left behind the treasure trove of the art and architecture that is their homes.
The havelis depict many themes – the daily life of the locals, gods and goddesses, folk mythology and the relatively newer buildings, those of the 19th and 20th century, depict the advent of the British. Each haveli is a piece of splendour and each has its own story to tell. The frescoes in these buildings are made with natural pigment. The oldest frescoes use ochre, red, white lead, lamp black, Indian yellow. The newer ones use synthetic pigments that were imported from Europe.
For the most part, the frescoes depict the god and goddess and folk mythology. The meeting of the gods, the armies and their battles are all depicted in rich colours and few of them gilded in 22 karat gold leaves. The gods Ganesha and Krishna have been depicted several times over. The popular loves stories of Laila -Majnu and Heer-ranjha , the equivalent to Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet have been depicted, besides these, Rajasthan’ s most popular romantic tale of Dhola and Maru and also of other lesser known tales are recurrently seen. The murals depicting the Europeans have a funny undertone and are an insight into how they were viewed by the Indians there.
Jewellery of Rajasthan
Other than the historical monuments the amazing thing to explore in Rajasthan is the market place. Markets in Rajasthan are glorious. Many different varieties of things can be found in there, people are often amazed to see how beautiful, colourful and variant those markets are.
Let us tell you about the most eye-catching product in these markets, the ethnic jewelleries. First of all, you can see people dressed in colourful ethnic outfits. Women’s mainly wear ‘Lehenga choli’ or ‘Saree’ and these outfits usually come in vibrant colours like red, orange, yellow and green or the bright shades of other colours and to compliment these bright ethnic dresses comes the ethnic jewellery. These jewelleries are not just limited for women but men in Rajasthan also wear some special jewelleries.
Leather Embroidery in Rajasthan
Most of the dresses in Rajasthan are vibrant in colour and have some work done on it like mirror work bandhani work or embroidery. These works are not just limited to fabrics they are also done on jewellery, shoes, hats, bags, containers and other products. Leather embroidery is one of the specialities of this State.
When exploring the markets one can notice that the most common thing in almost every product there is the embroidery. It is like the identity that the product is bought from Rajasthan. Many bright colours are used for the embroideries. There are different types of embroideries and done on different products. Rajasthani Embroidery gives everything an ethnic look and these multi coloured embroidered products matches with almost every outfit.
5.Miniatures of Rajasthan
The Miniature painting of Rajasthan is an old art form known for its intricate painting and rich colours. The first evidence of this art form exists in the form of illustration of old Buddhist texts which were executed by the Palas of Northern India. The 16th century painting were presented to the rulers by their partisans as a symbol of a significant event. These were collected by rulers and displayed in their courts.
But the miniature paintings developed mostly in the Mughal period when the emperor Humayun brought Persian artists into India. The next emperor, Akbar set up a National painting school, in which an atelier for the miniature painting, artists from various parts of India trained under the Persian masters. Simultaneously several other school of painting were set up in Mewar (Udaipur), Bundi, Kotah, Marwar (Jodhpur), Bikaner, Jaipur, and Kishangarh.
Pottery in Rajasthan
Rajasthan is a state marked by its distinct art and culture. Hand crafted products are a major speciality here and one of those specialities is Pottery. There are varieties in this category too. Some of them are Blue pottery from Jaipur, Black pottery from Sawai Madhopur, Kagzi Pottery from Alwar, Golden Pottery from Bikaner etc.
Wood work and Furniture
The existence of jungles in some parts of Rajasthan like Jaipur, Kota and Udaipur is what gave rise to Suthars or the carpenter class of craftsmen. Suthars either belong to the Meghwal community who are known for the cots and camels’ carts or from Barmer, who are known for their intricate craftsmanship
Stone Carving in Rajasthan
Rajasthan is a land of rich culture. It is famous for its heroes and their valorous deeds and sacrifices. It is also very famous for its architectural monuments made of stone. Rajasthan is home to temples, forts, palaces which have no competition.
