Tag Archives: Public Administration

Internal and External Threats to the National Security of Pakistan

Professor Han Zhongyi 1 Zain ul Abiden Malik2

  1. School of World History, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi, an China
  2. School of World History, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi, an China

Abstract:

 Pakistan individual a helpful supporter of the US has to look more pessimistic security implications than optimistic. Day by day the security condition of Pakistan is going worse. In this dangerous situation, it was complicated to describe the social protection of Pakistan. Here is a require to get rid of the fear of terrorism and extremism. Pakistan can enhance its security through adopting different way.

Keywords: Terrorism, Security, Instability

 

 

Introduction:

 

 

After 9/11 incident the terrorism become big challenge for whole world security. In new era these terrorist attacks cleared the picture of USA and whole the globe. The US blamed Osama bin Landan was involved in this terrorist activities. The Taliban had given shelter to Osama bin Landan. The USA demanded to Taliban to give him Osama bin landan if they not hand over Osama bin Landan mentally they are ready for war (Yusafzai, 2011).The Taliban refused to hand over Osama bin Landan to USA they accepted their challenge for war. USA received negative reply from Taliban so US did attack on Afghanistan on October 7, 2001. The main objective of this attack on Afghanistan was to arrest Osama bin Landan after few months of this attack, the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) occupied big cities of Afghanistan (Farooq, 2005).The US efforts to conquer Taliban and Al –Qaeda with help of Alliance force, but they are not hundred percent successful. The Taliban did proper guerilla war against Allied forces. They conducted surprise attacks on Allied forces number of forces died in these attacks. The US did  not get great victory in afghan it was hug shocked for US leadership (Moonis,2005).The Global War on Terror (GWOT) belongings to  Pakistan’s defense atmosphere more than any additional situation in the globe. The Incident of 9/11 had brought noticeable changing in Pakistan foreign policy but also relate to Pakistan security situation. General Musharraf was supported to USA war against terrorism. This favor created by friendly relationship between two nations. Pakistan was played  major role in war against terrorism. Pakistan has worn this condition to better dealings toward follow a large sequence of issues.

 

 

 

Literature Review:

 

The attacks on World Trade Center and Pentagon separated the globe into two parts’ supportive and non-supportive follower of USA. Pakistan individual a accommodating helper of the USA has to look other pessimistic security implications than optimistic. The defense condition of Pakistan is warped as well as is still declined day by day. it was difficult to define the national defense of Pakistan. There is a require to get rid of threats of terrorism and extremism. By adopting various way from side to side, Pakistan can get better its security (Samia et al… 2012). The country security plan is a multi-faced job to provide safety and security to our cities and continue its development. The fundamental principles of the corporation, convenience, distribution network, transparency and summarize. Pakistan is in a bad need to select such strategies of safety and security to maintain its economic development and its citizens’ security (Khalid & Kamal, 2015). The state of internal security in Pakistan emerged as a confront to the state due to the community disintegration and increase in extremism and terrorism. Incidents of terrorism connected to TTP developed as the main internal security threat in Pakistan. The collapse of PML – (N)’s government in bringing the TTP to the dialogue table tied with a frightening rise in some terror attacks on security personnel. Furthermore, soft targets led to the hard posture culminating in a complete joint military operation ‘Zarb-e-Azb’ in North Waziristan (FATA) next to TTP’s hideouts and their foreign supporters(Javaid,2016). In 2010 more than 100 drone strikes were conducted in Pakistan unaccompanied and are predictable to kill one-third to ninety-five percent civilians (Jone et al…2011).

METHODOLOGY OF STUDY:

 

The data has collected from various articles and books. This study consists of a qualitative type of research.

DISCUSSIONS:

 

Historical perspective:

 Pakistan was open the control of extremism and terrorism and was restricted to chance and precise acts of religious and sectarian nature. Though, the Iranian revolution and its contradicting revolutionary forces, Afghan Jihad culture and the Taliban government have negatively exaggerated Pakistan society. In the late 1970s and 1980s, General Zia’s Islamization procedure gave Pakistan a new ideology (Saima et al. 2012). During his government, a lot of Madrassas were recognized which were later on used as centers for Afghan Jihad. Jihadi culture thus understood its roots in our society and gained an active support of politico-religious parties (Sultan, 2006). In the 1970s and 1980s, Islamization became an essential tool of Pakistan’s internal foreign policy. It became a supporter of the US against the Soviets in 1979 to boundary the rising power of communism (Malik 2009, 17). After the Soviet defeat in Afghanistan and along with a large effort between the Afghan Mujahidin, a new authority came to the front in Afghanistan in the form of Taliban. Pakistan was the principal source of Taliban to be in a call with the outside globe. Then the 9/11 event occurred, and Pakistan twisted her back on Taliban and appeared as a forefront state to support the US in its policy to war terrorism and to pursue the remnants of Taliban and Al-Qaeda network (Hamid 2011).

