Category Archives: Social Studies

COLD WAR: Meaning and Its Origin

The concept of the Cold War, born in 1945 after the end of the Second World War, is a fact of international relations that exposes the mutual relations between the US and the Soviet Union. This is a new chapter in post-World War II international relations. It can also be named a new international political development.

The new chapter of friendship between the US and the Soviet Union began during the Second World War, which ended after the war, the mutual differences and feeling of disharmony between the two superpowers grew deeper and the two tried to humiliate each other. Started doing This effort led to a conflict situation rather than cooperation in the diplomatic, cultural, political and social fields in both countries. On the international stage, the two powers went on to accuse each other. In an attempt to prove their supremacy in the international world, both the superpowers started looking for new ways to bring most of the states of the world to their side. This created an atmosphere of unrest all over the world and eventually, the world was divided into two powerful factions – the capitalist bloc and the communist bloc, in which the first led the US and the second led the Soviet Union.

Meaning of cold war

As is clear from its name, it is not a war of arms and weapons but a war confined to threats. There was no real war in this war. It was limited to indirect war only. In this war, both the great powers were dominant in their ideological differences. It was a type of diplomatic war that was based on the efforts of the superpowers in narrow selfishness.

The Cold War was a type of speech war that was used in paper rounds, paper-magazines. Even radio and publicity tools were fought. In this war neither any bullet was fired nor anyone was injured. In this, both the superpowers fought indirect wars in most parts of the world to maintain their suzerainty. All measures to prevent the war from turning into an armistice were also used, it was only a war by diplomatic means in which the two superpowers continued to resort to all measures to degrade each other. The purpose of this war was to strengthen its position by involving the Allies in their respective factions so that in future each could easily cut off the moves of their opposing factions. This war was the final culmination of the mistrust and doubt that arose between the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II.

Jawaharlal Nehru defined the Cold War as saying that “this war was a war of suspended capital punishment atmosphere that was more terrible than a heated war.”

Thus it can be said that the Cold War was a speech war between two superpowers based on diplomatic measures. It was a direct expression of the tension created between the two superpowers after World War II. This was more terrible than the actual war, being an ideological war.

Origin of the Cold War

The symptoms of the Cold War started appearing during World War II itself. Both the superpowers were fighting the war keeping in mind their narrow interests and showing the spirit of mutual cooperation. The spirit of cooperation that was visible during the war was beginning to end after the war and the symptoms of the Cold War had begun to emerge, with the two factions becoming stronger complaining of each other. There were some strong grounds for these complaints. These mutual differences were the main causes of the Cold War.

The main reasons for the origin of the Cold War are-

  1. The Soviet Union not following the Yalta Agreement.
  2. The Soviet Union and America’s ideological differences.
  3. Soviet Union’s emergence as a powerful nation.
  4. Soviet Intervention in Iran.
  5. Soviet intervention in Turkey.
  6. Communist spread in Greece.
  7. Second Front Dispute.
  8. Appeasement policy.
  9. The Soviet Union ignores Balkan Agreement.
  10.  America’s nuclear program.
  11. Conflicting publicity.
  12. Termination of land-lease agreement.
  13. American support to fascist forces.
  14. Berlin controversy.
  15. Repeated use of veto power by the Soviet Union.
  16. Narrow national interest based on narrow nationalism.

Climate Forcing

Climate “forcing” are factors in the climate system that either increase or decrease the effects to the climate system.

• Positive forcing such as excess greenhouse gases warm the earth while negative forcing, such as the effects of most aerosols and volcanic eruptions, actually cool the earth.

• Atmospheric aerosols include volcanic dust, soot from the combustion of fossil fuels, particles from burning forests and mineral dust.

• Dark carbon-rich particles such as soot from diesel engines absorb sunlight and warm the atmosphere.

• Conversely, exhaust from high-sulphur coal or oil produce light aerosols that reflect sunlight back to space, producing a cooling effect. Aerosols that form naturally during volcanic eruptions cool the atmosphere. Large volcanic eruptions can eject enough ash into the atmosphere to lower temperature for a year or more until the sulfate particles settle out of the atmosphere.

Altering the Energy Balance

• The power of a process to alter the climate is estimated by its “radiative forcing,” the change in the Earth’s energy balance due to that process.

• Some climate forcings are positive, causing globally averaged warming, and some are negative, causing cooling. Some, such as from increased CO₂ concentration, are well known; others, such as from aerosols, are more uncertain.