The architecture in Jaipur grew under the Rajputs. The marble and the sandstone are used in the City Palace, Jantar Mantar ,Amer Fort, Hawa Mahal and Tripola gate in Jaipur. Jantar Mantar and Amer Fort are world Heritage sites. These architectural master pieces have been instrumental in putting the city in the world map. Jaipur forms part of the golden triangle, consisting of Delhi, Agra and Jaipur. The Golden Triangle is called so because they are three most visited places in India.
Jhodpur is another city with palace like the Ummed Bhawan and Chittar Palace, forts made with red sandstone. The perfect beauty and brilliance of the palaces will be bound to sweep you off your feet.
The city of Jaisalmer is situated in the heart of the Thar Desert is called the ‘The Rose in the Desert’ because of its red stone buildings. Places of interest include the Jaisalmer fort with its massive sandstone walls which turn into a magical honey gold as the sun sets.
Rajasthan’s Travelling Temples: Phad Paintings
For almost 700 years ago, every evening the Bhopa and Bhopi, the priest and his wife, unroll their scrolls of Phad paintings depicting the deities and performed dramatic renditions of stories from Ramayana and Mahabharata any other mythological tales. The priest and the priestess belong to a nomadic tribe which are a tribe of camel and goat herders Originating from the Bhilwara region of Rajasthan, this tribe realising that there was no one temple they could visit, travel from village to village with their ravanhatta, a two-string instrument, performing their own form of oral worship.
Phad paintings are scroll paintings which are created on hand-woven coarse cloth. It is a complex process which takes a certain level of talent and hard work in equal proportions. The threads of the cloth are made bulkier and is starched and rubbed with moonstone to make a smooth canvas. The colours are derived from flowers and herbs and are mixes with gum which acts as a binding agent.
Paper Making Industry
Paper making industry is another interesting thing to know about Rajasthan. The art of making paper was given importance in those areas by the Mughal emperors centuries ago. This paper making industry is quite different from other paper making industries. A lot of factors make it different from others. The prime factor here is that its eco- friendly.
The word Bollywood is a play on Hollywood, with the B coming from Bombay (now known as Mumbai), which is the center of the Indian film world.The word was coined in the 1970 As their popularity grow, movies created in the Mumbay’s reached the number of 200 annual movies, West continued to ignore cinema efforts of Indian filmmakers, but they acknowledged them when India managed to overtook America as the biggest producer of movies in the world.
In 1913 and the silent film “Raja Harishchandra”the first-ever Indian feature film and First full-length Bollywood silent movie.Its producer, Dadasaheb Phalke, was Indian cinema’s first mogul, and he oversaw the production of 23 films between 1913 and 1918 Dadasaheb Phalke is considered the father of Indian cinema.
Its great success paved the way for the countless movies that followed him and the expansion of the indian cinema industry to incredible heights. One of the largest successes of that time was “Alam Ara” from 1931, sound movie that became basis of the joyful modern Bollywood musical. First Indian Colour movie “Kisan Kanya” was created in 1937, but such movies found popularity only in late 1950s and early 1960s.
Gaining independence from the British Raj was tough and spanned from 1857 to 1947 – lasting a gruelling 900 years. However, the struggles in gaining India’s independence enthused the film industry. Some of the most critically acclaimed films in Indian cinema were created during this time and explored the difficult working-class life in India and the reality of urban life.
It was around 1947 that the industry went through significant changes. The historical and mythological stories of the past were now being replaced by social-reformist films, The 1950s saw filmmakers such as Bimal Roy and Satyajit Ray focusing on the lives of the lower classes, who until then were mostly ignored as subjects.
Golden Age of Indian cinema took place between 1940s and 1960s. During that time countless influential Bollywood movies were released, exploring new storytelling techniues, social themes (mostly struggles and wonders of urban life), epic productions such as Mother India (1957). This period also popularized many Indian actors (Dev Anand, Dilip Kumar, Raj Kapoor, Guru Dutt) and actresses such as (Nargis, Vyjayanthimala, Meena Kumari, Nutan, Madhubala, and others).
