Category Archives: Social Studies

Think India Quarterly Journal

Think India Journal with ISSN 0971-1260 , a peer-reviewed open access journal published bimonthly in English-language. The journal is available in both online and print version for scholars and researchers around the world. Think India Quarterly aims to foster a wider academic interest in literature, arts, humanities, education, finance, psychology, philosophy, sociology, commerce, management, social sciences and allied subjects. Think India is a multidisciplinary journal for research publication approved and listed in UGC Care. 

Archives of Journal 

Journal Website is 

Published by Vichar Nyas Foundation 


Submit papers for publication to

Call for Papers IJR

International Journal of Research (IJR) publishes regular papers and special issues on specific topics of interest to international audiences of educational researchers.
systemic-evaluation of education
The aim of the journal is to help them better understand each other’s role in the overall process of education and how they may support each other. The articles should be original, unpublished, and not in consideration for publication elsewhere at the time of submission to International Journal of Research (IJR) and one month thereafter.

How to Submit Papers

Send papers through mail to

Scope of Publication in IJR

The topics related to this journal include but are not limited to:
•Educational systems architectures
•Computer-mediated communication
•Distance education/learning
•Distance learning systems
•Distributed learning environments
•Educational multimedia
•Human-computer interface issues
•Hypermedia systems/applications
•Interactive learning environments
•Learning by doing
•Multimedia systems/applications
•Network-based learning environment
•Online education
•Simulations for learning
•Web based instruction/training
•Intelligent learning environments
•Intelligent tutoring environments
•Collaborative learning & environment
•Didactic/pedagogical issues
•Teaching/learning strategies

European Journal of Business and Social Sciences (EJBSS)

European Journal of Business and Social Sciences (EJBSS) provides a forum for sharing timely and up-to-date publication of scientific research and review articles. The journal publishes original research papers at the forefront of law and social sciences. The topics included and emphasized in this journal are, but not limited to, law, political science, economics, environment, history, communication, sociology and safety. finance journal publish

European Journal of Business and Social Sciences (EJBSS)

 is an open access, international, peer-reviewed general multidisciplinary journal for economics, management and social studies. The journal’s website can be found at . The archives of the issues of journal is available at EJBSS Archives. Send papers for publication to

The topics related to this journal include but are not limited to:

International law
Constitutional and administrative law
Criminal law
Contract law
Tort law
Property law
Civil law
Common law and equity
Religious law
Political law
Legal history
Political science
Social philosophy
Social psychology
Business studies
Behavioral science
Communication studies
Industrial relations
Environmental social science

Restaurant Business (RS) – A Management Studies Journal

The aim of Restaurant Business (RS) is the dissemination of insightful and original marketing knowledge. We welcome novel and ground-breaking contributions from a wide range of research traditions within the broad domain of marketing. Restaurant Business (RS) is not pre-disposed towards either empirical work or pure theory, nor towards one particular method or approach, we feel that any approach that helps to break new ground is welcome. We are Indian however we actively encourage global contributions, from scholars across the broad domain of marketing.

how to get published

Journal is indexed within Ebsco Database

Editorial Criteria

Restaurant Business (RS) will be an outlet for research that is:

  1. Based on rigorous, high quality scholarly work of global standards
  2. From a diverse range of methodological, philosophical and theoretical approaches
  3. Taken from theoretical conceptualization and appropriate research methodology
  4. Well written, clear, relevant and most importantly of interest to marketing practitioners as well as academicians

Restaurant Business (RS) will be particularly receptive to the development and testing of new theories and concepts to be brought into practise. We therefore will not generally be open to pure opinion although viewpoint and commentary articles are welcome where they can meet appropriate standards of rigour. Authors who wish to submit such articles are encouraged to contact the editors prior to commencing work. Restaurant Business (RS) is also receptive in principle to the submission of replication studies, where they are able to demonstrate a clear and substantive contribution to existing marketing knowledge and practise.

Unique Attributes

Restaurant Business (RS) aims to be a forum for the dissemination of high-quality scholarly research and thinking in marketing. Each paper submitted Restaurant Business (RS) will be subjected to a strict peer review process by practitioners and academicians.

Key Journal Audiences

  1. Marketing scholars
  2. Senior and middle marketing management
  3. Senior executives in distribution, market research and advertising


Restaurant Business (RS) is receptive to all areas of research which are relevant to research and new insight development in the field of Marketing, some examples are:

  1. Rural Marketing
  2. Importance of marketing to the bottom-of-the-pyramid
  3. Luxury marketing
  4. Sustainability and ethical issues in marketing
  5. Consumer behavior
  6. Advertising and branding issues
  7. Methodology of marketing research
  8. International and export marketing
  9. Services marketing
  10. New product development and innovation
  11. Retailing and distribution
  12. Macromarketing/micromarketing and societal issues
  13. Pricing and economic decision making in marketing
  14. Marketing models

Restaurant Business (RS) also welcomes articles which cross boundaries between these and other areas of marketing, and in particular multidisciplinary research which brings together various fields of study.

Restaurant Business (RS)  with ISSN 0097-8043 is multi-disciplinary journals for management studies, business, economics, ecommerce, finance, trade, banking, insurance, commerce, hospitality, tourism, planning, development studies and allied fields. The journal is open access and available electronically around the world.

Scopus Indexed Journal available at . Researchers can find the Restaurant Business (RS) Journal Journal Home Page with Issues and Archives at

UGC Approved Journal no. 10549 at RS is working for publication and promotion of research through throughout the world. Scholars are requested to submit papers for publication in Scopus Indexed and UGC Approved journal – Restaurant Business (RS)

Email to submit Papers for publication is 

Asian Studies -Call for Papers 2019

Asian Studies – An UGC Approved Journal

Asian Studies, a refereed journal of the Asian Literary studies, presents an international scholarly forum for the discussion and evaluation of Asian languages, literature, culture, and arts in postcolonial context. The journal publishes 4 issues every year.

Asian Studies welcomes submissions from any theoretical or critical perspective meant for an audience from various disciplines and written in clear and persuasive prose.

Send papers for review to or

Areas of Interest to the Journal

  • Asian Literatures
  • Asian Languages
  • Asian Studies
  • Asian Culture
  • Comparative Aesthetic
  • Literary Theory
  • Asian Diaspora
  • Cultural Studies
  • Colonial Studies
  • Postcolonial Studies
  • Comparative Literature
  • Women’s Studies
  • Film Studies
  • Trans-cultural Studies

For journal information, instructions for authors, and other details please visit the Asian Studies homepage at . Scholars who wish to publish in Asian Studies should submit through the journal’s dedicated Editorial Manager site. Authors should follow the journal’s requirements in style and length to ensure that manuscripts can move through peer review, production and publication smoothly. Instructions for authors that detail these requirements can be found here, so please take the time to read and follow them as closely as possible.

Archives of Asian Studies Journal is available at

Navyasrota with ISSN 2249-8133

Navyasrota with ISSN 2249-8133 is a UGC Approved half yearly journal for resarch publication. Visit journal site at and submit papers for publication to or arts and humanities.jpg

Journal Archives available at

UGC Journal Details

Name of the Journal : Nāvyaśrota, Half Yearly Research Journal
ISSN Number : 22498133
e-ISSN Number : 2249-8133
Source: UGC
Subject: Multi-disciplinary
Publisher: Pen2Print, India
Country of Publication: India
Broad Subject Category: Arts & Humanities

Fundamental Duties Most Unfortunately Has Become A Forgotten Chapter Of The Constitution

“The source of right is duty. If we all discharge our duties, rights will not be far to seek. If leaving duties unperformed we run after rights, they will escape us like will of the wisp, the more we pursue them, the further they will fly. I learned from my illiterate but wise mother that all rights to be deserved and preserved come from duty well done. Thus the very right to live accrues to us only when we do the duty of citizenship of the world. From this one fundamental statement, perhaps it is easy though to define duties of man and woman and correlate every right to some corresponding duty to be first performed. Every other right can be shown to be usurpation hardly worth fighting for.”

fundamental rights

                                                              –         Mahatma Gandhi when requested to give his thoughts on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

                                                            At the very outset, let me begin by  saying that it grievously hurts me to painfully note that fundamental duties has more or less most unfortunately become a forgotten chapter of our Constitution. This most definitely should never have happened but we all have been watching this happening right before our own eyes. Communal riots breaking out on very small petty issues in which many people lose their precious lives, many children become orphan and homeless as their houses are burnt are all most painful reminders that fundamental duties have become more or less a forgotten chapter of our Constitution! Nothing on earth can be more unfortunate than this!

                                                     To say the least, burning of Indian flags, waving of Pakistani flags, ranting anti-India slogans and doing many other such anti-national acts cannot be justified under any circumstances. It is the fundamental duty of each and every citizen of India to desist from all such anti-national acts. Only then are we true citizens of India!

