Category Archives: Research Paper

Shoot High-Quality Videos with more efficiency

Have you ever run out of space that captures some of your cherished moments? Isn’t it annoying? No more hassles, after long research, now you’ll be able to record high-quality 8K videos and 360 degrees videos too. It’s estimated that 90 minutes equivalent to your favorite football match in 4K quality video takes up around ten gigs of space, but with the new technology, you can half it down to 5 gigs only.

A boy watching his photos and videos captured on a camera.

Suppose you know that Netflix and YouTube have restrictions over streaming videos, not more than 480p resolution. It has been more than three months now in India; still, the capping exists, although some internet providers did remove it slowly. The social isolation has made people binge more than regular days, seeing an increase of 20 to 30 percent in subscription and user base. More people are now connected, increasing the bandwidth. Hence you may observe slow speeds in this period. Netflix is switching to AV1 codec to save data while watching the show when it delivers its content over the internet. This new research may be able to save more data.

A man binges for on-demand streaming shows.

Initially, the digital video started with H.120 encoding but wasn’t practical until H.261 came up based on the DCT (discrete cosine transform) compression. In 1991, MPEG-1 revolutionized the video sector with higher resolutions, which reached us in the form of VCDs and DVDs. In the late 90s and onset of the 21st century, we saw the currently used MPEG-4 or the most widely used H.264 video encoding. You may know this if you’re familiar with video editing.

After the H.265/HEVC encoding, now steps in H.266/MPEG-I Part 3/VVC (Versatile Video Codec) presented by Fraunhofer HHI with other partners including the significant-tech leading brands like Apple, Microsoft, Qualcomm, Sony, and Intel, with vivid HDR and better support for 360 degrees video. As earlier mentioned, AV1 codec, 30 percent better than H.265, which is adopted by Netflix, is royalty-free. Now, to support H.266 major hardware updates may be required to handle such heavy compressions and will take time for its actual implementation. Like for example, when H.265 was finalized at the beginning of 2013, Apple lately adopted it in the year 2017 as a part of the iOS 11 mobile operating system.

The VVC logo

The 500 pages specification document finalized this month on 6th July 2020, but actual usage in the video industry might take about an estimated 7-8 years. Why do we need such compression? By 2022, more than 80 percent will be part of video streaming, which may increase on more content based on 4K video quality as well as growing numbers of 360 degrees videos. The existing widely used browsers support AV1 codec, but H.266 to properly patent may lately delay web surfing too. Twitch and YouTube may become one of the first firms to implement as they’ve already implanted VP9, again a royalty-free codec by Google itself.

Along with this, MPEG-5 Part 1 or EVC (Essential Video Coding), and MPEG-5 Part 2 or LCEVC (Low Complexity Enhancement VC) is set to launch out. For us, a non-geeky person may visualize it after watching the following graph below.

Average bit rate savings graph. Courtesy: BBC Research

I hope you could know some of the new ways to encode a video. You can read more about it from their official website: https://www.hhi.fraunhofer.de/en/departments/vca/technologies-and-solutions/h266-vvc.html

Physics Revisited: A powerful laser in the making

You may have tried to burn the paper by concentrating the light focused at a single point using a magnifying glass. Now technology has advanced up that within a few seconds as the data given to a machine can design and cut your metal piece with the help of a unique device. This device is none other than LASER itself. The laser has many uses in day to day life like bar-code reading, laser cutting, laser welding, and whatnot. Usage also includes surgeries, and even the data to read this post is sent through a fiber optic cable using laser technology.

A laser metal cutting machine on a piece of metal to shape according to a design.

A laser is a device that can focus by emitting a beam of a consistent source of light using the amplification process. Various types of lasers found include gas lasers, fiber lasers, diode laser, and much more. A laser requires three prime factors, generally consisting of a pump or the vital source of energy along with the medium to travel and a resonator using two or more mirrors. We even observe the phenomenon known as the total internal reflection or TIR.

The laser invention won the most prestigious science honor, the Nobel prize in 1964, and again in 2018 for the optical tweezers. These tweezers can be so sturdy that it can make changes in a single atom too. Okay, you may have been a fan of Star Wars movie if you like, they demonstrate the use of lasers, especially the blasters. But, they’re not lasers; indeed, they’re plasma light in the movie.

Fiber optic cables used in networking.

One of the Nobel laureates along with the researchers from the Russian Academy of Sciences have built up a new technology to produce even more powerful laser. The power output from the more modern methodology can give up to 10 ^ 23 Watts by decreasing the duration of the pulse just to some femtoseconds. This method can cut down the operating costs; this study has grabbed attention and gained financial support from various institutions in Canada and Russia.

