Category Archives: Research Paper

Which is the Best Hop on Hop off Bus Tours in Athens

Athens has a different thing and lots of historical places are also included there. We all love traveling and also we discover Athens from open top hop on hop off double Decker sightseeing bus. With the taking option to get visit Piraeus too exactly. As much as we will learn about Athens so much will come to know attractions and desires are to visit more and more.  tripindicator.com is comparing top Hop on Hop Off Bus Tours in Athens.1-term3

How much benefits we can have hop on hop off buss traveling in Athens

Tracing the history and then culture of Athens from ancient times to the good way like the present day on this tour of central Athens is great. Hop on and off at 15 top sights and also attractions like top sights and attraction times like in one complete day.

It is the way will enjoy the company of whole live guide experience and will also tips about each of the time and historical place.

Classified timing is absolutely available and then can also enjoy the whole city of Berlin properly.

Will also have enjoyment and then the audio commentary and will be in different languages.

Complimentary and also the cruise tours and attractions are available.

Best hop on hop off bust tours have in Athens

As going to complete the guide and about top ticket supplier we have in Athens. It is also available briefly and to give the guidance along with it. It is the thing necessary to have to do is to compare the price of each ticket and move for the cheaper one. Now it is the extra saving and then to get here best of options and can also get benefits.

Athens, Piraeus, Riviera hop on hop of city sightseeing tour

Exactly no matter what cruise ship and to arrive on it is the way to perfect and to do it like yourself shore excursion and Athens and then attraction in city sightseeing Athens offer with the specific rates. There is no hard rate for traveling and enjoying and available in just $23.75.

Athens Piraeus and Glyfada Hop on hop off tours

Exactly discoing Athens Piraeus and Glyfada is with Athens open tour and then the first Greek hop in hop out Bus Company which is great. It is very amazing having as like enjoying and traveling more and more anywhere we want. No having so much price and too higher extra rates but available in but $17.81.

Hop on hop off classic tour of Athens

Traveling is great so then it will be the amazing choice if we can solve issues while traveling. So as that to complete tour of Athens and to include various key sights of Athens like is just amazing. Actually like the acropolis and then Parthenon and anathematic stadium with the two interchanging lines and crosses. Not too costly package for this travelling but amazingly upon the way of just $15.44 and it is fantastic.

Superb reviews of consumers about Athens tours and trips

There is nothing critical to hear about and people who consumed and to get reviews about Athens bus tour which is to have and to complete simply type trip advisor into the browser and will get the details and information clearly. Now you can also read up to 3.5 reviews and then Athens attractions and sightseeing and visit tripindicator.com for more Bus tours.

Tips for Free attractions in Athens

Like the way exploring Athens with the 24 hour ticket and marvel at the Acropolis and with the Parthenon extremely valuable. Actually visiting the national gardens and then city has lots of many museums. So as that shop at the different stops and along with the bus route and then to get see the amazing sailing boats for traveling.

Parliament change of guards

Actually the ceremony takes place every hour in front of Parliament in Athens is wonderful free attraction and will see the guards called Evzones and wearing traditional customs and standing guards in front of the tomb of Unknown Soldier.

National Gardens picnic point

Exact location is right behind of the Parliament building and national gardens are an oasis into the heart of the city and then were actually designed by Queen Amalia. It is home to lots of plants and animals so be careful and also inside the garden will see a small lake with the ducks including in it.

Advertisements

What the Price Depends on When You Buy Dissertation and Thesis Online

The factor that makes most undergraduates refuse to order a custom-written college term paper online is that such a service is never cheap. ‘Does that price for my order suit me?’ – you always ask yourself this question, don’t you? However, before saying ‘no’ you need to know what influences the price when you buy dissertation and thesis on BuyDissertations.com or any other resource you may search on the web.

Research writing and publication services

TOP 5 Factors That Dictate Prices When Your Buy Thesis Online or a Dissertation

We’d like to start with the fact that prices vary depending on a company as well as on the writers who write the works. There are writing services that offer low-cost papers regardless whether they are dissertations or essays, and the companies with rather high prices even when the dissertation topics are not complicated.

