Category Archives: Public Administration

CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT

OBJECT OF THE ACT According to the preamble, the Act is to provide for better protection of the interests of consumers and for that purpose to make provision to make provision for the establishment of consumer councils and other authorities for the settlement of consumer’s disputes and for connected therewith.

BASIC RIGHTS OF CONSUMERS [SECTION 6] The basic rights of consumers that are sought to be promoted and protected are;

a) The right to be protected against marketing of goods and services which are hazardous to life and property:

b) The right to be informed about the quality, quantity, purity, standard and price of goods, or services so as to protect the consumer against unfair trade practices;

c) The right to be assured, wherever possible, access to variety of goods and services at competitive prices;

d) The right to be heard and to be assured that consumers’ interest will receive due consideration at appropriate forums;

e) The right to seek redressal against unfair trade practices or restrictive trade practices or unscrupulous exploitation of consumers; and

f) The right to consumer education.

Complainant means

(a) a consumer

(b) any voluntary consumer association registered under any law;

(c) the Central or any State Government

(d) one or more consumers, where there are numerous consumers having the same interest; or

(e) in case of death of a consumer, his legal heir or representative, Who or which makes a complaint.
An association of persons to have locus standi as consumer, it is necessary that all the individuals forming the association must be the consumer having purchased the same goods or hired the same services from the party.
In case the affected consumer is unable to file the complaint due to ignorance, illiteracy or poverty, any recognized consumer association may file the complaint as per the above clause (b). Thus, rule of ‘privity of contract’ or ‘locus standi’ , which permits only the aggrieved party to take action, has very rightly been set aside in the spirit of public interest.


Complaint [Sec.2(1)(c)]
Complaint means any allegation in writing made by a complaint that – (i) an unfair trade practice or a restrictive trade practice has been adopted by any trader; (ii) the goods bought by him or agreed to be bought by him be suffer from one more defects; (iii) the services hired or availed of or agreed to be hired or availed of by him suffer from deficiency in any respect; (iv) the trader has charged a price in excess of the price;

(a) fixed under any law; (b) displayed on the goods or any package containing such goods; (c) displayed on the price list exhibited by him; or (d) agreed between the parties. (v) goods which will be hazardous to life and property when used are being offered for sale to the public; (vi) services which will be hazardous to life and safety of the public when used, are being offered by the service provider. With a view to obtain any relief provided by law under this Act.


Types Of Ships In service with The INDIAN NAVY

The Indian Navy grew rapidly After Independence . As of now It is undergoing modernization with new ships Being added to fleet.

Aircraft Carrier is a warship with a full length flight deck and facilities for carrying arming, deploying and recovering , acting as a seagoing airbase

INS Vikramaditya aircraft Carrier

Destroyer is a fast, heavily, armed, maneuverable yet long Endurance warship.It is designed to escort longer vessels in a fleet like an aircraft carrier, troop, supply ships forming part of a convoy or battle group.

Destroyer

Frigate is a warship smaller in size than a destroyer , It is armed with guided missiles and used as an escort for aircraft carrier.

Frigate

Corvette is a fast, lightly armed warship which is smaller than a frigate and larger than a coastal patrol craft often armed for antisubmarine operation.

ASW corvette

Mine countermeasure vessel: also known as Minesweeper is a small naval warship designed to counter the threat posed by naval mines

Mine countermeasure vessel

Landing ship is a naval vessel which is used to transport large number of vehicles, cargo and troops directly to the shore no part facilities .

Landing ship

Submarines: A submarine (or sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability.

Patrol Vessel for patrolling costal area, Auxilary ship, Research Vessel, Tranning ship.

The Changes After 1991 In India

Today India is one of the most powerful nations in the world. Our progress in education, science-technology, business, economy, the defense system is really noticeable. India is always a unique country but India also passed many tough situations, this achievement comes after so many hardships, struggles, and fights.before 1991 the political situation in India is unstable, after 1991 certain changes in the Indian economy, science-technology held to be very important In the history of India.