To generate a pulse for a short span, the researchers need a deep dive into the effects of non-linear optics. Still even at the limits of 10 femtoseconds pulse, with the energy of 3 joules, the intensity peaked up to 300 terawatts. Now with a further intention with 13 joules, a target of 3 petawatts is planned within five femtoseconds.

Laser treatment done on a lady as a procedure for a therapy.

The lasers have been so widespread that we see it for hair removal, too, where the hair follicles get treated. The laser is also found in your laptop or your computer if it has an optical disc drive. The data on the disc read by using a laser when it falls on the lands and pits present on the surface to convert them into electrical signal sequences. The laser has been extensively used in the field of defense too. There are handheld laser pointers available, but make sure that it is legal in your country to own one or may land up into jail. Be careful with laser pointers and use them effectively if you own one of them.

“NEVER STOP LEARNING BECAUSE LIFE WILL NEVER STOP TEACHING”

“Life is like riding a bicycle. To keep your balance you must keep moving” – Albert Einstein

It is rightly said never stop learning….because life is the teacher which gives you the opportunity to learn new things each and every day. It motivates you to learn and defeat the challenges which we come across. The greatest teacher you could ever have is your life. Knowledge can come from anywhere and everywhere.

Life gives you the best lessons from sacrifice to compromise, and a wise man will always take each of them seriously.
All we need is to grab it and inculcate that in our day-to-day lives. Many times, you may feel down but remember that it’s not the ending. Failures will force you to loosen down but Losers are the ones who refuse to stand up, not the ones who fall down repeatedly.

No matter how many times you find yourself lost or broken; all that matters is the time when you didn’t feel like starting things all over again. One must always hold an attitude to continue learning new things.
Learning is a never-ending journey. From birth till death , we are in continuous cycle of learning new things. It is a necessary part of our life.By observing new things and experiencing it in our lives, our sight of perspective broadens and changes the way we see the world. It improves our behavior and the way we think by expanding and challenging our understanding. We get to know a lot of things and these things become our memories which are lessons to the life. These memories could be good or bad, that doesn’t mean bad memories are to neglected. Each and every memory gives you a lesson to learn something new experiences. Our education system teaches a lot, but that is relevant fir bookish knowledge. Life teaches you the lesson to live .

“The past can hurt. But the way I see it, you can either run from it, or learn from it” – Walt Disney

Never think that you know so much that doesn’t mean the end of your learning procedure. No one is prefect in knowledge Each one of us learn step by step through life. It is a continuous and when life teaches you something, be an optimist to learn it as quickly as possible. Life will keep on teaching you every moment of the day, and a real hero is the one who remains open to changes or take lessons from every incident that takes place in his or her life.
Learning is about enriching our minds. Learning new things represents the growth mindset. To be good learner you should be able practice focused hinking modes of brain. Focused thinking is when you concentrating on something that you try to learn.
There is no age or limit to which we can learn, whenever you want to know new things explore it. It only depends on the will to learn. Try to innovate new things in your life. Stay Positive Stay Learning…..!!!!!!

“The world is a university and everyone in it is a teacher. Make sure when you wake up in the morning, you go to school.” ―T. D. Jakes

Never stop dreaming,
never stop believing,
never give up,
never stop trying, and
never stop learning – Roy T. Bennett

Amazing life hacks

Life hacks are shortcut tricks used for making some familiar task more easily and efficiently. It eliminates complexity of work in simple and clever ways.
Now need not to throw used materials in waste.

Have a look to these amazing life hacks –

Smelly shoes – If you have bad-smelling shoes, place a few dry tea bags inside each shoe to absorb the smell. If your shoes are not just smelly but also wet, fill them with a mixture of rice and baking soda and leave for a few days.

Grow roses from cuttings – Here’s a great tip for growing roses from cuttings. Before planting, push the bottom ends of the cuttings into small potatoes. Moisture and nutrients in the potatoes will allow the cuttings to develop healthy roots.

Remove Highlighter stains –
You could remove highlighter marks from a book? Lemon juice fades highlighter enough to make it virtually undetectable. Cut a lemon in half and get some juice on a cotton swab. Run the swab over the highlighted text and watch the color fade. Lemon juice from a container also seems to do the trick. Though not quite as well on the pieces we tested, and the older the mark, the more stubborn it is to remove.

How to double your Reusbale bags – This might be the coolest way to turn sandwich-size bags into snack-size bags. Here’s how to do it: Heat up an old butter knife with a lighter and slice the bag in half. The hot knife cauterizes the edges of the two new bags. The cauterized edges are as strong as the factory sealed edges.

Keep buttons from falling off – To keep your buttons in place, simply paint a bit of clear nail polish over the threads.

Fog free mirrors – Prevent your bathroom mirror from fogging up after a hot shower with car wax. Apply a small amount of car wax to the mirror, let it dry, then buff with a soft, dry cloth.