If you are a regular buyer on a website, you may have noticed that you buy pieces at different prices even if the subject or even writer is the same. It happens due to few other things that influence the total sum:

  1. Deadline (the tighter it is, the more you are to pay);
  2. Academic level (Bachelor’s, Master’s, MBA, PhD);
  3. Paper type (review, essay, doctoral, master, proposal, thesis, etc.);
  4. Number of pages in an academic assignment;
  5. Author of an abstract (you may choose among native speaking masters from the UK or the USA or non-native ones but with a good command of the language).

As the assistance type differs every time a new purchase is about to be made, no wonder you need to transfer different sums of money to get the needed help. Do not go for a research work that is either too cheap or too expensive. We suggest searching for sites that offer the best type of consultation as well as support at average prices and guarantee free proofreading and editing. Look through reviews, pay attention to the subject you need a sample paper be written in (Literature, Language, Science, Medicine, Art, Law, etc.) and then choose a corresponding maker and price.

PhD Paper: How to Save More When You Order Dissertation for Cheap?

Be a regular customer. Many professional agencies, with experts ready to complete tasks for sale, offer special discounts to regular clients. Working with the same model builder, you save from 5% to 15% on every new sample. Total savings depend on how much was spent before.

After consulting a highly rated helper and ideas generator, deciding on the right methodology, and answering all questions, you pay the cost and wait till your excellent example is delivered.

The Growing Influence of Certification in Businesses

No matter you are running a SME or a multi-national company, it is always good to have some passionate, skilled, effective and certified employees in your workforce. Once you have the right employees working for you, you can make the most of your business. After all, it is all about what you do and how you do it all.Certification Software

Why companies look for certified employees?

Since the competition is on rise and the businessmen are after capabilities and results; they have started giving much importance to certification. It has been seen that much importance is given to candidates who have done certified things. It is good to have proper certification software so as to get a good place in the working space. Your business would grow when there are employees who are certified and have good knowledge about the specific areas or respective zones.

What is this certification all about?

Software Certifications has turned out to be recognized worldwide as the standard for information technology quality declaration professionals. Certification is a huge step; a great decision. Certification classifies an individual as a quality assurance leader. Certification fetches the candidate the respect of workers and managers. One or more of such types of certifications is often a prerequisite for promotion or getting a fresh position. Certainly, if you have your employees certified in different software, you can be ensured that they are qualified. After all, certification is formal and professional recognition of a degree of proficiency in the information technology quality assurance industry. The receiver is considered to be having an overall understanding of the disciplines and skills signified in a comprehensive body of knowledge for a particular software discipline.

Why should a person become certified?

As the IT industry and world gets more competitive, the capability for management to differentiate professional and skilled individuals in the profession gets mandatory. Certification showcases a great level of understanding in performing quality assurance principles and practices. If you take the candidates for different roles in your business, you can proudly state that they are capable and efficient. Certification is always helpful for the employees and the employers. There are certifications like:

  • Certified Software Quality Analyst (CSQA)
  • Certified Software Tester (CSTE)
  • Certified Associate in Software Testing (CAST)
  • Certified Software Business Analyst (CSBA)
  • Certified Associate in Software Quality (CASQ)
  • Certified Manager of Software Testing (CMST)
  • Certified Associate Business Analyst (CABA)
  • Certified Manager of Software Quality (CMSQ)

To acquire the designation for any of the above given certifications showcases a professional level of competence in the  practices  and principles of quality assurance in the IT world as well as get recognition as software quality profession, attain potentially more fast career advancement, and attain better acceptance in the role as the advisor to the management. Certainly if you are an employer and you recruit the candidates who have certification in different areas, it would be effective for your overall growth. The growth of the employees would directly impact the overall development of the business.

Types of Certification programs

Though certification programs fall under the training canopy, there are a few relatively unique differences between these types of programs and specific training programs. Certification programs usually encompass an assessment of knowledge, abilities and skills    while training programs might include this kind of evaluation, and it is surely not a need. Similarly certification programs end in the bestowment of a credential that shows and underlines that the holder has met a particular standard in terms of possession of an ability to demonstrate the learned skills. Training programs do not characteristically encompass such type of signifier. And for some of the certification programs, training is not at all needed at all. Employees have the option to relinquish preparatory training and skip directly to the assessment of their ability so as to attain certification.