Indian Economy: we wanted to establish an Economy based on social justice through planning for a National planning commission was established that would coordinate development through the policy of the Five Year Plan. The government started Economic Reforms are called as Economic Liberalisation. The foreign Invest In India increased, the field of information technology opened several avenues of employment in the country . Liberalization, Privatizati, and Globalization, India under its New Economic Policy approached International Banks for development of the country. These agencies asked Indian Government to open its restrictions on trade done by the private sector and between India and other countries.

Science and Technology: The experiment in the co-operative dairy movement By Dr.Verghese Kurien led to increase in milk production in India. This is called as White Revolution. Dr.Homi J.bhaba laid the foundation of the Indian atomic Power Programme. India insisted on using atomic energy for peaceful purposes like generation of electricity, pharmaceuticals and defense.

Change In Social Field: changes related to the women empowerment movement and other related to the policies regarding the uplift of deprived sections of the society

Various Types of Democracies

In Modern times, democracy seems to have triumphed. Most countries today either are or pretend to be democracies. Their political system may vary, but they all claim that system may vary, but they all claim that these are based on popular sovereignty. It means that the authority of the state belongs to the means that the authority of the state belongs to the people who are citizens of that state. The different types of democracies discussed below.

Direct Democracy: – In this form, the right to make political decision rests in the entire body of citizens, unmediated by a political organization such as parties. The examples of direct democracy can be found in Greece of the 5th century BC and contemporary Switzerland. Indirect Democracy, citizen involvement or participation is personal but in a representative democracy, it is through people chosen by them, to speak for them.
In Modern times some states have combined representative democracy with measures of direct democracy, in that they refer certain matters to the vote of the city as a whole be a referendum. Thus direct democracy can be practised in the form of a referendum.

Representative Democracy: – It is a form in which citizens elect their political representatives through periodic, popular elections, who then represent the people in the government at national (in a parliament) or local (in local authority or city council) level. In this form of democracy, the people have no direct power.

Deliberative Democracy: – It is a form of democracy which stress on the participation of the people in collective decision- making through a process of rational and considered deliberation. In simplest terms refer to the conception of democratic government secures the central places for reasoned discussion in political life.

Liberal Democracy: – Liberal democracy is a form of representative democracy where the political power of the government is tempered by a constitution which protects the right and freedom of individuals and minorities.

Illiberal Democracy: – It is a political system where democratic election exists, and the govt. is not constrained from encroaching on the liberty of individuals, or minorities. Some critics of illiberal regimes now suggest that the rule of law should take precedence over democracy, implying a de facto western acceptance of what are called ‘liberalized autocracies’.

Participatory Democracy: – It is an alternative label for direct democracy. However, it does have a slightly wider connotation because participation need not necessarily mean ultimate decision- making power. Thus if there is a much greater degree of citizens participation in a political system, though the ultimate decision making and law-making functions are given to a small body of elected representatives. It is known as a participatory democracy.

Social Democracy: – It is a label used to indicate a reformist and non-Marxist left-of-centre party. Many social democratic parties in the world are inspired by socialism that for ideological or pragmatic reasons opted for a strategy of gradual change through existing institutions. Social democratic parties may also work for liberal reforms before introducing more profound social change. Social democrats reject the sudden revolutionary change. A social democratic party is likely to favour higher proportional direct taxation for a more equitable distribution of wealth and a social net for the weak and the vulnerable.

INDIAN ARMY

The Indian army is the oldest among the three armed forces.It has very and ancient heritage of more than 2000 year from the Times of Chandragupta Maurya . The foundation of the present army was inherited from the British Indian Army . Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose lead the Indian National Army (INA) during the world war 2 to fight for India’s Independence from British Rule . Women also formed part of the INA. Captain Laxmi Swaminathan headed the women’s wing.