                                                      Needless to say, there can be no chapter in Constitution which is as important as the one on fundamental duties yet it has been mostly ignored. How often do we read articles on Constitution pertaining to fundamental duties? The obvious answer is once in a blue moon. This despite the fact that fundamental duties are most important as I have already noted above. No less than an eminent legal luminary of the stature of former Chief Justice of India – Justice RC Lahoti while delivering a guest lecture in memory of Justice KT Desai on 15 July, 2014 at Central Court Room in Bombay High Court, Mumbai on ‘Fundamental Duties – A Forgotten Chapter of the Constitution’ had himself most gracefully observed that, “I could not have chosen a subject better than the Fundamental Duties; more so, when as a student of Constitution I find that in the judicial circles and amongst the citizens, a significant provision like Article 51A is found to be conspicuous more by its absence. It is a beautifully well drafted piece of Constitutional enactment. Every word is so well chosen and placed as if a gem studded in necklace! To me, these 10 duties sound like incantations of some holy book.”

                                                     Having said this, I must now bring out here that Part IVA, Article 51A, providing for ten fundamental duties, was introduced in the Constitution not in 1950 when it was originally prepared but by the 42nd Amendment to the Constitution in 1976. Let us all read the basic text of this all important Article 51A, as enacted by 42nd Amendment pertaining to fundamental duties. It runs as follows : –

51A. Fundamental duties – It shall be the duty of every citizen of India:

(a)           to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;

(b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;

(c)            to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;

(d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;

(e)           to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;

(f)             to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;

(g)           to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;

(h) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;

(i)              to safeguard public property and to abjure violence;

(j)              to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement;

(k)          who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child, or as the case may be, ward between the age of six and fourteen years.

                                                             No doubt, it is pertinent to mention here that it was in 2002 and by the 86th Amendment to the Constitution that one more fundamental duty was added as clause (k) in Article 51A and very rightly so. The basic education of children is most imperative and must always be provided to children between the age of 6 to 14 as very rightly provided in clause (k). There can be no two opinions on this.

                                            A moot question arises here : Why it never occurred to the founding fathers of our Constitution of the dire need to include fundamental duties also in it? Most certainly, this was because the founding fathers had unflinching faith in all Indians that they would themselves voluntarily do their fundamental duties on their own without their mentioning it specifically in the Constitution. They were not wrong in doing so. It is the people themselves who have not risen to the occasion and abdicated from discharging their fundamental duties due to which it had to be specifically inserted in the Constitution in 1976 by the 42nd Amendment.

                                            All said and done, we must also not forget here that there some provisions which are implicit like all the fundamental rights have corresponding duties also like Article 17 implies a duty not to practice untouchability and same goes the case with other fundamental right. Similarly Article 14 which deals with right to equality also implies a duty to treat all others equally. What is most hurting to note is that while most of us always remember by heart our fundamental rights, we very rarely bother about fundamental duties which are equally as important rather more important but whom we very conveniently ignore blithely for preserving our own vested interest! This is the most sad part which is just not done!

                                            What most of us tend to ignore is that our rich Indian culture never believed in duties being imposed on us as our forefathers always believed in sacrifice and this alone explains that why fundamental duties and directive principles of state policy are not binding on citizens and no penalty is imposed on anyone for not performing them. We must be always grateful to the founding fathers of our Constitution for this but we hardly care for it! Here is where we have gone grievously wrong which we must be honest enough to at least admit.

                                           Truth be told, it is most unfortunate to note that the chapter on fundamental duties even after being inserted has been most blatantly disregarded and very conveniently overlooked everywhere. This alone explains why the former CJI – Justice RC Lahoti had to observe most painfully that, “The chapter on fundamental duties, inspite of having been introduced in the Constitution, is more neglected than noticed. I have not come across any textbook of schools incorporating the text of fundamental duties much less any discussion thereon. The commentaries on Indian Constitution which I have come across, do not deal with this chapter with any emphasis. Eminent jurists writing commentaries on Constitution have not written much on fundamental duties. The apex court of the country and the High Courts have also not much utilized the Article 51A while dealing with other constitutional provisions.”

                                           Truly speaking, HM Seervai who is one of the most eminent legal luminary and jurist that India has ever produced in his monumental work on Constitutional law of India has written just a para on fundamental duties which I feel it obligatory to mention here. I must go on to say here that two notable observations made by the eminent jurist Seervai deserves to be quoted here. He says most eloquently that, “[Article 51A] has been enacted under the mistaken belief that if Articles 14 to 32 confer fundamental rights on citizens, and Articles 38 to 51 impose ‘duties’ on the State, fundamental duties ought to be imposed on citizens…. If the directive principles are violated or ignored nothing happens; equally if fundamental duties are disregarded nothing happens. It is unnecessary to deal with Article 51A beyond saying that they are innocuous”. What Seervai has observed can under no circumstances be ignored. Centre must ponder most seriously on this and do what is best suited to meet the present circumstances. The eminent legal luminary Seervai further goes on to say that clauses (b) and (j) must appear ludicrous to people outside India and even to people within India.

                                                    Having said this, now let me turn my attention on how fundamental duties came into existence. It was during the term of former PM late Mrs Indira Gandhi that it was decided that certain fundamental duties must be incorporated in the Constitution so that all citizens remain conscious of it and not think that they have no duty at all to perform. On February 26, 1976 the All India Congress Committee appointed Swaran Singh Committee to suggest certain changes in the Constitution to meet the changed circumstances. Swaran Singh Committee consisted of 12 members with former External Affairs Minister, Sardar Swaran Singh as its Chairman and Congress Secretary, AR Antulay, MP, as its Secretary.

                                                      While craving for my esteemed readers exclusive indulgence, let me point out here that it is interesting to note here that the Swaran Committee said nothing about the fundamental duties but in its supplementary report, it listed the fundamental duties, which had to be incorporated as a separate chapter in the Constitution. This Committee also laid special emphasis on the dire need of making people more aware of the duties they must perform along with enjoying rights. This is how fundamental duties were inserted in our Constitution.

                                                  For my esteemed readers exclusive benefit, I must mention here that actually the Swaran Committee had recommended only 8 fundamental duties but the Congress government in Centre headed by late Mrs Indira Gandhi decided to include 10 duties as fundamental duties. I must also mention here that some suggestions made by Swaran Committee were not accepted by Centre. As for instance, it was suggested by the Committee that there should be a penalty or punishment for non-compliance of the fundamental duties but these were not accepted. The other suggestions made but not accepted were : –

  1. PK Deo (Kalahandi) suggested that, “Every young person, before graduation in any University or before being eligible for any employment in any service, shall serve in the Territorial Army or work in any factory, or farm, or irrigation project, at least for one year”.
  2. Smt Maya Ray made a notable suggestion that payment of taxes be included as one of the fundamental duties.
  3. Bibhuti Mishra suggested, “To observe celibacy in the interest of family planning and to abstain from excessive consumption of alcohol”. He had also suggested Article 51B and Article 51C being included in the Amendment, as under –

“51B Special duty of holders of public offices – It shall be the special duty of every member of the Council of Ministers either of the Union or of the States, and every person holding an office under the Government or every member or office bearer of any public institution to protect and safeguard interests of the country and abstain from doing anything which jeopardises or is likely to jeopardise the economic, social or political interests of the country in any manner whatsoever.”

“51C – It shall be the duty of every member of the Council of Ministers and every officer of the Government responsible for taking decisions in matters relating to policy of the Government or internal administration of the Government or Departments to abstain from consuming alcohol in any public place whether called as such or private.”

  1. Sardar Swaran Singh Sokhi suggested, “To have ceiling on expenditure and to have compassion for living creatures”.
  2. Dr Karan Singh suggested, “A duty to sustain the unity and integrity of the nation.”; “A duty to act in accordance with the Constitution and laws of the land.” and “A duty to perform public duties and safeguard public property.”
  3. Kartik Oraon suggested, “A duty to undergo compulsory military training for two years at the age of eighteen or on completion of education”.
  4. Jambuwant Dhote suggested, “A duty to use swadeshi and indigenously manufactured goods only.”; “A duty to undergo military training in the armed forces for one year in case of a student/youth who attains the age of seventeen years.”; “A duty to learn how to read, write and speak ‘Hindustani language’.”; “A duty not to have either in cash or in a bank (Indian or foreign) an amount exceeding Rs 25,000.”; “A duty not to keep cash, jewellery, gold, silver, diamonds, pearls, jewels etc., in safe deposit vault either in his name or in the name of a member of his family.”; “A duty not to keep gold exceeding ten tolas in the form of ornaments or in any other form in case of a female and not to wear any ornaments made of gold in case of a male.”; “A duty to surrender to the Government cash, gold and jewellery in excess of the ceilings.”; “A duty to transfer immovable property exceeding the ceiling to the Government through a testament or any other instrument.”; “A duty to abjure vice.”; and “A duty to consider his foremost duty to build a clean, perfect and ideal character while translating into practice the aforesaid ten duties of a citizen and family.”
  5. Priya Ranjan Das Munshi suggested, “A duty to get pass marks in the history of national struggle for independence in respective stages and volumes as specified by the legislation or guidelines of the Education Ministry, in all academic examinations and in all faculties from minor to graduate degree and in all competitive examinations like PSC, UPSC and IAS.”; “A duty to set compulsory military training in school and college level for able young men.”; “A duty to get compulsory physical culture and sports in all spheres of the youth and students”.
  6. Dr Paras Diwan suggested, “A duty to work.”; “A duty to pay taxes.”; “A duty to maintain discipline at work and public order.”; “A duty to participate in public life.”; “A duty not to spread hatred, contempt or provoke strife on account of national, regional, lingual, racial and religious differences.”; “A duty to be vigilant against the enemies of the state.”; “A duty to discharge any public or social office vested in him conscientiously.”; and “A duty to receive education”.