As the purpose and processes included in certifications programs are entirely different from typical training programs, their development and design also incline to differ. The finest practices dictate that both should begin with an analysis of the kind of work being performed and the Knowledge, Skills and Abilities.  It is required to perform that work, as well as a requirements analysis to find out gaps between the needed KSAs and present workforce capabilities.   It is absolutely vital to keep both purpose and process in your mind when you develop a certification program. Though there are resemblances between these programs and conventional training, differences across the two are likely to be produce divergent work and needs analyses results.

Promotion

Many of the companies do give promotion to the employees on the basis of their work and certifications. There are different levels of certifications and these become criteria of promotion. You can be sure that your employees are capable of getting the next designation in the company on the basis of these certifications. These certifications ensure quality in your employees and you can be sure where they stand in terms of their calibre and capabilities. It is a good practice to have or conduct a software certification program. You can come across different types of certifications for different types of business roles. It would be your take to decide what you need and how things would be.

Conclusion

Thus, the moral of the story is that you can come across the best talent and professionals working beneath you in the presence of software certification. It would help your business grow and enhance.

3 Paths to Financial Freedom

p1.png

\You have decided this is the year you get out of debt.  You can see the finish line and can almost feel how amazing it will be to be debt free.   You are formulating a plan and budget and you’ve chosen to refinance your home so you don’t have to use high-interest credit cards to supplement your income.  Sometimes, this can be difficult to do.  With average credit card APR of 16.65% as of April 2018, paying down balances is challenging.  But you don’t want to be free of debt. You also want to have enough funds or income for comfort.  Here are some things you can begin today to help you achieve financial success.

Cut Expenses

p2

Cutting expenses and living a more frugal lifestyle can take some time to adjust to but will benefit you on the road to financial freedom.  Cooking at home instead of dining out is a great start.  The money you would have spent going out for dinner can be applied directly towards high-interest debt or put into a savings account to begin building wealth.  Once you start to develop the habit of saving money and cutting expenses, it can become addictive!  Look for other areas of spending that you may be able to adjust like cutting the cord with cable tv and switching to streaming devices instead.  Look for fun free activities that you can do in your neighborhood or city on the weekends.

Increase Income

The flip side of cutting your expenses is to work on increasing your income.  Looking for areas of opportunity for growth in your current position, or actively seeking out a higher paying new job.  Maybe taking a class or certification can help you to earn more in your career.  Picking up a part-time job is also an option.  Putting back all the income from your part-time job into a savings or investment account can help build your nest egg.  Or, if you have high-interest debt, a part-time job can do wonders for eliminating the deficit quickly.  Do odd jobs around the neighborhood or even host a yard sale. It is incredible how much stuff we accumulate that we no longer use but could sell.

Pay Off High-Interest Debt

You cannot have financial freedom if you are still in a cycle of debt.  Part of cutting expenses and paying off debt is thinking through your medium and large purchases.  Waiting to purchase big ticket items until you have the funds to cover it in cash is the best way to go.  If this is not an option, then pay in cash what you can, charge the rest and try and pay it off within 30 days to avoid accruing additional interest.

p3

If you owe on multiple cards or owe a higher balance, a secured loan could be the answer.  Regardless of where you live, you can find a title loan company to help you.   It could be Philadelphia or Los Angeles.  Just look up your location and “title loan in Google,” and you can get the help you need.  For example, “San Jose title loan”  in a quick search online could be the answer.

With secured loans, such as a title loan, you can use your vehicle title as collateral to obtain a loan with a lower interest rate.  You can use these funds to pay off the high-interest rate cards, make a lower monthly payment, and continue driving your vehicle during the life of the loan.

Any step you take towards gaining your financial freedom should be celebrated.  Work off small victories and don’t be too hard on yourself if you indulge occasionally.  Make small changes first, such as paying off a credit card or loan with a more modest balance, then tackling the next and so on.  You will find creative ways to pay off debt and find ways to earn extra income at the same time.  We wish you luck on your journey!

Erin Schollaert is a full-time teacher, mother, driver of children, cooker of dinner, washer of laundry, sayer of bad words, and hockey mom extraordinaire. She is not afraid to speak her mind, even if that means dropping a few old-fashioned hashtags, $#!&. In her free time — like that exists — she blogs in order to vent the frustration that comes with raising three kids. Her mantra, blogging, and swearing are better than a drinking problem.

