Tag Archives: matter

The creation of the swiftest fifth-matter

We know the usual three-phase or the state of matter exist around us, namely solid, liquid, and gas. What exactly is it? We can define it as something which exists in this universe, which has some weight of its own and consists of several atoms. When we move to the molecular level, we can see that they bind to each other; hence they’re the building blocks for every material. Let’s discuss them in detail.

Solids in which the particles are close to each other with almost no movement. This structure is visible through a powerful microscope. You know that a solid with its shape doesn’t change unless we apply some external force. Due to its high density, it attains stability. The liquid, which we commonly drink like water have slightly less force of attraction, so it can change its shape when we alter it. Gas is all around us. The atmosphere itself consists of 78 percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen, and other major constituents.

Ripples in the water

Let me introduce to the two unfamiliar matters we rarely know. Plasma found in televisions, and I guess you may already make this guess earlier. This matter is also present in neon signboards, computer chips, and even the inner lining of your favorite chips packet, the shiny metallic layer. Most importantly, it is the most natural state ever found in the entire universe; after all, the stars are also plasma at very high temperatures.

So, now moving on to the fifth matter, the BEC. Originated back in 1924, one of the great scientists, Albert Einstein, along with the Indian physicists, Satyendra Nath Bose in his papers, described the condensate and named after them. This matter was created in 1995 at the University of Colorado using lasers and magnets. They cooled a sample of a metal known as Rubidium, atomic number 35 to almost zero degrees at an instant. Due to the sudden change of temperature, the atoms internally couldn’t move much. Later the kinetic energy lost, and a giant molecule got created.

A shiny beam of light.

In the year 2020, the researchers were able to recreate it with less than a blink of an eye, which is still very slow and maybe much less than you could ever imagine. It just got created in 100 femtoseconds, i.e., only in 10-13 seconds. Even the advanced cameras couldn’t work so fast. The researchers of Finland described the process where they pumped in energy in 50 femtoseconds was visible, but with 300 femtoseconds, it wasn’t noticeable. The condensate generates a very sharp striking band of light, very bright, which may have more uses in the future. Now with further advancement, the matter was even created in the space on the largest space station, ISS, where there is zero-gravity. The research in areas got carried out using Cold Atom Lab, a 70-million-dollar lab with only 0.4 cubic meter space with all necessary items to create the BEC. The lab process of creation was also patented, and they are eager to work more in the field.


“Time Crystals – New Form Of Matter”

Space theories and phenomena have challenged human’s understanding about it every time with new observations and experiments. We have been trying to understand different kinds of constituents present around us irrespective of their presence on our surface or outside our planet. New findings with the increasing research and ideas have led to solving a number of theories which earlier were just meant to be theoretical until practically proved. Just long as our knowledge about space is increasing through our frequent visits to space, it is increasing our complexities with new discoveries . One of these experiments which was earlier believed to be just a theory with little physical significance was the discovery of “Time Crystals”. The idea of the time crystal came a few years ago in 2012 came by the scientists, discovering a new state of matter which truly exists. The interesting fact about these particles is their properties which differentiated in their atomic structure repeats themselves in space and time. 

But the initial question is “What are these time crystals?” To understand this we would start by understanding actually these crystals are. Crystals are solid particles having constituents like atoms, molecules and other charged molecules are present in well defined order, which thus forms chain and forms the base for the next later. The layering up of these small molecules continues and thus follow up a specified pattern which reflects back the light and we do see it. These patterns of molecules follow a specified pattern in space and do not get affected by time. This means that if we see a normal crystal particle, it would remain the same as it is for years, until we or any other forces destroy it. Time crystals have some different properties. This means that the particles do follow the same pattern in space but also follow up with time and that these particles do not have fixed shape and size. These are most commonly known as now equilibrium matter because of their inability to come to rest once they come in motion. 

The basic difference between a normal crystal or any other matter particle and time crystal can be understood with an example. Consider crystal particles to be big enough to see, so if we apply force on one particle of the crystals, it would get transferred to the next particle and so on in the pattern they are arranged, until it get finally absorbed, since energy is lost in this process in transferring from one molecule or particle to other. But time crystal or non equilibrium matter are attached in repeated pattern. These present quantum entangled patterns, and as soon as energy reaches the entangled atom,, the next pair gets information before it’s gonna be transferred to , which means it starts moving before the energy reaches it, thus leading to cause motion in all the atoms or particles. This could be considered as an infinite motion or movement since no energy is getting lost.l and are not able to achieve equilibrium. It could be related to a perpetual motion machine which could work without an energy source forever, but which is impossible. So there were various doubts in this theory and thus it was just considered to be theoretically only. 

“But it has been found that time crystals do exist through different experiments done by scientists. And could be beneficial for future use.Right and better use of time crystals haven’t been found yet, but it’s sure that these particles are surely changing our research and opening new phases to space research and understanding about universe”.