Role of Indian Army

  • Go to war to defeat an External Aggression
  • Strengthen the internal security Management to defeat Internal threats.
  • Project force wherever and whenever called upon to safeguard the nation’s interest.
  • To support the peace keeping operations or Military Assistance to friendly foreign countries
  • Render Humanitarian, Disaster relief and Aid to civil authorities

The Indian Army spread over six operational commands based on geography and the preceived security threats.

Logistic support services

Areas of responsibility of geographical commands

Northern command: Northern command is head quater in Udhampur .It is responsible for operations in Jammu and Kashmir against china in the east and Pakistan In the west.

Western Command :Western Command in Chandigarh. It is responsible for operation in Punjab,and Himachal Pradesh against China in the east and Pakistan in the west.

South Western Command:South Western Command is headquarter in Jaipur .It is responsible for operations in North and central Rajasthan and Haryana.

Southern Command: headquater Pune, responsible for operation in south Rajasthan and Gujarat, Maharashtra, karnataka, Kerala, Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh

Central Command : headquater in Lucknow. It is responsible for operations in Uttarakhand, Uttar pradesh, Bihar, Orrisa, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh against China in the North as also security along the Indo-Nepal border with UP and Bihar

Eastern Command: headquarter in kolkata . It is responsible for operations in Sikkim, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram and also Against China and security Indo – Nepal, Mayanmar, Bangladesh Border

Direct tax collected In India

A direct tax is a tax that is paid by an individual or an organization to the imposing entity, or to be precise, Direct Tax is the one which is paid to the Government by taxpayers. These taxpayers include people and organization both. Also, it is directly imposed by the Government and cannot be transferred for payment to some other entity.

With Direct Taxes, especially in a tax bracket system, it can become a disincentive to work hard and earn more money, as more money you earn, the more tax you pay.

Income Tax- It is imposed on an individual who falls under the different tax brackets based on their earning or revenue and they have to file an income tax return every year after which they will either need to pay the tax or be eligible for a tax refund.

Estate Tax– Also known as Inheritance tax, it is raised on an estate or the total value of money and property that an individual has left behind after their death.

Wealth Tax– Wealth tax is imposed on the value of the property that a person possesses.

However, both Estate and Wealth taxes are now abolished.

The Central Board of Direct Taxes in India

The Central Board of Direct Taxes or the CBDT, which was formed as the result of the Central Board of Revenue Act, 1924 looks after the Direct Taxes in India. This department is part of the Department of Revenue in the Ministry of Finance and is responsible for the administration of the direct tax laws. Besides that, the Central Board of Direct Taxes also provides inputs and suggestions for policy and planning of the direct taxes in India.

The latest data of tax collection as per the Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) was released. The data reveals that Maharashtra, Delhi, and Karnataka contribute 61% of the country’s total revenue from direct taxes. Including the contribution of Tamil Nadu and Gujarat will aggregate to 72% of the total revenue.

Direct taxes include income tax paid by individuals and corporate tax paid by firms. It is a general notion that more revenue collection implies higher income. It also implies better employment opportunities and greater ease-of-doing-business. Greater revenue collected states are also those that have greater avenues for economic activities.

It was found that the large and populous states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal fare poorly. Bihar, the third most populous state accounts only 0.65% to the total direct tax collection. Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state and West Bengal, the fourth most populous state contributed to 3.12% and 4% of the total tax collection. 