Natural Forcing:

• Natural forcing include changes in the amount of energy emitted by the Sun, very slow variations in Earth’s orbit, and volcanic eruptions.

• Since the start of the industrial revolution, the only natural forcing with any long-term significance has been a small increase in solar energy reaching Earth. However, this change is not nearly enough to account for the current warming.

Human-Induced Forcing

• Climate forcing can also be caused by human activities. These activities include greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions from burning fossil fuels and modifications of the land surface, such as deforestation.

Human-Generated Greenhouse Gases

• Greenhouse gases are a positive climate forcing; that is, they have a warming effect. Carbon dioxide emitted from the burning of fossil fuel is presently the largest single climate forcing agent, accounting for more than half of the total positive forcing since 1750.

Human-Generated Aerosols

• Burning fossil fuels adds aerosols to the atmosphere. Aerosols are tiny particles in the atmosphere composed of many things, including water, ice, ash, mineral dust, or acidic droplets. Aerosols can deflect the Sun’s energy and impact the formation and lifetime of clouds. Aerosols are a negative forcing; that is, they have a cooling effect.

Causes of Climate Change

• While natural forcing do exist, they are not significant enough to explain the recent global warming. Human activities are very likely responsible for most of the recent warming.

Estimation of Each Gas

Each gas’s effect on climate change depends on

three main factors:

Concentration of each gas

Concentration, or abundance, is the amount of a particular gas in the air. Greenhouse gas concentrations are measured in parts per million, parts per billion, and even parts per trillion.

One part per million is equivalent to one drop of water diluted into about 13 gallons of liquid (roughly the fuel tank of a compact car).

Amount of time they stay in atmosphere

Each of these gases can remain in the atmosphere for different amounts of time, ranging from a few years to thousands of years.

All of these gases remain in the atmosphere long enough to become well mixed, meaning that the amount that is measured in the atmosphere

is roughly the same all over the world, regardless of the source of the emissions.

Strength of their impact

Some gases are more effective than others at making the planet warmer and “thickening the Earth’s blanket (green house gas)”.

 For each greenhouse gases Global Warming Potential (GWP) has been calculated to reflect how long it remains in the atmosphere, on average, and how strongly it absorbs energy.

To Jyotiba, from Savitribai Phule: These aren’t love letters, but tell you what love is all about,,In memory of this remarkable WOMAN… 🙌

To Jyotiba, from Savitribai Phule: These aren’t love letters, but tell you what love is all about,,In memory of this remarkable woman,