                                                 As it turned out, it was on 1-9-1976 that finally the 42nd Amendment was introduced in the Parliament as Constitution 44th Amendment Bill by HR Gokhale who was the then Law Minister. The debate on the Bill which included Article 51A was a long debate and the motion was adopted with certain amendments on November 2, 1976. The reason why I mentioned above even those suggestions which were not accepted is that most of these suggestions are really laudable and we all must try and do our best to follow them to the best of our ability keeping our national interests above everything else.

                                            As things stand, there are many like me who very strongly feel that fundamental duties are mere “show pieces” or you may say more directly – “dead letters”. This is so because they are neither justiciable nor judicially enforceable unlike fundamental rights. There is no direct or even indirect provision in our Constitution or any other law for the time being in force in our country by which we can get fundamental duties enforced. There must be some penalty or punishment to ensure that fundamental duties are properly enforced.

                                                    Needless to say, this alone explains why most of the citizens care the least to ensure that they are discharging their fundamental duties properly! This alone explains why it was a “grave mistake” on the part of the Congress government led by Mrs Indira Gandhi to not accept the landmark suggestion of imposing penalty or punishment for non-compliance of fundamental duties! Under the Constitution of Greece and Cyprus, there is a fundamental duty, cast upon the citizens to exercise his right of franchise, founded on the doctrine of compulsory voting. A failure to exercise the right to vote is an offence punishable under the law.

                                             Let me bring out here that the American Constitution does not enumerate any fundamental duties of an individual and the UK does not have any written Constitution. But in general, the common law duties of a citizen are the same in USA and UK and they are as follows : –

  1. Allegiance to the State,
  2. To disclose any treason or felony of which he has the knowledge, and
  3. To assist in the detection and suppression of a crime.

There are more than 35 nations whose Constitution contain specific provisions on fundamental duties. Chapter II of the Chinese Constitution of 1982 clubs “fundamental rights and duties” of citizens together. It merits attention to note here that Article 33(3) makes the performance of the duties an enabling condition for enjoyment of the rights. It would be worth recalling here some of the duties enjoined by Chinese Constitution and they are as follows : –

  1. Duty towards motherland – to safeguard the security, honour and interest of the motherland; to defend the motherland and resist aggression; to maintain national unity and integrity,
  2. To abide by the Constitution;
  3. To protect public property;
  4. To respect social ethics;
  5. To pay taxes; and
  6. To work etc.

                                       Let me also bring out here that the 1977 Constitution of the erstwhile USSR  too places rights and duties on the same footing and this is best evident by Article 59 which says that, “Citizens exercise of their rights and freedoms is inseparable from the performance of their duties and obligations.” Article 61 lays down that every citizen of the USSR is obliged to preserve and protect socialist property. Persons encroaching in any way on socialist property shall be punished by law.

                                              Going forward, the Yugoslavian Constitution of 1963 also assigns a high priority to the duties of citizen. Article 32 states that, “The freedom and rights shall be achieved in solidarity among the people by the fulfillment of their duties towards each other”. Article 36 says that, “The right to work and the freedom to work are guaranteed and whoever will not work, though he is fit to do so, shall not enjoy the rights and the social protection that man enjoys on the basis of work”. Article 61 further envisages that, “Every citizen shall conscientiously discharge any public or social office vested in him and shall be personally accountable for discharging it”.

                                                  To put things in perspective, Chapter III of the Japanese Constitution, 1946, is titled “Rights and Duties of the People” which clearly indicates that rights and duties are clubbed together and not separately thus clearly conveying that duties are as important as rights. Under Article 26, the parents have the obligation to send the children to receive the compulsory free education provided by the State and under Article 27, all people shall have the obligation to work.

                                          There can be no gainsaying the indisputable fact that Justice JS Verma, former CJI, has emphasized that discourse on fundamental rights and fundamental duties cannot be divorced from each other or else we do a dis-service to both. Eminent legal jurist DD Basu says that the fundamental duties can monitor fundamental rights. For instance, a person who burns the Constitution, in violation of the duty in Article 51A(a), cannot assert that the meeting or assembly at which it was burnt, by way of demonstration against the government, should be protected by the freedom of expression or assembly guaranteed by Article 19.

                                     Be it noted, it was as early as in 1969 that the Supreme Court of India in Chandra Bhavan Boarding and Lodging, Bangalore v The State of Mysore, (1969) 3 SCC 84 had stated most categorically that, “It is a fallacy to think that under our Constitution there are only rights and no duties. While rights conferred under Part III are fundamental, the directives given under Part IV are fundamental in the governance of the country. We see no conflict on the whole between the provisions contained in Part III and Part IV. They are complimentary and supplementary to each other. The provisions of Part IV enable the legislatures and the government to impose various duties on the citizens. The provisions therein, are deliberately made elastic because the duties to be imposed on the citizens depend on the extent to which the directive principles are implemented. The mandate of the Constitution is to build a welfare society in which justice – social, economic and political, shall inform all institutions of our national life. The hopes and aspirations aroused by the Constitution will be belied if the minimum needs of the lowest of our citizens are not met.” In this case, the court also held that freedom of trade does not mean freedom to exploit, nor do the provisions of the Constitution act as barriers to progress. They provide a balance for orderly progress towards the social order contemplated by the Preamble of the Constitution. Workers were held entitled to minimum rates of wages. In Municipal Council, Ratlam v Vardhichand, (1980) 4 SCC 162, the Supreme Court ruled that paucity of funds shall not be a defence to not carry out the basic duties by the local authorities.

                                                Let me also mention here that in Rural Litigation and Entitlement Kendra, Dehradun v State of Uttar Pradesh, (1985) 2 SCC 431, a Bench of Chief Justice PN Bhagwati and Justice Ranganath Mishra in order to prevent imbalance in ecology and hazard to healthy environment being created due to working of lime-stone quarries, directed the cancellation of the leases which resulted in permanent closure of lime-stone quarries. These directions were issued in face of the fundamental right to trade and business and the right to earn livelihood assigning paramount significance to fundamental duties and rather placing the fundamental duties, owing to people at  large, above the fundamental right of a few individuals. The court held that such closure would undoubtedly cause hardship, “but it is a price that has to be paid for protecting and safeguarding the right of the people to live in healthy environment with minimal disturbance of ecological balance and without avoidable hazard to them and to their cattle, homes and agricultural land and undue affectation of air, water and environment”. Similarly in Rural Litigation and Entitlement Kendra v State of Uttar Pradesh, 1986(Supp) SCC 517, it was held by Apex Court that, “Preservation of the environment and keeping the ecological balance unaffected is a task which not only governments but also every citizen must undertake. It is a social obligation and let us remind every Indian citizen that it is his fundamental duty as enshrined in Article 51A(g) of the Constitution.”

                                        It must be added here that in Shri Sachidanand Pandey  v State of West Bengal, (1987)2 SCC 295, the Apex Court held that whenever a problem of ecology is brought before the court, the court is bound to bear in mind Article 48A of the Constitution and Article 51A(g) which proclaims the fundamental duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures. Policy decisions taken by State are not ordinarily to be interfered with by the courts. But if it is the question of giving effect to the directive principle and the fundamental duty, the court is not to shrug its shoulders and say that priorities are a matter of policy not to be touched by the court; the court may always give necessary directions.

                                  It must also be added here that in MC Mehta v Union of India, (1988) 1 SCC 471, Article 51A, enacting fundamental duties of citizens, was read as casting duties on the government and for issuing certain directions consistently with Article 51A. The directions to be issued by government were –

  1. The Central Government shall direct to the educational institutions throughout India to teach at least for one hour in a week, lessons relating to protection and the improvement of the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life in the first ten classes;
  2. The Central Government shall get text books written for the said purpose and distribute them to the educational institutions free of cost;
  3. The children shall be taught about the need for maintaining cleanliness, commencing with the cleanliness of the house, both inside and the outside and with the street in which they live;
  4. The Central Government shall consider training of teachers who teach this subject by the introduction of short-term courses for such training;
  5. The Central Government, the Governments of the States and all the Union Territories shall consider desirability of organizing “Keep the city/town/village clean” week;
  6. To create a national awareness of the problems faced by the people by the appalling all-round deterioration of the environment.

On this, the former CJI, Justice RC Lahoti rightly said that, “The logic behind the approach adopted by the Supreme Court seems to be that if Constitution ordains the citizens to perform certain duties then the State is equally ordained to perform all such functions as would enable the citizens to perform their duties.

                                               Also, let me hasten to add here that in Vellore Citizens’ Welfare Forum v Union of India, (1996) 5 SCC 647 and MC Mehta v Union of India, (1997) 3 SCC 715, the Supreme Court recognized ‘The Precautionary Principle’ and ‘The Polluter Pays Principle’ as essential features of ‘sustainable development’ and part of the environmental law of the country. It is worth mentioning here that Article 21, directive principles and fundamental duty clause (g) of Article 51A were relied on by the Supreme Court for spelling out a clear mandate to the State to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. The Apex Court held it mandatory for the State Government to anticipate, prevent and attack the causes of environmental degradation. In AIIMS Students Union v AIIMS, (2002) 1 SCC 428, while striking down the institutional reservation in AIIMS as violative of Article 14, the Supreme Court has drawn liberal support and backing of the fundamental duties, giving them paramountcy of consideration with other provisions of Constitution to test the Constitutional validity of such reservation in AIIMS.

