Category Archives: Science and Technology

“Effectiveness Of Our Sanitizing Tools-Soap Vs Sanitizer”

Health has become an issue of concern especially during the prevailing pandemic of coronavirus. Covid-19 is increasing day by day due to it’s effectiveness of spreading by touch.We know that these viruses do require a host to be effective enough to perform function. But we do see that there is no such effective way out to be free from it. Scientists do believe that the best option to do so is to take precaution and preventive measures to fight this harmful virus. We know that this  virus spreads from person to person through contact or through any medium which helps this virus to be transmitted. The major area of concern for doctors and scientists who are helping us to fight it against this virus is the Mutation possibilities. Mutation are the gene changes in these viruses which occur whenever they replicate to other and future viruses. Their mutations are either due to environmental conditions which do help them to be adaptive to it or due to the complexity of their gene which does get different while transmitting. It is an area of concern since these viruses do mutate and with this mutation going on increasing it may happen that doctors may not be able to know about the virus even if it is present due to the old ways to detect them, this could surely be harmful for patients and this people near us. As we see that this virus is increasing and many people are getting affected by it, the possibility of its mutation also increases. 

But since we know that there is no such vaccine which could prevent and save us from its effect, the better way out is to use preventive measures. This mainly included maintaining a distance of 1-2 metre when we talk or even in the market. Use a mask and wash hands frequently. But the main question which still hits the mind of people is which is better Soap or Sanitizer? Since soap has been a part of human’s life for many centuries, sanitizer has also helped humans to remain clean and healthy. So are these both equally sufficient to fight against this virus or do we have better ways out in them to help us remain safe. 

So in this fight to find out which is better between soap and sanitizer, scientists did some of the experiments to find better results. For this they took bacteria known as E. Coli and rubbed in their hands completely. 

 

  • For the first case they took sanitizer. There were two conditions recorded in it. The first was to rub with a small quantity of sanitizer and record the result and second was to take an amount more than the usual quantity and record the details. 
  • For the second case they took soap. For the first experiment, they washed their hands for about 10 seconds and recorded details while for the second time they washed their hands for about 30 seconds and recorded the details.

 

The outcomes were really worth watching. Considering The first case, a sanitizer of less amount did clean most of the bacteria but a sanitizer with more amount cleaned almost all the bacteria over hands. Soap for about 10 seconds removed bacteria but rubbing for about 30 seconds did remove most of the bacteria as compared to 1st case of rubbing for 10 seconds. But the difference between soap and sanitizer and their comparison, sanitizer was found out to be more effective than soap in their results. Sanitizer was recorded to remove most of the bacteria while there were few left out even washing hands for about 30 seconds.

We do know that sanitizing either with soap or sanitizer both can be effective to be free from virus and bacteria, but sanitizers do have an edge over soap in their capabilities of performance. Washing hands with sanitizers thus can be effective enough to help any individual fight back this virus with other preventive measures also. We know it’s a difficult time and we all need to be aware about the do’s and dont’s and this need to be aware enough to protect ourselves as well as other people in our country and thus bring back everything back to normal and make our country and world better, safe and healthier. 

 

“Underwater lifestyle – Possibilities For Numerous Opportunities?”

Humans have been working hard since the inception of their life so as to make their life easier and comfortable. They have been traveling in the search of better food, water and shelter resources. All these efforts have resulted as the initial steps toward life we acknowledge today. With the latest technologies and gadgets, we humans have brought a wider change in our day to day lifestyle. But with all these coming years, a lot many changes have been seen, with growing population, scarce resources and thus fighting for basic needs. In the search for better life in prevailing problems of increasing population, and less land for providing the basic necessities like homes, hospitals, colleges, dumps for storing waste and a lot more, more and more alternatives are in the run to be opted. But the alternative ways which researchers are very fascinated about is the underwater lifestyle. What if we could breathe underwater . Anything is possible. And if this could have been possible or if this could be possible, it would open up a wide range of possibilities for humanity. 