Everything You Need to Know About Telangiectasias and Reticular Veins

veins

Telangiectasias and Reticular veins are common vein disorders that are diagnosed when there is the presence of spider or reticular veins on a person’s legs.

Problems existing within the veins commonly point to a venous insufficiency, resulting in the highly visible external spider veins making their way across an afflicted person’s legs.

Resulting from the stretching of diminutively-sized veins very close to the skin, blood subsequently fills the abundance of new space to ultimately create clearly visible telangiectasias and reticular veins on the skin.

With their spidery, tree-branch-like appearance, these impacted veins can manifest as a cluster or as a grouping of haphazard single lines.

While most commonly found on the legs, these types of veins can also present themselves in the facial area through extended exposure to the sun and chronic rosacea.

 

Read on below for our highly informative, easy-to-read primer to learn everything you need to know about telangiectasias and reticular veins.

venis 2

Telangiectasia Explained

A telangiectasia is a confluence of dilated intradermal venules of less than 1 mm in caliber. More commonly referred to as spider veins, telangiectasia veins range in color from red and pink to purple-blue. Occurring in roughly 40% of the general population, telangiectasias are experienced by men, and more commonly by women.

Within the classification of vein disorder, telangiectasias are indicated as a Type I vein that is responsive to treatments such as dynamic foam sclerotherapy and laser therapy. Both therapies aim to treat the feeder veins underlying telangiectasias, subsequently leading to the introduction of topical lasers to comprehensively eradicate telangiectasias.

 

Reticular Veins Explained
Reticular veins, also known as blue veins or feeder veins, are smaller than varicose veins but may also have a ropy appearance. Primarily occurring in the back of the legs and around the knees, reticular veins measure anywhere from one millimeter to about three millimeters in diameter.

This type of vein condition is classified as a type III vein and is extremely painful. When present along with telangiectasias, treatment of reticular veins must be conducted first via injection with subsequent injections performed on the telangiectasias. Treating the reticular veins first is imperative in helping patients experience anyu early recurrence of these agonizing veins.

What causes Telangiectasias and Reticular veins

These veins are typically the result of acquired causes but can also be caused by congenital disorders. Examples of acquired causes include:

 

  • Acne rosacea
  • Long-term sun exposure
  • Extended cold exposure
  • Skin trauma from incisions or contusions
  • Radiation exposure
  • Chemotherapy
  • Carcinoid syndrome
  • Extended use of topical corticosteroids
  • Smoking

 

Examples of congenital disorders that cause telangiectasias and reticular veins are as follows:

 

  • Bloom’s syndrome
  • Port-wine stain
  • Hypotrichosis–lymphedema–telangiectasia syndrome
  • Ataxia-telangiectasia
  • Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome
  • Maffucci’s syndrome
  • Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome

Symptoms of Telangiectasias and Reticular Veins

 

  • Discomfort and pain in the legs
  • Facial pain
  • Aching, throbbing, burning in the legs or face
  • A feeling of heaviness
  • Fatigue
  • Swelling
  • Intense itching

 

Treatment Options: Telangiectasias and Reticular Veins

Nationally recognized as a leader in vein disorder treatments, USA Vein Clinics states that the treatment of these specific vein issues no longer requires invasive surgery procedures.

Conversely, in today’s modern times, patients can be treated with dynamic foam sclerotherapy and ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy regimes – therapies that are incredibly effective, non-invasive, affordable, and convenient that are now being rapidly adopted by doctors and treatment centers around the world.

Dynamic foam sclerotherapy involves a complex system of injection techniques and is used as a long-term method for the treatment of telangiectasias and reticular veins.

Treatment is first used on reticular veins and then subsequent treatments are performed on the telangiectasias. Over time, the treatments break down the impacted veins, rendering them to a collapsed and faded state.
Conservative treatment options are also widely available and include:

  • Compression stockings
  • Regular exercise
  • Using plant-based bioflavonoid supplements that have anti-inflammatory properties…can have beneficial effects on vein disorders in terms of appearance and physical comfort
  • Note: Reticular veins, while exceedingly painful, are also considered cosmetic problems. Unwitting patients have attempted to visit dermatologists, beauty salons, and similar establishments to improve the color and surface of their veins.