                                       Having said this, let me reiterate here that just a few landmark Apex Court rulings even though laudable are woefully inadequate to deal with the endless number of cases of fundamental duties being thrown to the garbage! There are some more rulings which I have not mentioned but they are simply not enough.

                                                      Let me be direct in asking: Why can’t we fulfill our fundamental duties? Why can’t we be loyal to the nation? Why can’t we perform our fundamental duties with the same passion with which we claim time and again our fundamental rights? Why can’t we respect our national song, national anthem, national flag and everything else which is associated directly or indirectly with our nation’s pride? Why can’t we refrain from all such acts which directly or indirectly are inimical to the long term interests of our great nation? How can we claim to be Indians if we don’t perform our fundamental duties and just keep waxing eloquent on fundamental rights alone? There are many more such thought provoking questions which we must ponder over and answer honestly so that there is no fog of doubt left in our mind whatsoever of any kind!

                                                        No prizes for guessing that it is high time and now India too must seriously ponder over the dire need of clubbing duties and rights together so that duties are accorded the same high position as that of rights and to enjoy rights it must be obligatory that citizens discharge responsibly some duties also and not just keep enjoying fundamental rights and keep moving courts for enforcement of fundamental rights as we have been seeing happening in our country since independence till now! Also, it must be obligatory to render some basic fundamental duties and those not doing must be made to face punishment or penalty or both! Those who indulge in blatant anti-national acts by ranting anti-Indian slogans, burning national flag or any other similar act and abdicate their fundamental duty of respecting our national flag, national anthem, national song and unity and integrity of India have no right to claim fundamental rights and they have no right to claim Indian citizenship!

                                                      On a concluding note, let me say this most politely but at the same time most firmly: You cannot have it both ways! This is what most unfortunately is not being conveyed by Government to all such people who wantonly indulge in anti-national acts and yet are not ready to abdicate their fundamental rights and privileges associated with Indian citizenship! Fundamental duties most unfortunately has become a forgotten chapter of the Constitution. This must change now for the better and we all must fulfill our fundamental duties if we earnestly love our motherland otherwise we have just no right to stay in India or just keep claiming fundamental rights without performing any of the fundamental duties enshrined in our Constitution! The biggest tribute that we can pay to the founding fathers of our Constitution is to perform our fundamental duties with the same diligence with which we claim relentlessly our fundamental rights!

Sanjeev Sirohi, Advocate,

s/o Col BPS Sirohi,

A 82, Defence Enclave,

Sardhana Road, Kankerkhera,

Meerut – 250001, Uttar Pradesh.

Mastery of Language of Instruction and Its Influence on Student Academic Performance: Evidence from Secondary Schools in Tanzania

Paschal Banga Nade


This study focused at determining the relationship between the language of instruction which is English in this case and the student overall subject performance in secondary schools in Tanzania. A cross-section design was employed and data were collected through the National Examination of Tanzania Website. Three secondary schools from three different regions in Tanzania were purposively selected in this study. The findings show that student performance in English language as the language of instruction has an influence on overall subject performance. The students who scored F and E grades in English language, their respective overall subjects GPA fall under Fail and Pass categories. While the student who scored C and above grades, their overall GPA fall under Credit, Merit and Distinction categories. No significant relationship has been found between language of instruction performance and sex of the students. Further recommendation and analysis has been made clear in this document.

Key words: mastery, language of instruction, academic performance


 Learning process is facilitated by using a language that learners understand best as the medium of instruction. Language of instruction is a vehicle through which education is delivered and is an indispensable medium for carrying, or transmitting education from teachers to learners and among learners (Qoro, 2006). Essentially, language mastery / competence is ones’ underlying knowledge of the system of a language – its rules of grammar, its vocabulary, all the pieces of a language and how those pieces fit together ( Bodunde and Akeredolu-Ale, 2010).

 Øzerk (1999) argues that linguistic interaction constitutes a significant part of any learning activity and that the quality of the linguistic interaction in learning activities consequently represents an important factor in the learning effect of school subjects. He points to two important processes involved in teaching and learning, which are referred to as input and intake. He explains that input in this respect refers to the intensity, or frequency of the language of instruction the teacher confronts the student with during a learning period. The process of intake decides how much of the total amount of this the student understands and is able to attain. A precondition in transforming input into intake is understanding. Mlay, (2010) noted that children who had a language background of studying English from kindergarten or class one and a home environment that was supportive which allowed them to practice English with family or with friends, had a positive contribution in helping them learn English language while those who started English later (from class three) and usually spoke Kiswahili or their mother tongue at home or with friends indicated that their poor competence in English was due to the weak foundation from primary school.

Still a number of developing countries, especially in Africa maintained a foreign language as the medium of instruction, particularly in post- primary education (Galabawa and Lwaitama, 2005)  For example, English is the language of instruction in secondary schools in Tanzania as stipulated in the national education policy of 1995 and of course in the proposed new policy of education of 2014 which state that the medium of instruction for secondary education shall continue to be English, except for teaching of approved languages, and Kiswahili shall be a compulsory subject up to ordinary level. The rationale given in the document as to why English is to be used as the medium of instruction at post-primary education is that most instructional media and pedagogical materials are written in the English language and it is assumed that the situation is likely to remain so for a long time in the foreseeable future (Tibategeza, 2010).

Neke, (2003) noted  that the continued use of English language as medium of instruction in post-primary education in Tanzania makes it difficult for students at these levels to understand and internalize scientific and technological principles due to their poor proficiency. Some secondary school teachers teach in Kiswahili to make the subject matter easier instead of English which is officially assigned despite the fact that the examination are set in English (Senkoro, 2005)   Criper and William (1984) studied on the level of English across the education system in Tanzania confirmed that the levels of competence in English were insufficient in most schools for effective learning to take place. This study therefore, needs to establish relationship between Language of instruction and overall subjects’ exam performance.

 Statement of the problem

Recently, Language of instruction competency has been blamed as one among the factors that cause poor student exam performance in Tanzania. For example 2010-2014 National Form Four Examination results evaluation has evidenced that English language as subject was ranked second to Mathematics in terms of failure. The evaluation went further by suggesting language of instruction to be changed to Kiswahili language (Kamugisha and Mateng’e, 2014). Godfrey (2014) noted that the learning process in recent years becomes challenging for most students in secondary school as the majority of them largely lack a basic command of English language. Nevertheless, Qorro (2006) observed that only a handful of students take part in active learning and majority of students simply sit and copy notes that their teachers have written on the blackboard. UDSM Academic Audit report suggested that because of serious communication problems, they have to switch to Kiswahili as language of instruction or officially allow bilingual policy adopted at university of Dar es Salaam. Similarly, Senkoro (2005) evidenced that most students have a problem with the language of instruction; also proficiency in language is low and leaves much to be desired.

English language as medium of instruction is noted as an obstacle in learning for secondary school and higher institutions in Tanzania. Students lack proficiency in expressing themselves and therefore limit their participation in the general learning process especially learner centrered approach of learning. Qorro (2006) further assert that, as a matter of efficiency and efficacy, only the language which teachers and students understand can effectively function as the language of instruction. Only when teachers and students understand the language of instruction are able to discuss, debate, ask and answer questions, ask for clarification and therefore construct and generate knowledge.

Studies have concentrated on identifying those competency based limitations such as grammar, fluency in speaking and the presentations in writings, however, the overall mastery/competency relationship on other subjects measured in terms of exam performance at individual level has not being clearly addressed hence creating a gap for this study.  Thus, the study therefore needs to establish, indeed, if language of instruction mastery have an influence on overall subjects’ exam performance (evaluated in grades and Great Average Point (GPA)).

Bilingual Late-Exit Education Model

Although teacher quality plays a crucial role in facilitating the acquisition of English by students, it is arguable, based on child development research, that the manner in which the language is introduced to students in the earlier years of their development may be the reason of their inability to develop sufficient competencies in the language in later years (Tikolo, 2012). The presumption here is that cognitive development for language is the foundation of language learning, while other factors such as teacher competency facilitate the development of this already developed foundation.

A late-exit transition model involves the delay of transition from mother tongue as a medium of instruction to a different target language to year five to six (Ouane and Glanz, 2011). An efficient late-exit model which maintains the mother tongue beyond year five to six as a subject can lead to additive bilingualism, where effective first and second language pedagogy is used in the classroom along with adequate content area literacy instruction. It is for that reason, Tanzania employs a late-exit transitional bilingual model where mother tongue (Kiswahili) is the instructional language for 8 years and then a switch is made to English. The official language of instruction in Tanzania as articulated in its Education and Training Policy (United Republic of Tanzania, 1995/2014) in pre-primary and throughout primary education is Kiswahili, the local language spoken across the country, while English is to be taught as a compulsory subject. Thereafter, English is to become the medium of instruction from secondary school onward with Kiswahili taught as a compulsory subject.