1950 – The decade of extreme close-up The black and white era of 1950s was marked by songs shot in static frames with all the action happening through the eyes and eyebrows of our lead actors. So from extreme close-ups of the face to some relevant cut-ins of the moon, the flowers and the rustling of leaves, Bollywood songs welcomed more elements of dynamics of romance. Leading from the 1960s to the early 1970s came the birth of Modern Bollywood Cinema. This included the domination of two distinct genres: boy-meets-girl romance films and gritty action productions.
1960 – The decade of pure dance and enchnating eyes Actors like Vyjayanthimala, Waheeda Rehman and Mala Sinha slowly brought dance in the 1960s. Songs like “Honton Mein Aisi Baat” and “Piya Tose Naina Laage Re” resonate not just the beauty of these divas but also the sanctity of songs of this era. Even in their guest appearances Helen, Bindu and Aruna Irani became the perfect face of RD Burman’s tracks in the 1970s. They either happened inside the villain’s den or were meant to add thrill to the climax. From “Piya Tu Ab To Aaja” to “Mera Naam Hai Shabnam” and “Chadti Jawani Meri Chaal Mastani”, the songs of this phase still hold a place in our party playlist.In the 1970’s the name “Bollywood” was officially coined as conventions of commercial Bollywood films truly became defined.
1980 – The decade of growing romance. Come 1980s and the royal reign of RD Burman continued Parveen Babi and Zeenat Aman lead the epic playlist of this era. “Pyar Mein Dil Pe Maar De Goli” had as much stuff happening in the song as in “Pyaar Karne Wale”. Music and songs in this period were intimately connected to the storyline. They were written and woven as per the requirements of the film and in the respective situations.While Lata Mangeshkar, Mohammad Rafi, Asha Bhonsle, Kishore Kumar and Hemant Kumar were the mainstay of the playback singing scene, big actors like Amitabh Bachchan, Shashi Kapoor and Rishi Kapoor gave them the apt face value. This perfect combination reciprocated well onscreen too. Bachchan’s songs were either playful or had intense action happening (not literal fighting but the thrill of the climax). Towards the second half of 1980s and early 1990s, we had films like Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak, Ram Lakhan, Saajan and Dil Hai Ke Manta Nahin – all musical blockbusters. On the other side of the camera, it introduced us with the voices of Udit Narayan, Alka Yagnik and Kumar Sanu, on the front these songs majorly had a dreamy set-up, making anyone fall in love. There was romance, longing, betrayal and confessions and every aspect was shot with a proper screenplay of its own. Each song, be it “Pehla Nasha”, “Ae Mere Humsafar”, “Dil Hai Ke Manta Nahin” or “Bahut Pyar Karte Hain”, made us believe in love.
1990 – The decade of Celebration. The 80s and 90s brought back spotlight romantic musicals and family-centric films, and in 1995, Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge was released. Becoming the highest grossing Bollywood film of the year and one of the most successful Indian films its soundtrack became one of the most popular of the 1990s. Even today, the film has been showing at a Mumbai cinema, Maratha Mandir, since its original release in 1995. A portion of the 1990s also introduced us to the three khans, madhuri dixit and others.
2000 – The decade of quick moves Bollywood finally managed to reach outside of India and land in the West. Many of their lavish productions received significant box office success all around the world, especially after the critical success of “Lagaan: Once Upon a Time in India” in 2001.