Remove candle wax from furniture with ice cubes – If you ever spill candle wax on a piece of furniture don’t risk ruining its finish by trying to scrape it off. Instead, fill a plastic bag with ice cubes, place it over the wax, and let it sit for a few minutes. Once the wax has sufficiently cooled and hardened, you can pick it up easily without ruining your furniture for good.

No watering can? – This super simple hack of an old milk jug is perfect for a new gardener that hasn’t gone out and bought a watering can yet. Just upcycle your old plastic milk jug by heating up a needle and poking holes in the lid so water can flow through it freely.

Use citrus peel to start seeds – Just poke a hole in the bottom of the peel for drainage, fill it with potting soil, then sow seed and sprinkle some water. When the seedling is ready for transplant, plant it directly in a garden or in a container with the peel. The peel will decompose and nourish the young plant as it grows.

Deodrant Stains – you use deodorant or antiperspirant, you’ve likely had to deal with those charming white stains around the armpits of some of your clothes. Strangely enough, rubbing those stains with dryer sheets seems to lift them out really well. Of course, the dryer sheet trick only really works for fresh stains; for older ones, soak them overnight in a 2:1 solution of white vinegar : water, and then launder as usual.

Soap bottle – A quick and easy way to recycle plastic bottles is to repurpose your bottle as a soap bottle. All you need is a twist-on soap dispenser spout and any empty bottle can be used this way.

Shirt pillow case – Turn old shirts into a pillowcase. You can use t-shirts as well!

Baby sleeping bag – Use an old pillowcase to make your baby comfy.

Citrus candles – Make an orange or a lemon candle, and its light and aroma will last a long time.

Get Wrinkles out of your laundry with zero effort – Ditch the time-consuming iron or handheld steamer to get wrinkles out of a shirt or slacks. Throw a few ice cubes or a wet washcloth in the dryer with your wrinkled clothes. As the ice melts and the water turns to steam, it will remove the wrinkles. This trick isn’t as effective with heavier clothing but is a miracle for lighter fabrics. The best part is that you don’t have to set the dryer for longer than 10 minutes for it to work.

Anyone can try these hacks at home. Stay Healthy Stay Creative…..!!!!!

Philosophical meaning of “LOVE”

Love is the most powerful emotion a human being can experience. The strange thing is, almost nobody knows what love is. Why is it so difficult to find love? That is easy to understand, if you know that the word “love” is not the same as one’s feeling of love.

“The best and most beautiful things in this world cannot be seen or even heard,but must be felt with the heart” – Hellen Keller

What great Philosophers say about Love?

Aristotle : Of the classic ideas on love, for Aristotle , none of this love and friendship is attainable without first achieving self-love. The good person must be a self-lover, for he himself will profit from doing fine things, and he will benefit the others.

Sadhguru :
When you talk about love, it has to be unconditional. There is really no such thing as conditional love and unconditional love. It is just that there are conditions and there is love. The moment there is a condition, it just amounts to a transaction. Maybe a convenient transaction, maybe a good arrangement – maybe many people made excellent arrangements in life – but that will not fulfill you; that will not transport you to another dimension. It is just convenient.
When you say “love,” it need not necessarily be convenient; most of the time it is not. It takes life. Love is not a great thing to do, because it eats you up. If you have to be in love, you should not be. You as a person must be willing to fall, only then it can happen. If your personality is kept strong in the process, it is just a convenient situation, that’s all. We need to recognize what is a transaction and what is truly a love affair. A love affair need not be with any particular person; you could be having a great love affair, not with anybody in particular, but with life.

Simpne de Beauvoir : “The reciprocal recognition of two freedoms” Beauvoir’s thought on love is between authentic and inauthentic love. For her, loving inauthentically is an existential threat. When we believe that love will complete us, or when we lose ourselves in our beloved, we erase ourselves as independent beings. This is what de Beauvoir called loving in bad faith. In her society, men were encouraged much more than women to have interests and ambitions outside of their relationships, with the result that women were especially vulnerable to the dangers of inauthentic love.
Authentic love, on the other hand, involves partnerships in which both parties recognize each others’ independence, and pursue aims and interests outside of their relationship. Authentic love must be based on “reciprocal recognition of two freedoms”. This means that neither partner is subordinate to the other, nor takes all of their meaning from their love for that partner. Instead, each is an independent whole who freely chooses the other anew with every day without trying to possess them entirely.

Bell Hooks :
In All About Love: New Visions (2000) , she argues that our modern definition of love is too watered down by overuse of the word. Working from the idea that love is a verb, she then suggests ways to improve our modern concept of love and prevent what hinders it. She notes with a fervor that power discrepancies and the differences in how men and women are expected to approach love are a particular problem.