Student Medium of Instruction Language mastery and overall subjects performance

Aina  et al, (2013) made a correlation between proficiency in English language and academic performance of students in science and technical education, they found that students in technical education performed better than their counterpart in science education; students who passed English language performed better than those who failed both in science and technical education. Similarly, a prediction research done by Kong et al, (2012)   indicated that English language proficiency scores are significantly predictive of academic reading test scores for K–12 EL (America) students. However, the magnitude of the relationship depends on the content alignment between the assessments and characteristics of the populations included in the study

Likewise the study that aimed to measure the relationship between English Language subject performance on the Accessing Communication and Comprehension in English State to State (ACCESS) for English Language Learners (ELLs) and Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) have shown that when student characteristics are held constant, a significant positive, though moderate, relationship exists between Els’ performances on the ACCESS for ELLs and CRCT. Also the findings show that the time spent in English language development programs along with disability status and grade levels explain more variance in CRCT scores than students’ ELP scores and gender (Margaret, 2011).

Regarding the students’ proficiency in secondary school in Tanzania (Gran, 2007) noted that the number which is  getting within reach of being able to read unsimplified text is less than 10%. It is extremely worrying to find that nearly one third of all students are at the picture book level after four years of official English medium education. These results are a clear indication that throughout their secondary school career little or subject information is getting across to about 50% of the pupils in his sample. Only about 10% of Form IVs are at a level where one might expect English medium education to begin. Commenting on the English situation in Tanzania, Rubanza (2002) asserts that students do lose their English skills after completing their studies because the society they work and live in does not demand the use of the English language. This suggests a major effect of poor implementation of the bilingual education in Tanzania.

 Brock-Utne (2005) did a comparative study on the language of instruction in two secondary school classrooms in Tanzania; the two languages were English (Second language) and Kiswahili (first language). As an experiment, the same teacher was teaching the same topic in biology to two different classes of Form I students in a large secondary school. The teacher taught the topics in English to one class and in Kiswahili to another class. In the English class; students were silent, grave and looked afraid, they were trying to guess the answers the teacher wanted. Also miss-pronunciation, miss-spelling, silence/poor cooperation was observed; for instance, Teacher (T): Speak loudly. (It sounded like “lovely”) One of the boys, who had been standing for a long time, tried to read in his book and when the teacher pointed at him. He said: Student (Ss): Bird. (He pronounced it “beerd”) T: Spell it. S: B – I – R – D. The teacher then wrote “bird” on the blackboard and pronounced it “bird”. While in Kiswahili class, students in Kiswahili classroom have demonstrated smiles and much laughter during this lesson and it went quickly (for the teacher, the students and the observers) and students were competing to answer.

Similarly, in a   study which instituted treatment as a variety of language of instruction (Kiswahili or English) among secondary form II pupils in four selected schools. Teaching content was selected from the national secondary school syllabus in Biology and Geography. It was found that, the average test scores administered at the end of the teaching period were generally higher in the Kiswahili treatment than those obtained in the English treatment (Galabawa Waitama, 2005).Likewise Kinyanduka and Kiwara (2013) found that 69.5% of students could not understand when taught in English language through classes. Also 78.9% of teachers said that English language was a setback to a student academic achievement. Surprisingly, 64.5% of teachers, 53% of parents and 78.1% of student respondents preferred teachers to use English as a language of teaching and evaluation. In the meantime, 71.4% of students felt that it was better for teachers to use both Swahili and English during classes. This study recommends the use of both, English and Swahili in teaching and evaluation.

 Also Peterson (2006) noted positive perception to Kiswahili by students as they expressed that they understand the courses which are given in Kiswahili a lot better than the courses offered in English as it equip them with the availability of terminology/vocabularies, and it is the language they use outside the classroom, and encounter everywhere as part of their daily lives, like at the market, at home, in churches and mosques and school. He further asserts that when English is used as the medium of instruction, on the other hand, students expressed that they learn very little. The main reasons for these difficulties as perceived by the students included problems with understanding the English language structure, for example the difference between writing and pronunciation, and that some of the books provided in English employ complicated language.

Mlay, (2010) assert that one of the reasons why students in secondary schools face so much difficulty using English is their reluctance in the language. She further noted that students are unwilling to actively participate in class discussions because teachers would criticize them or other students laugh at them because of their lack of ability to express themselves in English. However, students who have had early exposure to English from the beginning of primary school are able to cope using English as a medium of instruction in secondary school and their performance tends to be better off in comprehension tests conducted unlike those who started learning English from class three and thus have less exposure in the language.

Vuzo, (2002) pointed out that students can fail to answer well questions simply because they fail to understand the question, not because they do not know the answer. Language can affect a learner’s ability to interpret instructions and questions. It can also lead to failure to express their ideas appropriately. His overall findings from this study indicated that there were differences in teaching and learning when the different MOI were used. Student –teacher interaction in Kiswahili MOI was high on average as the majority of students actively gave answers and quite a number asked questions. In English MOI lessons it was minimal as most students were silent, not asking questions or giving any responses.

 Sex relation to Medium of Instruction Language Competency

Razmjoo and Movahed (2009) descriptive statistics analysis show that females outperformed males in language proficiency, but their independent sample t-test revealed that the difference is not significant. On the same vein, Hassani (2005)   made clear that there was no significant interaction among motivation, gender, and level of English proficiency. Also Sabatin (2013) found no statistically significant differences in performance in reading comprehension between male and female subjects who have cultural background knowledge and those who do not have any knowledge. Mohammadi (2007) investigated if the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) and Foreign Language Reading Anxiety (FLRA) among Iranian EFL learners correlate and can predict each other and the findings showed that both age and gender affect the FLCA and FLRA. In another study girls showed no advantage in general intelligence, but performed significantly better on all subjects except Physics (Deary et al, 2006).

In contrary, Dayıolu and Türüt-Aık (2004) noted that smaller number of female students manages to enter the university and when they do so, they enter with lower scores. However, once they are admitted to the university, they excel in their studies and outperform their male counterparts. Wilberg and Lynn (1999 ) found that female student tend to have better language abilities including essay writing skills, vocabulary and word fluency which contribute to better course work. Younger, Warrington and Williams (1999) focus on the gender gap in English secondary schools and their analysis was based on the performance of boys and girls in GCSE examinations in the UK and girls were found to get better grades than boys. Their findings was explained by boys’ disregard for authority, academic work and formal achievement, differences in students’ attitudes to work and their goals and aspirations and girls’ increased maturity and more effective learning strategies.

Education, Audio-visual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA) report (2010) showed that recent international assessment studies agree that girls tend to have a higher reading achievement than boys. For instance, among students in the fourth year of schooling girls had significantly higher reading achievement than boys in all countries in Europe except two countries, Spain and Luxembourg, where average achievement was equivalent between the sexes. Also further interesting gender differences regarding reading domains or reading purposes show that Girls have a significantly higher average achievement in literary reading in all European countries (EACEA, 2010). Superior average performance in language by girls at all three ages in reading, writing and talking, with a few specific tasks where boys are superior has been noted. However, overall reading comprehension was differentially easier for the female group than the matched group of males, and males tended to perform better on antonyms and analogies than their female counterparts with equal ability (Song, 2014).

 Wilder and Powell, (1989) observed few or no sex differences during the early years, but evidence for a divergence between the sexes starting around age 11. Females scored higher on tasks involving receptive and productive language, fluency, analogies, comprehension of written material, and creative writing. This superiority of females was thought to increase through high school and possibly beyond, and, although the extent of the female advantage tended to vary with the study and the ability under scrutiny, the most commonly cited magnitude was about one fourth of a standard deviation. Although these reviews agree that there are gender differences in verbal ability, they disagree about the kinds of verbal tasks that show such differences and also about the nature of developmental trends in gender differences.

 Study Design

 This study employed a cross-section design. The design was chosen since it allows data to be collected at once from different cases. It therefore fit for this study because the data has been collected from three secondary schools which are located in three different regions at one point in time. The target population was all form four graduates who sat for the National Examination in the year 2014 and one of their compulsory subject being English and that subject is a language of instruction for all other subjects they sat for. Three secondary schools were purposively selected because they share the attributes; one being geographical location as they are all located in urban areas and second, their medium of instruction is English and English is one of the subjects they set for that National Exam.  The selected secondary schools were Rau (Kilimanjaro), City (Dodoma) and Mwembetogwa (Iringa).

The total of 306 students of the three secondary schools who sat for Form Four National Examination in the year 2014 was selected as a sample size.  Primary data was collected through reviewing the Form four National   results.  Both published and unpublished materials including, books, journals, papers, chapters, reports and thesis were reviewed as secondary data to see the scope, nature of the problem and its relationships with other variables and for consistency and validation of the data. The review of the form four results was done by the researcher. The data were obtained from the National examination council of Tanzania websites ( Both objective one and two were analysed descriptively by using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) program. The association/ relationship between sex and English grades scores likewise GPA score versus English grades scores were computed by using Chi-square model and percentages. Its interpretation and relation with other findings are presented in the findings section.