The treatments administered by these establishments may (but not always) very temporarily improve the color and texture of the veins but the fact remains that the underlying disorder still exists and required high-tech injection treatment by a medical specialist

 

Telangiectasias and Reticular Veins Considerations

If you have already been diagnosed with telangiectasias and/or reticular veins, there are an immense number of health care professionals available to assist you in alleviating the appearance and pain of the veins on your body. Many of these centers are headed by doctors with decades of experience in administering injections to damaged veins. Further, there are an array of clinics that offer affordable pricing along with convenient payment plans.

On the other hand, if you are worried about potentially becoming affiliated with these unsightly, uncomfortable, and painful veins, there are many easy ways to make educated assessments about the likelihood of contracting them.

As mentioned above, certain congenital disorders can cause vein issues, along with a range of elements that can contribute to an acquired case of telangiectasias or reticular veins.

By practicing prevention and staying mindful of lifestyle decisions such as not smoking, limiting exposure to radiation, and partaking in regular exercise can all serve to assist you in living a life free of these frustratingly arduous veins.

333

 

Affect Theory

Locke’s “Affect Theory (1976)” is probably the best known job delight model. The principle premise of this idea is that pleasure is determined via a mismatch amongst “what one wants in a process” and “what one has currently”. Further, the idea states that “how a great deal one values a given side of labour (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a feature) moderates how satisfied/disillusioned one will become even as expectancies are/aren’t met”. While a person values a particular side of a procedure, his pleasure is extra considerably impacted every in reality (at the same time as expectations are met) and negatively (while expectancies aren’t met), in comparison to new how doesn’t cost that aspect. to demonstrate, if worker appreciates freedom in the work area and worker is detached approximately freedom, then worker A would be extra glad in a function that offers more freedom and much less satisfied in a function with little or no autonomy in comparison to worker B. This concept additionally states that “an excessive amount of a specific aspect will produce more potent emotions of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet”.

How to Choose a Great Admission Essay Topic

This article includes the best pieces of advice on how to choose a good topic for your admission essay. You will learn the basic rules of writing such types of essays as well.

How-To-Write-A-College-Admission--Essay

How to Choose a Great Admission Essay Topic

Writing an essay, especially an admission one, may seem a hard task for those who have never done this before. You may hesitate a lot before you start your writing due to your lack of knowledge of what to include in your essay. So, picking up the topic of your essay is the first and probably the most difficult thing to do. Today we will convince you that your essay’s topic has great influence on the content of your admission essay and therefore it should be chosen responsibly.

Whether you are entering a college or a university, you will certainly have to teach yourself writing an admission essay as it is the half of a road to successful admission. Should admission essays include special terminology or some metaphors? Should you fully introduce your personality in the text? Or should it be just your thoughts on some topic? It is difficult to decide, but we will help you with that.

The most important pieces of advice to pick up a topic:

  • First and foremost, do not panic. Let your consciousness believe you know what to write about. The best way to write a good admission essay is to start doing it at least a week before the deadline. You should have enough time to clear your thoughts.
  • Do a brainstorm and write all your ideas on paper, even those which seem inconvenient or stupid to you.
  • Think about the case that proves your authenticity and shows your good traits. Every human being is unique, so coming up with such a case should be easy.
  • Ask yourself “So what?”. Understanding the use of the story you are writing about is necessary.
  • Include the things you are proud of. Usually, talking about the things that praise your personality is one of the easiest tasks. But do not exaggerate, it will be obvious if you are too arrogant.

The Main Requirement for an Admission Essay

The requirements vary from college to college, from university to university. But some things remain the same for all the essays. For an admission essay, it is normal to write approximately 500 words. The subject should be personal and demonstrate your skills or life circumstances. Therefore, try to describe them well to become a more desirable candidate.

You should not write an art composition because the style of an admission essay is very formal. But your creativity should not be limited as it is a precious thing the admission board will appreciate. Remember that not every person is able to tell a great story in 500 words. It is your chance to prove your pithiness in writing. Start with a detailed text and exclude some unnecessary things step by step.

Standing out is crucial

 Have you ever played any musical instrument? Or perhaps you did some sport (or do it now). Well, it is great, but almost everybody did the same. A part-time job is common among kids as well. Do not tell such trivial things as it may not be interesting to the readers. Make them remember your personality by telling some of your special characteristics. Do not forget to engage the reader with a hook the same way you do it in simple essays. But starting with a question will not be the best way for an admission essay.