So if humans could breathe underwater or by technology we can make our gene different and can breathe underwater it would help us:

 

  • Remain underwater for a while and thus research better about the things underneath the water. 
  • Construction would be easier as we do have machines which can operate underwater but not manual workload. This would help us do that.
  • We can discover more resources, hidden underwater and have not been found yet.
  • We would be able to travel underneath.
  • Various other possibilities for increasing population and fulfilling their needs.
  • We could even enjoy swimming with other aquatic living beings, this would bring a different level of excitement.
  • We must also observe these water resources to be clean enough, since humans won’t like living in a polluted environment.

 

It all seems that the possibility for humans to breathe underwater would help humans to find the problem to find space and many others but we humans are not meant to live under water unless we include technology. But if we would have been able to breathe underwater, our life’s would have been different, since aquatic life would have been affected the most and water would also have seemed a lot more crowded. This is the possibility if we would have been able to breathe, but since we cannot breathe, so if we still find alternatives through technology, our bodies’ would respond differently since our body would not not react accordingly. Our bodies would soon get affected and we would suffer hypothermia. Also we would be requiring  spectacles for watching our surroundings, since our eyes cannot afford to watch in it. Also if we would, it would not be a clear view.. 

There would be other difficulties for humans if they went underwater in search of survival. But soon we need to find an alternative for the increasing population and it’s possible that we could shift to water for our survival in future times. This could be possible with all sorts of better technology for betterment of humans and not bothering the prevailing aquatic life. Tomorrow is a world of different possibilities, opportunities and outcomes and humans would definitely find out the better ways to survive and make their life the way it is and the way it should be. 

 

“The Outcomes Of Shifting To Cleaner Fuel Instantly”

We have been hearing from recent times that the problem of Climate Change and Global Warming is increasing and is leading to deteriorate our environment and its resources. Our glaciers have started to melt and air is hardly left cleaner to be breathed. All these factors have also led the life of humans and other animals to suffer. This has been caused due to human early efforts to find themselves the need for power and energy. The major revolution which brought a wider change to the ground reality and people was the initiation of The Industrial Revolution which not only helped people to get jobs and get employed but also helped various families to earn their basic needs and necessities. But with times we have found major sources of energy out of the natural resources and fossil fuels present in our nature and with times these resources have seen a greater loss and have been decreasing thus we are left with not much if resources. These have also led to spoil the climate of our environment as carbon emissions from the vehicles and industries which consume them for energy generation has led to increase in the carbon content in the atmosphere leading to rise of earth temperature and thus climate related problems. Thus we can see how bad have humans deteriorated this earth with their actions in search of a better life. 

So what can be the possible solutions in such conditions of difficult times. People do suggest that cleaner fuel and sustainable resources like wind and solar energy can be utilized to fight these prevailing issues. Solar energy is widely available energy and we can use it for better use along with wind energy also. But we can not directly shift to the use of much cleaner fuel and energy sources instantly because:

 

  • Most of the power still comes from the energy generated from coal in various industries and most of the countries still don’t have much if technologies to shift to these natural energy sources for power generation. 
  • 66% of power we consume comes from coal and other fossil fuel consumption. If we stop it, we wouldn’t not be able to get much power for our daily usage. 

 

 

  • Instantly stopping fossil fuel, would let a great stop to our travel and other related things as we would not have fuel to power them. 
  • We would not get out food and other necessities since we won’t have the sufficient sources for delivering them.
  • Plastic for storing food,making parts of machines and various things would not be possible as we won’t get energy for manufacturing it.
  • But also the main problem would stay for many decades as according to scientists, they believe that the carbon emissions and other gases are trapped in the atmosphere and thus would require time to get away. 