 Findings and Discussion

The review of results show that 10.1% of 306 sample size have exam problems; therefore their results were not disclosed and regarded as missing cases in this findings and the valid cases were 89.9% of the sample size as shown in the table number 1.

The relationship between English subject performance and overall subjects’ performance


The results show that students who scored F grade in English language, their respective GPA largely fall under “fail category”, which is equivalent to 88.3 per cent while it is only 11.7 percent who fall under “pass category” of GPA who scored F grade in English Subject. No any student with F grade in English language fall under credit, merit and distinction category of GPAs.

As grade performance increases the number of student falling under GPA category of fail decreases. For instance the student who scored E their GPA under fail category dropped to 58.2%, and for grade D, it dropped to 4.8%. Unlike decreasing percent for Fail category GPA as grade goes up, the Pass category GPA rises as the grade go higher level; for instance for F grade, percent in pass category was 11.7, for E grades is 41.8% and for D grade is 79.0%. However, starting from C to B+ performance grade in English language, their per cents in Pass category of GPA begin to decline.

It is unfortunate that no student scored A grade in English language for the entire sample size, however, there are two students who scored Distinction category of GPA in overall subjects with their grades in English Language being B and B+ respectively. The following table 4 provides more clarification of these relationships.

Majority of student under study have poorly performed in English language as shown in results. Besides, the correlation performed in assessing the relationship between sex of the student and English language subject performance show no significant relation. In terms of grade category of GPA ranging from pass to distinction; there is mixed variation of results as female performed better in some grades and fail in other grades and similar results was found for male counterpart. This result show improvement for gender balance in Tanzania with the assumption that the factors that affect female students have been worked upon by the government and associated stakeholders

However, significant relationship between English Language performance of the students and the overall student subjects’ performance has been revealed by this study. When student perform better in English language subject, their respective GPA tend to be in the higher category and when student perform poorly in English language and their respective GPA tend to be in lower category especially fail and pass.

The implication of this result is that much of improvement is needed in language of instruction in classrooms so as to achieve better academic results. This means better understanding of overall subject content largely depend on the language that is used for instruction. Alternatively, the government of Tanzania needs to recast its policy for secondary school and higher institution language of instruction by switching to Kiswahili which is the first language to majority of Tanzanians.


Aina J.K, Ogundele A.G and  Olanipekun S.S (2013). Students’ Proficiency in English   Language Relationship with Academic Performance in Science and Technical           Education .American Journal of Educational Research, 2013, Vol. 1, No. 9, 355-     358.

Bodunde H. and Akeredolu-Ale B. (2010). Communicative Competence of Science        Students: An Illustration with UNAAB1. University of Agriculture, Abeokuta,             Ogun State Nigeria.English for Specific Purposes World, Issue 30 Volume 9, 2010


Brock-Utne, B. 2005c. Learning through a Familiar Language versus Learning through   a Foreign Language – a Look into some Secondary School Classrooms in     Tanzania. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Comparative             International Education Society, Stanford University, California USA, 22- 25            March 2005.

Criper C.  and William D.(1984). Report on the Teaching of English and its Use as a       Medium of Instruction. ODA/The British Council.

Dayıo lu M.and Türüt-A ık (2004).Gender Differences in Academic Performance in a     Large Public University in Turkey. ERC Working Papers in Economics 04/17

Deary J.I. Strand S., Smith  P, Fernandes C., (2007). Intelligence and educational           achievement. Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh.ELSERVIER

         Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency,(2010).Gender Differences in               Educational Outcomes: Study on the Measures Taken and the Current Situation in            Europe. BRUSSELS.

Galabawa, J.C.J and Lwaitama, A. F. (2005). A Comparative Analysis of Performance   in Kiswahili and English as Languages of instruction at secondary level in   Selected Tanzanian schools. Dar es Salaam.

Godfrey T. (2014). The language of Instruction Issue in Tanzania: Pertinent         Determining Factors and Perception of Education Stakeholders.Rochester.USA.      Journal of Language and Culture.

Gran L.K. (2007).Language of Instruction in Tanzanian Higher Education: A particular focus on the University of Dar es Salaam. Master thesis. University of Oslo.     Faculty of Education. Institute for Educational Research.

Hassani, H. (2005). The relationship between intrinsic/extrinsic motivation and Iranian    EFL students’ gender, level of university instruction, and EFL proficiency.          Unpublished master’s thesis, Shiraz University, Shiraz.

Kamugisha, D. J. & Mateng’e, F. J. (2014). Politics of curriculum making: A

          quandary to quality education in Tanzania? International Journal of Social Sciences and Entrepreneurship, 1 (9), 378-396.

Kinyaduka B.D and Kiwara J.F (2013).Language of Instruction and its Impact on           Quality of Education in Secondary Schools: Experiences from Morogoro Region,     Tanzania. Journal of Education and Practice. Vol.4, No.9.

Kong J,  Powers S, Starr L and Williams N.(2012). Connecting English Language           Learning and Academic Performance: A Prediction Study. American Educational         Research Association.Pearson. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Margaret E. D. B, (2011). “A Critical Examination of the Relationship between Student           Performances on Assessments of English Language Proficiency and Academic      Achievement” . Dissertations, Theses and Capstone Projects. Paper 474.

Mohammadi, H. (2007). Foreign language classroom anxiety and foreign language          reading anxiety among Iranian EFL learners: A case of age, gender and different years of university study. Unpublished master’s thesis, Shiraz University, Shiraz.

Mlay N. (2010).The Influence of the Language of Instruction on Students’ Academic     Performance in Secondary Schools: A comparative study of urban and rural          schools in Arusha-Tanzania. Institute for Educational Research, University of            Oslo.

Neke S.M (2003). English in Tanzania: An Anatomy of Hegemony. Proefschrift voorgelegd tot het behalen van de graad van doctor in de Afrikaanse Talen en             Culturen. University of Gent.

Ouane A. and Glanz  C. (2011). Optimizing Learning, Education and Publishing in         Africa: The Language Factor . A Review and Analysis of Theory and Practice in        Mother-Tongue and Bilingual Education in sub-Saharan Africa. African   Development Bank, Tunis Belvédère, Tunisia.

Øzerk, K.(1999). Opplæringsteori og læreplanforståelse, Opplandske Bokforlag ANS

Peterson, R. (2006). The use of an African language as language of instruction at             university level: The example of Kiswahili department at the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. Oslo: Institute of Educational Research.

Qorro  M. ( 2006). Does Language of Instruction Affect Quality of Education?   University Of Dar es Salaam, Haki Elimu Working Papers. Dar es Salaam.

Razmjoo, S. A., & Movahed, M. (2009). On the relationship between socio-cultural         factors and language proficiency (Case Study: Shiraz University MA students).          Journal of Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics, 13(2), 59-76.

Sabatin I.M (2013).The Effect of Cultural Background Knowledge on Learning English             Language. Ministry of Education / PALESTINE. International Journal of Science     Culture and Sport.

Senkoro F. (2005). Language of Instruction: The forgotten Factor in Education   Standards in Africa? The pepar presented in CODESRIA General Assembly.            Maputo-Mozambique,6-10 December 2005. University of Dar es Salaam.

Song X. (2014). Test of English Academic, Research Note: DIF investigations with        Pearson. Queens’ University, Canada.

Tibategeza E.R (2010).Implementation of Bilingual Education in Tanzania: The   Realities in the Schools.St Augustine University of Tanzania, Tanzania. Nordic          Journal of African Studies 19(4): 227–249 (2010)

Tikolo O.(2012). English Language Incompetency amongst Senior Secondary School      Graduates in Nigeria A-801: Education Policy Analysis and Research Utilization          in Comparative Perspective, Harvard Graduate School of Education, December            21, 2012.

Vuzo, M. (2007). Revisiting the Language of Instruction in Tanzania Secondary Schools: A Comparative Study of Geography Classes taught in English and             Kiswahili. PhD. Dissertation. Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo.

Wilder G.Z and   Powell K. (1989). Sex Differences in Test Performance: A Survey of   the Literature. College Board Report No. 89-3. College Entrance Examination     Board, New York, 1989

Wilberg, S. and Lynn, R. (1999) Sex Differences in Historical Knowledge and School

          Grades: A 26 Nation Study, Personality and Individual Differences, 27, pp. 1221-



A Study of Time Management In Relation To Stress and Self Efficacy among Married Working and Non- Working Women

Dr. Gargi Sharma     Dr. Monika Sanger

The main aim of the present study was to examine if there was significant difference between working and non-working married women on time management, stress and self- efficacy. The sample was consisted of 150 married women (75 working married women and 75 non-working married women).Self- Efficacy scale (Sood), Stress Scale (Kaur, Kumar and Mehta) and Time Management scale (developed by investigator) were used to measure self-efficacy, stress and time management respectively. For analysis of the data t- test was used. Result showed that there was a difference between working and non-working married women regarding their time management, but there was no significant difference between working and non-working married women regarding self efficacy and stress.


Keywords: Time Management, Stress, Self Efficacy, Working Married Women, Non-Working Married Women.




One of the most challenging aspects in life is time management. In the current fast changing environment, time management is very important in both personal and professional life. Keeping pace with today’s fast changing society and fast growing economy, not only the professionals are trying to be maximally efficient in their multifaceted roles, but also the organizations are highly emphasizing on being productive as well as effective. Being effective also means being constructive and using time positively. “Time” being the most finite and scarce resource, needs to be planned and managed. Managing ones time does not mean the quantity of time utilized but how well it is utilized.