You may also describe your interests and passions going back to your childhood. This way the admission officers tend to trust you more and they see what kind of a person you are now, under which circumstances you have formed yourself as a person. Maybe, there is something from the childhood influencing you these days? Feel free to describe that.

And do not try to seem an absolutely ideal person, there is no such person on the Earth. And the admission essay is not about that. It has more to do with reflecting on your life and your experiences. It is the best way to conclude who you are now and what your plans are for developing yourself in the future.

Stand Up and Do It

Now, the hardest part of the job is finished as the topic of your essay is chosen. Do your best and write a breathtaking story so that the admission officers will not hesitate to accept you. Good luck with your admission essay! And remember that everyone has some fascinating stories to tell.

BANK FRAUD – TYPES AND PREVENTION

CHANCHAL SHARMA

M.COM, NET (COMMERCE)

SAPNA YADAV

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR

MONIKA RANI

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN COMMERCE

INTRODUCTION : – Banks are considered as necessary equipment for the Indian economy. This particular sector has been tremendously growing in the recent years after the nationalisation of banks in 1969 and the loberalisation of economy in 1991. Due to the nature of their daily activities of dealing with money, even after having such a supervised and well regulated system it is very tempting for those who are either associated the system or outside to find faults in the system and to make personal gains by fraud.These frauds, unlike ordinary crimes, the amount misappropriated in these crimes runs into lakhs and crores of rupees. Bank fraud is a federal crime in many countries, defined as planning to obtain property or money from any federally insured financial institution . It is something considered a white collar crime.BANK FRAUDS PHISHING

To understand the concept of Bank Fraud, we need to understand the concept of fraud and the various types of frauds and the ways to detect the same and the prevention of the same.

WHAT IS FRAUD : – Generally, A dishonest act or behaviour through which one person gains or tries to gain advantage over another which results in the loss victim, directly or indirectly is called fraud.

Under the IPC, fraud has not been defined directly under any particular section, but it provides for punishments for various acts which leads to commission of fraud. However the section is dealing with cheating, forgery, counterfeiting,misappropriation and breach of trust cover the same adequatly.

as outcome of fraud exceeds the losses due any other crime put together. With the rising bank business, cheating in the bank additionally expanding and the fraudsters are turning out to be increasingly complex and shrewd.

The four most important elements for constituting fraud are : – the active involvement of the staff, failure to follow the instructions and guidelinesof the bank by the staff, collusion between businessman,executives and politicians to bend the rules and regulations and any external factors.

LEGAL REGIME TO CONTROL BANK FRAUDS : –

  • The Indian penal code,1860
  • Criminal procedure code,1973
  • The Negotiable Instruments Act,1881
  • The Reserve Bank of India Act,1934
  • SARFAESI Act,2002
  • The Banking Regulation Act,1949

IMPACT OF FRAUD IN INDIA : – Many recent fraud incidents reported are related to fix deposites,loan disbursments, and credit and debit card frauds and ATM based frauds.All these frauds show that not only they undermine the profits, reliability of services and operating efficiencies but also have an impact on the society and the oragnisation itself.

This rise in the NPA is a serious threat to the Indian Banking industry as the sturdiness of a countrys banking and financial sectors deetermines the qualities of the product and services. it is also a direct indication of the living standards and well being of people.

Frauds has also hampered the growth of this establishment/industry. it is a huge killer for the business sector and underlying factor to all human endeavours. it is also increase the corruption level of the country.

CLASSIFICATION OF FRAUD AND PERVENTION:

To maintain uniformity in fraud reporting, frauds have been classified on the basis of types and provisions of the Indian Penal Code, and the and the reporting guildelines for the same has been prescribed by RBI The Reserve Bank of India classifies Bank frauds in the following catgories: –

  1. Misappropriation and criminal breach of trust.
  2. Negligence and cash shortages.
  3. cheating and forgery.
  4. Any other types of fraud not coming under the specific heads as above.
  5. Irregularities in foreign exchange transations.

MECHANICS OF BANK FRAUDS

DEPOSIT ACCOUNT FRAUDS:

The following types of frauds are generally commited;

  1. value inflation of cheques deposited
  2. changing the nature of the cheques(crossed to bearer)
  3. operating a dormant account fraudulently

Prevention Measures:

  1. carefully and systematic examination procedures of cheques and other trasactions.
  2. seperation of book keeping and cash handling operations.