“The fear of being alone, or of being unloved, had caused women of all races to passively accept sexism and sexist oppression.” — Ain’t I a Woman? (1981)

Jean – Paul Sartre :
Sartre and Simone De Beauvoir had, quite possibly, the most famous open relationship of all time. Sartre first proposed the idea in a letter: “What we have is an essential love; but it is a good idea for us also to experience contingent love affairs.”
Sartre wrote extensively on love, especially in terms of the tension between freedom and objectivity, and seemed to struggle with the idea throughout his entire relationship. True love, Sartre felt, can come to fruition when both partners have a deep, mutual respect for the other’s freedom and resist the desire to “possess” each other as objects. For him, if all romantic relationships centered on the idea of ownership, there would be little room for introspection. Wrapped up in the pursuit of love is the idea that we are not only seeking a partner, but deeper insight into ourselves. Put more plainly: We’re looking for the “other half,” the “being” to our “nothingness.” Either way, Sartre got a whole lot of insight, especially for a guy with an oddly shaped head and a lazy eye.

Love asks me no questions, and gives me endless support – William Shakespeare

Internet & teens: The growing problem

How many hours do you stay connected with your favorite device, maybe the phone or your PC from which you are currently reading this post? A rough average can be not less than three hours up to nine hours or even more than that if you’re a social enthusiast or a gamer, these limits can go beyond that. Don’t you feel something is wrong? Also though time passes by, these little things go unnoticed, and we enjoy our life chatting and sharing photos, videos with them. But not everyone is capable of doing so, or their life is on the verge of destruction due to technology. Cyberbullying and harassing are prevalent, and also this pandemic has made every one of us spend more time on our devices. The transactions we do can be unsafe, and recently we see bans taken up the Government of India to highlight the nation’s potential security threat to steal user’s data and use them for their benefit.

A user accessing images on the tablet.

According to the new research done on around 2800 teens aged 8 to 11 from 17 different high schools in Australia, keeping two points in consideration about the internet and emotions, are they interconnected? Although web access is easily reachable to them, their parents do need to need to monitor their activities. But this isn’t easy for them; also, any wrong intention by an attacker can persuade the mind of the small children quickly through audios and visuals. The effect is minor though keeping them engaged in good education is also a must.

You may remember the case of Cambridge Analytica, where ads were shown to American users from 50 million user datasets of Facebook without any user permission. Eventually, GDPR for EU citizens made their online presence safer, and now users can know what data they are giving to them. You may notice now that most of the websites ask the consent for cookies of the site you are visiting when you go through them.

Some of the regular social messaging apps we use regularly.

A group of students from the University of Indonesia, after three months of effort, finally came up with a device known as Nettox, which can measure the levels of oxygen in your body along with the variation of heart rate factor or the HRV. The device will notify if the levels substantially dropdown beyond the regular rate due to prolonged usage on the devices. They are on the way to patent their creation.

If one is self-reliant, we don’t even require such devices. One should develop good habits, spend quality time with family and relatives or roam inside the room instead of being stuck to the display. The virtual age is growing and spanning everywhere if the uses are proper; it’ll help more in the future. There is so much news around the world, some are positive by using the technology appropriately, or else it can be dangerous too by getting addicted to it. One can inhibit the actual values of self-love and explore the hidden talents within you; you can polish them and outshine for a decisive lead in society.

The world of code can save your life or turn into a holocaust.

Evolution of Bollywood- from 1920’s to 2020

Lights Camera Action……..!!!!!

The word Bollywood is a play on Hollywood, with the B coming from Bombay (now known as Mumbai), which is the center of the Indian film world.The word was coined in the 1970
As their popularity grow, movies created in the Mumbay’s reached the number of 200 annual movies, West continued to ignore cinema efforts of Indian filmmakers, but they acknowledged them when India managed to overtook America as the biggest producer of movies in the world.

In 1913 and the silent film “Raja Harishchandra”the first-ever Indian feature film and First full-length Bollywood silent movie.Its producer, Dadasaheb Phalke, was Indian cinema’s first mogul, and he oversaw the production of 23 films between 1913 and 1918 Dadasaheb Phalke is considered the father of Indian cinema.

Its great success paved the way for the countless movies that followed him and the expansion of the indian cinema industry to incredible heights. One of the largest successes of that time was “Alam Ara” from 1931, sound movie that became basis of the joyful modern Bollywood musical. First Indian Colour movie “Kisan Kanya” was created in 1937, but such movies found popularity only in late 1950s and early 1960s.

Gaining independence from the British Raj was tough and spanned from 1857 to 1947 – lasting a gruelling 900 years. However, the struggles in gaining India’s independence enthused the film industry. Some of the most critically acclaimed films in Indian cinema were created during this time and explored the difficult working-class life in India and the reality of urban life.

It was around 1947 that the industry went through significant changes. The historical and mythological stories of the past were now being replaced by social-reformist films, The 1950s saw filmmakers such as Bimal Roy and Satyajit Ray focusing on the lives of the lower classes, who until then were mostly ignored as subjects.