Factors to responsible for national security:

There are three factors primarily contributing to her customary domestic insecurities

  1. a narrow and weakly defined purpose of Pakistan regarding the concept of Islamic states; the

Ideological base of Pakistan is vulnerable by the ethnic, cultural and lingual dominance of the four provinces. The successful Islamic ideology following Pakistan movement cannot be continued among the various nature of people of Pakistan.

2.The absence of harmony on the development of national institutions, the breakdown of leadership and the political institutions in raising a common strategy to address all the security concerns.

 3) The different nature of the state that conquered its area with the weak federal connection.(Khalid& Kamal,2015)

But, today it can be possibly asserted that the critical threat to national security in Pakistan emanates additional from internal sources quite than external”(Javaid, n.d.: 1). General Ashfaq Pervez Kayani, Pakistan’s Chief of Army Staff, admitted in his policy speech in 2012 that internal threat is larger than that of an external threat (Ahmed, 2014). Fahmida Mirza, Speaker National Assembly is of the view that ‘terrorism and extremism are the major threats to the security, calm and solidity in the region and poverty, illiteracy and unemployment are the major causes’ (Mirza 2009).

Serious security issues in Pakistan:

 

Pakistan suffered a lot being an associate of US in the war against terrorism .9/11 was only single terrorist incident the US country but in Pakistan numbers of such incidents have been experimental, which deteriorated the law and order condition in the country. No part of the country is secure owing to bombing and suicide attacks of terrorism. Pakistan’s anxious economic situation, fluid political setting, and dangerous security situation here serious challenges to Pakistan’s security. Islamabad faces crises that wear down their options. Investors are scared of investing in Pakistan due to insecurity. Even Pakistan’s investors, traders, and industrialists are unwilling to spend here and prefer to make an investment in such countries where they get handful profit. This directly increases our public anger. Pakistan’s economic appearance does not come out to be clear in the wake of the real havoc, rising terrorist hostility, political suspicions and rising Talibanization of the society.

Weak governance and over-reliance on military solutions have contributed to political disorder and an increase of extremism. Al Qaeda forces and their associates stay active on Pakistani region (Hathway 2010). This connectivity between Al Qaeda and Pakistani Taliban is one of the principal sources of insecurity in Pakistan. This connectivity leads to suicide attacks and bomb blasts all over in Pakistan. Pakistan witnessed extra than dozen attacks next to its military, security forces, government officials and civilians. On September 3, 2008, for the first time in 60 years of freedom, Pakistan faced a direct military attack by outside armed forces, other than India (Malik,2009). It was a shocking condition for Pakistan’s security and independence.

The Lahore attack on the Sri Lankan cricket team on March 3, 2009, in which six police guards were killed and seven Sri Lankan players wounded highlighted extremism and terrorism in Punjab (Firdous, 2009). The Islamabad Marriott Hotel bombing occurred on September 20, 2008, when an abandoned truck filled with explosives detonated in front of the Hotel inside which at least 54 people killed and at least 266 got wounded ( Masood 2008). On October 28, 2010, two suicide bombers under fire the new campus of the International Islamic University Islamabad (IIUI) murder at least six students and staff members and additional than 29 got wounded (Dawn 2010, 1). On January 4, 2011, Punjab Governor Salmaan Taseer was assassinated by his guard in Islamabad (Daily Times 2011).

Pak –Afghan border operations:

 

The beginning of transactions on the Pak-Afghan border for eliminating supposed terrorists has enlarged suicide bombing in Pakistan, and no leave had leftovers safe from these attacks and made Pakistan anxious and weak. While the first decade of war on terrorism has completed, it made Pakistan more unbalanced than eternally before. Five hundred bomb blasts have been witnessed in which more than 35,000 people have died, and it has cleaned out the security of Pakistan (Rehman, 2011). In the present circumstances, it is essential to resolve the growing security threats that had engrossed the national security of Pakistan. These are declining the roots of Pakistan and also vanishing away from the image of Pakistan both at home and internationally as well.

Conclusion:

The external insecurity covered the way for Pakistan’s participation in Afghanistan-Soviet War and the War on Terror, which laid down grave suggestion on Pakistan’s internal security construction. It introduced terrorism, Kalashank of culture; it destroyed the economic sector and raised the hopes of the separates’ actions. But, Pakistan’s security initiatives paperwork is significant, but the real standoff is the political insecurity, and the conflict between the civil-military leadership that has no national consonance led the substance of internal security. Secondly, the other destructive factor is short of the implant, in spite of being advised, and no real information distribution occurs, no management is set up among the Law Enforcement Agencies.

Reference:

Afzal, S., Iqbal, H., & Inayay, M. (2012). Terrorism and extremism as a non-traditional security threat post 9/11: implications for Pakistan’s security. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(24).

