Category Archives: Research Paper

Assessing the Prospects of Green Marketing in India

Dr. Rouf Ahmad Rather

Lecturer

Department of Commerce and Management

Gandhi Memorial College  Srinagar , J & K

Abstract 

The word “eco-friendly” has become a slogan of today’s marketing practices of different companies throughout the world. Green marketing is gaining noteworthy attention from both marketers and consumers. Given that a cautiously crafted green marketing strategy can earn trustworthiness with customers and provide a stage for revenue growth, it’s an area worthy of additional reflection. This paper is an effort to present a picture of green marketing prospects in India.

Key words: Green marketing, Environmentally friendly product, Awareness, India

 

Introduction

Green marketing generally aims to promote eco-friendly products and a safe environment where people could stay. Right now green marketing is widely becoming a phenomenon throughout the world as concerns on our environment have begun to escalate in the past few decades. Every year, the population of people who are turning towards green brands or environmental friendly products are increasing, so, magnifying the phenomenon exponentially. Thus, businesses in almost every industry nowadays are flaunting the “green” features of their products and services in every chance they get. The success, however, of any green marketing strategy is heavily reliant on the consumers it would like to target.

 According to the American Marketing Association, green marketing is the marketing of products that are presumed to be environmentally safe. Thus green marketing incorporates a wide range of activities, including product modification, changes to the production process, packaging modifications, as well as changing advertising. Still defining green marketing is not a simple task where several meanings intersect and contradict each other; an example of this will be the existence of varying social, environmental and retail definitions attached to this term. Other similar terms used are Environmental Marketing and Ecological Marketing.

 According  to Polonsky (1995)’s definition, “Green or Environmental Marketing consists of all activities designed to generate and facilitate any exchanges intended to satisfy human needs or wants, such that the satisfaction of these needs and wants occur, with minimal detrimental impact on the natural environment”. Thus “Green Marketing” refers to holistic marketing concept wherein the production, marketing consumption an disposal of products and services happen in a manner that is less detrimental to the environment with growing awareness about the implications of global warming, non-biodegradable solid waste, harmful impact of pollutants etc., both marketers and consumers are becoming increasingly sensitive to the need for switch in to green products and services. While the shift to “green” may appear to be expensive in the short term, it will definitely prove to be indispensable and advantageous, cost-wise too, in the long run.

Green Marketing Practices in India

Nike is the first among the shoe companies to market itself as green. It is marketing its Air Jordan shoes as environment-friendly, as it has significantly reduced the usage of harmful glue adhesives. Kansai Nerolac Paints has been at the forefront of paint manufacturing for more than 88 years pioneering a wide spectrum of quality paints. Kansai Nerolac has worked on removing hazardous heavy metals from their paints – among this lead being the most prominent metal. Kansai Nerolac does not add any lead or other such heavy metals in its manufacturing process.

Dell has been one of the vendors who focus on producing green IT products. They have a strategy called “Go green with Dell” to sell these products in the market. It also comes in an eco-friendly packaging with a system recycling kit bundled along. Talking about the green commitments of the company, Sameer Garde, Country GM, Dell India, says, “Dell is also actively pursuing green innovations that will be of value in 2009 from data-center efficiency to the use of eco-friendly materials for everything from chassis design to product packaging.

Eco Hotels (Ecotels) is a certification system promoted by Hospitality Valuation Services (HVS) International. This system is based on 5 main criteria: environmental commitment, solid waste management, energy efficiency, water conservation, and employee education/community involvement. In India we have Eco-hotels like Orchid, Rodas, Raintree etc. believing and practicing green marketing. According to Harish Tiwari of Infinity Infomatic Pvt Ltd, a well known distributor, who says, “We don’t find any difficulty in selling green products because the knowledge for these products has increased in us as well in customer. They are ready to pay higher for these products once they convinced.” In May 2007, IBM launched Project Big Green to help clients around the world improve the efficiency of IT and better optimize their data center resources. IBM has software and services technologies to help businesses reduce data center energy consumption and cut energy costs by more than 40 percent.

The Introduction of CNG in New Delhi, the Capital of India, as it was being polluted at a very fast pace until Supreme Court of India forced a change to alternative fuels. In 2002, a directive was issued to completely adopt CNG in all public transport systems to curb pollution. The Gas Tech Electronic Products (Pvt) Ltd. has invented LPG Kit for motorcycles/scooters (4 stroke and 2 stroke).Can be fitted in 50 cc to 375 cc air cooled , single cylinder 2 stroke as well 4 stroke vehicles with cent % fuel efficiency, with clean exhaust and zero pollution.

Significance of Awareness in purchasing of green products

Generally speaking awareness comprises a human’s perception and cognitive reaction to a condition or event. Awareness does not necessarily imply understanding, just an ability to be conscious of, feel or perceive. To create more awareness for the consumers, many companies can be involved in programmes that support the environmentally friendly products. The consumers with respect to high to average level of green product awareness show high to medium level of green buying behavior and consumers having awareness to small degree and not at all show low green buying behavior. Hence there is an urgent need to make consumers aware about green products in order to speed up the green buying behavior among all consumers. (Rouf & Rajendran 2014)

The media are playing a significant role in creating awareness and educating people about the benefits of environment conservation to the society (Lalit & Kanokthip, 1998). In developing awareness of a green product, companies attempt to augment consumer knowledge of the product and its environmental attributes in the hope of bringing about purchase behaviour. But still now the exact nature of the relationship between environmental knowledge and environmentally sensitive behaviour is still to be established (Arbuthnott & Lingg, 1975). Consumer awareness might be useful when the manufacturer’s objective is to overcome resistance to new environmentally safe packages. Advertising of the new advantages and benefits of such products helps its consumers become more aware of the damage to the environment and they tend to change their buying habits. Unless consumers are aware of the advantages of green products, manufacturers‟ effort to introduce this product to the market will be wasted efforts (Kassaye & Dharmeda 1992).

Challenges in adopting Green Marketing 

Implementing Green marketing is not going to be an easy job. The firm has to face many problems while treading the way of Green marketing. Challenges which have to be faced are listed as under:

  • Green marketing encourages green products/services, green technology, green power/energy; a lot of money has to be spent on R&D programmes. So practicing green marketing initially will be a difficult and costly affair.
  • The customers may not believe in the firm’s strategy of Green marketing, the firm therefore should ensure that they convince the customer about their green product, this can be done by implementing Eco-labeling schemes. Eco-labeling schemes offer its “approval” to “environmentally less harmless” products have been very popular in Japan and Europe. In fact the first eco-label programme was initiated by Germany in 1978.
    • in the beginning the profits will be very low since renewable and recyclable products and green technologies are more expensive. So Green marketing will prosperous only in long run.
    • Many customers may not be willing to pay a higher price for green products which may affect the sales of the company.
    • The firms practicing Green marketing have to strive hard in convincing the stakeholders and many a times there may be some who simply may not believe and co-operate.

The Future of Green Marketing

There are many things to be learned to avoid green marketing myopia, the short version of all this is that effective green marketing requires applying good marketing principles to make green products desirable for consumers. The question that remains, however, is, what is green marketing’s future? Business scholars have viewed it as a “fringe” topic, given that environmentalism’s acceptance of limits and conservation does not mesh well with marketing’s traditional axioms of “give customer what they want” and “sell as much as you can”.  Evidence indicates that successful green products have avoided green marketing myopia by following three important principles:

Consumer Value Positioning

  • Design environmental products to perform as well as (or better than) alternatives.
  • Promote and deliver the consumer desired value of environmental products and target relevant consumer market segments.
  • Broaden mainstream appeal by bundling consumer desired value into environmental products.