Golden Age of Indian cinema took place between 1940s and 1960s. During that time countless influential Bollywood movies were released, exploring new storytelling techniues, social themes (mostly struggles and wonders of urban life), epic productions such as Mother India (1957). This period also popularized many Indian actors (Dev Anand, Dilip Kumar, Raj Kapoor, Guru Dutt) and actresses such as (Nargis, Vyjayanthimala, Meena Kumari, Nutan, Madhubala, and others).

1950 – The decade of extreme close-up The black and white era of 1950s was marked by songs shot in static frames with all the action happening through the eyes and eyebrows of our lead actors. So from extreme close-ups of the face to some relevant cut-ins of the moon, the flowers and the rustling of leaves, Bollywood songs welcomed more elements of dynamics of romance. Leading from the 1960s to the early 1970s came the birth of Modern Bollywood Cinema. This included the domination of two distinct genres: boy-meets-girl romance films and gritty action productions.

1960 – The decade of pure dance and enchnating eyes
Actors like Vyjayanthimala, Waheeda Rehman and Mala Sinha slowly brought dance in the 1960s. Songs like “Honton Mein Aisi Baat” and “Piya Tose Naina Laage Re” resonate not just the beauty of these divas but also the sanctity of songs of this era. Even in their guest appearances Helen, Bindu and Aruna Irani became the perfect face of RD Burman’s tracks in the 1970s. They either happened inside the villain’s den or were meant to add thrill to the climax. From “Piya Tu Ab To Aaja” to “Mera Naam Hai Shabnam” and “Chadti Jawani Meri Chaal Mastani”, the songs of this phase still hold a place in our party playlist.In the 1970’s the name “Bollywood” was officially coined as conventions of commercial Bollywood films truly became defined.

1980 – The decade of growing romance.
Come 1980s and the royal reign of RD Burman continued Parveen Babi and Zeenat Aman lead the epic playlist of this era. “Pyar Mein Dil Pe Maar De Goli” had as much stuff happening in the song as in “Pyaar Karne Wale”.
Music and songs in this period were intimately connected to the storyline. They were written and woven as per the requirements of the film and in the respective situations.While Lata Mangeshkar, Mohammad Rafi, Asha Bhonsle, Kishore Kumar and Hemant Kumar were the mainstay of the playback singing scene, big actors like Amitabh Bachchan, Shashi Kapoor and Rishi Kapoor gave them the apt face value. This perfect combination reciprocated well onscreen too. Bachchan’s songs were either playful or had intense action happening (not literal fighting but the thrill of the climax).
Towards the second half of 1980s and early 1990s, we had films like Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak, Ram Lakhan, Saajan and Dil Hai Ke Manta Nahin – all musical blockbusters. On the other side of the camera, it introduced us with the voices of Udit Narayan, Alka Yagnik and Kumar Sanu, on the front these songs majorly had a dreamy set-up, making anyone fall in love. There was romance, longing, betrayal and confessions and every aspect was shot with a proper screenplay of its own. Each song, be it “Pehla Nasha”, “Ae Mere Humsafar”, “Dil Hai Ke Manta Nahin” or “Bahut Pyar Karte Hain”, made us believe in love.

1990 – The decade of Celebration.
The 80s and 90s brought back spotlight romantic musicals and family-centric films, and in 1995, Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge was released. Becoming the highest grossing Bollywood film of the year and one of the most successful Indian films its soundtrack became one of the most popular of the 1990s. Even today, the film has been showing at a Mumbai cinema, Maratha Mandir, since its original release in 1995. A portion of the 1990s also introduced us to the three khans, madhuri dixit and others.

2000 – The decade of quick moves
Bollywood finally managed to reach outside of India and land in the West. Many of their lavish productions received significant box office success all around the world, especially after the critical success of “Lagaan: Once Upon a Time in India” in 2001.