Fourteen days into the new millennium, Kaho Naa Pyaar Hai launched Hrithik Roshan overnight superstardom. Dil Chahta Hai (2001) was differentThe songs by Shankar Ehsaan Loy. One of its lines, appropriately, announced – Hum Hai Naye Andaz Kyun Ho Purana. penned by Javed Akhtar give Dil Chahta Hai a socio-cultural perspective. A lot was going on in the 2000s. Single screens started to make way for multiplexes. The Hindi film industry, leaving the days of dubious underworld fundings behind, was being corporatised.Stars reinvented themselves. Amitabh Bachchan started acting his age. Aamir Khan – enabler, collaborator, producer and not just actor – promised quality mainstream entertainment, and delivered on most counts Rang De Basanti,Taare Zameen Par,3 Idiots,Hera Pheri (2000) helped find Akshay Kumar, an action star in the 90s, his sublime comic side. Shah Rukh did some of his most loved films – Kal Ho Na Ho (2003), Swades (2004) and Chak De India (2007); Main Hoon Na and Om Shanti Om. Lage Raho Munnabhai – which established Raju Hirani as a major director . New faces like Hrithik Roshan and Aishwarya Rai added to the star value. Both being brilliant dancers with beautiful personalities shone onscreen. Aamir’s antics in tracks like “Aati Kya Khandala”, made each of their song a national favourite. And amid Kabhie Khushi Kabhi Gham to fix any loose ends. This phase saw the canvas of songs grow to exorbitant levels. Bollywood has inspired films overseas including Danny Boyle’s Slumdog Millionaire which won four Golden Globes and eight Academy Awards, and Moulin Rouge which director Baz Luhrmann says was influenced by Bollywood Musicals
2010 – The decade of New era As 2000s entered its second decade, the “item songs” were back and with more action. 2010 alone gave us two of the biggest recent tracks – “Munni Badnaam” and “Sheila Ki Jawani”.
This was the Ranbir Kapoor-Deepika Padukone-Anushka Sharma-Ranveer singh phase giving movies – Yeh Jawaani hai Deewani, Bajirao Mastani,Ramleela, Sui Dhaaga Their songs emphasised their beauty as the camera moved in and out of their face to their chiselled appearance.
In years to come, Abhishek Chaubey’s revisionist dacoit film, Sonchiriya, and two fine festival titles from 2018: historicals (Manikarnika, Panipat), war films (Uri: The Surgical Strike), action blockbusters (War),patriotic (Kesari) Also blockbuster Khan’s gave ,Bajrangi Bhaijaan,sultan , My name is khan,Raees, Dangal and PK, and he made a killing overseas and Secret Superstar. Shahid kapoor –Jab We Met,Kabir Singh ,Ayushmann khurrana – Dum laga ke haisha, Dream girl, bareilly ki barfi, Sushant Singh Rajput – Kai Po Che, Chhichhore, M. S.Dhoni, Rajkummar Rao – Stree and Pankaj Tripathi. This new Middle Cinema dovetailed with arthouse film Masaan. This decade, several actors joined Manoj Bajpayee and Irrfan Khan- Hindi Medium in the fertile middle ground between superstardom and niche acclaim. Nawazuddin Siddiqui broke through in 2012 with Kahaani and Gangs Of Wasseypur. A number of Indian films from different regions are often included among the greatest films of all times in various critics and directors polls.Indian Cinema will be eternal as decades move on….
Situated at the center of the Qutub Minar complex in the city of Mehrauli,the Quwwat Ul Islam Mosque is the first ever mosque made in India, during the sultanate period. Today, stand by only it’s walls which represents extravagant yet very minute architecture of the Slave dynasty. It’s marvelous architecture and design makes it an attraction point of the Qutub complex, against which stands the Mehrauli iron pillar. And is added up as UNESCO‘s World Heritage Site. The history of this site is both so interesting and large that makes a huge amount of visitors to pay a visit to this place every year.
The history –
It was in the year 1193 AD, when Qutubud – din Aibak, founder of The Slave dynasty conquered the Quila Rai Pithora of the Chauhans and was eager to leave the imprints of his religion to the new territory. He commissioned the mosque using the ruins of 27 Hindu and Jaina temples. And was built over the site of a large temple located at the center of the citadel. Quwwat ul Islam mosque, also known asJami masjid or the Friday mosque then came to be used for performing the adhan and became one of the best architectures of the sultanate period, that also made a benchmark for the coming sultans to think upon.