here are letters that Savitribai Phule wrote to her life partner, Jyotiba – her comrade-in-arms in the struggle for the emancipation of India’s disenfranchised people.Below are translations from the original Marathi,The first letter, written in 1856, speaks about the core issue: education and its transformative possibilities in a society where learning had for centuries been the monopoly of the Brahmins, who, in turn, used this exclusive privilege to enclave, demoralise and oppress. Away at her parental home to recuperate from an illness, Savitri describes in the letter a conversation with her brother, who is uncomfortable with the couple’s radicalism.October 1856The Embodiment of Truth, My Lord Jyotiba,Savitri salutes you!After so many vicissitudes, now it seems my health has been fully restored. My brother worked so hard and nursed me so well through my sickness. His service and devotion shows how loving he really is! I will come to Pune as soon as I get perfectly well. Please do not worry about me. I know my absence causes Fatima so much trouble but I am sure she will understand and won’t grumble.As we were talking one day, my brother said, “You and your husband have rightly been excommunicated because both of you serve the untouchables (Mahars and Mangs). The untouchables are fallen people and by helping them you are bringing a bad name to our family. That is why, I tell you to behave according to the customs of our caste and obey the dictates of the Brahmans.” Mother was so disturbed by this brash talk of my brother.Though my brother is a good soul he is extremely narrow-minded and so he did not hesitate to bitterly criticize and reproach us. My mother did not reprimand him but tried instead to bring him to his senses, “God has given you a beautiful tongue but it is no good to misuse it so!” I defended our social work and tried to dispel his misgivings. I told him, “Brother, your mind is narrow, and the Brahmans’ teaching has made it worse. Animals like goats and cows are not untouchable for you, you lovingly touch them. You catch poisonous snakes on the day of the snake-festival and feed them milk. But you consider Mahars and Mangs, who are as human as you and I, untouchables. Can you give me any reason for this? When the Brahmans perform their religious duties in their holy clothes, they consider you also impure and untouchable, they are afraid that your touch will pollute them. They don’t treat you differently than the Mahars.”When my brother heard this, he turned red in the face, but then he asked me, “Why do you teach those Mahars and Mangs? People abuse you because you teach the untouchables. I cannot bear it when people abuse and create trouble for you for doing that. I cannot tolerate such insults.” I told him what the (teaching of) English had been doing for the people. I said, “The lack of learning is nothing but gross bestiality. It is through the acquisition of knowledge that (he) loses his lower status and achieves the higher one. My husband is a god-like man. He is beyond comparison in this world, nobody can equal him. He thinks the Untouchables must learn and attain freedom. He confronts the Brahmans and fights with them to ensure Teaching and Learning for the Untouchables because he believes that they are human beings like other and they should live as dignified humans. For this they must be educated. I also teach them for the same reason. What is wrong with that? Yes, we both teach girls, women, Mangs and Mahars. The Brahmans are upset because they believe this will create problems for them. That is why they oppose us and chant the mantra that it is against our religion. They revile and castigate us and poison the minds of even good people like you.”“You surely remember that the British Government had organised a function to honour my husband for his great work. His felicitation caused these vile people much heartburn. Let me tell you that my husband does not merely invoke God’s name and participate in pilgrimages like you. He is actually doing God’s own work. And I assist him in that. I enjoy doing this work. I get immeasurable joy by doing such service. Moreover, it also shows the heights and horizons to which a human being can reach out.”Mother and brother were listening to me intently. My brother finally came around, repented for what he had said and asked for forgiveness. Mother said, “Savitri, your tongue must be speaking God’s own words. We are blessed by your words of wisdom.” Such appreciation from my mother and brother gladdened my heart. From this you can imagine that there are many idiots here, as in Pune, who poison people’s minds and spread canards against us. But why should we fear them and leave this noble cause that we have undertaken? It would be better to engage with the work instead. We shall overcome and success will be ours in the future. The future belongs to us.What more could I write?With humble regards,Yours,Savitri1868The second letter is about a great social taboo – a love affair between a Brahman boy and an Untouchable girl; the cruel behaviour of the “enraged” villagers and how Savitribai stepped in. This intervention saves the lives of the lovers and she sends them away to the safety and caring support of her husband, Jyotiba. With the malevolent reality of honour killings in the India of today and the hate-driven propaganda around “love jihad”, this letter is ever so relevant today.29 August 1868Naigaon, Peta KhandalaSataraThe Embodiment of Truth, My Lord Jotiba,Savitri salutes you!I received your letter. We are fine here. I will come by the fifth of next month. Do not worry on this count. Meanwhile, a strange thing happened here. The story goes like this. One Ganesh, a Brahman, would go around villages, performing religious rites and telling people their fortunes. This was his bread and butter. Ganesh and a teenage girl named Sharja who is from the Mahar (untouchable) community fell in love. She was six months pregnant when people came to know about this affair. The enraged people caught them, and paraded them through the village, threatening to bump them off.I came to know about their murderous plan. I rushed to the spot and scared them away, pointing out the grave consequences of killing the lovers under the British law. They changed their mind after listening to me.Sadubhau angrily said that the wily Brahman boy and the untouchable girl should leave the village. Both the victims agreed to this. My intervention saved the couple who gratefully fell at my feet and started crying. Somehow I consoled and pacified them. Now I am sending both of them to you. What else to write?YoursSavitri1877The last letter, written in 1877, is a heart-rending account of a famine that devastated western Maharashtra. People and animals were dying. Savitri and other Satyashodhak volunteers were doing their best to help. The letter brings out an intrepid Savitri leading a team of dedicated Satyashodhaks striving to overcome a further exacerbation of the tragedy as moneylenders’ trying to benefit. She meets the local district administration. The letter ends on a poignant note where Savitribai reiterates her total commitment to her humanitarian work pioneered by the Phules.20 April, 1877Otur, JunnerThe Embodiment of Truth, My Lord Jyotiba,Savitri salutes you!The year 1876 has gone, but the famine has not – it stays in most horrendous forms here. The people are dying. The animals are dying, falling on the ground. There is severe scarcity of food. No fodder for animals. The people are forced to leave their villages. Some are selling their children, their young girls, and leaving the villages. Rivers, brooks and tanks have completely dried up – no water to drink. Trees are dying – no leaves on trees. Barren land is cracked everywhere. The sun is scorching – blistering. The people crying for food and water are falling on the ground to die. Some are eating poisonous fruits, and drinking their own urine to quench their thirst. They cry for food and drink, and then they die.Our Satyashodhak volunteers have formed committees to provide food and other life-saving material to the people in need. They have formed relief squads.Brother Kondaj and his wife Umabai are taking good care of me. Otur’s Shastri, Ganapati Sakharan, Dumbare Patil, and others are planning to visit you. It would be better if you come from Satara to Otur and then go to Ahmednagar.You may remember RB Krishnaji Pant and Laxman Shastri. They travelled with me to the affected area and gave some monetary help to the victims.The moneylenders are viciously exploiting the situation. Bad things are taking place as a result of this famine. Riots are breaking out. The Collector heard of this and came to ease the situation. He deployed the white police officers, and tried to bring the situation under control. Fifty Satyasholdhaks were rounded up. The Collector invited me for a talk. I asked the Collector why the good volunteers had been framed with false charges and arrested without any rhyme or reason. I asked him to release them immediately. The Collector was quite decent and unbiased. He shouted at the white soldiers, “Do the Patil farmers rob? Set them free.” The Collector was moved by the people’s plights. He immediately sent four bullock cartloads of (jowar) food.You have started the benevolent and welfare work for the poor and the needy. I also want to carry my share of the responsibility. I assure you I will always help you. I wish the godly work will be helped by more people.I do not want to write more.