Fourteen days into the new millennium, Kaho Naa Pyaar Hai launched Hrithik Roshan overnight superstardom.
Dil Chahta Hai (2001) was differentThe songs by Shankar Ehsaan Loy. One of its lines, appropriately, announced – Hum Hai Naye Andaz Kyun Ho Purana. penned by Javed Akhtar give Dil Chahta Hai a socio-cultural perspective.
A lot was going on in the 2000s. Single screens started to make way for multiplexes. The Hindi film industry, leaving the days of dubious underworld fundings behind, was being corporatised.Stars reinvented themselves. Amitabh Bachchan started acting his age. Aamir Khan – enabler, collaborator, producer and not just actor – promised quality mainstream entertainment, and delivered on most counts Rang De Basanti,Taare Zameen Par,3 Idiots,Hera Pheri (2000) helped find Akshay Kumar, an action star in the 90s, his sublime comic side. Shah Rukh did some of his most loved films – Kal Ho Na Ho (2003), Swades (2004) and Chak De India (2007); Main Hoon Na and Om Shanti Om.
Lage Raho Munnabhai – which established Raju Hirani as a major director .
New faces like Hrithik Roshan and Aishwarya Rai added to the star value. Both being brilliant dancers with beautiful personalities shone onscreen. Aamir’s antics in tracks like “Aati Kya Khandala”, made each of their song a national favourite. And amid Kabhie Khushi Kabhi Gham to fix any loose ends. This phase saw the canvas of songs grow to exorbitant levels. Bollywood has inspired films overseas including Danny Boyle’s Slumdog Millionaire which won four Golden Globes and eight Academy Awards, and Moulin Rouge which director Baz Luhrmann says was influenced by Bollywood Musicals

2010 – The decade of New era
As 2000s entered its second decade, the “item songs” were back and with more action. 2010 alone gave us two of the biggest recent tracks – “Munni Badnaam” and “Sheila Ki Jawani”.

This was the Ranbir Kapoor-Deepika Padukone-Anushka Sharma-Ranveer singh phase giving movies – Yeh Jawaani hai Deewani, Bajirao Mastani,Ramleela, Sui Dhaaga Their songs emphasised their beauty as the camera moved in and out of their face to their chiselled appearance.

In years to come, Abhishek Chaubey’s revisionist dacoit film, Sonchiriya, and two fine festival titles from 2018:
historicals (Manikarnika, Panipat), war films (Uri: The Surgical Strike), action blockbusters (War),patriotic (Kesari)
Also blockbuster Khan’s gave ,Bajrangi Bhaijaan,sultan , My name is khan,Raees, Dangal and PK, and he made a killing overseas and Secret Superstar.
Shahid kapoor –Jab We Met,Kabir Singh ,Ayushmann khurrana – Dum laga ke haisha, Dream girl, bareilly ki barfi, Sushant Singh Rajput – Kai Po Che, Chhichhore, M. S.Dhoni, Rajkummar Rao – Stree and Pankaj Tripathi. This new Middle Cinema dovetailed with arthouse film Masaan.
This decade, several actors joined Manoj Bajpayee and Irrfan Khan- Hindi Medium in the fertile middle ground between superstardom and niche acclaim. Nawazuddin Siddiqui broke through in 2012 with Kahaani and Gangs Of Wasseypur.
A number of Indian films from different regions are often included among the greatest films of all times in various critics and directors polls.Indian Cinema will be eternal as decades move on….

Phobos: Reimagining through a new view

3, 2, 1, Liftoff. You may remember the moment when the countdown was going on for the PSLV C25 at 02:36 PM IST to lift from Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh on November 5, 2013, carrying the other five payloads containing the colour camera which now captured new images of Phobos moon. Let’s have the insights on the Mangalyaan. Mangalyaan or Mars Craft from its Sanskrit root words, the orbiter weighing 3 thousand lbs (1.35 thousand kgs) was a successful mission lately after being criticized for the initial failure. The budget was merely 73 million dollars or 450 crores Indian rupees equivalent to an Indian cinema movie’s box office collection for Ghajini in 2008 as recorded in 2019.

The planet Mars has two moons, namely Phobos and Deimos. The closest and the biggest among the two moons is Phobos. It was picturised as shown above with the color corrected six frames MCC on July 1, 2020, with 210m spatial resolution. The MOM (Mars Orbiter Mission) was 7.2 thousand km away from Mars and 4.2 thousand km from the moon Phobos. It is said that it comprises of carbonaceous chondrite. The giant crater on the surface, namely Stickney, Shklovsky, Roche & Grildrig was noticeable in the picture.

Actual image of the moon Phobos. Courtesy: ISRO

With its fuel efficiency estimated to be only for six months survives till now and achieved success on its first launch itself. On December 1, 2013, it went out of the gravitation field sooner. On September 24, 2014, after a long journey of 300 days makes it enter into the Mars orbit. The subsequent mission by ISRO, MOM 2 or Mangalyaan 2 did fail when the Vikram lander had lost connection after it crashes over the surface. There is no proper evidence of what exactly went wrong in the mission, but it is said that the ALP (Automatic Landing Program) braking thrusters had failed to result in the incidence. There was a big controversy between NASA and ISRO claiming the lander was found, although an Indian scientist spotted it.

Now ISRO with its grand vision is planning for Chandrayaan 3 to send Indian astronauts to space by 2022. This mission is again a cost saver with 35 million dollars for the new equipment and another 51 million dollars for the launcher. India has been already prosperous in launching 104 satellites just in a single mission. Chandrayaan 2 was made only with 141 million dollars budget.