 

This is the right stage and time for humans to understand the need to shift to much cleaner sources of energy. It’s not possible instantly since there would be a lot of problems doing so , but we can at least start small, by slow building technologies and fuels which would be Eco-friendly and safe for us as well as earth and much cleaner to that which we use at current time. We all need to step together in this journey for better future and thus save this planet slowly but effectively. 

“Nuclear And Other Sustainable Sources For Cleaner Energy.”

Humans have been working in the field of generating power and energy in different forms. We in this 21st century require energy for different aspects, be it for cooking food, fuel for travelling, for running industries and many more. We have been using natural or fossil fuel for generating power, petrol, diesel for fuel in cars and other vehicles, coal for powering industries and even generating power and many more. Thus these resources have helped us to make our lives more comfortable and easier. But With times the utilization of these fossil fuel and natural resources, our environment has seen decline in its ability to provide better and cleaner output. Our natural resources be it air or water, have seen a greater degradation and our food resources have become in health. Also concentrating in the fact that these fossil fuels have also been decreasing as are expected to exhaust soon. The point to consider is what next then? We are in the situation that if we use these fossil fuels, our environment would get affected and also phenomena like climate change and global warming would increase if we stop using them, we do not have a better mode of power generating at a certain notice. So what can be done? 

We have been working in the field of generating power through nuclear energy. This is expected to be the most cleaner and effective way of generating power. These have been in existence for a while but still we do lack proper knowledge of how to better use it since it is a risky source of power generation and humans are at the risk in operating it, we have been using it less. But nuclear power can be the future for generating power. These have enormous power to generate enough energy for the population and their needs to be fulfilled. But the question to its usage is the economical and health aspects. These plants and their installation cost a lot to the economies and also the health issues are enormous. We do not have much skilled labor and people to operate these machines. 

We know that these nuclear power are effective but not 100% secure. So we must shift to better and cleaner along with safe mode of power generation. Solar energy and power through windmill are an effective source but their installation as well as most of the countries do lack much of skilled labor to shift to these technologies. Also if we do stop the usage of these pollution causing fuel, it still would require many decades to solve the issue of global warming and climate change. So we must develop more and more cleaner modes of energy generation so as to make our earth a better place with better and cleaner sources. Energy and power generation is an increasing need for the population around the world and we must shift to operate better and best ways of energy generation as soon as possible. The prior need of the hour is to understand the requirement to save our environment and the resources in it and make our earth the way it was. 

Will facebook Rival Instagram give tough competition to Tiktok after the launch of feature “Reels” in India

After the banning of Tiktok and 58 other Chinese apps in India, the demand for short video apps is increasing. This is the best time to grab this opportunity for the existing app companies as well well as to launch the new apps which provide a short video creation feature.

Though after the government banned TikTok in India other homegrown apps like ShareChat, Roposo, Chingari are also being used by the people of the country more, Instagram also takes the advantage of this situation and launches a feature of short video creation named “Reels”.

In Brazil, Germany and France are the countries where this feature is successfully tested. India is the next one.

This feature will be rolling out in India after 7:30 IST today. Just like IGTV, users will also have a Reels section on their profile page, where all their content can be viewed at once.

The feature Reels lets users create a video of 15 seconds or less. Users can also use creative filters on it, can share it beyond his/her followers. Similar to TikTok, Reels provide options like audio from Instagram Music library, speed, effects, and timer.

Shah says the product comes from the realization that 45 percent of videos on Instagram are 15 seconds or less. “We also realized that stories are not the only place where they wanted to share these videos as they wanted them to stick on for longer and be distributed beyond their followers,” he said in the video call.

The new feature lets users shoot video, add filters and music from Instagram’s catalog and share it beyond the platform. Users will be able to share Reels in Explore, and also on Feed with followers. There will be no monetization avenues for now.

To create Instagram Reels, a user would need to open the camera option in the app. After clicking on Reels from the bottom of the screen, the app throws up several easy-to-use tools to record and edit a 15-second video.