Durbin(1997) refers to time management as process of structuring and organizing time to result in better productivity and also to ensure a high quality of living for individuals. Thus the key to time management is to gain control of one’s time a working smarter and not harder as ‘time management is more concerned with thinking than doing.

Time management is the art of arranging, organizing, scheduling, and budgeting one’s time for the purpose of generating more effective work and productivity. Good time management involves keeping a schedule of the tasks and activities that have been deemed important. Keeping a calendar or daily planner is helpful to stay on task, but self-discipline is also required. The most efficient to-do list in the world will not help someone who does not look at or follow his own daily planner.

A survey of the population of married Indian women indicates wide individual differences in the mental and physical capacities of married Indian women. These married women achieve different levels of education, social and economic status in their society as a result of their varying inherited potentialities and the varying opportunities that they receive since their birth.

Although nature has gifted varying levels of abilities and opportunities to different women, the time gifted to each individual women for a single day is the same i.e. 24 hours each woman tries to spend these limited 24 hours in such a way so as to have maximum satisfaction from life. It depends upon their needs and values how they spent their valuable yet limited time each day. Apart from the routine activities there are certain activities for which a particular set of women would definitely spare some time for example women with hedonistic values would spend time for entertainment activities and those with high spiritual values would spare some time for meditation, religious practice and charitable activities. The total time of 24 hours a day would therefore be classified into four categories in the time management scale

1)         Time spent on Routine Personal Activities

2)         Time spent on Family oriented activities

3)         Time spent on entertainment activities

4)         Time spent on spiritual activities.


Life is full of struggles against the obstacles, challenges and threats in our environment. Success is most often measured not in the defense of set points, but in our ability to adapt to such conditions, and the ease with which such adaptation occurs. Throughout history, people have lived in close relationship to nature in developing the special skills and traits necessary for their survival. Thus adaptation not stability is the essence of life, biological fitness and health.(Seley,1978)

Stress is unavoidable consequences of life; it afflicts people regardless of their life situation. Stress everywhere within the family, business, organization/enterprise and any other social or economic activity. Right from the time of birth to the last breathe drawn, an individual is invariably exposed to various stressful situation. The 21st century is experiencing on era of rapid changes, complexities, challenges and pressures to survive than any other time. Stress is physiological, emotional and psychological reaction to certain threatening environmental events. It refers to the amount of a person’s psychological energy released, in response to a stimulus situation exceeding from what he can constructively use.

In modern life stress is a common problem. The negative effects of stress affect individual’s health and performance. As a result, individuals have their own stress perceptions and they develop different kinds of strategies in order to manage stressful situations. Culture is a relevant aspect that influences this process. Considering that stress is presented in different dimension of daily life, educational experiences can also be perceived as stressful. In addition, stress could be strongly experienced at work, and to be teacher is considered one of the most stressful jobs.

The concept of stress is first introduced in life science by Hens Selye in 1936.The word stress is derived from Latin word “stringerd”. Stress was popularly used in 17th century to mean hardship, strain, adversity or offication.

According to Selye (1956), “Any external or any internal drive which threatens to upset the organism equilibrium is stress”.

Stress is a concept that, although it is familiar for all, is understood in different ways. The use of this term in a vague and general form creates this context of different interpretations that sometimes are contradictory (Rutter, 1983). In this context, authors attempt to categorize the different definitions of stress instead of creating a general definition. Seley (1976) recognized the common set of reactions occurring in response to wide variety of conditions resulting in producing a sequence of physiological changes in the body. This reaction from the General Adaptation Syndrome.

 It has three stages

  • Alarm Reaction
  • Stage of Resistance
  • Stage of Exhaustion

The two topics of time management and stress management are often addressed together because they are so closely interrelated.

Stress could be strongly experienced at work (Fletcher, 1988; Fletcher, 1991; Warr, 2005), and there are jobs which are considered more stressful than others, for instance to be teachers(Carlyle and Woods, 2002; Kyriacou, 1998).

Self -efficacy is a self evaluation of whether a person feels they can accomplish a certain task or not (Karen Lewis, 2007). According to Bandura (1997), self-efficacy is people’s beliefs about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance for assigned tasks. The outcome of this exercises influence over events that affect individual’s lives.

Self efficacy makes a difference in how people feel, think, and act. In terms of feeling, a low sense of self efficacy is associated with depression, anxiety, and helplessness. Such individuals also have low self-esteem and harbor pessimistic thoughts about their accomplishment and personal development. In terms of thinking, a strong sense of competence facilitates cognitive process and performance in a variety of settings, including quality of decision making and academic achievement. When it comes to preparing action, self- related cognitions are a major ingredient of the motivation process. Self- efficacy levels can enhance or impede motivation. People with high self- efficacy choose to perform more challenging tasks Bandura (1995). They set higher goals and stick to them. Such person invests more effort and persists longer than those who have low self- efficacy level. When setbacks occur, they recover more quickly and remain committed to their goals. They also have the ability to explore and to create new environment for them. Therefore, it refers to a global confidence in one’s coping ability in the wide range of demanding or novel situations. While general self efficacy refers to the stable sense of personal competence to deal effectively under the stressful and challenging circumstances (Schwarzer,

Self -efficacy has been found to be intimately associated with capacity to change one’s situation and has been used as a predictor of behavior, usually job seeking behavior, (Wenzel, 1993). According to Flammer (2001), People with higher perceived self- efficacy to fulfill job functions consider a wide range of career options. The construct of self-efficacy, which was introduced by Bandura, represents one core aspect of his social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1977, 1997). Valiante (2004) believes that efficacy contributes more heavily to occupational preferences. Perceived efficacy is a robust contributor to career development. Self-efficacy characterized by spiritual improvement creates a set-back and variations in the rate of progress. Perceived self-efficacy affects how well individuals manage requirements and challenges of occupational pursuits (Bandura, 2005). Bandura (1997) and Flammer (1990) found that individuals with high self-efficacy beliefs also report strong feelings of well-being and high self-esteem in general.



  1. Is there any difference in the level of time management (family oriented activities, routine personal activities, entertainment activities and spiritual activities) between working and non-working married women?
  2. Is there any difference in the level of stress among working and non-working married women?
  3. Is there any difference in the level of self- efficacy among working and non-working married women?


  1. There is no significant difference in the level of time management (family oriented activities, routine personal activities, entertainment activities and spiritual activities) between working and non-working married women.
  2. There is no significant difference in the level of stress among working and non- working married women.
  3. There is no significant difference in the level of self- efficacy among working and non-working married women.


The sample was consisted of 150 married women (75 working and 75 non-working married women) in Jaipur &Alwar were chosen, with the following criteria of inclusion and omission:

  1. Equal numbers of women (75 working and 75 non- working) were chosen.
  2. Only married women were taken.
  3. All of them must be graduates.
  4. They have middle socio- economic status.
  5. They must have 21 to 45 years.



Time management was measured by time management scale. This scale was prepared by investigator herself.  The scale consists of 25 items. Stress was measured by stress scale. It was developed by Kaur, Kumar and Mehta It consists of 26 items. Self-efficacy was measured by Self- efficacy scale. It was developed by Sood. It consists of 10 items.


 ‘t’ test was used to examine the significant difference in time management, stress and self-efficacy of working and non-working women .



Table-1clearly reveals that the mean score obtained from working women on time management was1288.3 and mean score obtained from non-working on time management was 1199.3. The difference between the two means was significant at .01 level. The higher mean score for time management was obtained by working women in comparison to non-working women

It is clear from the results that the working married women have more efficient in managing the time in comparison to non-working married women. There are many causes; working married women appear to have a personal value structure different from that of non-working married women; economic and political value are more prominent among working married women.

On the other side the result found by Myra, Strober and Charles, Weinberg, (2009) is that there appear to be limited differences between employed and nonemployee wives in their use of strategies to relieve time pressures.


Table-2clearly reveals that the mean score obtained from working women on stress was 53.05 and mean score obtained from non-working on stress was 51.25 The difference between the two means was not significant. The higher mean score for stress was obtained by working women in comparison to non-working women. Aujla and Harshpinder, (2006) found that the various financial and temporal factors causing stress among working and non-working women in India. Results indicated that expenses on sudden emergencies, more work and less time to do them were considered to be the stressors by women in both categories. Working women were stressed due to shortage of time for doing work, planning, sharing with family, leisure or social activities and personal health care. Non-working women were stressed due to unavoidable expenses, and irregular income. On average, non-working women were stressed due to financial factors and working women due to temporal factors. It is also consistent with Hsatami (2007) also found in their study that there was significant difference between stress among working and non working married women.


Table-3clearly reveals that the mean score obtained from working women on self-efficacy was 28.8 and mean score obtained from non-working on self-efficacy was 29.8. The difference between the two means was not significant. The higher mean score for self-efficacy was obtained by non-working women in comparison to working women. Kumthekar (2000) examined the working women, being an earner in the family, is easily accepted and respected. Hence; it was thought that working women would have a more positive self- efficacy as compared to non working women. The result was found, it is amazing to note that no significant difference between working and non working women. All women had a devaluated self- efficacy.