The MOM as described has five instruments onboard:

1) MCC with a 2K×2K area array CMOS sensor for beautiful images of Mars in colourised format.

2) TIS (Thermal Infrared grating spectrometer) houses an infrared detector known as a microbolometer.

3) Methane Sensor for Mars (MSM) by its name is used to measure the presence of methane in the atmosphere, which is a differential radiometer with acute accuracy in parts per billion.

4) Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyzer (MENCA) is a spectrometer to determine the contents in the martian environment

5) Lyman Alpha Photometer (LAP) is a photometer to find abundance in composition to know the actual components on the surface and more.

By these, we can know more about Mars and its moons. Also, you can check out the 3D model of Phobos here: https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/resources/2358/phobos-3d-model/

And also, about NASA’s blog claiming to find clues of the crashed Vikram lander: https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/goddard/2019/vikram-lander-found

India and Knowledge Society

Let knowledge come from all sides. (RIG VEDA):

Knowledge has always been an essential and distinguishing characteristic of human society, for human beings are unique among all species in their extended capacity to formulate, systematize, preserve and consciously transmit organized bodies of knowledge from one individual, community, generation and location to another. That is the essence of all that is known as education.

There is almost universal recognition that knowledge as a product and as an instrument will be the basic foundation for competitiveness of individual business and of nations in the 21st century. Robust research findings suggest that knowledge as a factor of production explains a substantial proportion of economic growth internationally.

 Historically, Indian society is a hierarchical society and its knowledge base has always been elitist. Whether it is the caste based system or the colonial education system, access to knowledge has primarily been the privilege of the few. But such a system can never lay the foundation for a holistic development strategy. Therefore, all socio-economic and political
ideas have to be focused on inclusive growth and socio-economic equality in the real sense

The recent focus of good governance is to enable inclusive growth and development. India has come a long way from the hierarchical society and its exclusive educational system which we imbibed from our cultural and social heritage, as well as our colonial past. The thrust of the envisaged changes in the society calls for knowledge for all and a shift towards an inclusive
knowledge based society.

“If we value the pursuit of knowledge, we must be free to follow wherever that search may lead us” said Adlai E. Stevenson. This is the idea behind the concept of an inclusive society based on free and easy access to knowledge for all.

Knowledge Society consists of practices and policies for using intellectual assets to support key economic objectives and to reduce vulnerability gaps, and in the process of social transformation strengthening national security .Knowledge management deals with the knowledge as a corporate resource. Knowledge culture is necessary for survival and success in the modern world of business.

Knowledge is only one input to the development process, but it is an absolutely essential one. Without adequate knowledge all the other essential inputs-land, infrastructure, factories, capital, technology, administrative and social organization-cannot yield full results. Enhancing knowledge generation, dissemination and application is the fastest, most cost-effective means of increasing the productivity of all these other resources and accelerating national development.
Development depends on four knowledge processes:

  • Knowledge generation and acquisition through scientific discovery, R&D and transfer of technology.
  • Knowledge adaptation through innovation to particular fields, needs and operating environments.
  • Knowledge dissemination through formal and informal channels from knowledge developers and adapters to those responsible for applying the knowledge in society.
  • Knowledge application through skilled action in fields, factories, classrooms, hospitals and every other field of activity to achieve practical results.

The competencies that would count in the emerging Knowledge Age are intelligence, knowledge, good formal educational qualifications and skills in communicative English-we are abundant in it.

Knowledge is important not only for the rich but also for the poor. This is all the more relevant in a country such as India where the gap between the rich and the poor is enormous. Thus India has to closely link economic development with social development .Technology can assist in the development of the social sector. The anytime-anywhere and death-of-distance paradigms of technology enable better leveraging of scarce resources. Computerized learning aids, cyber classes and e-education are instances of use of technology in education. Knowledge is the key driver in the race for economic leadership. A key imperative today is for the government to collaborate with the private sector and industry in building knowledge infrastructure. This includes partnership for developing talent, formulating conducive regulatory framework, creating bandwidth and providing affordable computing power.

It is suggested that Indian policy makers and organisations consider focusing on the following areas to prepare for a knowledge-based economy and society.

First, good quality institutions, a reasonable degree of contestability in the economy and in polity, and an outward-orientation are essential for creating, diffusing and adapting knowledge in India; efforts should be made to deepen and institutionalise economic and governance reforms.

Second, strong education and training in technology and science are essential as knowledge cannot be absorbed unless some basic knowledge is already possessed. Reforming education policies and regulations, particularly those designed to increase supply and quality, should be an urgent priority. India must preserve traditional knowledge and subject it to scientific enquiry and application.

Third, capabilities to take advantage of international conventions such as converting product and process knowledge into patents and intellectual property rights must be developed. Commoditisation of traditional knowledge by more resourceful countries needs to be addressed through cooperation among developing countries, which have similar interests.