Creators can choose to use the in-app music tracks, or even use custom audio for their videos. There are also options to speed up or slow down parts of the video. There’s an Align option that helps creators maintain their position in front of the camera while recording multiple cuts in a single video. It also has an array of augmented reality effects that can be used to make videos more fun.

According to Facebook India Vice President and Managing Director Ajit Mohan, videos make up a third of all Instagram posts in India. Out of that, around 45 percent of the videos posted are of 15 seconds or less.

Calling Reels as the “future of entertainment,” Facebook’s Vice President of Product Vishal Shah said that the superior goal of Reels was to push Indian content creators and help them become potential “global stars.”

Instagram says that it has been working with popular content creators and public figures to populate Reels content. When the test starts rolling out, users can check out content posted by the likes of Ammy Virk (3.3 million fans on TikTok), Gippy Grewal (1.7 million), Arjun Kanungo (1.5 million), Radhika Bangia (5.4 million), RJ Abhinav (1.6 million) and Indrani Biswas aka Wonder Munna (630K subscribers on YouTube).

As of now, Instagram plans to learn more from the testing phase and from creators themselves. Monetization options are also expected to be introduced once Reels takes off in India. No official public rollout date has been announced yet.

“White holes – Real Or Hypothetical?”

Space has been a place of mysteries for humans ever since we have started studying it. Various phenomena happening in there and science related to it has always fascinated more and more to know much about the place we live in. These all ideas and researches have helped us increase our knowledge about space but still a lot is still pending to be found and various theories yet to be solved. We have heard about black holes and their power to let anything in and not let it out and how even light cannot escape it this is considered to be a destruction factor for anything which travels around it and thus gets into it. The significance of black hole was unknown until it’s provenance was recorded by scientists in 2017. So this has been a great discovery for us and various other theories which have been given by our scientist. 

But another theory which is till date considered to be hypothetical is the theory and existence of White Holes. White holes are entities with properties opposite to that of black holes. This means that instead of absorbing things and letting them into it, these holes push things out and resist anything to enter them. These consist to be hypothetical as their physical significance are still a doubt for the scientist. Physicists also question its existence since they believe that it doesn’t agree to the 2nd law of thermodynamics according to which the entropy of any object of something either remains constant or increases but does not decrease. But still many scientists believe that it could exist, which is because as we know that black holes do emit energy in the forms of radiations as given by Hawking’s radiation theory. So doing so they keep on losing energy and one day they get destroyed. “But the question is what next, what about the things gone inside it?”. This is where scientists think white holes form and during the death of black hole it converts into white hole and this gets everything out of it.It seems to be a valid theory and many scientists do believe in it. Also the story of how our space was formed is related to being from a Whitehole, like we know everything came out of a small dot and thus creates these things. It’s just a second thought on the big bang theory, but still scientist still doubt on its existence. 

But some pictures taken by nasa were fascinating and interesting which were related to what we are discussing about. In 2006 Nasa recorded a big supernova-like phenomenon some light years away with a time more than any other recorded till then. Soon after it was recorded that it just got lost leaving nothing behind. Scientists are relating it to be a white hole phenomenon.But assurity of these holes are still not found and also seeing the laws defined in our science, we do not see their existence. But also we know that many things in our space do not follow these rules and regulations and thus these holes may be one of them challenging our governed rules. 

So maybe in the future we would be able to visualize or see a phenomena of white holes at some distant light years with better technology and research work by our scientists and experts and thus we could convert another hypothetical theory into a reality. 

 

Climate Forcing

Climate “forcing” are factors in the climate system that either increase or decrease the effects to the climate system.

• Positive forcing such as excess greenhouse gases warm the earth while negative forcing, such as the effects of most aerosols and volcanic eruptions, actually cool the earth.

• Atmospheric aerosols include volcanic dust, soot from the combustion of fossil fuels, particles from burning forests and mineral dust.

• Dark carbon-rich particles such as soot from diesel engines absorb sunlight and warm the atmosphere.

• Conversely, exhaust from high-sulphur coal or oil produce light aerosols that reflect sunlight back to space, producing a cooling effect. Aerosols that form naturally during volcanic eruptions cool the atmosphere. Large volcanic eruptions can eject enough ash into the atmosphere to lower temperature for a year or more until the sulfate particles settle out of the atmosphere.

Altering the Energy Balance

• The power of a process to alter the climate is estimated by its “radiative forcing,” the change in the Earth’s energy balance due to that process.

• Some climate forcings are positive, causing globally averaged warming, and some are negative, causing cooling. Some, such as from increased CO₂ concentration, are well known; others, such as from aerosols, are more uncertain.

Natural Forcing:

• Natural forcing include changes in the amount of energy emitted by the Sun, very slow variations in Earth’s orbit, and volcanic eruptions.

• Since the start of the industrial revolution, the only natural forcing with any long-term significance has been a small increase in solar energy reaching Earth. However, this change is not nearly enough to account for the current warming.

Human-Induced Forcing

• Climate forcing can also be caused by human activities. These activities include greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions from burning fossil fuels and modifications of the land surface, such as deforestation.

Human-Generated Greenhouse Gases

• Greenhouse gases are a positive climate forcing; that is, they have a warming effect. Carbon dioxide emitted from the burning of fossil fuel is presently the largest single climate forcing agent, accounting for more than half of the total positive forcing since 1750.

Human-Generated Aerosols

• Burning fossil fuels adds aerosols to the atmosphere. Aerosols are tiny particles in the atmosphere composed of many things, including water, ice, ash, mineral dust, or acidic droplets. Aerosols can deflect the Sun’s energy and impact the formation and lifetime of clouds. Aerosols are a negative forcing; that is, they have a cooling effect.

Causes of Climate Change

• While natural forcing do exist, they are not significant enough to explain the recent global warming. Human activities are very likely responsible for most of the recent warming.

Estimation of Each Gas

Each gas’s effect on climate change depends on

three main factors:

Concentration of each gas

Concentration, or abundance, is the amount of a particular gas in the air. Greenhouse gas concentrations are measured in parts per million, parts per billion, and even parts per trillion.

One part per million is equivalent to one drop of water diluted into about 13 gallons of liquid (roughly the fuel tank of a compact car).

Amount of time they stay in atmosphere

Each of these gases can remain in the atmosphere for different amounts of time, ranging from a few years to thousands of years.

All of these gases remain in the atmosphere long enough to become well mixed, meaning that the amount that is measured in the atmosphere

is roughly the same all over the world, regardless of the source of the emissions.

Strength of their impact

Some gases are more effective than others at making the planet warmer and “thickening the Earth’s blanket (green house gas)”.

 For each greenhouse gases Global Warming Potential (GWP) has been calculated to reflect how long it remains in the atmosphere, on average, and how strongly it absorbs energy.

“Yoga – India’s Heritage”

India is known for its great culture and traditions, which are famous not only in the country but around the world. These have given humanity new definitions and ways to live life and the real way it should be lived. The ideologies and sayings from Mahabharata as well as obeying and respecting elders and every other person around us from Ramayana, teachings from Lord Buddha, and many more have been given by rich Indian culture. But along with the stability of mind and soul, our culture has given this world ways to remain fit and healthy also.Thus age old practice is widely known as yoga and India has been the place for its origin and it’s related study. Yoga is adopted as a way even science provided us the proves which has capability of providing health benefits. 

Yoga provides the best ways and rules which define the right way, right diet and right norms for any human to live life it’s meant to be. Yoga includes mantras, pranayama ( breathing exercises) and other physical activities which help humans to stay fit both internally as well as externally. Yoga provides every individual internal peace,removes all kinds of stresses, tension and pain and gives him/ her the knowledge of our older traditions and how our ancestors used to live with it. 

India is considered one of the best places to visit and perform the activities of yoga. Many people, every year travel distances around the world either to learn it and inculcate it in their lives or to learn and then bring the knowledge back to their places as trainers and teach there. Most of these yoga training centres and camps are concentrated near mountains and river places so as to give a touch of nature. Surrounding the beauty of nature, people live to perform these yoga exercises and activities, which bring them close to nature and feel every single part of it. Many places do offer free camps and workshops so as to increase the awareness of yoga and its benefits and motivate them to include it in their day to day routine. Also to celebrate the richness of it, we celebrate world yoga day on 21st of June every year. There are various programs and workshops which help people develop the knowledge of yoga and it’s enrichment in its activities. Any individual who wants to bring out peace and calmness in their life and also teach it to others as a trainer can learn it.

In today’s world where we see pain,stress, tension and various other social issues increasing, adulterants In Food , impure water and unclear minds, yoga provides an atmosphere for our brain to calm and helps to figure out best possible solutions at these tough times. It opens the doors of humans’ thinking abilities which not only helps to get better ideas and better approaches to find them. Yoga has proven to be a beneficial for humanity and following these activities and teaching we can bring the peace and freedom to actions along with spreading our age old traditions and culture around the world. 

 

WHAT IS GENETICALLY ENGINEERED (GE) TREES?

The proponents of biotechnology industry claim that trees that are genetically altered grow faster and yield better quality of wood in extreme temperatures. Thus they are a boon to forestry in dealing with climate change.

Historical background

The first field trials of GE trees were started in Belgium in 1988, when researchers began to develop poplar trees that were herbicide resistant and that could grow faster. In 2002, China established commercial GE poplar trees plantation as a strategy to address the issue of deforestation. Initially GE trees were established in 300 hectares, and now China has embraced the GE technology on a large scale, integrating this into forestry sector. Latin American countries like Brazil and Argentina, the forerunners in GM food crops are also working on GE trees to enhance the production of pulp and paper.

Is GE trees safer than GM crops?

For: The proponents of the technology claim that GE trees are safer and there is no need to fear about negative consequences. Already the United Nations has approved plantations of GE trees as carbon sinks under Kyoto Protocol’s clean development mechanism. With this stamp of approval, many countries would like to adopt the technology and establish GE plantations.

Against:

Environmentalists state that this technology poses as serious a threat as GM crops. The trees are perennial, that live longer than agricultural crops. The changes in the metabolism of trees may occur many years after they are planted, and trees are wild, undomesticated. This makes it difficult to decipher as to how the introduced gene will behave in natural environment. This fact implies that the ecological risks associated with GE trees are far greater than the agricultural crops. It has also been documented that the tree pollen travels a distance of more than 600 km. The probability that the GE tree pollen is likely to contaminate vast expanses of native forests with a wide variety of destructive traits may be a threat to ecological balance and the existing biodiversity of the tropical forests in global south. The contaminated pollen might pose threat to honey bees, adversely impacting pollination in the wild and on agriculture crops.

Who are behind developing GE trees and why?

It is ArborGen a subsidiary of Monsanto, oil companies like British Petroleum and Chevron that are investing in this technology. For these companies GE trees offer a viable alternate to fossil fuels as GE trees could produce ethanol, a green fuel. As the ethanol produced from food stocks came under attack, the companies see bright future in non-food cellulose feedstock like GE trees.

In INDIA

The first experiment with genetically engineered tree was with rubber tree developed by the Rubber Research Institute in Kerala. The GE rubbers are better adapted to drought resistance and increased environment stress tolerance. This will help to establish rubber in non- traditional areas where the conditions are not favourable. Ironically the field trials for GE rubber trees were approved by the then environmental minister (Mr. Jairam Ramesh). Ministry asserted that the genetically modified trees posed lesser threat in comparison to the food crops. This assumption is baseless as the seeds of rubber tree are used as cattle feed, that gets into the food chain through milk. Similarly, Kerala is one of those regions that produce large quantity of rubber honey from rubber plantations. Kerala, a GM free state worried about the implications of GE rubber on biodiversity, has voiced its concern about bio safety issues. Now the rubber trees are being experimented in Maharashtra.

These developments show the predominance of the western forestry science that lays emphasis on forests as a commercial entity to produce wood and pulp. Diverse forests were simplified by the removal of multiple species and establishing monocultures that had commercial value. Already the country’s landscape is scarred with millions of hectares of teak and eucalypts monoculture plantations. This approach has had negative consequences for the environment, biodiversity and the local indigenous people. The same trend will be reinforced with the establishment of GE tree plantations, leading to further devastation of the natural environment and forests.

Shoot High-Quality Videos with more efficiency

Have you ever run out of space that captures some of your cherished moments? Isn’t it annoying? No more hassles, after long research, now you’ll be able to record high-quality 8K videos and 360 degrees videos too. It’s estimated that 90 minutes equivalent to your favorite football match in 4K quality video takes up around ten gigs of space, but with the new technology, you can half it down to 5 gigs only.

A boy watching his photos and videos captured on a camera.

Suppose you know that Netflix and YouTube have restrictions over streaming videos, not more than 480p resolution. It has been more than three months now in India; still, the capping exists, although some internet providers did remove it slowly. The social isolation has made people binge more than regular days, seeing an increase of 20 to 30 percent in subscription and user base. More people are now connected, increasing the bandwidth. Hence you may observe slow speeds in this period. Netflix is switching to AV1 codec to save data while watching the show when it delivers its content over the internet. This new research may be able to save more data.

A man binges for on-demand streaming shows.

Initially, the digital video started with H.120 encoding but wasn’t practical until H.261 came up based on the DCT (discrete cosine transform) compression. In 1991, MPEG-1 revolutionized the video sector with higher resolutions, which reached us in the form of VCDs and DVDs. In the late 90s and onset of the 21st century, we saw the currently used MPEG-4 or the most widely used H.264 video encoding. You may know this if you’re familiar with video editing.

After the H.265/HEVC encoding, now steps in H.266/MPEG-I Part 3/VVC (Versatile Video Codec) presented by Fraunhofer HHI with other partners including the significant-tech leading brands like Apple, Microsoft, Qualcomm, Sony, and Intel, with vivid HDR and better support for 360 degrees video. As earlier mentioned, AV1 codec, 30 percent better than H.265, which is adopted by Netflix, is royalty-free. Now, to support H.266 major hardware updates may be required to handle such heavy compressions and will take time for its actual implementation. Like for example, when H.265 was finalized at the beginning of 2013, Apple lately adopted it in the year 2017 as a part of the iOS 11 mobile operating system.

The VVC logo

The 500 pages specification document finalized this month on 6th July 2020, but actual usage in the video industry might take about an estimated 7-8 years. Why do we need such compression? By 2022, more than 80 percent will be part of video streaming, which may increase on more content based on 4K video quality as well as growing numbers of 360 degrees videos. The existing widely used browsers support AV1 codec, but H.266 to properly patent may lately delay web surfing too. Twitch and YouTube may become one of the first firms to implement as they’ve already implanted VP9, again a royalty-free codec by Google itself.

Along with this, MPEG-5 Part 1 or EVC (Essential Video Coding), and MPEG-5 Part 2 or LCEVC (Low Complexity Enhancement VC) is set to launch out. For us, a non-geeky person may visualize it after watching the following graph below.

Average bit rate savings graph. Courtesy: BBC Research

I hope you could know some of the new ways to encode a video. You can read more about it from their official website: https://www.hhi.fraunhofer.de/en/departments/vca/technologies-and-solutions/h266-vvc.html