Architecture and design –
Archaeological Survey of India states that the mosque was raised over the remains of a temple, and in additio, it was also constructed from materials taken from other demolished temples. Historical records compiled by a Muslim historian Maulana Hakim Saiyid Abdul Hai corroborate to the use of iconoclasm by Qutub ud din Aibak, which was common during his reign. The mosque was further extended by Sultan Iltutamish (1296), who gave a more complexity to its design. The iron pillar of Mehrauli, located on the stone pavement in front of it adds to its beauty and history. The complexity of its design and architecture is what intrigues most of the visitors paying visit to the place. The central arch of the mosque is ogee in shape and the screen is sculpted with religious texts and floral patterns. One of the historians believe that it was not constructed on scientific approach, but in Corbel style as indicated by the variations in the patterns of the arches. The front wall that we see standing still today came to be known as the Western Wall. Though it was a magnificent monument, built with an entrance to the courtyard, and grey colonnades made of greystone.
Quwwat Ul Islam mosque today –
It is a great example of Muslim architecture and establishes a prominent role of the sultans in portraying their power and rule over the city of Delhi. But today it stands in ruins with only it’s front wall remaining with indigenous corbelled arches, floral morifs and geometric patterns, along with other Islamic structures. As per the government data reviewed by ET, Qutub minar complex is the second most visited monument in the country in 2018-19. It is estimated that 2.9 million people visited the place in 2018-19.It’s really a place worth appreciating, and attracts the visitors due to its everlasting beauty. The place is a true example of establishment of the power of Slave dynasty in Delhi and India.
India is one of the oldest civilizations in the world. Among all the known civilizations in India, Indus Valley civilization(2600 BC- 1900 BC)is the oldest one.
It produced several cities marked by great uniformity within and between sites, including Harappa, Lothal, and the UNESCO World Heritage site Mohenjo–Daro.
After this civilization, many empires have established in India among which architectures of the Maurya Empire and Gupta Empire show magnificent beauties.
The rock pillar of Ashoka shows a variety of influences in its details.
The Buddhist culture was one of the dominating cultures in India. Buddhist monasteries and stupas were built all over India before it eventually spread to other countries.
Ajanta, Elephanta, and Ellora are architectures of respectively Buddhist, Hindu, and mixed including Jain cultural beauties.
In south India Pallavas and Cholas, buildings are also amazing examples of some of the Flamboyant beauties of India.
some of the Architectural Wonders of India are-
The Taj Mahal
TAJ Mahal, the symbol of love was built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in 1653 AD in the memory of his beloved wife Mumtaz.
It is a combination of Hindu and Indo-Islamic architecture. The white marble was bought in from Makrana in Rajasthan and was transported by elephants.
This one of the seven wonders of the world comprises of a square plinth having a central structure topped by a huge dome and surrounded by four minarets at each corner.
This white marble beauty’s exterior changes colors from a pinkish hue in the dawn to a dull gold at noon and finally, all enduring sparkling white under the moonlight.
The Ellore Caves
Ellora caves are listed by UNESCO as a world heritage site located in Maharastra. It is a combination of Buddism, Jainism, and brahmins cultures.
Ellora served as a group of monasteries (vihara) and temples (chaityas); some of the caves include sleeping cells that were carved for itinerant monks.
The caves consist of series of 34 rock-cut temples. Kailasa temple, Hindu Caves, Buddist Caves, Vishwakarma Caves are some of the caves of the Ellora. Among which Kailasa temple is the largest rock-cut structure anywhere.
The elegance of Dravidian Sikhara, which is a flat-roofed mandapa positioned over sixteen pillars, the gigantic Ravana figure reflecting the strength of this villainous legend as the sculpture here shows him lifting Mt Kailasha is an epitome of the ancient Indian art.
It was built in the 9th century by the king Chanda. Chand Baori consists of 3500 steps called Baori or Bawdi, which leads down to the water of the well.