Yours,

Savitri

Energy efficiency and why you need it?

ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Energy demand is increasing worldwide. The energy market situation is heating up and energy prices are on the rise. Instabilities in many exporting and transit countries are a cause for concern and the increased combustion of fossil energy sources is accelerating climate change. An expansion of energy supply options is costly and will take time. On the other hand, increasing energy efficiency curbs energy prices, reduces dependency on energy imports, counteracts energy distribution conflicts and cuts climate-damaging carbon dioxide emissions, saves wildlife habitats, safeguards the planet, and makes sure there is energy left for future generations.

Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services. There are many reasons why homeowners should consider energy efficiency, from the clear environmental and financial benefits of cutting energy use to potential improvements in mental and physical health. Improvements in energy efficiency are generally achieved by adopting a more efficient technology or production process or by application of commonly accepted methods to reduce energy losses.

Energy efficiency is playing an increasingly vital role in our lives, for three main reasons:

The environment: The more energy we use, the more carbon emissions are pumped into the atmosphere and the more our reserves of natural resources such as oil, coal and gas are depleted. We need to reduce our reliance on these energy sources, and one way to do that is to make sure we all use energy as efficiently as possible.

The economy: The global economy is based heavily on oil and gas, and as these resources dwindle their cost will increase, causing financial imbalances around the world and resulting in energy poverty in many areas of society.

Bank balance: Nobody wants to pay more than they have to for everyday necessities like heating and hot water, so it makes sense to be energy efficient. That way you fulfill your energy needs while paying as little as possible.

For a household it means you are using less energy to do the same jobs, reducing your home’s energy waste and saving money. To effectively increase your energy efficiency involves more than just using less energy – it requires you becoming aware of how energy is used, where it’s wasted, and how it can be used more effectively and efficiently in everyday life.

Why coke studio is so popular?

Coke Studio Comes To India | Forbes India

The concept of Coke Studio begun in Brazil in 2007 with a one-time promotional project called ‘Coca Cola Zero Studio’. This was organized by the company Coca Cola and it was accompanied with the launch of a new music phone by Nokia.  A year later, this format was adopted in Pakistan as ‘Coke Studio’, a live music television reality show which showcased live versions of songs performed by artists of various music genres. Highlighting fusion music as its USP, Coke Studio became one of the most successful television programmes in Pakistan. The credit for this is often given to the show’s producer, Rohail Hyatt. This concept was then adopted in India, the Middle East and later, in Africa.  In India, Coke Studio@MTV, a collaboration of Coca Cola India and MTV India started in 2011. Leslie Lewis was the producer of the first season. While Coke Studio Pakistan has completed 12 seasons, Coke Studio@MTV has done 4 seasons until now.