In the end it may conclude that working women are more efficient in managing the time in comparison to non married working married women. Result also shows that there is no significant difference in stress among working and non-working women. Surprisingly result also shows that working and non working married women have similar level in self- efficacy.

and S. Breznitz, eds. Handbook of Stress: Theoretical and Clinical Aspects. New York: The Free Press.

Selye, H. (1985).History and present status of the stress concept. In A. Monat& R.S. Lazarus, eds. Stress and Coping, 2nd ed. New York: Columbia University.

Sood Sonali (2006). A Journal of Research Papers, Department of Psychology, St. Bede’s College, Shimla: 2(1).

Valinate G.(2004).Self-efficacy: The exercise of cost role (Albert Bandura). Emory University.

Warr, P. (2005).Work, Well-Being and Mental Health.In J. L. Barling, E.K. Kelloway, and M.R. Frone (Eds), Handbook of Work Stress.California: Sage Publications.

Wenzel SL. (1993).The relationship of psychological resources and social support to job procurement self-efficacy in the disadvantaged. J Applied Psychology; 23(18): 1471–1497.


 Mr. K. Thangavel                                         Mr. S. Yesu Suresh Raj 


This article explores traditional culture and social changes of scheduled caste people in Erode District. In Indian history, scheduled caste have been denied from basic rights and considered even out of caste system. Scheduled Caste people are discriminate in every day and every minutes of their life. They often lack adequate food, health care and houses, are shunned in public places such as hospitals and temples, roads and buses, and discriminate with regards education, employment and ownership of land. In this study main objective are to understand traditional culture of scheduled Castes, to find out reasons behind traditional culture to modern culture, to critically investigate social changes of Scheduled Caste for their development, and to suggest a suitable action plan for their development. Tools for Data Collation In the present study data were both ‘primary’ as well as ‘secondary’ sources. The dates were collected primary sources, Researcher collected 50 samples from the study area. The investigator used simple random techniques for selecting the sample size. Design of the Study – descriptive design will be used to describe the data. The collected data were analysed with the help of descriptive and simple percentage.  The collected data were analyzed to get a better understanding of the Traditional Culture and Social Change of SCs a case of Nagalur village in Erode District.


Throughout history, scheduled caste have been denied from basic rights and considered even outside of caste system. Ganthi coined the word ‘Harijian’ which means “children of god” even the word of Harijian has been considered derogatory and scheduled caste means an exploited person. Scheduled cast is the more socially acceptable term, adopted to express the systemic impression which people without caste have endured over thousands of years of Indian culture. Numerous organizations have lobbied to change the way that scheduled caste are treated in Indian society and a number of laws have been passed in attempts to outlaw discrimination

The Indian caste system is quite complex, and based in the Hindu religion although people of all religions are divided into castes in India, along with several other nations. For thousands of years, caste was a crucial determining factor in where someone fit into society, and the rigid system did not have room for social climbing or efforts against discrimination. There are four main castes in India, also known as Varna’s; people who do not fall into any caste are considered scheduled caste or out of caste.

Because a Scheduled Caste essentially, lacks divinity, he/she be assigned to menial labour which higher believe is polluting. Scheduled castes have traditionally participated in animal slaughter, garbage collection, sewage handling and dealing with cadavers. These polluting vocations only enforce the status of scheduled cast, with upper casts forcing them to use different facilities, and to avoid handling or touching people of caste. In some parts of India, scheduled caste was not even allowed to cast a shadow onto upper class members of Indian society.

Origin of scheduled caste

Scheduled caste is outcastes, which means that they do not belong to any of the four main castes of Hindu society, created several millennia ago when the Aryans Indo-Europeans invaded India about 1500 year BC from the Northwest, they found there an original dark-skinned people. The newcomers organized their society according to a hierarchical system of four caste or varnas colours that of the Brahmins or priests, the Kshatryas or warriors/rulers, the Vaisyas or farmers/artisans, and shudras who were to serve the other castes. This caste system was an intricate part of the Aryan religion, Hinduism, in that higher caste possessed a religious cleanliness which the lower caste lacked. In fact, contact with lower caste people would make a higher caste person unclean. Since the aboriginal people of India fell outside of this system, they became outcastes or untouchables and unwelcome carrier of pollution. They had to live outside the villages, could not use the common well, and were ordered to perform the duties no one else would do, such as removing excrement or washing clothes. And even in modern democratic. India scheduled Caste are discriminated in every area of life. They often lack adequate food, health care and housing, are shunned in public place such as hospitals and temples, roads and buses, and discriminated with regards to education, employment and ownership of land.

Culture of Scheduled Caste

It is one of hard-work and rest, honest and simplicity, achievements and celebrations. Scheduled Caste are always creative and productive, celebrations and enjoyments. Come with that freedom, frankness, open heartedness, songs, steps, beats, drums dance and drama; food, feasting, festivals, thanks giving, worship, prayer and sacrifices. It is agriculture based agrarian farm culture. Culture is of the workers and working classes. The something continues in the new-world of urbanized industrial area. Work workers celebrations and Rest. Adulterated with ulterior motives cunningly by the Brahmins, stealthily by the baniyas and extracted crudely by the Kshatriyas are liquor drugs and evil practices, particularly in the mode of celebrations, thanks giving and rest. Done only to cheat, swindle and rob the SC of their creation and produce still these DCHs claim themselves superior both culturally and intellectually frauds

Review of literature

Srinivas (1966) in social change in modern India has defined the process of Sanskritization: Sanskritization is the process by which a low Hindu caste, or tribal or other group, changes its customs, rituals, ideology and way of life in the direction of a high, and frequently twice born caste. The low caste takes to the conduct, customs and rituals of higher caste. By Sanskitization a caste or a tribal community ventures to gain higher status in society. In the process of Sanskritization a claim is made for higher status in the social structure and it is therefore a vertical movement. But in Sanskritization there is improvement of status only, there no structural change.

Mohar (1959); patwardhan (1968); Lynch (1969),No doubt certain amount of social mobility has occurred among the Scheduled Caste over a span of time. Such change and mobility in religious, educational, economic and political spheres has been regarded as channels utilized by the educated castes to raise caste status.




In this chapter, methodological framework has designed. Research methodology refers to how entire process of research has been designed and in what manner we are going to conduct it, following are the methodologies adopted for the study.

Statement of the problem

The study entitled “Traditional Culture and Social Change of SCs a case of Nagalur village in Erode District” is an attempt to understand the whether the change happened in the SC people’s traditional culture and their social status.


The main Objective of the study is to find out the changes in traditional culture and social changes of SC people. The specific objectives are given below:

  1. To understand traditional culture of scheduled Castes
  2. To find out reasons behind traditional culture to modern culture.
  3. To critically investigate social changes of Scheduled Caste for their development.



Researcher taken 50 respondents is the sample from the study area. The researcher used simple random techniques for selecting the sample size.

Following major findings have been observed.

  • 74%of the respondents in the participation in the Traditional Cultural in the village.
  • 72%of the respondents are in the health care system satisfy in the village.



The study reveals that, from the historical point of view Dalits are vulnerable and suppressed by the other community. Nowadays they are dominated by the dominant community. Every community people are having their own culture and tradition and they believe their own culture similarly Dalits are following this. But, in this modern word many of the community people are merged with other community by the inter cast or inter religious marriage. Same thing these people should move and mingle with others community people. Some numbers of scheduled caste are converting into other religion. It will bring traditional culture change among the scheduled caste. By the findings the research got some knowledge about the traditional culture of Dalit. They have a wide variety of culture, they are strictly believed in their culture. But only few of the people are came out with this traditions in the modern world. The parents should teach their children about their traditional culture. Local schools are joining with the local community to teach the student. The social changes among the Dalits should come only with the help of the more number of educations and employed. Most of the Dalits people are depending the government schemes to run their family. They must have to come forward to hope their self to work for their family. It is observed that old age person celebrate their traditional culture. But youth can like to celebrate modern functions. Traditional cultures cannot be affected by globalization. This study recommends by saying that government must care traditional culture and give training for youth.


  • Anandi, S. (1995)., “Contending identities: SCs and secular Politics in Madras Slums”, Indian Social Institute, New Delhi.
  • , M., & Zelliot., E., (1992)., “An anthology of SC literature: Poems”, Gyan publishing House, New Delhi.
  • Human Rights Documentation., (2008) ., “Dalits/Scheduled Castes” , Unpublished paper Indian Social Institute, New Delhi.
  • Jasmine Rao., (2010)., “The Caste System: Effects on Poverty in India, Nepal and Sri Lanka” Global Majority E-Journal, Vol. 1, No. 2 ,pp. 97-106
  • Rakeshk Sinha., (2010)., “Social Culture Development of India”, Mohit Publications, New Delhi.
  • Siddaramu B., (2013)., “The Consciousness of Caste in The Contemporary Indian Society” International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Literature, Vol. 1, Issue 1, pp.1-4.
  • Sukhadeo Thora. T., Katherine S. Newman., (2007)., “Caste and Economic Discrimination: Causes, Consequences and Remedies”, Economic and Political Weekly, pp.4121 – 4124