It is about 64 feet deep and India’s largest and deepest stepwell with 13 floors.
The exquisite geometry of the stepwell attracts tourists from all over the world.
Sun temple KONARK
Dedicated to Hindu God Sun, Sun temple KONARK was built in 13th century CE at Konark about 35 kilometers from Puri on the coastline of Orissa, India.
Temple complex has the appearance of a 100-foot (30 m) high chariot with immense wheels and horses, all carved from stone.
Lying on the coast of Bay of Bengal, it is considered one of the best examples of Dravidian Architecture. Also known as the Black Pagoda, it is considered as one of the grandest temples in India. Built-in the 13th century, it has a form of a giant chariot with twelve intricately crafted wheels led by seven horses. A true marvel that shows the advanced craftsmanship as well as love and devotion of that era for art.
The Sanchi Stupa
It was built in the 3rd century BC on the order of Emperor Ashoka to spread Buddhist Philosophy.
A stupa is generally a hemispherical dome structure containing relics of Lord Buddha. In this particular stupa, Lord Buddha has been symbolically represented by footprints, thrones, wheels, etc. and all of them are exquisitely ornamented.
The rock-cut carving of Mahabalipuram depicts the scenes of the great epic Mahabharat.
The temple is most famous for its depictions of the chariots of the warriors of the Mahabharata, called Rathas all of which are in a specifically designated form, some rising to as high as two or three stories. There is another remarkable sculpture that adorns the temple walls which is called the Descent of the Ganges. Depicting the time when Lord Shiva made the River Ganga descend from the heavens to the earth, it uses the natural relief of the rock to emphasize the river and has carvings of various Gods and Goddesses beholding the wonder with their open eyes. The intricacy and ingenuity of the carvings are an example of the skill of the craftsman who constructed these temples way back in the 7th Century!
Khajuraho temples were built between 950 AD to 1050 AD by the Chandela dynasty. These are a group of Hindu and Jain temple in Chhatarpur district Madhya Pradesh.
These are a group of 85 temples. Falling into ruins, wars, and natural hazards, only 22 out of these remain today and are spread over a stunning area of 6sq.km.
The temple complex has three distinct types of carvings, the cult icons, the Apsaras (beautiful maidens), and demigods that are supposed to guard the temple. An example of the finest craftsmanship and precision all of the figurines appear in perfect human symmetry, is it a wonder then that it is said that to see all the stages of human life and its activities, one has but to visit these temples and observe the carvings!
An unsolved mystery, the IRON PILLAR OF DELHI now standing at Quwwatul mosque at Mehrauli in Delhi, India. The 7.21 meters tall structure all most 1600-year-old stands completely rust-free. Thepillar was constructed by “King Chandra” probably Chandragupta2
pillar was certainly used as a trophy in building the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque and the Qutb complex, its original location, whether on the site itself or from elsewhere, is debated. The Iron pillar of Delhi is one of the most curious metal objects in the world. It was manufactured by the forge welding of pieces of wrought iron. In a report published in the journal Current Science, R. A critical corrosion-resistant agent called iron hydrogen phosphate hydrate makes the pillar resistant to rusting.
Experts at the Indian Institute of Technology have resolved the mystery behind the 1,600-year-old iron pillar in Delhi, which has never corroded despite the capital’s harsh weather. Metallurgists at Kanpur IIT have discovered that a thin layer of “misawite“, a compound of iron, oxygen and hydrogen, has protected the cast iron pillar from rust.
The pillar bears an inscription which states that it was erected as a flagstaff in honor of the Hindu God and in the memory of the Gupta King Chandragupta II (375-413). How the pillar moved to its present location remains a mystery.
The question remains that how was such chemically advanced agent manufacture 2000 ago.