The cultural music of India not only includes the two main traditions of Indian classical music called Hindustani and Karnatic classical but also involves the huge diversity of folk music. Various modifications of Hindustani classical music called the semi-classical consists of forms like thumri, dadra, qawwali, ghazal, bhajan, tappa, hori and so on.  The classical music of Pakistan is also based on the Hindustani classical music which has patronized by various empires that historically ruled the south asian region. It’s semi classical forms include ghazal, qawwali etc. Religious music like hamd, naat and nasheeds as well as its folk music are extremely popular throughout the nation.

India and Pakistan are countries that are blessed with highly diverse forms of music as well as musical instruments. Coke Studio not only takes up traditional music genres but it also incorporates several local musical instruments in each of their sessions. Fusion of different musical forms, instruments, lyrics and styles is what defines the essence of the show. This show provides a stage to both the mainstream popular singers and also to the folk or ghazal singers with no power hierarchy. This has brought the ‘not so popular’, marginalized and even unconventional music forms in a studio setting and fused it with the much successful and popular music types. It provides visibility, success and exposure to the local artists that perform in it. A survey conducted on people of age 17-30 years found that a majority of them thought that Coke Studio not only promotes culture but also, believed that it has opened a platform for folk/regional music.

Renewable sources- Future of India

Imagine waking up one day, without any natural non-renewable resources left on this earth, how will it feel? Certainly, in a sense, we will be half dead.

Without any resources,without any foundation to support livelihood on this earth, survival of the humans is equal to null. The reason for which its important today to utilize the natural resources in such a manner that it becomes a boon for the generations to come. Provision of renewable resources by the nature itself, is a remedy for the same.

In case of a country, like, India, its a icing on the cake, surrounded by water on all the three sides, bestowed with a range of seasons in the country, the location on the world map is quite advantageous for India. The presence of oceanic water and large number of rivers in the country, is a significant edge in providing with hydroelectric power to the country;along with blowing winds, at the time of autumn and winter, that is a great opportunity to grasp the use of wind energy, in performing various tasks;also, the hot summer season, when sun is at the peak, is probably best suitable in providing the solar energy to the country, that directly comes from the nature, without harming any livelihood.

Renewable sources of energy –

  • Water resources –

Water, one of the basic necessities of any humans’ life, is considered as a renewable material when carefully controlled usage and treatment is followed. If it not, it would become a non-renewable resource at the location. Hydroelectricity, is generated from the fast flowing water, which becomes a renewable source. In India, projects like, Bhakra Nagal, Damodar Valley corporation, the Kopili Hydel project, are currently in working, but a lot more can be produced using Tidal waves, which is currently in not a much use, as it could be.

  • Solar Energy

India being a tropical country, has enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy. Photovoltaic technology converts sunlight directly into electricity. Today, the solar energy is used mostly by the people living in remote and rural areas, which contributes to environmental conservation and adequate supply of manure in agriculture. The largest solar power plant of India is located at Madhapur, near Bhuj, here solar energy is used to sterlise milk cans.

  • Wind Power

India stands as a wind super power in the world. In most of the states in the country, such as, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Rajasthan, and even Lakshadweep, have the largest wind farm cluster which are well known for effective use of wind energy in the country.

The above stated are the major sources of renewable energy, apart from these, Biogas, and Geothermal energy, are major renewable sources that are helpful in generating mass energy, as well as electricity. Being a progressive country, India is heading towards the development of these resources that can help control the exploitation of other natural non-renewable resources.

Where are we lagging?

Despite having the largest availability of natural renewable sources of energy, India is producing less than what its capacity enables it to. Every state of the country has some or the other resource accumulated within it. But, due to –

  • Lack of technology
  • Lack of human approach to the resources
  • Lack of precise knowledge of resources
  • Lack of interest of financial institutions to fund projects
  • Safe guard duty on imported solar panels
  • Ambiguity over goods and services tax on solar equipment
  • Low investor sentiment due to delay by discoms to clean energy developers

It has become difficult to use them, also, the presence of other natural resources that are in use, currently, people are not inclined towards using these renewable energy resources.

Plans and programs –

India’s installed capacity touched around 86GW by November end. This includes solar, wind, small hydro, biomass, waste to energy and others. Around 30GW renewable capacity including 18GW solar and 10GW wind energy is under implementation. Besides, around 40GW including 36GW solar and 3.4GW wind energy, is being tendered.

https://m.economictimes.com/industry/energy/power/india-set-to-cross-100gw-renewable-energy-capacity-mark-in-2020/articleshow/72977561.cms

Schemes such as, PM-KUSUM, SPDA, PRAAPTI, have helped the private sectors to pull up their socks and work in the director that would make the country self reliant, or Atam nirbhar. The future certainly depends on these energy resources, bringing a new stream of development into the country.