Calibration of Consumer Knowledge

  • Educate consumers with marketing messages that connect environmental attributes with desired consumer value.
  • Frame environmental product attributes as “solutions” for consumer needs.
  • Create engaging and educational internet sites about environmental products desired consumer value.

Credibility of Product Claim

  • Employ environmental product and consumer benefit claims that are specific and meaningful.
  • Procure product endorsements or eco-certifications from trustworthy third parties and educate consumers about the meaning behind those endorsements and eco-certifications.
  • Encourage consumer evangelism via consumers social and internet communication network with compelling, interesting and entertaining information about environmental products.

Conclusion

 Green marketing covers more than a firm’s marketing claims. While firms must bear much of the responsibility for environmental degradation, the responsibility should not be theirs single-handedly.  Green marketing requires that consumers want a cleaner environment and are willing to “pay” for it, possibly through higher priced goods, modified individual lifestyles, or even governmental involvement. Until this occurs it will be difficult for firms alone to lead the green marketing revolution. It must not be forgotten that the industrial buyer also has the ability to pressure suppliers to modify their activities. Thus an environmental committed organization may not only produce goods that have reduced their harmful impact on the environment, they may also be able to pressure their suppliers to behave in a more environmentally “responsible” fashion.

Green marketing should not be considered as just one more approach to marketing, but has to be pursued with much greater vigour, as it has an environmental and social dimension to it.  And thus green marketing assumes even more prospects and relevance in developing countries like India.

References

Arbuthnott, J. and Lingg, S. (1975). A comparison of French and American environmental behaviours, knowledge and attitudes. International Journal of Psychology, 4(10), 275-

Kassaye. W. Wassen and Dharmeda V.(1992). Balancing Traditional Packaging Functions with the New Green Packaging Concerns. Advanced Management Journal, 57 (4), 15.

Polonsky, M.J. (1995). A stakeholder theory approach to designing environmental marketing

strategy. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing.10 (3), 29‐46.

Lalit M. Johri and Kanokthip S. (1998). Green marketing of cosmetics and toiletries in       Thailand. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 15(3), 265 – 281.

Rouf Ahmad Rather and R Rajendran (2014). A Study on Consumer Awareness of green products and its Impact on Green Buying Behavior, International Journal of Research (IJR), 1 (8), 1483-1493

 

 

Advertisements

How to Write a Brilliant Summary of an Essay

If you are looking for the best tips for the write a good Essay. The mostly to young people face the essential not only to read and memorize some in order but also to summarize several articles varying from short essays to giant papers which should be represented in more than a few lines of the text. Because of that, I wouldn’t think twice over looking for someone to write my paper for cheap and order it at https://dissertationhelp.com/write-my-dissertation.html However, the main problem which students have to manage with is writing a brief summary of the learnt matter. Maybe, you are the one who undervalue such college tasks and choose a creative approach to writing. Take into account that abbreviation is not that simple. According to information, students drop into the same take again and again. Thus, there are some well-organized tips for this type of work below.

Essay writing

Highlighting

The primary step in abbreviation the material is certainly reading. However, only a small part of students know that it is not enough to simply read the essay in order to create a perfect to the point summarization. It happens that youthful people waste hours on reading but do not get the main idea of the bits and pieces or miss essential information.

The quick and easy solution to this problem is highlighting the most significant facts. Take a pen and underline the essential concepts presented in the text. Thus, there will be no need to reread it thousands of times. The interior of your abbreviation will be ready thanks to this simple step. It is a pretty good idea to place behind the main concepts of the essay you have just read. In this way, you will be able to remember these things even weeks later without misplaced anything important.

Generalize

The usual fault which students make in summarizing the piece of writing are adding too many unimportant details which may be misplaced, so the common sense will remain unchanged and clear. It is a huge mistake to create the summarization full of pointless words and sentences which do not carry the essential meaning and cannot help the reader to understand the wording. Keep in mind that overview is an important stage in summarizing any type of writing. You should be able to cut the text and ease all minor things. It happens that some pages may be summed up in a few sentences if you find the crucial ideas which the writer tries to deliver in his or her essay.

Be Careful with Quotes

There are no fears that quotes are important for most of the types of papers. At the similar time, it is important to be careful while quote no matter which from the original source in the summarization. The main purpose of such kind of work is there a paraphrased and edited version of the material you read but not writing a new dissertation with references to this information. Sometimes many references make the summarization look long-winded and meaningless. The reader will not be able to find out the main message of a exacting article while reading such summarizing. It is better to avoid the direct references of the text and put back them with brief paraphrasing.

Call for Papers 2017

UGC APPROVED JOURNAL

1⃣ International Journal of Research

2⃣ Journal for Studies in Management and Planning

For publication 

📲Call 

Editor 

📞 +919958037887

☎ +919557022047
Send papers to 📩 editor@edupediapublications.com
For fast publication, amount can be transferred through PayTM to 9557022047

Publish Your BOOKS, RESEARCH PAPERS, CONFERENCE PAPERS

Edupedia Publications Pvt Ltd (Pen2Print) Publication House

APPROVED BY: GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF CORPORATE AFFAIRS & ISSN Authority

 Website:  https://edupediapublications.org/

email id: editor@edupediapublications.com

__________________________________________Call-for-papers-min-1_____________________________________________

To,
Doctors, Interns, B.Tech. final year students, M. Tech students, M.Phil. Scholars, Ph.D. Scholars, Scientists, Supervisors, Co-supervisors, Lecturers, Professors, Asstt. Professors, Associate Professors.

CALL FOR MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION

We invite you to submit your unpublished research manuscript in our international open-access journals. The journals are indexed by many International bodies.The manuscripts must be original and may not be under review by another publication. We also publish books with ISBN. We are offering paper publication (research articles, conference papers, paper presented in seminars) for everyone in all disciplines both print and online version. 

List of Journals:

S.no. Title of Journal ISSN No. Impact Factor Email id & Website  Indexing Information
1 International Journal of Research

UGC List

2348-6848 5.60 Email id: ijr@edupediapublications.org https://edupediapublications.org/journals/index.php/IJR
2 Journal for Studies in Management and Planning UGC List 2395-0463 5.40 Email id: jsmap@edupediapublications.org https://edupediapublications.org/journals/index.php/JSMaP
3 International Journal for Social Studies 2455-3220 5.20 Email id: ijss@edupediapublications.org https://edupediapublications.org/journals/index.php/IJSS
4 (Sahitya Samhita 2454-2695 5.10 Email id: ss@edupediapublications.org https://edupediapublications.org/journals/index.php/SS

 

HIGHLIGHTS We are committed Current Indexing Indexing Under the process
7 Year old Publication house
All Journals Have Impact Factor More then 3
1000+ Reviewer Board
10000+ Authors Share their Research work
200+ Successful Issue Published
50+ Conference Associate
200+ indexing
Publication Fee is Low as compaire to other journals
Timely publishing of issue.
Quality publishing of Articles
Check your paper Status any time
Query Resolved within 24 hours
All authors will get e-certificate
We provide Hard copy on Request
Thomson Reuters- ReSearch Id,
Thomson Reuters- ENDNOTE ,

 ORCID, ISRAJIF, IndianCitationIndex,
NASA add, NCBI, mendeley, JSTOR,
Scoop.it, Google Scholar, Google Scholar Citation, 

calameo, Open Acc. Journals, GetCited,
Index Copernicus, Yahoo, wikiCFP, academia,
Scribd, DocStoc, ResearchBib, AcademicKeys.com, 

Citefactor,TechRepublic, WizIQ, ExactSeek,
AuthorAID, Q-Sensei,DOCSLIDE.US,
JournalTOCs, CiteULike, slideshare, CiteseerX,

ourGlocal,  Sensei Scholar, Computer Science Directory,
BASE LAB, DOAJ, ResearchGate and many more UGC List
Thomson Reuters Impact FACTOR,
Scopus

Best regards,

Publisher,

Edupedia Publications Pvt Ltd

Website: https://edupediapublications.org

 Email: editor@edupediapublications.com

Contact Us: +919958037887 or 09557022047

Best Boosts For Education That Work For Everyone

Every parent wants to know how they can help their child get the most out of their education. Your role is more than just helping out with homework, though. If you want to find ways that will help you and your child with their learning, then you’re in the right place. Here’s how you can assist in your child’s education.

ed

Read every day

Read with your child every day. Set aside the time to really explore a story with them, and give them the chance to ask questions. This helps set them up for regular reading in school, and helps them see it as a pleasurable activity.