Fourth, private and public sector firms and organisations of developing countries must be open to new ideas. There is no more insidious colonisation than colonisation of the mind. In most Indian organisations, the desire to reform traditional methods of administration and delivery of government services is essential if the efficiencies arising from the knowledge-economy are to be realised.

Fifth, multiple sources of new ideas and experiments, including rural technology innovations, need to be cultivated. If such sources of ideas are combined with encouraging social entrepreneurship, i.e. meeting social needs with capitalist means, and with effective public private partnerships, application of knowledge-economy to diverse areas can be facilitated.

Sixth, a great deal of knowledge is organisation, context or location-specific. The challenge is to use it to address specific economic and social needs. India’s heterogeneity can be used to great advantage in discovering and diffusing location specific knowledge to develop more sustainable, relatively less elaborate, production and supply chains.

These, in turn, may help increase resilience of local economies to external shocks.

The National Knowledge Commission (NKC), an advisory body set up in 2005, has five focus areas, namely easy access to knowledge, emphasis on education at all levels, creation of knowledge, application of knowledge to all sectors, and better delivery of services in all sectors. The NKC however has not received strong political support. Its recommendations have been blocked by petty political and bureaucratic rivalries. Unwillingness or inability to assert strong political leadership by the Prime Minister in this area has contributed to the erosion of his authority, while constraining India’s future options and prospects.

Many believe that those representing Indian institutions will have the capacity to push for a level playing field on the world scene as far as access to technology and the relevant knowledge bases are concerned at the same time as they foster the development of local knowledge and ICT applications. However, this will depend on other factors such as international trade relations and whether the government and other stakeholders can avoid becoming victims of the ICT fetish. India’s resilient features and strengths in terms of its social organisation, its cultural resources and its vast reservoir of knowledge workers should not be frittered away as a result of greater than necessary participation in the global knowledge society.

India was a knowledge force in the ancient days. Let us again restore this status to Bharat again. Let us draw inspiration from our great wise men of the past and the intellectual leadership of the present and make the world exclaim, “The Wonder That Is India.”

India of the ages is not dead nor has she spoken her last word, she lives and has still something to do for herself and the humankind. (AURBINDO GHOSH)

Peanuts : Nutrition And Health Benefits

A native to South America and introduced to other tropical countries many centuries ago, peanuts though classified as a nut, are actually not nuts as it belongs to the family of legumes like soy, beans and lentils. In India, they are mostly grown in tropical states like Andhra Pradesh, Telangana , Tamil Nadu, Gujrat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan.

Nutrition :

Peanuts or Ground nuts are abundant in protein, healthy fats and dietary fibres that can curb your appetite, lower the risk of heart disease and regulate sugar levels. They are immensely rich in Potassium, Calcium, Phosphorus and B Vitamins which can provide you with a lot of health benefits.

Groundnut Nutrition per 100 gms

Calories 567 kcal

Total Carbohydrate 16g

Dietary fiber 9g

Sugar 4g

Protein 26g

Total Fat 49g

Saturated Fat 7g

Cholesterol 0mg

Sodium 18mg

Potassium 705 mg

Calcium 134mg

Iron 6.7mg

Manganese 245mg

Phosphorus 549

Water 7%

Health Benefits :

Heart – friendly

Peanuts help to keep the heart healthy. They lower bad cholesterol and increase good cholesterol levels in the blood, only to prevent coronary artery disease and strokes by promoting healthy blood lipid profile.

Brain Food

It is due to the presence of Vitamin B3 or niacin that helps improve the functionality of the brain and further boosts memory. They also contain a flavonoid known as resveratrol that helps in improving blood flow to the brain.

Helps in weight loss

The combination of fiber, fat and protein in peanuts helps keep you full for longer and lowers your appetite. They are good source of energy that help increase the metabolic rate.

Helps deal with stress and anxiety

Stress and anxiety are two symptoms of depression. Amino acid known as tryptophan present in peanuts releases serotonin a brain chemical that is involved in mood regulation. It keeps us calm and mentally aware.

Best for diabetics

Peanuts make a great snack option for diabetics due to the presence of manganese, a mineral that plays an important role in metabolizing fat and carbohydrate, Calcium absorption and blood sugar regulation. They are known to have a low glycemic index that makes it a perfect go to snack for diabetics.

Good for skin and hair

Vitamins present in peanuts helps in delaying visible significance ageing. It is beneficial for skin. It is also good source of B Vitamins that convert in to biotin only to induce hair growth.

Promotes Fertility

It also contains a good amount of flame. Several studies have shown that women who had a daily consumption of 400 mg of folic acid before and during early pregnancy reduced the risk of having a baby born with a serious neutral tube defect by up to 70%.

The article was all about nutrition facts and health benefits of peanuts. Hope you find this article useful.