Prevention from depletion of natural resources from the earth is a step ahead, by installing the new type of techniques for the development of human race.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renewable_energy_in_India

Various Types of Democracies

In Modern times, democracy seems to have triumphed. Most countries today either are or pretend to be democracies. Their political system may vary, but they all claim that system may vary, but they all claim that these are based on popular sovereignty. It means that the authority of the state belongs to the means that the authority of the state belongs to the people who are citizens of that state. The different types of democracies discussed below.

Direct Democracy: – In this form, the right to make political decision rests in the entire body of citizens, unmediated by a political organization such as parties. The examples of direct democracy can be found in Greece of the 5th century BC and contemporary Switzerland. Indirect Democracy, citizen involvement or participation is personal but in a representative democracy, it is through people chosen by them, to speak for them.
In Modern times some states have combined representative democracy with measures of direct democracy, in that they refer certain matters to the vote of the city as a whole be a referendum. Thus direct democracy can be practised in the form of a referendum.

Representative Democracy: – It is a form in which citizens elect their political representatives through periodic, popular elections, who then represent the people in the government at national (in a parliament) or local (in local authority or city council) level. In this form of democracy, the people have no direct power.

Deliberative Democracy: – It is a form of democracy which stress on the participation of the people in collective decision- making through a process of rational and considered deliberation. In simplest terms refer to the conception of democratic government secures the central places for reasoned discussion in political life.

Liberal Democracy: – Liberal democracy is a form of representative democracy where the political power of the government is tempered by a constitution which protects the right and freedom of individuals and minorities.

Illiberal Democracy: – It is a political system where democratic election exists, and the govt. is not constrained from encroaching on the liberty of individuals, or minorities. Some critics of illiberal regimes now suggest that the rule of law should take precedence over democracy, implying a de facto western acceptance of what are called ‘liberalized autocracies’.

Participatory Democracy: – It is an alternative label for direct democracy. However, it does have a slightly wider connotation because participation need not necessarily mean ultimate decision- making power. Thus if there is a much greater degree of citizens participation in a political system, though the ultimate decision making and law-making functions are given to a small body of elected representatives. It is known as a participatory democracy.

Social Democracy: – It is a label used to indicate a reformist and non-Marxist left-of-centre party. Many social democratic parties in the world are inspired by socialism that for ideological or pragmatic reasons opted for a strategy of gradual change through existing institutions. Social democratic parties may also work for liberal reforms before introducing more profound social change. Social democrats reject the sudden revolutionary change. A social democratic party is likely to favour higher proportional direct taxation for a more equitable distribution of wealth and a social net for the weak and the vulnerable.

PM Modi announced Aatmanirbhar Innovation Challenge to techies and start-ups, after banning 59 Chinese apps in India

Prime Minister on Saturday announced the Aatmanirbhar Innovation Challenge, inviting India’s tech and community to create an Aatmanirbhar App Ecosystem.

The project was launched by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) in partnership with the Atal Innovation Mission and government think-tank Niti Aayog.

“Today there is immense enthusiasm among the tech & start-up community to create world-class ‘Made in India’ Apps. To facilitate their ideas and products @GoI_MeitY and @AIMtoInnovate are launching the Aatmanirbhar Bharat App Innovation Challenge,” he tweeted.

PM Modi also urges the techies and start-up community to participate if they have such a vision and expertise to create the products.

“This challenge is for you if you have such a working product or if you feel you have the vision and expertise to create such products. I urge all my friends in the tech community to participate.” PM Modi tweeted.

Addressing the tech community through a post on LinkedIn, PM Modi said: “Today, when the entire nation is working towards creating an Aatmanirbhar Bharat, it is a good opportunity to give direction to their efforts, momentum to their hard-work and mentorship to their talent to evolve Apps which can satisfy our market as well as compete with the world.”

This challenge will run in two tracks–Promotion of existing apps and development of new apps.”Track-01 will work in mission mode for identifying good quality Apps for the leader-board and shall be completed in around a month. The Track-02 initiative will work to help create new champions in India by providing support in ideation, incubation, prototyping, and roll out along with market access,” he wrote in the post.

The first track of the challenge is being launched in eight categories, which includes Office Productivity & Work from Home, Social Networking, E-Learning, Entertainment, Health & Wellness, Business including Agritech and Fintech, News and Games.