The poor collection of taxes shows the absence of formal sector employment and corporates. It also shows that the working population in these states are not part of the salaried class. If they were a part of the salaried class, the revenue from income tax would have not been so low as compared to the population of these regions

So if we assume the total direct tax collected in India would be 100/-how much would each state contribute

Maharshtra:38/-, Delhi:13.5/- ,Karnataka:10/-

  1. Tamil Nadu : 6.7/-
  2. Gujarat: 4.6/-
  3. Andhra Pradesh :4.3/-
  4. West Bengal:4/-
  5. Uttar Pradesh:3/-
  6. Haryana : 2.4/-
  7. Odisha: 1.2/-
  8. Madhya Pradesh: 1.8/-
  9. Kerala: 1.6/
  10. Rajasthan:24/-
  11. Punjab : 1.1/-
  12. Bihar:0.65/-
  13. Telegana:0.46/-
  14. Jharkhand:0.5/-
  15. Assam : 0.56/-
  16. Goa:0.3/-
  17. Jammu and Kashmir:0.16/ Himachal:0.25/-
  18. Chhattisgarh: 0.25/-  Uttarakhand : 0.3/-Chandigarh : 0.25/- 19.Meghalaya: 0.08/- 20. Tripura:0.03/-

The Indian Parliament: Performances and Challenges

As the central legislative body in India, the Parliament has four main roles—it makes laws, it holds the executive to account for its actions, it allocates government finances, and represents the interests and aspirations of citizens. The Parliament is also a constituent body in the sense that it can amend the Constitution.

Functioning of Parliament

Over the years, the Parliament has been meeting for a fewer days. Figure 1 shows that the number of sitting days has declined from 125-140 in the 1950s to about 70 days in the last twenty years. Also, disruptions have further reduced the amount of time available for discussion in Parliament.

An important casualty is Question Hour. If the House is disrupted, it often sits late or through the lunch hour to make up for lost time. However, the time lost in Question Hour is never made up. As a result, only a few questions listed for oral answers are actually answered on the floor, and the rest get a written.

The shortage of time has also affected discussion on bills. Every bill is expected to go through three readings at the stage of introduction, consideration when there is a detailed discussion on each clause, and passing. The Parliament rarely discusses any bill at the first or third reading. Many bills are not discussed at the consideration stage either,

Areas of Reform

There are some structural issues that need to be addressed to improve the effectiveness of Parliament. These include the repeal of the anti defection law, recording all votes on bills and major debates, referring all bills to committees and strengthening the support system for committees.

The Anti-Defection Law
Anti-defection law when it was passed, it aimed at bringing down the political defection but due to ever increasing political dishonesty and corruption this law never developed properly and now a question arose that ‘whether achieving the goals of this law a reality or a myth ? ‘Politicians found loopholes in this law and used it for their own benefit. It is high time that a watchdog should be provided to our Parliament and there is a need for our constitutional pundits to revisit the issue to combat the menace of corruption and defection which has eroded the values ​​of democracy.

Committee System

Committee System has following disadvantages:

  1. High Cost in Time and Money
  2. Indecisive Action
  3. Compromising Attitude
  4. Dominance of a Few
  5. Suppression of Ideas
  6. Splitting of Responsibilities
  7. Political Decision

Departmentally Related Standing Committees

Of course, there is no one right answer about the benefits of standing committees. But, I do have a bias against standing committees that have been around forever without revisiting their purpose.

What is the purpose of the committee? Is their charge clear? Is it defined in terms of outcomes that benefit the organization? What has the board delegated to this committee and is the board providing oversight to assure that the assigned work is getting done? If you have a current strategic plan, is the committee assigned strategies and outcomes that support advancement on that plan?

Committees that have a long history frequently, but not always, end up acting independently of the organization’s envisioned future and strategic direction. That committee’s work may or may not support the current strategic plan. There is a comfort zone for individuals who have been on a committee and in a position to define their own work and see it as somewhat independent of the rest of the organization.

If this is true of the standing committees of your organization, it might be worth an investment of the board’s time to review all committee charges (purpose statements, commissions, whatever you want to call it) and determine how those committees can best support the strategic plan and strategic initiatives. It may mean rewriting or refining the current committee purpose statement in terms of outcomes. In my experience, when the delegation of work to a committee changes from what the committee has comfortably done over the past many years, the folks on the committee will grumble and then, when held responsible for the outcomes, will either jump in and contribute or leave.