Look for learning opportunities every day

Your child’s education doesn’t just happen in the classroom. Look for opportunities to learn and reinforce their skills every day. For example, let them count out the money for a purchase, or read the signs in the supermarket.

Be aware of what’s happening in class

Your child’s teacher will be communicating to parents what they’re doing in the classroom. Pay attention to what’s going on. You can then reinforce the lessons the children are getting at home.

Don’t always look for A grades

We’re taught that an A grade is the best result from learning. However, that’s not the case for every child. Instead of focusing on grades, look for improvement. If they can handle a mathematical concept that they couldn’t last week, then that’s something to be celebrated.

Keep in touch with the teacher

Your child’s teacher will want to schedule conferences with you, so take advantage of this. Really pay attention to what they say, and don’t be afraid to ask questions. Look for ways you can both help your child in their education.

Allow your child to work it out on their own

It’s tempting to hover over your child, and sweep in and help when it all goes wrong. However, your child won’t benefit from this. Teach them that you’re here to help, but you trust them to have a go at it on their own. They’ll learn to be independent, but also that you’ll be there if you need them.

Practice discipline and respect

Many parents expect discipline to be taught in schools, but in actual fact the message sinks in better when taught in the home. Teach your child to respect their elders when appropriate, and they’ll get much more out of their schooling.

Take care of the basics

Make sure your child is getting enough to eat and sleep. It’s simple, but without the basics they’ll find it harder to learn.

Useful tools

There’s plenty of tools online, and you should make full use of them with your child. Here’s a few you can use with them.

Canva: This tool is free to use, and helps your child put together all kinds of visual projects. Try presentations, leaflets, and posters, just to get started.

Notability: This note taking app is highly useful when your child wants to take notes on their learning. The app means your notes are always in reach.

Best Australian Writers: If your child’s struggling with certain writing issues, hire a writer from this service. They can go through the work with your child, and help them understand where they’re going wrong.

Weebly: If your child has an interest in writing, let them express it through a blog made on this site.

There’s plenty you can do to help your child learn. Follow these tips, and you’ll both get the most out of learning. Show your child that learning is fun!

by –

Jennifer Scott

Relevance of ESP in the Present Educational Scenario

SAVITA

Assistant Professor in English

T.R.P.G.  Girls College, Sonipat

ABSTRACT

           English Language Teaching (ELT) can be broadly divided into English for General Purpose (EGP) and English for Specific Purposes (ESP).  The teaching of English language at schools, colleges and Universities comes under English for General Purposes.  ESP is meant for Occupational Purpose (EOP), English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and English for Science and technology (EST). In the rapidly changing present world when teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP) has grown to become one of the most prominent areas of teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL), ESP practitioners face new opportunities and challenges.  For non-English speakers the ability to speak more than one language (English along with the Mother Tongue) become imperative to assess the language abilities of second language learners.  In the classroom, assessment can be seen as an ongoing process, in which the teacher uses various tools to measure the progress of the learners. Among those tools are portfolios, self-assessment, and, of course, tests. If assessment can be seen as a movie, since it is a continuous process, then a test is a still photographs; it gives a picture of the learner’s language at a particular point in time.  If used properly, these tools can help the teacher develop a full picture of the learner’s progress.  It is important to note that all type of testing and assessment are important in gathering information about student’s abilities.

KEY WORDS:

Rhetorical, pedagogically, methodology, disseminate, restricted, and sophisticated.

INTRODUCTION

            Tom Hutchinson and Alan Waters (1987: 53) have pointed out the differences between English for Specific Purposes (ESP) and English for General Purposes (EGP) in their book, English for Specific Purposes: A Learning Centred Approach.

            On the face of it, ESP differs from EGP in the sense that the vocabulary, structures and the subject matter relate to a particular field or discipline in the former.  For example, a lawyer writing a brief, or a diplomat preparing a policy paper needs his jargon, ESP courses make use of vocabulary and tasks related to the specific field that one belongs to.  So a course in ESP is designed to meet the specific professional or academic needs of the learner, creating a balance between educational theory and practical considerations. English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course, however, has instruction that builds on EGP and is designed to prepare the students for the English used in specific disciplines, vocations or professions to accomplish some specific purposes.   ESP makes use of the methodology and activities of the discipline it serves, and is centered on the language appropriate to these activities. As Tom Hutchinson and Alan Waters rightly put it. “ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as to content and method are based on the learner’s reason for learning “(1987:19).

            In this connection, it is interesting to note Tony Dudley-Evans (1987: 1-9) explanation that ESP may not always focus on the language of one specific discipline or occupation, such as English for Law or English for Physics.  University instruction that introduces students to common features of academic discourse in Sciences or Humanities, is frequently called English for Academic Purposes. (EAP) is also ESP.

DEFINITION OF ESP

            Peter Strevens (1988-1-13) definition makes a distinction between four absolute and two variables characteristics.

  1. Absolute Characteristic

ESP consists of English language teaching which is:

  • Designed to meet specified needs of the learner:
  • Related in content (i.e. in its themes and topics) to particular disciplines, occupation and activities.
  • Centered on the language appropriate to those activities in syntax, lexis , discourse semantics, etc and analysis of this discourse;
  • In contrast with General English.
  1. Variable Characteristics:

ESP may be, but is not necessarily.

  • Restricted as to the language skills to be learned )e.g. reading only);
  • Not taught according to any pre-ordained methodology.

THE MEANING OF THE WORD “SPECIFIC “  IN ESP.

THE MEANING OF THE WORD “SPECIFIC’ IN ESP

            The word “specific” in ESP refers to “specific in language” and “specific in aim”.   A simple clarification that can be made here is “specific in language” and “specific in aim” are viewed as similar concepts although they are two entirely different notions. George Perren (1974) noted that confusion arises over these two notions. Ronald Mackay, and Alan Mountford (1978: 4) have stated that the only practical way in which we can understand the notion of specific language is as a restricted repertoire of words and expressions selected from the whole language because that restricted repertoire covers every requirement within a well defined context, task or vocation. On the other hand “specific in aim” refers to the purpose for which the learners learn a language, not the nature of the language they learn.  Consequently, the focus of the word “specific” is ESP is on the purpose for which the learners learn and not on the specific jargon or registers they learn.  As such, all instances of language learning might be considered ESP.

ORIGIN OF ESP

            Tom Hutchinson and Alan Waters (1987: 6-8) succinctly identified three key reasons that are common , to the emergence of all ESP; the demands of a Brave New World,  a revolution in linguistics and the focus on the learner.  They noted that two key historical periods breathed life into ESP.  First, the end of the Second World War brought with it an age of enormous and unprecedented expansion in scientific, technical and economic activity on an international scale.  For various reasons, most notably the economic power and technological advancement of the United States in the Post-War World Scenario, English has become an important language for global affairs.   Secondly, the oil crisis of the early 1970s resulted in Western money and knowledge flowing into the oil-rich countries.  The medium of this knowledge has been English.  The general effect of all this development is to exert pressure on the language teaching profession to deliver the required goods.