The outcome of this challenge will be to give better visibility and clarity to existing Apps to achieve their goals and to create tech products to find solutions to tech conundrums with the help of mentorship, tech support, and guidance during the entire life-cycle, he wrote.

After the banning of 59 Chinese apps –Tiktok, Helo Mi community and 56 others– in the country it will be a great opportunity not only for the existing tech companies but also for the start-ups too.

Prime Minister Modi in his post said that there is tremendous scope among these sectors for new Apps that solve specific issues for India and the world.”Can we think of making traditional Indian games more popular via Apps? Can we develop Apps with targeted and smart access to the right age group for learning, gaming, etc? Can we develop gaming apps for people in rehabilitation or getting counselling to help them in their journey? There are many such questions and technology alone can creatively give answers,” said PM Modi.

With this statement he questioned as well as challenged the Indian techies to utilise this opportunity for the betterment of the Nation.

This innovation challenge can be accessed through the MyGov platform from July 4. Companies will have to submit their entries by July 18 through an online submission process.

The government will provide the assistance for each of the tracks, which will include personnel from the private sector and academia to evaluate the entries.

Post evaluation, these apps will be given awards and features on “leaderboards for information of citizens”. The government has allocated ₹20 lakh, ₹15 lakh and ₹10 lakh for the first, second and third placed apps in each category. Further the winners of sub-categories will get ₹5 lakh, ₹3 lakh and ₹2 lakh for first, second and third position, respectively.

Why you should try yoga?

Top 10 Unexpected Health Benefits of Yoga | Shape

What is yoga, and why is it so popular? Yoga is a series of stretches and poses that you do with breathing techniques. It offers the powerful benefits of exercise. And since yoga is gentle, almost anyone can do it, regardless of your age or fitness level.

Yoga is a 5,000-year-old discipline from India. It was developed as a practice to unite the mind and body. There are many branches of yoga. All yoga styles can help balance your body, mind, and spirit, but they achieve it in various ways.

A study in The Journal of Alternative and Complimentary Medicine (among others) shows that yoga can build strength in addition to flexibility. And flexibility is the key to strength. When your muscles and the tissues that surround them are super tight, you’re not able to move as much weight with a full range of motion in the gym. Doing yoga helps loosen up those tissues so you can get more out of your strength sessions.

Research in the International Journal of Yoga shows that yoga not only reduces stress, but can help lower anxiety and depression, too. (It can also help battle insomnia, helping people who have it to sleep sounder at night, per researchers in Southern India.) There are as many types of yoga as there are machines in the gym, each having their unique benefits. There’s something for everyone: From hot yoga to aerial yoga to a good ‘ol Vinyasa flow to Ashtanga and Kundalini.

A study in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology found that yoga can ward off heart disease helping to keep your heart in good form. Since that’s one of the key reasons people do cardio in gyms, to boost heart health, it’s interesting to note that similar benefits can be reaped from a yoga class. The twisting, stretching and folding of a yoga practice are good for the digestive system, the circulatory system, the lymph system and more. It’s a great way to detox the body and can improve your cardiovascular system. And all this while developing stronger muscles. A gym workout is focused just on strengthening muscles and boosting cardio.

Yoga is a different experience in a yoga studio, but you can easily practice yoga at home, outside or in small spaces. All you need is about 6 feet by 4 feet and you have your own yoga studio. A gym workout requires more equipment and more space.

Yoga eases your aches and pains. A gym workout increases them. Yoga slowly stretches muscles and opens the energy channels of the body. The increased flexibility keeps muscles and joints lubricated and healthy. Weights and treadmill can cause strain which leads to soreness and injuries.

Yoga helps you breathe easier. During times of stress, it’s easy to forget to breathe, really breathe, and not just shallow breaths. Without deep breaths, it’s harder to think clearly and fatigue can set in. Yoga focuses on the breath so that when you need it most, those deep breaths are the norm.

Indian states and their beautiful attires

India is a country with 29 states and each state had its traditions and values. People follow different religions, speak different languages, and eat different foods. Likely there exists a fashion and style diversity in India. Still, India is United as a country. Unity in diversity exists in India.

Here are some of the beautiful and Elegant Indian dresses which signify each state, and reveal the diversified beauty in it.