If you decide on investing in revisiting the objective statements of all committees, it may also help the board identify the right person to be the next chair – someone who is on board with outcomes and board oversight.

Committee on Subordinate Legislation

● No parliamentary deliberation – Parliament does not get a chance to debate rules, regulations, etc. made by the executive. These are made in the ante-chamber of the bureaucrat and the benefits of parliamentary deliberations are lost.

● No prior publicity- Whereas drafts of bills are often published for public comment and criticism, prior publicity is not always possible in case of rules and regulations and the benefits of public discussion are criticism is lost.

● Not enough publicity- Everyone is supposed to know the law because statutes are, generally speaking, easily accessible. This is not so in the case of delegated legislation, where the mass of rules, regulations, bye-laws, orders, etc. often lie buried in the files of bureaucrats. Antecedent publicity, that is, publicity before enactment is often missing in delegated legislation.

● Lesser research- Since statutes are normally given greater publicity than rules and regulations, the former can reach out to a greater number of citizens.\

● Possibility of overreach and or overlapping – as delegated legislation can often be confusing, complex and difficult to understand. Moreover, it can be different (and at times, contradictory) in different states, thus leading to confusion and lack of uniformity.

● Possibility of poor drafting – Delegated legislation may not be well considered or drafted by legislative experts and may thus suffer from infirmities due to poor drafting.

● Possibility of confusion- Experiences show that delegated legislation can often be confusing, complex and difficult to understand. Moreover, it can be different (and at times, contradictory) in different states, thus leading to confusion and lack of uniformity.

Conclusion
Parliament plays a central role in the Indian system of representative governance, affecting all aspects of lives of citizens. It has done a remarkable job for nearly seventy years, helping manage internal tensions of perhaps the most diverse set of people in any country. Many social reforms and economic progress have been led by Parliament. However, there are ways in which its effectiveness can be improved. These include revocation of the anti-defection law, making recorded voting mandatory and strengthening the committee system

GST DAY

Approx most of the day we heard about this Term GST, if we Recharge mobile current postpaid bill is Rs 500, we will have to shell out Rs 590. It is Rs 15 more than what you are currently paying. Food, electricity, gold, land, loans in these services GST is applicable

GST, Goods and Service Tax Act passed in the parliament of India on 27th March 2017 and came into effect on 1st July 2017.

The day was celebrated on 1st July 2018 to mark the first anniversary of the new indirect tax regime.GST is a single indirect tax on the supply of goods and services right from manufacturers to consumers. It’s replaced a number of taxes such As excise duty, service tax, central sales Tax, Value-added Tax(VAT), and Octroi.

Excise duty is an indirect tax that levies on the goods which, are produced within the country. This tax is not related to the Customs Duty. Excise Duty is also known as Central Value Added Tax. value-added Tax is collected by the state government. For example, if we purchase a good then we must pay an additional tax as Value Added Tax to the government. The VAT rate is decided based on the nature of the item and state.Custom duty and OctoroiThis tax is levied on those goods that are imported into India from outside. The Custom Duty tax is paid at the port of entry in the country as the airport. This tax rate also varies over the nature of goods. While the Octroi tax is charged on the goods entering the municipality.

GST was First coneceptual by Former Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee,1999.

In an official message on the occasion of GST Day, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman on Wednesday said that more efforts are required to ease tax compliance further for the taxpayers, especially the micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs). Wednesday marked the third anniversary of the launch of the Goods and Services Tax (GST) regime.In message, Ms Sitharaman herhighlighted the steps taken towards easing the return filing process, including the recently introduced feature of SMS-based filing for nil return

Happy National Doctor’s Day

Every year on 1st July India celebrates National Doctor’s Day in honor of Bharat Ratna Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy former chief minister of West Bengal and someone who represented the best of his profession at a critical time in India’s modern history.

He is still considered the greatest Chief Minister of West Bengal and a visionary of developing the State as after independence lot of industrial development took place in the State.
He was the one to establish the Indian Medical Association in 1928 and the Medical Council of India. He also played a crucial role in establishing the Indian Institute of Mental Health, the Infectious Disease Hospital, and even Kolkata’s first-ever postgraduate medical college.

My Tribute to our life Saviors

And on this Doctor’s Day salute to all the doctors and healthcare workers for their selfless service. In this pandemic, they are real-life heroes, bringing hope in these difficult situations. Keeping us safe, fighting the coronavirus war at The frontline. Their invaluable contribution makes people recover from this dreadful disease.

ROLE OF ASHAs IN KEEPING INDIA’S VILLAGES PROTECTED FROM CORONAVIRUS

Accredited Social Health Activists, ASHAs, are playing an indispensable role in rural outreach by educating village people on arresting the spread of the much-dreaded Coronavirus. Field reports from Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s constituency, Varanasi indicate that ASHAs credited with juggling multiple roles have been deputed to spread awareness on prevention of Coronavirus in their areas. They are after all the backbone of primary healthcare in more than seven lakh villages of India.

On April 14, the day Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced an extension of the 21-day lockdown till May 3, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, advised in a COVID-19 related tweet that persons having symptoms may approach national/ state helpline centres or frontline workers such as ASHA workers and field workers. The tweet said that these workers have been oriented about the process to be followed and can help in early detection and facilitate proper treatment in hospitals.

Rekha Sharma, a forty-year-old ASHA worker says that ASHA workers in Varanasi have been asked to cover 25 to 30 houses a day in the assigned villages till the end of May. After lockdown, some workers working in Bengaluru, Delhi, Pune and other cities have come back to the villages because they did not have any work in lockdown. They have been asked to undergo tests for COVID- 19.”

The ASHAs are given performance-based incentives for promoting universal immunisation, referral and escort services for reproductive and child health and other healthcare programmes and construction of household toilets. They counsel women on birth preparedness, the importance of safe delivery, breast-feeding and complementary feeding, immunisation, contraception and prevention of common infections including Reproductive Tract Infections/ Sexually Transmitted Infections (RTIs and STIs) and care of the young child. From time to time, the ASHA workers have been deservingly honoured as well. In December 2019, Balvinder Kaur, an ASHA worker from Khosi Kalan village of sub-centre Koomkala of Ludhiana, Punjab was honoured with the National Universal Health Coverage Award by Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare, Dr Harsh Wardhan. She was honoured for her contribution to promoting facilities of Health and Wellness Centres in her block, Likewise, Jamuna Mani Singh was also felicitated by the Odisha government. “From the time we came to know that COVID-19 is going to pose a big threat to India, we took it upon ourselves to strengthen our rural outreach. Since we have been working in several states of India with special focus on many districts of Uttar Pradesh for a long time, we offered our services to government departments like education, health, women and child welfare departments.

We have made sure that all facts on COVID-19 that are being put out by the World Health Organisation and the Ministry of Health, are disseminated to the villages daily. As and when required, we are seeking the help of community-based organisations and other voluntary organisations.” Mr Pradhan explained that MAMTA is using the existing WhatsApp groups through which they normally function with senior government officers on several social welfare and development-oriented schemes, to spread awareness on COVID-19 as well. We are working in all eight blocks in the Prime Minister’s constituency. We have also asked ASHAs, frontline workers, Nehru Yuvak Kendra, NSS (National Service Scheme) and NCC (National Cadet Corps) volunteers to ask villagers to download Arogya Setu App (a mobile app developed by the Ministry of IT and Electronics to help citizens identify the risk of contracting COVID-19 infection). All government departments of Varanasi are already actively promoting Arogya Setu. To make it easy, we have shared the Arogya Setu link with all volunteers and social workers. Surely, the army of dedicated and friendly health activists in India’s villages is taking on the COVID- 19 challenge by empowering people with knowledge.