TYPE OF ESP

            David Carver (1983:  131-137) identified three types of ESP, English as a Restricted Language (ERL). English for Academic and Occupational Purpose (EAOP), and English with Specific Topics (EST).  The language used by air traffic controllers or waiters are example of English as a restricted language.

            Ronal Mackay and Alan Mountford clearly illustrate the difference between the restricted language and the language with this statement (1978:   4-5).

The language of international air-traffic control could be regarded as ‘special’ in the sense  that the repertoire required by the controller is strictly limited and can be accurately determined situationally, as might be the linguistic needs of a Dining-room waiter or air-hostess.  However, such restricted repertoires are not language just as tourist phrase book is not grammar.  Knowing a restricted ‘language’ would not allow the speaker to communicate effectively in a novel situation, or in contexts outside the vocational environment (1978: 4-5).

            The second type of ESP is English for Academic and Occupational Purposes. David Carver 1983: 131-137) indicates that this English should be at the heart of ESP although he refrains from developing it any further. Tom Hutchinson and Alan Waters (1987: 16-18) on the other hand have developed a “Tree of ELT” in which the subdivisions of ESP are clearly illustrated.  ESP is broken down into three branches.  English for Science and Technology (EST), English for Business and Economics (EBE), and English for Social Studies (ESS).  Each of these subject areas is further divided into two branches.  English for Academic Purpose (EAP) and English for Occupational Purpose (EOP). An Example of EOP for the EST branch is “English for Technicians” whereas an example of EAP for the EST branch is “English for Engineering Studies.”

CHARACTERISTICS OF ESP COURSES

            The characteristics of ESP courses identified by David G. Carter (1981: 167) and discussed here.  He states that there are three features common to ESP courses.

(a)        Authentic Materials;

(b)        Purpose-Related Orientation; and

(c)        Self-Direction.

These features of ESP courses are indeed useful in attempting to formulate one’s own understanding of ESP. If one revisits Tony Dudley-Evams (1998: 8-29) ) claim that ESP should be offered at an intermediate or advanced level, the use of Authentic Learning Materials is entirely feasible.  The use of authentic content materials, modified or unmodified inform, is indeed a feature of ESP, particularly in self-directed study and research task. For Language Preparation, For Employment in Science and Technology, a large component of the student evaluation is based on an independent study of assignment in which the learners are required to investigate and present an area of interest. The students are encouraged to conduct research using a variety of different resources, including the Internet.

FORMULATION OF APPROACHES TO ESP

            The approaches in ESP are formulated on the basis of five conceptions in ESP, John Malcolm Swakes (1990) uses the term “enduring conceptions” to refer to the following:

  1. Authenticity
  2. Research –Base
  3. Text
  4. Need
  5. Learning Methodology

            The main consideration in ESP according to Bernard Coffey (1984) is that of authenticity. It includes authentic texts and authentic tasks. Swales, in explaining what is meant by the research-base of ESP , reviews the ESP literature and observes a trends towards papers that they rely on some kind of data-based (textual or otherwise). In addition, Peter Strevens () 1980: 105-121) alludes to the importance of the “specific language” of ESP in Functional English’s’.  That is, only those items of vocabulary, pattern of grammar, and functions of language which are required by the learner’s purposes are included in ESP. Peter Strevens also alludes to the importance of learner in discussions of ESP.  Finally, ESP draws on the methodology or learning theories which are appropriate to the learning teaching situation.   In other words, Specific Purpose Language Teaching (SPLT) is not in itself a methodology.  According to Peter Strevens (1988: 39-44) this characteristic of  ESP makes the materials both more relevant and  more interesting to the student due to the varied and ingenious exploitation of opportunities provided by ESP Settings.  These five conceptions have dual and potentially origins in both the real world (the “target situation” of the ESP pedagogy. It is therefore crucial to discuss each of them in an attempt to survey the development and directions of ESP as it has evolved. Such a survey will identify five major approaches to ESP, each of which has focused on one of the major conceptions and thus contributed to the growth of ESP itself.  However, it is also evident that as each approach to ESP has evolved:  its particular enduring conception has also evolved, bring ESP practitioners towards their current thinking in each of the five areas.

The five major approaches to ESP are:

  1. Skills-Based Approach
  2. Register Analysis Approach
  3. Discourse Analysis Approach.
  4. Learning – Centered Approach
  5. Communicative Approach

            Sill-Based Approach to ESP has enlarged the conception of authority in two principal ways.  First, authenticity of text is both broadened to include texts other than written texts and narrowed to differentiate between different types of texts generated by each skill.

            The second conception is that of the Register Analysis Approach. It has developed out of the need for a research based for ESP, Michael A.K. Halliday, Amos McIntosh and Peter Strevens (1964: 266) are the first scholars who have pointed out the importance of, and the need for, a research base for ESP, set out in one of the earliest discussion of ESP.

            The reaction against Register Analysis is the early 1970s concentrated on the concept of text rather than thus the lexical and grammatical properties of register.  The approach is clearly set out by two of its principal advocates. Allen and Widdowson as follows:

            One might usefully distinguish two kinds of ability which an English course of ESP level should aim at developing.  The first is the ability to recognize how sentences are used in the performance of acts of communication, or the ability to understand the rhetorical functioning of language in use.  The second is the ability to recognize and manipulate the formal devices which are used to combine sentences to create continuous passage of prose.  One might say that the first has to do with rhetorical coherence of discourse, the second with the grammatical cohesion of text (1974.

The attention to strategy analysis give rise to new generation of ESP materials which is founded as much on conceptions of learning as one conceptions of language or conceptions of need. As Tom Hutchinson and Alan Waters (1987: 14) have rightly put it.

            Our concern in ESP was no longer with language use although this would help to define the course of objectives.  The concern was rather with language learning. We cannot simply assume that describing and exemplifying what people do with language would enable someone to learn it…… A truly valid approach to ESP would be based on an understanding of the processes of language learning (1987: 14).

            Tom Hutchinson and Alan Waters called this approach the Learning-Centered Approach and stressed the importance of a lively, interesting and relevant learning teach style in ESP materials.  The first ESP materials to adopt a conscious model of learning were probably those of the Malaysian UMEPP Project in the late 1970s.  The approach has received its widest publicity in the papers and materials of Hutchinson and Waters, and more recently, Mary Waters and Alan Waters (1992: 264-273)

            The recent approach that emerges from the concept of authenticity in the development of ESP is that of Communicative Approach. The first generation of ESP materials that appeared in the mid-1960s took skills as their principal means of selection, arguing that ESP teaching materials.  The definition of skill is somewhat broad, establishing little more than the ranking of the four usual language skills of Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking (LSRW). Almost all materials course of collection of specialist texts with accompanying comprehension and language exercises. As R.A. Close (1972) rightly argues that the conception of authenticity is central to the approach taken to develop language skills.

In the rapidly changing present world when teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP) has grown to become one of most prominent areas of teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL), ESP practitioners face new opportunities and new challenges. For non-English speakers the ability to speak more than one language (English along with the Mother tongue) become imperative to assess the language abilities of second language learners. In the classroom, assessment can be seen as an ongoing process, in which the teacher uses various tools to measure the progress of the learners.  Among those tools are portfolios, self-assessment, and, of course tests. If assessment can be seen as a movie, since it is a continuous process, then a test is a still photographs; it gives a picture of learner’s language at a particular point in time.  If used properly, these tools can help the teacher develop a full picture of the learner’s progress.  It is important to note that all types of testing and assessment are important in gathering information about student’s abilities.