PURCHADED BILL FRAUDS:

These are generally expensive and can take the following forms: –

  1. Discount on stolen or fake Railways Recipts and motor recipts along with other necessary bills.
  2. fake/forged bills for valueless goods are discounted.

Prevention Measures:

  1. Strict examination before discounting the bills.
  2. Establishing a better connection between the purchaser and the seller in the caes of dispatch of proceeds.
  3. Examining the recipts properly and strictly by conferming from the connected authorities.

HYPOTHICATION FRAUDS:

Cash advances,against pledged goods as securities are fertile field for frauds.

  1. Inflation of stock statements.
  2. Some of the stocked goods in the large quantity may have been less value.
  3. hypothicating some goods in the favour of different banks.

Prevention Measure:

  1. Only marketable goods to be acceptd as security
  2. Strict examination of the banks representatives and borrowers credential
  3. proper evaluation of stocks
  4. Verification of statements of stocks.

LOAN FRAUDS:

The following types of fraud are generally commited: –

  1. Two diferent person taking loans on the same item or product
  2. Borrowing is denied when the particular person is alleged of non payment
  3. Loan taken from one purpose but used for a different purpose i.e loan taken for agriculture but used for personal purposes.

Prevention Measures:

  1. Proper verification of documents and the purpose for taking the loan
  2. Incase of a substantial amount of loan taken, it should be checked by the competent authority

COMPUTER RELATED FRAUDS:

To provide efficient and fast service, most of the branches of the bank except the ones in the rural and remote areas have been computerized.

Not many frauds related to computers have yet been reported so far as computerization in the Indian banks is of recent origin. There is a need to anaysisthe nature of such crimes so that appropriate preventive measures may be devised.

CHEQUE FRAUDS:

This constitutes the biggest volume of bank frauds. This crime is done in the following forms:

  1. Cheques are stolen, filled and signed spuriosly and encashed.
  2. The signed cheques are stloen and are encashed with alterations, if needed
  3. Cheques issued by organistions for employees are duplicated.

Prevention Measures:

  1. The instruments must contain a proper date
  2. Checking cheque kitting
  3. The amount should be checked that it should be written in both numerical and words.

DISHONOUR OF CHEQUES:

Dishonour of cheque or cheque bounces are very serious problems and it is becoming even bigger. To cope with this issue which was affecting the smooth business tracsactions, the Government of India has introduced the Negotiable Instruments Act,1881 which provides for provisions to deal with cases of cheque bounce under section 138 to 142.

The Superme court of India in a landmark judgement has also provided with new guidelines to deal with cheque bounce cases.

CONCLUSION:

These frauds are a creation of the experienced criminals, frantic customers or someone associated with the banking system or a bunco bankster or their collusion. Most of time with a strict vigilance and examination of various documents, their work can easily be detected.

These frauds are now becoming more and more frequent and can be considered as one of the main reasons for damaging the economy of the country and with such high profile frauds happening all over the country, it has become necessary to put a check to these activites and if possible to create a more stringent legislation to deal with these issues.

“Sticking to the rules and eternal vigilance is the basic prevention measure.”

Tips on making a Successful Career switch

A lot of millennials are known for hopping jobs in their quest for job fulfilment. Their idea of a dream job frequently changes and they aren’t really shying away from taking that important decision of switching their career. If you too are sailing the same boat, then there are a few things you can keep in mind to successfully switch your career:change your career

Prepare yourself mentally: Career change is also like any other important life change where a career move should start with a self reflection. Ask yourself what is the first thing that you want from your job, what can’t you negotiate on, and which factors you can compromise upon? Ask yourself if it is ok to take advice from your mentor or peers. You are likely to get a positive response from this in-depth analysis and be ready to face the truth.

Assess your dream career/job: In order to avoid any disappointments in the future, talk to those who work in your favourite job. Follow them on social media, try to interact with them and ask them their opinion about your choice. Since they are already working in that field, they will be able to give you a real picture of what the new job holds for you. This can also help you with your job hunting process.

Assess your skills: If you are going for a career change, make sure you carry some transferable skills with you. You don’t necessary have to go back to skill to learn skills to make that career switch. Transferable skills such as project management, communication, collaboration, etc. are something that you can carry and use in your next job as well.