The pillar is a living testimony to the skill of metallurgists of ancient India
Art, design, creativity, innovation, Music, dance, culture, and heritage is the Identity of INDIA. When we look back at our history of architecture we can understand why It’s Our pride. British, Dutch, Portuguese, Mughal, French foreign forces came to India and Buddhism, Jainism and other religions came here and spread their culture. That’s why Indian architecture is the fusion of a different kind of architectural style and tradition.
The History of India begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization,(2600 BCE – 1900 BCE) The Indus Valley Civilization covered a large area around the Indus River basin and beyond in late Bronze Age India. The civic and town planning and engineering aspects of these are remarkable, There are granaries, drains, water-courses and tanks, but neither palaces nor temples have been identified, though cities have a central raised and fortified “citadel”. Around the 2000 year ago India had Smart citiesLike Harappa, Lothal, Mohenjo-Daro
After the Indus Valley Civilization, there are few traces of Indian architecture, which probably mostly used wood, or brick which has been recycled,
Probably around 400 BCE Indian rock-cut architecture, mostly Buddhist, and there are also a number of Buddhist images that give very useful information.
Buddhist construction of monastic buildings apparently begins before the death of Buddha.
The Great Stupa at Sanchi is one of the oldest stone structures in India,and an important monumentof Indian Architecture. It was originally commissioned by the emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BCE. Its nucleus was a simple hemispherical brick structure built over the relics of the Buddha
Temple Architecture was a gradual evolution starting from the rock cut- cave temples to monolithic rathas which finally culminated in structural temples
The middle period saw great developments in the field of architecture. With the coming of Muslims to India, many new features came to be introduced in buildings. The development of the Muslim Style of Architecture of this period can be called the Indo-Islamic Architecture or the Indian Architecture influenced by Islamic Art. The Indo-Islamic style was neither strictly Islamic nor strictly Hindu, One of the best architectural traditional style
With colonization, a new chapter in Indian architecture began. The Dutch, Portuguese and the French made their presence felt through their buildings but it was the English who had a lasting impact on Colonialarchitecture.
Now we are living in the 21st-century style, traditional, plan structure changed, modified but these architectures are immortal and inspiring generation after generation.
From Indus Valley to eco-friendly plan creativity, hard work, ideas, style tradition makes our country beautiful.
The circularspot between the eyebrows is viewed as a significant nerve point in the human body. A tilak is accepted to forestall the loss of vitality, and hold this to control different degrees of focus. In addition, the demonstration of applying this guarantees the focuses on the mid-temple area and Adnya-chakra are squeezed, encouraging blood gracefully to the facial muscles and ensuring the natural glow.
2) Mehendi on palms
Mehendi is an incredible therapeutic herb, and its application on our palms and feet can pre-empt worry and nervousness during weddings, something which is really common in the first-time brides. Moreover, it cools the body and shields the nerves from being tensed.
3) Namaste (Pranaam)
There is a logical purpose for the ‘Namaskar’ in Hindu culture. Joining two hands together guarantees contacting the tips of the considerable number of fingers together, which are connected to pressure focuses in the eyes, ears, and brain. Squeezing them together is said to actuate these, helping us recollect that individual moment for quite a while.
4) Ringing bells in the temples
Devotees strike the temple bells upon entering as its sound is said to clear our brain and assist us with remaining sharp, keeping our full fixation on dedication towards the almighty. Besides, these bells are made so that the sound they produce makes solidarity in the left and right pieces of our cerebrums. The term of the chime reverberation is perfect to enact all the seven recuperating focuses in our body, freeing us from antagonism.
5) Wearing bangles
Bangles cause steady grinding with the wrist which builds the blood flow level. Further more, the power dropping through external skin is again returned to one’s own body in light of the ring molded bangles.
6) Toe rings (bichhiya)
Indian ladies regularly wear toe rings on the subsequent toe. A specific nerve from this associates the uterus and goes to heart. Along these nerve-endings, a toe ring on this toe reinforces the uterus, keeping it solid by directing the blood stream to it. Besides, a lady’s menstrual cycle is supposed to be regularized.
7) Tossing coins away in a holy stream or river
Verifiably, most money in the ancient period, was made of copper, an essential metal for the human body. Throwing coins in a holy water body was an approach to allow adequate copper, as a major constituent of water, to be consumed by us. As wells, drawing in water from these rivers were the main sources of drinking water.
8) Piercing of the ears
Indian doctors and scholars have acknowledged that piercing ears helps in the advancement of mind, intensity of reasoning and dynamic resources. This is the scientific reason behind most of the indian ladies piercing their ears while also serving the purpose for jewellery.
9) Not laying down with your head pointing north
The human body has its own magnetic field, while the Earth, as we all know, is a mammoth magnet. At the point when you lay down with your head pointing north, your body’s attractive field gets hilter-kilter to the Earth’s, causing issues identified with circulatory strain since your heart needs to work more diligently so as to defeat this.
10) Touching the feet of elders (Charan Sparsh)
At the point when you contact the feet of the old, their hearts discharge positive considerations and vitality, which they transmit through their hands and toes. Basically, the finished circuit empowers stream of vitality and increments grandiose vitality, turning on a soulful associate between two personalities and hearts. Your fingers and palms become the ‘receptor’ of vitality and the feet of the other individual become the ‘supplier’ of vitality.
Sindoor is set up by blending turmeric, lime and the metal mercury. Because of its inborn properties, mercury controls pulse and enacts oxytocin production. Along these lines, sindoor ought to be applied right upto the pituitary organ where every one of our sentiments are focused.
12) Idol Worship
Hinduism engenders idol venerate much more than any other religion does. This was started to expand focus during supplications or prayers. As per therapists, a man will shape his musings in accordance to what he sees.
13) Fasting on felicitous occasions
Ayurveda sees the fundamental reason for some infections as the amassing of poisonous materials in the stomach related framework. Ordinary purifying of poisonous materials keeps one sound. By fasting, the stomach related organs get rest and all body components are purified and rectified.
When we talk about design or think about design then we design our thought to present our design and the design is something which is designed to serve a design. I first encountered the word design when I saw designs long ago; probably during the first class of painting in standard first or second but the real concept of design got designed during our studios exercise on design. Design is a pervasive in design concept. Many students during the first few days of studio they wonder what is design and why this design don’t get aligned with the design of the faculty. They keeps on telling improve your design or redesign the design to suit the design they have designed in their mind.
I sometimes feel that design is a good concept to make us to think more before drawing lines to design and this helps in later parts of the life when you get to know more about the intellectuals property rights and the laws governing the copyright. Our Guru Google and friend copy-paste has made our life so simple that even for design we don’t bother to design our thought to evolve a unique design. A design that can design your destiny in internal and external design jury is had to design if you can’t design out the essence of my small note on design. I think the design of my thoughts on design issues will help you in designing a better design. You might have heard that that faculty say that Mr X design is good or Mr Y’s design better that Mr Z’s design. But I feel that design is design. It is your design outlook that decide the design in design. Simple or complex design is design. Design is like dreams which keeps on changing every other night. A true and successful designer must be a good dreamer only then he can keep evolving the design to suit the changing interest in design.Like dreams which are are involuntary design is also. Design should be self explanatory. And Last but not least I would say design your design not for the sake of design but for design that will design the destiny.
The inaction of states and local bodies will cost a lot to India which is know world wide for its rich cultural and architectural heritage. The development does not mean that old should give place to new ones. Development is all about conserving and restructuring the path of progress in such a manner that the old structures which has cultural values, architectural values, age values and place values must get a proper place amid the new ones.
Delhi is a good example for the rest of the country in taking effective measures to protection and revival of the heritage buildings. The Archaeological Survey of India is also doing its part but it has its own limitations. Therefore, every state and local bodies should come forward for striking the balance between the development and the conservation of the rich heritage of each and every corner of the country. The conservation alone can ensure their survival for the future generations. Strong legal provisions must be enacted and implemented soon.