 THE NEED FOR RESEARCH ESP TESTING

            The rapid expansion in ESP teaching is not accompanied by a similar increase in EST testing.  Perhaps, the earliest attempts at testing ESP date back to the time when the ELTS were launched.  At that time, in 1980, there had been little or no research into the validity of giving academic English proficiency tests based on different subject areas.  John Charles Alderson (1981) in a discussion on ESP testing questioned many of the principles behind this approach.  He agreed that since different University Departments placed different demands on their students, there are some good arguments for including ESP tests in an ESP test battery.  He felt that a comparison between performance on academically specific tests and the communicative needs of the relevant area might provide useful diagnostic information.  He also accepted that ESP tests would have really high face validity for both content-area students and University Lecturers.  However, he questioned whether it was possible to produce a test which would be equally suitable for students in all branches of a discipline.  For example, he wondered whether it would be possible to have a test for Engineers and whether they would have the same level of appropriacy for all Engineers, regardless of their specialization.  This highlights one of the main difficulties with English for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP) testing.

Another difficulty with ESP tests is delineated in Alderson’s question “How specific is specific?” (1981). Since at that time it is usually impossible to give each student a test which is tailor-made for  unique set of circumstances,  any ESP test has to be a compromise; and, in case of EAP , where many disciplines would be considered less than one broad subject area.  These areas would cover so wide a field that some students would not fit into any of the groupings.  John Charles Alderson (1981: 133) cited the example of a student in urban studies who would not know whether to choose a test in science or in social studies.

Over the past two decades, there have been several studies on the testing approval to be employed to test English proficiency.  Three articles by John Charles Alderson and Alexander Hugh Urquhart (1983) aroused considerable interest and led to several follow-up studies.  These articles described three studies carried out with students attending English classes in Britain in preparation for British Universities.

In each. John Charles Alderson and Alexander Hugh Urquhart (1982: 192-204) compared students scores on reading texts related to their own field of study with those on texts in other subject areas.  The student’s scores on the modules were found to be somewhat contradictory.  On one hand, for example, science and Engineering students taking the technology module of IELTS were found to be facing better than the Business and Economics students as well as the Humanities students, who took the same test.  On the other hand, the Business and Economics Students fared no better than the Science and Engineering group on the Social Studies module. Alderson and Urquhart conclude that background knowledge has some effect on test scores, but that is not always consistent, and that their future studies should take into account linguistic proficiency and other factors as well.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES.

T          he present study is an attempt at answering a few question that pertain to the student’s performance on LSRW skills in ESP (English Language for Specific Purpose) contexts.  The objective of the investigation can be expressed in the following research question:

  1. What are the student’s needs to learn Technical English keeping inn view the global context.
  2. Is there a correlation existing between the learner’s need and the syllabus which is being used to teach Technical English?
  3. What is the significance of the existing syllabus and is there is there a need for significant change?
  4. What is the role of ESP course designer and materials producer in this context?

All these questions can be answered in terms of the following hypotheses.

H1        Majority of the students will have stronger needs for learning Technical English given to the global context.

H2        There has been a negative correlation between the syllabus and the learner’s needs.

H3        The change required in the existing syllabus are hence utmost significance.

H4        The role of the curriculum developer in an age of enormous and unprecedented expansion in scientific and technical knowledge is crucial to language – learning.

            Education at present has recognized the need for making use of the latest technology for better results. This could be seen for making use of the latest technology for better results.  This could be seen in the introduction of the language labs in the Engineering Colleges to impart various language and allied skills to the prospective profession also.  Still, it is the textbook which is supposed to carry on the aims and objectives of the syllabi.  Hence a critical appraisal of the textbooks used in different Universities becomes imperative.

THE ROLE OF TEXTBOOK IN THE ENGLISH CLASSROOM

            English language instruction has many important components but the essential constituents in many English classrooms and programmers are the textbooks and instruction materials that are often used by language instructors.

            As Tom Hutchinson and Ennice Torrers suggest;

            The textbook is an almost universal element of (English Language) teaching.  Millions of copies are sold every year, and numerous aids projects have been set up to produce them in various countries.  No teaching-learning situation, it seems, is complete until it has its relevant textbook (1994: 315)

IMPORTANCE OF TEXT ANALYSIS

            Although handling the text in the classroom is time-consuming, text responses complement the data, providing more varied and detailed information about what respondents think, feel, and do.  Text analysis for Surveys is that it gives the ability to analyses respondent’s attitude and opinions.  As a result, one gains a clearer understanding of what the pupils likes or doesn’t like and why. When one understands what people think and feel in their own words, one can draw more reliable conclusions about their future behavior and use that predictive insight to meet needs more successfully.

            Text analysis is an interactive process enabling the teacher to know the major themes grasped by respondents, and also know how many respondents could mention at least one theme, whereby an insight into respondent’s belief, attitudes, or behaviors can be obtained.  When one works with the survey responses, one is likely to re-extract concepts and re-categorize responses using different category definitions or coding schemes, different terms or synonym definitions or different grouping of responses.  One may repeat this process several times before one is satisfied with the results

PURPOSE OF A TEXTBOOK

            A textbook is defined as a book used as a standard work for the students of a particular subject.  It is usually written specifically for a particular purpose, as a manual of instruction in any branch of study, especially as a work organized by scholars who usually have taught courses on the subject/s dealt with in a particular textbook.

TOOL USED FOR TEXT ANALYSIS OF SCHOOL SCIENCES.

            Researcher usually use two types of investigation processes. First is quantitative research, which employs numerical indicators to ascertain the relative size of a particular communication phenomenon. The second type of investigation process is qualitative research, which employs symbols and words to indicate the presence or absence of phenomena or top categorize them into different types.  Quantitative and qualitative observations provide researchers with different ways of operationalizing and measuring theoretical constructs and practical concepts.  While quantitative methods can provide a high level of measurement precision and statistical power, qualitative methods can supply a greater depth of information about the nature of communication processes in a particular research setting.

FEATURE OF QUANTITATIVE METHOD

            As Gareth Margon and Linda Simircich (1994: 315) state, the functional or positivist paradigm that guides the quantitative mode of inquiry is based on the assumption that social reality has an objective ontological structure and that individuals are responding agents to this objective environment.  As Catherine Cassell and Gillian Symon (1988: 237) have rightly put it in their article, the assumption behind the positivist paradigm is that there is an objective truth existing in the world that can be measured and explained scientifically.  The main concern of the quantitative paradigm are that measurement is reliable, valid and generalizable in its clear prediction of cause and effect.  In this connection, Mary John Smith (1998) in his book Contemporary Communication Research Method mentions quantitative research involves counting and measuring of events and performing the statistical analysis of a body of numerical data.

            The strengths of the quantitative method can be enumerates as follows:

  • According to Chava Frankfort-Nachmais and David Nachimias, the main strength of the quantitative method is stating the research problem is very specific and set terms;
  • Clear and precise specification of both the independent and the dependent variables under investigation;
  • Can follow firmly the original set of research goals, arrive at more objective conclusions,  test hypothesis and determine the issues of causality:
  • In the words of Howard Llord Balsley, achieving high levels of reliability of gathered data through controlled observations, laboratory experiments,  mass surveys,  or other form of research manipulations are possible in this method;
  • Eliminating or minimizing subjectivity of judgment is another important strength, as mentioned by Daniel Kealey and David Protheroe;
  • Allow for longitudinal measures of subsequent performance of research subjects.