Give it a try: Before you take that final call, give it a try and assess yourself properly. You could take a few weeks off and work in your new job as an intern just to get the hang of things. This will help you understand the positives and the pitfalls of the new career and you will not be thrown away by any surprises later on.

Making a successful career switch is all about taking that final call and staying committed to it. There are plenty of jobs in Pune for you to target if you are in the nearby area. Explore everything you can before making that final call.

 

A Tale of Rebellion: Purple Hibiscus by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

Dr. Sonika Sethi

Assistant Professor of English

S D College, Ambala Cantt

Haryana-134001

sonrok@yahoo.com

#94169-54546

 

Book Review

 

BOOK DETAILS:

Title: Purple Hibiscus

Author: Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

Publisher: Harper Perennial

Year: 2003

Place: UK

Pages: 307

Price: 8.99£

ISBN: 978-0-00-727235-8

Genre: Fiction

 

The unprecedented maturity in handling the theme of Tradition versus Modernity in her debut novel makes Adichie a novelist par excellence. Purple Hibiscus not only depicts the strife between modernity and tradition but also dares to take up the conflict that clogged the minds of thousands of Nigerians in the times of newly acquired Independence. Transition is never an easy process and Adichie has aptly demonstrated the fact through her characters belonging to three generations. The story in a way reminds the reader of Achebe’s Things Fall Apart which is an excruciating tale of the members of a society who once stood together like a rock to preserve their culture but fall apart under the influence of powerful external force that targets the younger generation. The struggle between old beliefs and new religion is apparent in Purple Hibiscus. The characters of Papa Nnukwu, Papa Eugene, Jaja, Father Amadi and their views collectively highlight the mental anguish of the people of Nigeria standing at the crossroads of cultural, political, economic, social and religious anarchy. The newly independent country might have attained freedom from its colonial masters however, the newly appointed self-styled rulers are either inexperienced or incapable to handle the transition of the country. They are corrupt, power-hungry with dictatorial tendencies. Nepotism and corruption in public affairs rule the roost. Papa Nnukwu stays rooted in his religion and traditions and refuses to surrender to the new religion, Christianity whereas his son Papa Eugene with his half-baked ideas and total devotedness to his English education and the new Faith has not only adopted Christianity but also implements violent measures with his wife and children to ensure that they stay true to the path of the new religion and forget the old ways and culture of the ancestors. On the other hand there are characters like Aunty Ifeoma, Jaja, Father Amadi who believe in the middle path and a slow transition from the old to the new. They are not ashamed to follow the ancestral ways while simultaneously embracing the new religion, education and culture.

The beauty of the entire delineation lies in the element that this unending strife has been presented to the reader through the innocent, unassuming, unprejudiced and young eyes of a fifteen year old girl Kambili whose feelings are torn between pleasing her dominating father and pursuing her own dreams and desires. She longs for an appreciative glance or a word of acknowledgement from her domineering father who wants his children to be firm adherents of the new Faith and the epitome of excellence in all their pursuits. A small, unintentional and involuntary action like staying for a while longer than the sanctioned time with their grandfather does not go without punishment or physical torture in one way or another. Yet Kambili loves her father and longs for his appreciation. Her affection towards Father Amadi, a native Christian priest awakens the sleeping serpent of her carnal desires but she is helpless at the hands of destiny which tears the two apart. Overall, Purple Hibiscus is an extraordinary novel with lively descriptions of the lifestyle, food, ceremonies and festivals of the Igbo and exposes the reader to an endearing and simplistic world of the Nigerian tribes. The beauty of Adichie’s fiction and narrative resound in the homogenous amalgamation of the Nigerian state trying to cope up with the cultural chiasm that divides the Modern and the Traditional. The use of purple hibiscus, a rare and hybrid variety of the flower, as a metaphor, clearly sends across the message as they represent the people of Nigeria who have been converted into hybrids in their own land. They are worried about losing their traditional values and hence the need to preserve the flower yet the writer is hopeful that it will endure the test of time and will be able to establish its roots once the environment becomes congenial. The novel is about troubled times but it ends on an optimistic note with the purple hibiscus blooming in the garden, having adapted itself to the new and changed circumstances.