Khalid, I., & Kamal, M. (2015). The Homeland Security Initiatives for Pakistan: A Grand Strategy. South Asian Studies, 30(1), 15.

Javaid, U. Zarb-e-Azb and the State of Security in Pakistan.

Jones, T., Sheets, P., & Rowling, C. (2011). Differential news framing of unmanned aerial drones: efficient and effective or illegal and inhumane?.

Yusafzai, Hamid Iqbal. 2011. The US Factor in Pak-Afghan Relation post 9/11 Lambert Academic Publishing (LAP) gMB &Co.KG Germany (June).

Moonis, A. (2005). The Challenge of Rebuilding Afghanistan.

Ahmed, N. (2014). Pakistan’s Counter-terrorism Strategy and its Implications for domestic, regional and international security.

Javaid, U. Terrorism: Major Threat to Pakistan’s National Security. Lahore: pu. edu. pk/images/journal/pols/current issue-pdf/umbreen. pdf.

Hasnat, S. F. (2005). Afghan Crisis; a Dilemma for Pakistan’s Security and International Response. Perceptions (Spring 2005)45.

 

Afzal, S., Iqbal, H., & Inayay, M. (2012). Terrorism and extremism as a non-traditional security threat post 9/11: implications for Pakistan’s security. International Journal of Business and Social Science3(24).

Murphy, E., & Malik, A. R. (2009). Pakistan Jihad: the making of religious terrorism. IPRI Journal1(2), 23.

Firdous, Kiran. 2009. Militancy in Pakistan. Strategic Studies 30(2) summer & autumn: 50-59.

Salman, Masood. 2008. More Bodies Pulled from Hotel Rubble in Pakistan. New York Times (September 21).

 

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Socio-Economic Issues of Women in Contemporary India

Deepak Kumar

Deptt. of Public Administration

women issues

ABSTRACT: Women, in India, in general have never been allowed to fully blossom and putting their just part in the socio economic development.  Their potential has always been undermined, disvalued and neglected. So making women more progressive, this is the time to unleash the ‘hidden entrepreneurial capabilities’ of women. Economically secure women will no less than a fountain of resource to the nation which will bring more employment opportunities, more gross domestic product and more financial inclusion to the system. Women entrepreneurship can certainly strike some core issues of social indignity like the ‘patriarchal mindset’, it can lessen the ‘domestic violence’ against women, it can also improve ‘maternal -infant healthcare’ system, as presence of such issues in 21st century is really a misfortune to live with. Plus an economic status of women leads to the betterment of her social status also. An empowered woman can improve the environment of awareness, as today most of the women’s rights are not in vogue because the awareness level is way below .why society is giving a secondary stance to women in labor and business activities? Why they have been taught to follow rather than lead? A nation can be called a developed one only when the women is getting equal opportunities in financial matters, is getting proper social representation and her dignity is duly taken care of.

KEYWORDS: Empowered Women, Financial Inclusion, Dignity, Women Entrepreneurship

INTRODUCTION:

“We cannot all succeed when half of us are held back.” Malala Yousafzai

Indian society, being a male dominated society heavily lacks women participation in workforce and gross domestic product. Currently startups are totally male dominated. Only 6% of all startups are run by women. Many reasons contribute to this deficiency like Patriarchal society, extra attachment to traditional values, Lack of education ,lack of vocational skills, Lack of funding, difficulty in availing loans, poor institutional support to build and guide in business expansion. This whole poor picture can also be justified by structural factors. Early marriage culture deviate women from getting higher education and force them to leave their home. now women again is deprived of  her choice where in-laws pressurize them not to work and she is left limited to only household activities. The informal face of Indian economy is also a factor of women exploitation which makes women afraid of active participation. Regular sexual crimes against women also restrict women participation. Unjust Wage parity, outdoor working ethics and social Discrimination also obstructs their participation. Somehow Choice of work is not offered to Women. Maternal issues are also there, which hinders women’s initiative. Plethora of reason is there still, these reasons must not overshadow the real potential of women in total because if opportunities are there women are always eager to grab them. Just to understand the current scenario it is very important to flash a light over the economic reforms of 1991. Indian economy was reassembled in 1991, but hardly any structural reform was witnessed in women’s side .growth was there, no doubt but we have seen a jobless growth. To increase more opportunities economic growth was needed. Our growth was not sufficient to create more opportunities for women, whatever opportunities are there were grabbed by men.

Some insightful Measures we need to suffocate this gender asymmetry in entrepreneurship.

-We have to install customized window services for supporting startup procedures especially suiting the women needs. More Conducive awareness programs with the help of civil society and NGOs to kill stereotyped mindsets in the society should be channelized.  Ensuring more and more safety and security to women at all organizational levels is needed which can  strengthen the voice of women to take strong stand in adversities.