WEAKNESSES OF QUANTITATIVE METHOD

            The weaknesses of the quantitative method are also noteworthy:

  • Fails to provide the researcher with in depth information on the context of the situation where the studied phenomenon occurs;
  • Lack of much control the environment where the respondents provide the answers to the questions in the survey;
  • Outcomes are limited to only those outlined in the original research proposal due to closed type questions and the structured format;
  • Does not encourage the evolving and continuous investigation of a research phenomenon.

The present research, however, has employed both the methods; hence it has benefitted from the strength both these methods and tried to overcome for limitations.

FEATURES OF QUALITATIVE METHOD

            As Gareth Morgan (1980 491-500) states, qualitative research shares the theoretical assumption of the interpretative paradigm, which is based on the notion that social reality is created and sustained through the subjective experience of people involved in communication.  In this connection David Fryer throws more light on qualitative research.  They are concerned in their research with attempting to accurately describe, decode and interpret the meaning of phenomena occurring in their normal social contexts.  Further he extends his statement to say that the researchers operating within the frame work of the interpretative paradigm are focused in investigating the complexity, authenticity, contextualization, shared subjectively of the researcher and the researched, and minimization of assumption (1991: 3-6)

STRENGTH OF QUALITATIVEW METHOD

The strengths of the qualitative method are as follows:

  • Obtain a more realistic feel of the world that cannot be experienced in the numerical data and statistical analysis used in quantitative research;
  • Possess flexible ways to perform data collection, subsequent analysis and interpretation of collected information.
  • Robert Bogdan and Steven J Taylor provide a holistic view of the phenomena under investigation in their book Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods (1975);
  • Able to interact with the research subjects in their own language and on their own terms as stated by Jerome Kirk and Mare Miller;
  • Has descriptive capability based on primary and unstructured data.

WEAKNESSES OF QUALITATIVE METHOD

  • Departs from the original objectives of the research in response to the changing nature of the context, as stated by Catherine Cassal and Gillian symon;
  • Arrives at different conclusions based on the same information depending on the personal characteristics of the researcher;
  • Not up to the work in investing causality between different  research phenomena;
  • Has difficulty in explaining the difference in the quality and quantity of information obtained from different respondents and arrives at different , non consistent conclusions;
  • Requires a high level of experience from the researcher to obtain the targeted information from the respondents;
  • Lacks consistency and reliability because the researcher can employ different probing techniques and the respondent can choose to answer only a few queries and ignore others.

QUANTITAIVE VERSUS QUALITATIVE TEXT ANALYSIS

                        As William Paul Vogt (1993: 1993 183-184) has opined there are two ways in which the social scientists distinguish quantitative from qualitative analyses.  On the one hand, qualitative analyses can be differentiated from quantitative analyses according to the level of measurement of the variables being analyzed.  Gilbert Shapiro and John Mark off (1977)argue, for example ,  that indiscriminate use of this quantitative – qualitative distinction has often resulted in the label,  qualitative content analysis ,  being not only aptly applied to rigorous analyses of categorical data but also inappropriately applied to haphazard   ( and thus unscientific) analyses of such data.  On the other hand, social scientist also distinguish their methods of quantitative or qualitative.  In this connection, it is interesting to note Berg’s explanation on quantitative methods, which is more deductive, statistical, and confirmatory, qualitative methods are more inductive, non statistical and exploratory.  It i9s only according to this latter distinction that quantitative text analysis has been applied to this study (1995: 2-4)

CONCLUSION

            The present study has employed both quantitative and qualitative methods, endeavoring to use the strengths of each method.  While the quantitative method helped the research to involve a good number of subjects and the various aspects of English Teaching in the Universities selected for study, the qualitative method has allowed the researcher to make an in-depth analysis of the responses of the subjects.  I has also been observed that the targets group turned out to be a suitable subject for qualitative analysis as they hail from professional colleges. They displayed a keen perception on the strengths and weaknesses of their system and provided the researcher a sharp analysis of various aspects of the teaching of English in their colleges.

            Keeping in view, the strengths and weaknesses of the quantitative and qualitative methods, a questionnaire was prepared, and the opinion of the students was obtained. The questionnaire contains questions related to their parental background, the Board of Examination through which they had taken their school leaving certificates, etc.  Students were asked to express their views on textbooks prescribed for study in terms of content, form, presentation and other aspects such as grammar and the four skills important they need.

Therefore, any thesis does not stop at the point of being mere critique of the status quo; in addition to critiquing the existing scenario of teaching Technical English at Professional level, the thesis also makes a modest attempt at suggesting measures in the last chapter to better the status quo.  The suggested measures are based not on the theoretical speculation but on practical experience and the prolonged experiments and evaluation conducted for the technical students at Acharya Nagarjuna University College of Engineering and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru  Technological University (Kakinada), Koneru Lakshmaiah University and Vignan University, Guntur.

References:

  1. Carson , J.E 1994. Reading –Writing connections: Towards a Description for Second Language Learners in ‘Second Language Writing’. Edited by Barbara Kroll.cup.pp. 88-107.
  2. Stotsky .S.1983. Research on Reading –Writing Relationships: A synthesis and suggested directions. In ‘Language Arts’, 60, 627-642.
  3. Anthony, Laurence, 1997. ESP. What does it mean? Retrieved from http://interserver.miyazaki-med ac.JP/-cue/PC/anthony.htm on April 6, 2000.
  4. ‘The sociolinguistic context of English language teaching in India’ in Shirin, Kudchedkar (Ed.) reading in English language teaching in India, Chennai: Orient Longman, PP. 37-66.
  5. Foreigners and Foreign languages in India: A sociolinguistic history. New Delhi : Foundation Books (Cambridge University, press, )
  6. Daniel, S.P.2012, An Indian Experiment of English for specific Purposes (ESP), English language teaching in India: the shifting Paradigm. New Delhi Tata MC-Grow Hills, PP. 119-125.
  7. Dudley Evans, T. and Jo St. John M.1998. Developments in English for specific purposes. Cup.
  8. Kavaliaus kiene, G. Role of Self-correction in learning ESP ‘English for Specific purposes world’, Web-based Journal, Issue 2(5), Volume 2, 2003, 8 Pages.

Dr. Savita, W/o Shakti Singh, Mobile No. 9416811500

 House No. 217/26,

West Ram Nagar, Sonipat.

 

Internal and External Threats to the National Security of Pakistan

Professor Han Zhongyi 1 Zain ul Abiden Malik2

  1. School of World History, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi, an China
  2. School of World History, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi, an China

Abstract:

 Pakistan individual a helpful supporter of the US has to look more pessimistic security implications than optimistic. Day by day the security condition of Pakistan is going worse. In this dangerous situation, it was complicated to describe the social protection of Pakistan. Here is a require to get rid of the fear of terrorism and extremism. Pakistan can enhance its security through adopting different way.

Keywords: Terrorism, Security, Instability

 

 

Introduction:

 

 

After 9/11 incident the terrorism become big challenge for whole world security. In new era these terrorist attacks cleared the picture of USA and whole the globe. The US blamed Osama bin Landan was involved in this terrorist activities. The Taliban had given shelter to Osama bin Landan. The USA demanded to Taliban to give him Osama bin landan if they not hand over Osama bin Landan mentally they are ready for war (Yusafzai, 2011).The Taliban refused to hand over Osama bin Landan to USA they accepted their challenge for war. USA received negative reply from Taliban so US did attack on Afghanistan on October 7, 2001. The main objective of this attack on Afghanistan was to arrest Osama bin Landan after few months of this attack, the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) occupied big cities of Afghanistan (Farooq, 2005).The US efforts to conquer Taliban and Al –Qaeda with help of Alliance force, but they are not hundred percent successful. The Taliban did proper guerilla war against Allied forces. They conducted surprise attacks on Allied forces number of forces died in these attacks. The US did  not get great victory in afghan it was hug shocked for US leadership (Moonis,2005).The Global War on Terror (GWOT) belongings to  Pakistan’s defense atmosphere more than any additional situation in the globe. The Incident of 9/11 had brought noticeable changing in Pakistan foreign policy but also relate to Pakistan security situation. General Musharraf was supported to USA war against terrorism. This favor created by friendly relationship between two nations. Pakistan was played  major role in war against terrorism. Pakistan has worn this condition to better dealings toward follow a large sequence of issues.

 

 

 

Literature Review:

 

The attacks on World Trade Center and Pentagon separated the globe into two parts’ supportive and non-supportive follower of USA. Pakistan individual a accommodating helper of the USA has to look other pessimistic security implications than optimistic. The defense condition of Pakistan is warped as well as is still declined day by day. it was difficult to define the national defense of Pakistan. There is a require to get rid of threats of terrorism and extremism. By adopting various way from side to side, Pakistan can get better its security (Samia et al… 2012). The country security plan is a multi-faced job to provide safety and security to our cities and continue its development. The fundamental principles of the corporation, convenience, distribution network, transparency and summarize. Pakistan is in a bad need to select such strategies of safety and security to maintain its economic development and its citizens’ security (Khalid & Kamal, 2015). The state of internal security in Pakistan emerged as a confront to the state due to the community disintegration and increase in extremism and terrorism. Incidents of terrorism connected to TTP developed as the main internal security threat in Pakistan. The collapse of PML – (N)’s government in bringing the TTP to the dialogue table tied with a frightening rise in some terror attacks on security personnel. Furthermore, soft targets led to the hard posture culminating in a complete joint military operation ‘Zarb-e-Azb’ in North Waziristan (FATA) next to TTP’s hideouts and their foreign supporters(Javaid,2016). In 2010 more than 100 drone strikes were conducted in Pakistan unaccompanied and are predictable to kill one-third to ninety-five percent civilians (Jone et al…2011).

METHODOLOGY OF STUDY:

 

The data has collected from various articles and books. This study consists of a qualitative type of research.

DISCUSSIONS:

 

Historical perspective:

 Pakistan was open the control of extremism and terrorism and was restricted to chance and precise acts of religious and sectarian nature. Though, the Iranian revolution and its contradicting revolutionary forces, Afghan Jihad culture and the Taliban government have negatively exaggerated Pakistan society. In the late 1970s and 1980s, General Zia’s Islamization procedure gave Pakistan a new ideology (Saima et al. 2012). During his government, a lot of Madrassas were recognized which were later on used as centers for Afghan Jihad. Jihadi culture thus understood its roots in our society and gained an active support of politico-religious parties (Sultan, 2006). In the 1970s and 1980s, Islamization became an essential tool of Pakistan’s internal foreign policy. It became a supporter of the US against the Soviets in 1979 to boundary the rising power of communism (Malik 2009, 17). After the Soviet defeat in Afghanistan and along with a large effort between the Afghan Mujahidin, a new authority came to the front in Afghanistan in the form of Taliban. Pakistan was the principal source of Taliban to be in a call with the outside globe. Then the 9/11 event occurred, and Pakistan twisted her back on Taliban and appeared as a forefront state to support the US in its policy to war terrorism and to pursue the remnants of Taliban and Al-Qaeda network (Hamid 2011).

Factors to responsible for national security:

There are three factors primarily contributing to her customary domestic insecurities

  1. a narrow and weakly defined purpose of Pakistan regarding the concept of Islamic states; the

Ideological base of Pakistan is vulnerable by the ethnic, cultural and lingual dominance of the four provinces. The successful Islamic ideology following Pakistan movement cannot be continued among the various nature of people of Pakistan.

2.The absence of harmony on the development of national institutions, the breakdown of leadership and the political institutions in raising a common strategy to address all the security concerns.

 3) The different nature of the state that conquered its area with the weak federal connection.(Khalid& Kamal,2015)

But, today it can be possibly asserted that the critical threat to national security in Pakistan emanates additional from internal sources quite than external”(Javaid, n.d.: 1). General Ashfaq Pervez Kayani, Pakistan’s Chief of Army Staff, admitted in his policy speech in 2012 that internal threat is larger than that of an external threat (Ahmed, 2014). Fahmida Mirza, Speaker National Assembly is of the view that ‘terrorism and extremism are the major threats to the security, calm and solidity in the region and poverty, illiteracy and unemployment are the major causes’ (Mirza 2009).

Serious security issues in Pakistan:

 

Pakistan suffered a lot being an associate of US in the war against terrorism .9/11 was only single terrorist incident the US country but in Pakistan numbers of such incidents have been experimental, which deteriorated the law and order condition in the country. No part of the country is secure owing to bombing and suicide attacks of terrorism. Pakistan’s anxious economic situation, fluid political setting, and dangerous security situation here serious challenges to Pakistan’s security. Islamabad faces crises that wear down their options. Investors are scared of investing in Pakistan due to insecurity. Even Pakistan’s investors, traders, and industrialists are unwilling to spend here and prefer to make an investment in such countries where they get handful profit. This directly increases our public anger. Pakistan’s economic appearance does not come out to be clear in the wake of the real havoc, rising terrorist hostility, political suspicions and rising Talibanization of the society.

Weak governance and over-reliance on military solutions have contributed to political disorder and an increase of extremism. Al Qaeda forces and their associates stay active on Pakistani region (Hathway 2010). This connectivity between Al Qaeda and Pakistani Taliban is one of the principal sources of insecurity in Pakistan. This connectivity leads to suicide attacks and bomb blasts all over in Pakistan. Pakistan witnessed extra than dozen attacks next to its military, security forces, government officials and civilians. On September 3, 2008, for the first time in 60 years of freedom, Pakistan faced a direct military attack by outside armed forces, other than India (Malik,2009). It was a shocking condition for Pakistan’s security and independence.

The Lahore attack on the Sri Lankan cricket team on March 3, 2009, in which six police guards were killed and seven Sri Lankan players wounded highlighted extremism and terrorism in Punjab (Firdous, 2009). The Islamabad Marriott Hotel bombing occurred on September 20, 2008, when an abandoned truck filled with explosives detonated in front of the Hotel inside which at least 54 people killed and at least 266 got wounded ( Masood 2008). On October 28, 2010, two suicide bombers under fire the new campus of the International Islamic University Islamabad (IIUI) murder at least six students and staff members and additional than 29 got wounded (Dawn 2010, 1). On January 4, 2011, Punjab Governor Salmaan Taseer was assassinated by his guard in Islamabad (Daily Times 2011).

Pak –Afghan border operations:

 

The beginning of transactions on the Pak-Afghan border for eliminating supposed terrorists has enlarged suicide bombing in Pakistan, and no leave had leftovers safe from these attacks and made Pakistan anxious and weak. While the first decade of war on terrorism has completed, it made Pakistan more unbalanced than eternally before. Five hundred bomb blasts have been witnessed in which more than 35,000 people have died, and it has cleaned out the security of Pakistan (Rehman, 2011). In the present circumstances, it is essential to resolve the growing security threats that had engrossed the national security of Pakistan. These are declining the roots of Pakistan and also vanishing away from the image of Pakistan both at home and internationally as well.

Conclusion:

The external insecurity covered the way for Pakistan’s participation in Afghanistan-Soviet War and the War on Terror, which laid down grave suggestion on Pakistan’s internal security construction. It introduced terrorism, Kalashank of culture; it destroyed the economic sector and raised the hopes of the separates’ actions. But, Pakistan’s security initiatives paperwork is significant, but the real standoff is the political insecurity, and the conflict between the civil-military leadership that has no national consonance led the substance of internal security. Secondly, the other destructive factor is short of the implant, in spite of being advised, and no real information distribution occurs, no management is set up among the Law Enforcement Agencies.

Reference:

Afzal, S., Iqbal, H., & Inayay, M. (2012). Terrorism and extremism as a non-traditional security threat post 9/11: implications for Pakistan’s security. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(24).

Khalid, I., & Kamal, M. (2015). The Homeland Security Initiatives for Pakistan: A Grand Strategy. South Asian Studies, 30(1), 15.

Javaid, U. Zarb-e-Azb and the State of Security in Pakistan.

Jones, T., Sheets, P., & Rowling, C. (2011). Differential news framing of unmanned aerial drones: efficient and effective or illegal and inhumane?.

Yusafzai, Hamid Iqbal. 2011. The US Factor in Pak-Afghan Relation post 9/11 Lambert Academic Publishing (LAP) gMB &Co.KG Germany (June).

Moonis, A. (2005). The Challenge of Rebuilding Afghanistan.

Ahmed, N. (2014). Pakistan’s Counter-terrorism Strategy and its Implications for domestic, regional and international security.

Javaid, U. Terrorism: Major Threat to Pakistan’s National Security. Lahore: pu. edu. pk/images/journal/pols/current issue-pdf/umbreen. pdf.

Hasnat, S. F. (2005). Afghan Crisis; a Dilemma for Pakistan’s Security and International Response. Perceptions (Spring 2005)45.

 

Afzal, S., Iqbal, H., & Inayay, M. (2012). Terrorism and extremism as a non-traditional security threat post 9/11: implications for Pakistan’s security. International Journal of Business and Social Science3(24).

Murphy, E., & Malik, A. R. (2009). Pakistan Jihad: the making of religious terrorism. IPRI Journal1(2), 23.

Firdous, Kiran. 2009. Militancy in Pakistan. Strategic Studies 30(2) summer & autumn: 50-59.

Salman, Masood. 2008. More Bodies Pulled from Hotel Rubble in Pakistan. New York Times (September 21).

 

Why cities require urbanization policies

World is witnessing urbanization at never seen before rates. Even after centuries of urbanization and formation of new human settlements most of the pattern of urbanization has been a spatially and structurally unbalanced one. It has been felt from the beginning of the planning era to achieve a coordinated and regulated urbanization pattern and since then number of studies and research is being conducted for commensuration of balanced regional development. The process of urbanization has been closely linked with the process and pattern of economic development in an economy. Although the process of urbanization could not be explained fully by the process of economic development, it is positively linked with it. Many models studied under settlement geography like central place theoryMultiple Nuclei ModelBurgess Model, Hoyt Model etc but the study for policies governing urban areas is not much known.

Why policies are important (

Why policies are important ( Source: PPS Facebook page)

The problems of urban development in the so-called backward areas are very menacing and the elaboration of their analysis is very engrossing. The problem which engages our attention is one repairing both action and study. The cities all over the world are growing explosively at a time when most of these nations are profoundly committed to rapid economic development.

 In many such cities, the physical problems of housing, transportation and sanitation will increase to the point of breakdown unless action is taken. But the cost of new construction and engineering works on the scale suggested by the magnitude of the problem is prohibitive for nations whose investment funds are small in relation to their need. Stop-gap and emergency programs are, therefore, constantly sought. In the very long run, it is to be hoped that these nations will be able to solve their problems of urbanization out of greatly increased per capita income, but this prospect is very distant. For some considerable time to come, therefore, the analysis of urban problems in the context of economic development, and with a view to action, will have to be directed toward finding more economic solutions to urban problems, toward preventing collapse, and toward greatly improving conditions with strictly limited resources. In order to achieve this objective and a planned urban growth , planners and policy makers need a much sharper set of tools for analyzing the national and regional redistribution of population and the internal anatomy of cities. Thus, there is a requirement for a policy with respect to urbanization. The core argument is that all the countries are better off with a national urbanization strategy that is the outcome of a careful national debate about economic, political, social, and cultural goals. The widening gap between demand and supply of infrastructural services badly hitting the poor, whose access to the basic services like drinking water, sanitation, education and basic health services was shrinking. Unabated growth of urban population infuriating the accumulated backlog of housing shortages, resulting in proliferation of slums and squatter settlement and decay of city environment.

Author Bio:

Shubham Aggarwal, founder of PlanningTank is an Urban Planner from India working to improve the human settlements. PlanningTank is the Urban, Regional, and Rural Planning Knowledge base which provides insight into to urban and rural areas. It focuses on educating, engaging and developing the community.

 

Urban Conservation through Urban Planning

With the physical expansion of existing towns and cities and the proliferation of new ones, not only individual monuments and landmarks but entire historic quarters and towns containing unique examples of architectural styles or ways of life are increasingly exposed to the forces of urbanization. Suitable guiding of the growth of the city is necessary. This requires an understanding of the dynamics of urban growth so that solutions can be attempted which facilitate conservation without making a futile attempt to stall the forces of urbanization. This can only be done through the forces of regional planning, town planning, pragmatic land use planning, transport policies and civic management. The basic objectives of Urban and regional planning are very closely related to those of conservation of historic towns, areas and monuments. Town planning in the modern context is originated from the desire of people to have certain self-imposed norms and standards for utilization and development of land in their cities. Instruments such as master-plans, zoning regulations, building bye laws etc all help in achieving these objectives. This calls for the subordination, to some extent, of the immediate interest of the individual in favors of the overall interest of the community and, in the long term interest of the same individual. The most obvious restriction placed on an individual’s right is that which prohibits him from developing his land in any manner and for whatsoever purposes he pleases. Land has no value unless it can be put to use. Its value then depends on what specific use can be made of it. As town planning determines the land use, it can therefore dictate or modify land values. It is this factor which makes town planning policies so crucial for the conservation of old buildings and areas, especially those situated in the central areas of the cities.

Opposition for conservation (CC0 Public Domain image)

The town planning process imposes far greater restrictions on the individual’s rights and carries a heavier financing liability on the part of governments than the conservation of historic buildings and areas would call for. This at times might result in counter urbanization when the regulating measures are too harsh or lead to NIMBY. Massive chunks of private lands are compulsorily acquired for housing, roads, bus stations and civic amenities. Town planning for existing old towns and areas in cities needs the application of similar will to take care of the architectural fabric in urban areas. Conservation is and must therefore be explicitly recognized to be an integral part of the town planning process that is of land-use plans, building regulations and development policies.

Planners also need to think about their role in the city. Is it to just build according to the latest ‘make it London’ fashion? Or do planners have a duty to respond to the needs of all citizens in the city? Is it our job to make demarcations about authorized/unauthorized, or try to facilitate a decent living and working environment for physical realities on the ground? What about scale? Master planning for metro cities is daunting task – but where is the focus or expertise devoted to creating high quality zonal and area plans? Do cities even have the expertise and funds to collect the data required for such fine-grained planning, leave aside addressing questions of democratic inclusion?

Author Bio:

Shubham Aggarwal, founder of PlanningTank is an Urban Planner from India working to improve the human settlements. PlanningTank is the Urban, Regional, and Rural Planning Knowledge base which provides insight into to urban and rural areas. It focuses on educating, engaging and developing the community.