Madhya Pradesh

The people of MP wear very simple dresses compare to other states. Simple yet beautiful fashion style of these people includes Dhoti and Kurta or a simple shirt with a specific type of jacket called the Bandi or Mirzai and an equally unique headgear, a turban called the Safa which the men of this state wear.

Bandhej sari is very famous in the state still women folk wear Lehenga and choli with an Orhni called Lugra.

Uttar Pradesh

The women of this state wear salwar kameez. Churidaar bottom is originated from this state. Women also wear Ghagra Choli and Saree here. While men wear Lungi Pajama with headgear (topi or pagri) and sherwani on traditions days.

Chhattisgarh

Women wear saree known as Lugda with a blouse named Polka. They wear the saree in a typical Kachmora style. Men wear dhotis and headgears like cotton turbans.

Maharashtra

Nauwari saree the saree with 9-yard length is worn up to knee-length with beautifully designed Choli. The saree is worn with a different style like Dhoti.

Men of this state wear Dhotis known as Dhotar along with short sleeve shirts called Pheta and headgears called Pagdi.

Gujarat

Gujarat Chaniya Choli is world-famous which includes Ghagra, Choli, and chunari or head veil. These dresses are found in different color combinations which look very beautiful.

Gujarati men wear dhotis or churidar pajamas and kurtas or Bandits, traditionally called Chorno and Kediyu that are paired with rich colored headgear as the turbans.

Punjab

Patiyala salwar and churidar are common wears of the women of this state. Women also wear colorful Ghagras.

  Common attire of the men of the state is kurta and muktsari pajamas, which has replaced the more traditional tehmats. They also wear Pagris.

Rajasthan

The men of the state wear dhotis or churidar pajama, kurta, angarkha, patka, or Kamar band and white Pagar or safa which is a kind of turban, Give them a royal look. However, the length and manner of wearing the dhoti vary across the state as does the length of women’s dress as well.

Rajasthani women wear long skirts called ghagra with blouses called Kanchi or Kurtis and cover their heads with Odhnis.

Himachal Pradesh

It is a hilly and cold state so people wear woolen clothes here. Men wear kurtas paired with dhotis or churidar pajamas and the typical Himachali cap called the pagri.

while Himachali women wear kurtas, rahide, and Ghagra Lehenga Choli, along with scarves and shawls. Rahides are headscarves decked with a golden periphery that serve to protect against the cold. Pashmina shawls from the region are one variety of woolen clothing popular all over for the warmth and quality it endows.

Telangana

Telangana has sarees, Langa vonis, salwar kameez as the traditional attires for women in the state on the other hand males wear the traditional dhoti called the Pancha.

Sikkim

The traditional wear of this state is quite similar to men’s and women’s clothes. The men wear a dress called Bakhu or Kho with a pair of loosely fitted trousers teamed up with a leather belt and embroidered leather boots. While the women wear the outfit over a full-sleeved silk blouse known as honju and fastened with a silk or cotton.

 An ankle-length costume worn like a sari called the Dumvum and another attire by the name Nyamrek also counts among the traditional attires of the state.

Uttarakhand

Women of this state wear long skirts known as ghagri along with a choli and odhani. on the other hand, men wear dhoti, churidar or lungi along with a shirt or kurta, and topped off with a gol topi or Jawahar topi. Bhotu and Dhoti are unisex traditional attires of the state.

Tripura

Women of Tripura with two pieces dress the upper piece known as Risa which covers the chest and Rikutu covers the entire torso. While the dress for the lower half of the body for Tripuri women is called the Rigwnai.

The Rikutu is also worn by the men of Tripura to cover the loin. The upper male body is covered in a shirt ‘kamchwlwi borok’ along with a gamucha known as Kubai.

Manipur

The women of the state of Manipur wear a sarong wrapped around the chest as a skirt that is called the Phanek. A horizontally and woven shawl or dupatta called the Innaphi goes around the upper body to complete the traditional female attire.

The menfolk of the state of Manipur wears a dhoti that is four to five meters in length and jacket as their traditional dress. The look is completed by a white pagri or turban as the headgear.

Tamil Nadu

Kanchipuram Sarees the Women’s attire of Tamil Nadu is world-famous. These rich culture sarees called Pavada comprise a full-length short blouse called Ravaikai and a shawl, which are mostly worn by the younger girls. The grown-up girls wear a saree style called the Dhavani.

While the men in Tamil Nadu dress up in Lungis along with a shirt and Angavastra. The traditional Lungi of the Tamils is known as the Veshti and can be tucked in a number of ways.