-Giving some special attraction to women in skill development to foster the present day commercial benefits through skill India mission.

– Bigger incentives should be given to women in establishing MSMEs, and providing cheap and liberal term loans.

– Some Tax breaks should be arranged for women enterprises.

– Least capital gains tax should be imposed on VC and ACs who invest in women startups.

– Creation of some special fund by government to promote women entrepreneurship.

What should be done in long run? 

1) Programs to increase the number of women who take up higher education and technical education (schemes like Pragati and Udaan are steps in the right direction)

 2) Vocational training to women.

3) Creation of an environment which enable them to pursue entrepreneurship (safety, encouragement, rewards)

4) Educating the society to change their mindset and value the organizational skills of women and provide them freedom to contribute towards economic growth of the country.

What is women empowerment?

Women empowerment means freedom of women from the vicious grips of social, economical, political, caste and gender-based discrimination. It means granting women the power and freedom to make life choices. It means replacing patriarchy with parity.  Empowering women to participate fully in economic life across all sectors is essential to building stronger economies; achieve internationally agreed goals for development and sustainability. In this regard, there are various facets of women empowerment, such as given here under:—

  1. Individual empowerment – A woman is a being with senses, imagination and thoughts; she should be given a proper environment to express them freely.

  1. Social Empowerment–society as a whole , belongs to women same as to any privileged  men .there should be no  place  for concepts like ‘gender’ and the onus comes on state to promote gender equality. Gender equality is something in which women and men enjoy the same opportunities, outcomes, rights and obligations in all spheres of life.
  2. Educational Empowerment –empowering women with the knowledge, skills, and self-confidence is the need of hour. This will help women to get aware of their rights and will cultivate a healthy morale to claim them.
  3. Economic empowerment – In India it literally means to get rid of financial dependence from their male counterparts. This economic subjugation leads to social subjugation.
  4. Legal Empowerment–it speaks of a comprehensive legal structure which is sensitive of women rights. It should be based on rule of law, not the rule of land.
  5. Political Empowerment – a participative political system should be there, which is inclusive in all means of social representations. Women can lead only when the decision making opportunities are given to them in government and legislative branch.

Position of Women in India now and then:

A much prestigious position was enjoyed by women in the Rig- Vedic period which was further deteriorated in the later civilizations. Women were denied almost every freedom, they were denied of property ownership and inheritance, they were denied of education, remarriage, spouse selection, social movement etc. these all discriminations further evolved into much grave biased rituals like child marriage, dowry system and Sati Pratha .British period witnessed many changes in women’s empowerment. Educated Indians started advocating their cause. social reformers such as Mahatma Gandhi ,Raja Rammohun Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, and Jyotirao Phule started pan India agitations for the upliftment of women. Their agitations led to the abolition of Sati and formulation of the Widow Remarriage Act .This way the status of women in social, economic and political life began to elevate.

Current Scenario on Women Empowerment: 

After independence, constitution of India provided many liberal ideas for women empowerment; many social, economic and political provisions were incorporated. Women nowadays can participate in almost every sector like education, politics, sports, media, art and culture, science and technology. But still there are some remnants of patriarchal mentality like victimization, humiliation, torture and exploitation. These seven decades after Independence, could not bring such a phenomenal change which can be proud of .however there is no denial that an era of multifarious opportunities has started and any ambitious woman can take a leap on.

Spiritual leader Swami Vivekananda quoted that, “There is no chance for the welfare of the world unless the condition of women is improved, and it is not possible for a bird to fly on only one wing.” Thus, in order to achieve the status of a developed country, India needs to transform its colossal women force into an effective human resource and this is possible only through the role enhancement of women in financial structure of our social system. South Korea has encouraged women participation at higher positions which in turn automatically improved their status at lower levels. This country also provided incentives to companies which are gender friendly. India must read such lessons. Plus we need to shatter some myths like if more women come to workforce they will fail both sides, their domestic as well as entrepreneurial. This is grossly under estimated notion as if a woman can manage her home very well; she is naturally having good management skills and can certainly manage an organization as well.

CONCLUSION:

                   ‘’Development will be endangered if it’s not engendered’’

Unfortunately, women in India have always seen as a gender which is best suitable for domestic work and not as a mainstream economic contributor. Thanks to the deep seated patriarchal ideology. This unholy trend is still continuing and is visible in the startup ecosystem where the number of woman entrepreneurs is abysmally low. To balance this Economic development of women is needed, only this is the most effective way to empower and emancipate women, and this In turn will further the economic development of the country by their active participation in labor force. Only the economic empowerment of women can have far reaching effects. It can change the gender equations both inside and outside the house, helping them to overcome the fear of helplessness and powerlessness. Therefore, it is the high time we need to remove this gender asymmetry from our economic system.

REFRENCES: