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Use of One Act Plays for Developing Soft Skills

Hari Narayanan MA

M.Phil Scholar, Research Department of English

The American College, Madurai


Abstract

This paper is an attempt to show how One Act Plays can be used for developing Soft Skills.  Soft skills are important for those who aspire to become part of business world.  In Indian Universities, certain undergraduate courses like B.com, BBA, etc., are the most sought often courses of study.  There is a dire need to develop and cone the conversational and soft of the students who chose management courses aspiring to become successful entrepreneurs.  This paper seeks to present how one act plays can be used to hone/shape the soft skills of the students.  One act plays are more appealing to the contemporary youths than full length plays for convenience’s sake.  One act plays present life like situations through the conversation of the character involved.  By imbibing characters reaction in the Plays students unconsciously develop soft skills to become successful entrepreneurs in business world.  By teaching soft skills through one act plays the students can better their interpersonal relationship in business too.

Introduction

            Soft skills are life skills. Soft skills are important for those who aspire to become part of the business world.  In Indian Universities and colleges, certain Undergraduate courses like B.com, BBA, etc., are the most sought often courses of study.  There is a dire need to develop and hone the conversational and soft skills of the students who choose management courses aspiring to become to become successful entrepreneurs.  Soft skills include communication skills, courtesy, flexibility, positive attitude, interpersonal skills, etc.,  Of these said skills, developing interpersonal skills that include other professionalism, team work, work ethic, time management skills, coping with pressure, self confidence, critical thinking and problem solving is of foremost importance for aspiring entrepreneurs.  This paper seeks to present how one act plays can be used as a strategy to teach soft skills, especially for developing their interpersonal skills needed for future entrepreneurs.

Objective of the Study

            The aim of the study is to use staging of the play as a pedagogic technique to teach B.com/BBA students to develop their interpersonal skills for successful entrepreneurship.

Hypotheses

  1. Stage of play involves multi-tasking that requires interpersonal relationship and cooperation.
  2. Play will develop the participants’ soft skills in an implicit and interesting manner.

Research Questions

  1. Can interpersonal skills be developed in a controlled environment like classroom?
  2. If, yes whether pedagogic skills are available to teach them?
  3. How will staging of play be useful as a pedagogic technique to teach soft skills?

Discussion

            Soft skills are needed to interact with the external world of conglomerate customer for a successful businessman.  One has to interact and communicate in order to gain acceptance in the modern world of intensive competition.  Soft skills help to build social relationships.  These skills, mainly the interpersonal skills form the core of anyone involved in management and business.  They develop positive self esteem which helps in defining a businessman’s role in the society.  If an individual involved in management cannot communicate or work as a team, then he/she will feel alienated and withdrawn.  Interpersonal skills form an indispensable part of the life of an entrepreneur.

            Customary classrooms do not provide ample scope or space for the students.  In a teacher-centred classroom, the students become passive listeners.  Passivity blunts the students’ ability to develop the necessary interactive soft skills, i.e., interpersonal skills need for learner-centred activities become essential to develop the much needed skills.  Teacher-centred classroom make the students conscious of their shortcoming and does not provide the atmosphere for mastering the interpersonal skills naturally.

            One act plays can be used effectively to enable the students since enacting the plays can develop their communicative skills unconsciously.  A trained memory is the great asset a student can develop to be successful in life.  When the students are involved not only in parroting the conversations in the plays but also in stage managements, their socially acceptable traits like self awareness, self-regulation, empathy and self-motivation develop unconsciously.

            A successful entrepreneurs needs to be good at planning, organizing, staffing, heading, controlling and motivating the co-workers or his team mates.  Rehearsing and staging one-act plays provides the right opportunity and platform to develop these opportunity and platform to develop these skills since these skills involve all the skills that come under soft skills or interpersonal skills.

            There are many problems faced by working personnel like lack of communicative ability, failure to communicate ideas while involving in team work and management, organizing, leading and other management skills.  Training the students in managing and staging one act plays offers enough scope for the students even within the classrooms to acquire these managerial skills effectively.

            Staging a one-act play involves the back stage or preparatory activities like selection of the play, casting and rehearsal.  The production of the play involves stage management, costume selection; make up, lights arrangement, promotion, seating of audience, and above all stage performance.  All these activities can be turned into a learner-centered activity once the students are divided into groups to take care of each activity.  Then the groups’ responsibility and roles can be reshuffled to provide enough scope for all the students to learn all the skills.

            Learning the language skills through literature is the main purpose of using one-act plays as a pedagogic tool.  Students can memorize the conversations in the play and play their roles.  This will enhance their communication skills.  Hearing other characters’ conversations will develop their listening and cooperative skills.  The students learn the need to empathize with the other characters and learn the importance of listening which is an essential component of interactive skills.  Rehearsing the play enables the students to become fluent and spontaneous in conversation, and this will boost their morale, confidence and positive attitude.  These are the basic skills needed for aspiring entrepreneurs, while playing different roles, some characters are vigorous speakers, some active listeners and some flexible passive participants relying on their body language to express their emotions.

            To stretch the experience of the learners a little further, it is not a mere assumption that acquiring language skills (communicative skills) are no small task. Wordplay precedes character.  One can win or lose a situation by the proper use or misuse of words.  Words can be ironic, deceptive, artful, innovative, ambiguous, equivocal, suggestive, crafty or plain (straightforward).  Words are used for thought transference.  The learners by playing out situations as presented in the one-act plays can learn the nuances of vocabulary.  This will further boost their confidence when they meet people in real-life situations.  Learning the proper usage of words will enhance their wit, intelligence, inventiveness and understanding since words can ne figurative, funny, literal, gainful or painful.

            Thus teaching soft skills or interpersonal skills by involving the students in one-act plays makes learning a learner-centered one.  Further entrepreneurs acquire the work ethic, team work and management skills by allowing them to choose the roles according to their ability.  Enacting one-act plays keeps the students engaged and active.  The teacher can help in choosing the right one-act plays for the future entrepreneurs.  Involving the students in one-act plays also provides maximum speaking practice while enacting real life contexts.

Summation

            Staging of plays involves interpersonal relationship irrespective of the roles the participants play.  The interesting nature of the activity increases the participatory involvements of the students by thus increasing learners’ interest by better results.

The out of the text learning experience give greater weight age to learning, which is students-centric, then teaching which is teacher centric.  One-act plays are more appealing to the modern youth since it is less time consuming.  By imbibing characters’ reaction in the plays, the students unconsciously develop soft skills to become successful entrepreneurs in the business world.  By learning soft skills through out one-act plays, the students can better their interpersonal relationship in business too.

Reference

Bhatnagar, N., Bhatnagar, M. (2012). New Delhi: Dorling Kindersley. Pvt ltd.

Weimer, M. (2002). Learner Centred Teaching. San Francisco. Wiley Co

Publications.

Luoma, S. (2004). Assessing Speaking. United Kingdom: Cambridge University

Press.

Life as suffering in Michael Haneke’s Amour and Syvia Plath’s Bell Jar

Chung Chin-Yi

National University of Singapore


‘Amour’ rationalizes mercy killing. The slow deterioration of Anne also prevents the audience from judging Georges for finally snapping and killing Anne before he commits suicide. There is a great feeling of relief for the two in this situation which prevents us from judgement. The amount of sacrifice Georges has made for Anne is immense and we do not judge him for killing her in her deteriorative state. George’s suffering reflects what life is all about: conflict, and since Anne can’t defend herself, she’s actually better dead.As with Amour,Plath’s suicide is almost a relief to the decline she has been suffering in gradually being enslaved to a man and entrapped with children. Many of us judge those who commit suicide as weak and unstable but given the amount of pain we are exposed to in Amour and Plath’s novel, suicide indeed seems a form of relief and escape. While not entirely rationalizing suicide or mercy killing, the gradual decline and excruciating pain that we witness in the characters make us sympathize with the decision to simply escape life through self harm.Yet we are made to see their hubris as they take fate into their own hands rather than let the divine determine it. We are left wondering if they escape in this life but will escape condemnation by the divine for self harm in the next.

Keywords: Suicide, Mercy killing, Life,Suffering,Pain

A story such as ‘Amour’, which involves the deterioration of a stroke victim and her husband’s brave efforts to care for her, become harsh when true-life events are reproduced realistically. Haneke does not entirely keep to grimness and then throws in a twist ending.The stroke victim is Anne, who lives with her husband, Georges, both retired music teachers. When Anne spaces out at the breakfast table one morning, Georges knows something is wrong but Anne doesn’t seem to have any memory of the incident. It turns out she has a blocked carotid artery but after undergoing surgery, Anne ends up paralyzed on one side.

The first half of ‘Amour’ involves Georges’ efforts to help Anne with her rehabilitation. He holds her up out of her wheelchair and she takes feeble steps, using her one good leg, and dragging the other. Eventually, Anne has another stroke, which reduces her to a child-like state; often, she talks in gibberish. Georges becomes more frustrated as there are moments when Anne refuses to swallow the soft food Georges is trying to spoon feed her.

Outside visitors occasionally intrude on Anne and Georges’ sad world. Early on, before the second stroke, one of Anne’s students, a well-known classical pianist pays a visit and asks Anne what happened to her. She doesn’t want to discuss her situation, merely stating that her condition is a result of ‘old age’. Later, Anne and Georges’ daughter, Eva, pays a visit, and argues with her father, recommending that she put Anne in a home. Georges’ reacts angrily and considers Eva’s suggestion heartless. It eventually comes out that the relationship between daughter and parents is not good, primarily due to her British-born husband, who apparently the parents did not care for too much.

After Georges decides to hire a second nurse, he discovers that this particular woman has been mistreating Anne. Georges fires the nurse but she indignantly claims that she’s never had a problem before with any of her employers and rudely curses the old man, before leaving.The visitors to the apartment, however, serve to break up the monotony of Anne’s deterioration, not only for Georges but for the audience as well. The film is almost unbearable as it documents the depressing decline of Anne and we find it almost impossible to watch on as she becomes a shadow of her former self.

‘Amour’ turns into a crime drama  when the caring Georges, suddenly decides he cannot take it anymore, and suffocates Anne with a pillow. He prepares the body so that when the police finally arrive, Anne appears in a dignified state. He also seals the door with masking tape, presumably to prevent the foul odor from permeating the apartment. Then Georges pens a final note and while it’s not entirely clear, it appears he commits suicide, to join his wife in death. Right before the note, Georges captures a pigeon that has flown into the apartment, but lets it go, perhaps symbolizing that he has freed Anne by effecting the mercy killing.

‘Amour’ rationalizes mercy killing. The slow deterioration of Anne also prevents the audience from judging Georges for finally snapping and killing Anne before he commits suicide. There is a great feeling of relief for the two in this situation which prevents us from judgement. The amount of sacrifice Georges has made for Anne is immense and we do not judge him for killing her in her deteriorative state. George’s suffering reflects what life is all about: conflict, and since Anne can’t defend herself, she’s actually better dead. In a very satisfying scene, Georges dismisses an incompetent nurse by telling her “I hope that you have the misfortune to be treated exactly the way that you treat your patients when you are helpless.” Helpless,is the state of Anne, and Georges is the only one to understand that she needs someone who treats her like an adult. One of the most devastating scenes occurs when Anne refuses to drink, George’s reaction is shocking but believable, he slaps and forces her to drink. Indeed, we’d never harm those who love, except if they try to harm themselves. The slap Georges gave is a sort of defense he applies in the name of Anne’s soul, because she can’t respond for herself. George suffers on behalf of Anne.

 Emmanuelle Riva and Jean-Louis Trintignant portray well the close loving bond of a very compatible couple and its disintegration as illness permanently changes the relationship. Over two hours one witnesses the affectionate camaraderie the couple shares degenerate into painful co-dependence. The wife, independent and intelligent, is reduced to a gibbering shadow of herself – treated with unwanted pity and undignity.Her husband, anxious that not only has he lost the woman who means most to him, cannot bear to see her suffer either. He is tormented by the enormous responsibilities he feels. When Anne’s health begins to deteriorate rapidly due to a series of strokes, Georges assumes the role of full-time caregiver. Like all of us facing this situation, Georges is confronted with the dilemma of keeping Anne at home where she can be cared for by the man who loves her, or of placing her in an unfamiliar nursing home where she could be looked after by professional caregivers who would, however, be strangers. Georges chooses the former, despite the tremendous physical and emotional burden it places on him. This is clearly a couple who takes their “for better or for worse…in sickness and in health…till death do us part” wedding vows to heart. We aren’t shown the kinds of trials Georges and Anne’s love has had to endure over the years for them to have arrived at this point. But something has held them together all this time, and we sense that their life experiences and their commitment to one another have prepared them for this final challenge. Anne’s illness becomes the test in which all lingering frictions will be burned away and out of which their love will emerge as solid and indestructible. For only in times of utmost suffering and pain can love be manifested in its truest and purest form. And this is the message of Georges and Anne’s story: true love is  being selfless, the act of giving.

            One might say the Bell Jar is about Plath’s regret that she is not a man with a phallus, because that condition might actually enable her to lead a life of authenticity and freedom. Being female comes with the expectations of eventually becoming a domestic keeper no matter what one has achieved prior to getting married, as Plath mentions when she says men like Buddy Willard intend to serenade her with high romance only to iron her out flat like a mat like Buddy Willard’s mother after marriage, reduced to a life of menial household chores and work that revolves entirely around the family while Buddy Willard lives a double life of male hypocrisy and is able by virtue of his status as a male to engage in casual sex with a waitress.

            Plath is also repulsed by the idea of sex, as she finds that it is an act of violence towards women and not in the least attractive as a prospect. Upon Buddy Willard exposing his male genitals to her, Plath confesses that all she can think about is turkey neck and gizzards, the male organ does not stimulate her sexually and when she first has a sexual encounter in order to get revenge on Buddy Willard for his casual attitude towards sex with an older professor she bleeds incessantly, demonstrating that the sexual act has more gratification for males than females and leads to more suffering on the part of females than males, essentially an act of violence towards females as Plath comes close to being raped by a woman-hater Marco in one section of the book.

            Plath is repulsed also by the need for women to be incessant child bearers and household keepers, as she is revulsed by the figure of Dodo Conway, who has a large family of six children and seems to be completely immune to the burden and entrapment that being a mother and household keeper brings, she seems completely to fit the mould of being a child-bearer and child-rearer complacently and it is such women that Plath or her alter-ego Esther resents completely because it seems to be an entrapment for women, while men can pursue affairs and careers and money and glamour women are reduced to being appendages to men in having to be enslaved to bringing up the children that they bear for them.

            Plath thus feels that being female is little more than being an appendage to men as they are allowed sexual liberties that are forbidden to women and allowed to pursue money glamour and fame all at the expense of their wives who have to make sacrifices and raise children for them.The idea of marriage appals Plath who finds it little more than an entrapment and imprisonment for someone as talented and full of promise independently as herself. Plath is also revulsed by the idea of females being completely passive, indebted and at the mercy of male desire as Doreen demonstrates at the presence of Lenny Sheppard, independently Doreen had been sharp-witted and satirical of people around her but around Lenny Sheppard Doreen transforms into a completely passive sex object for him, to be played around with at his will and mercy, the sight of them making out is so abhorrent to Esther or Plath that she has to leave the apartment altogether.

As a consequence of all the expectations of her as a female to throw away and abandon her life of high achievement and personal accolades when she becomes married and enslaved to a man like Buddy Willard who has no intuition or sense of decency towards women as he crudely and insensitively engages in casual sex with a waitress with no heed of Esther’s feelings as she is expected to remain pure and sexually untainted for him, Esther descends into a deep clinical depression that can be cured only by electroconvulsion, the ultimate violence towards her as she feels part of her is being executed like the Rosenbergs she mentions at the beginning of the novel, to be female it seems is a crime liable to being punished for one’s simple status as a women and the discomfort it causes in her when she does not complacently fit into the mould of Dodo Conway and Doreen who do not mind at all being completely at the mercy of men and indebted to them as well as being little more than domestic or sexual slaves to men as Dodo Conway ungrudgingly has one child after another and sees no need to distinguish herself with a career and as Doreen who had been so satirical and sharp is reduced to a completely compliant sexual object at the hands of Lenny Sheppard. Eventually, Esther makes a suicide attempt, albeit unsuccessful, as she feels she cannot escape the bell jar or suffocating imprisonment that the status of simply being female imposes upon her. This bell jar however was to descend on Plath eventually when as a mother of two married to an unfaithful Ted Hughes she eventually successfully takes her life by putting her head in a gas stove oven. At the heart of Plath’s grievance is the fact that women seem to be completely subordinated and at the mercy of male desire and the need for women to sacrifice their careers and reputation to simply become domestic keepers, it seems that all the academic accomplishment Plath has achieved will become utterly meaningless after she marries Buddy Willard because she will be flattened out like a rug under his feet like Buddy’s mother. Plath is also alienated from her mother, who fails to understand her completely and tries to make her feel guilt for her depression by repeatedly asking Plath how she had failed as a mother and what she had done wrong to cause her to go into depression when it is largely convention and society which has victimized Plath by confining her to the bell jar of marriage and motherhood in place of the alternative futures she had envisioned for herself with a successful career as a professor or editor. It is society’s rigid expectations of her path as a mother and wife that causes her to descend into depression.Plath also rejects the lesbian alternative, she rejects Joan’s advances and does not see Joan as an alternative to male subordination as she is repulsed by the idea of being lesbian for it seems unnatural and disgusting to her.

As with Amour,Plath’s suicide is almost a relief to the decline she has been suffering in gradually being enslaved to a man and entrapped with children. Many of us judge those who commit suicide as weak and unstable but given the amount of pain we are exposed to in Amour and Plath’s novel, suicide indeed seems a form of relief and escape. While not entirely rationalizing suicide or mercy killing, the gradual decline and excruciating pain that we witness in the characters make us sympathize with the decision to simply escape life through self harm.

Yet we are made to see their hubris as they take fate into their own hands rather than let the divine determine it.We are left wondering if they escape in this life but will escape condemnation      by the divine for self harm in the next.

Works Cited:

Hanake,Michael.  Amour. 2012. Film.

Plath, Sylvia. The Bell Jar. Faber and Faber, London, 1963.

 

The Vindication of the just in the Winter’s Tale

Chung Chin-Yi

National University of Singapore


Abstract: Hermione represents a Christ figure who is crucified by the jealous, irrational and sinful man Leontes, to be resurrected 16 years later after Leontes repents of his jealousy, irrationality, selfishness and egocentrism. His sin was disbelieving the goodness and fidelity of Hermione, much like unbelievers crucified Christ and refused to believe he was their savior and Messiah. At her resurrection, Leontes comes to see how foolish he was all this while, much like the persecutors of Christ repent at his resurrection when they realize they had wrongly accused Christ and he is indeed the good and rightful Messiah of the world. The vindication of the innocent Hermione parallels the vindication of the innocent Christ who was wrongly accused and crucified for no crime of his own. The play thus testified to the vindication of the righteous over the course of time. Time will reveal the innocence of the wrongly accused, just as Hermione is vindicated at her resurrection Christ will reveal his true innocence and status as the true Messiah when he returns in final glory at the second coming.

Keywords: Winter’s tale, Shakespeare, justice, vindication, jealousy

“They would be content to die if there were no other excuse why they should desire to live.”
Act 1, Scene 1, Lines 44-46. Leontes is the king of Sicilia. Polixenes is the king of Bohemia. These two kings have been bosom friends since childhood. Archidamus, a Bohemian courtier, has just offered glowing recommendations for Mamillius, Leontes’ only son. Camillo, a courtier to the king of Sicilia, supports the comments made by Archidamus, saying “They that went on crutches before he was born desire yet their life to see him a man.” Camillo offers this quote. All seem to believe that Mamillius is a talented young man. Continuing to be full of praise for Leontes, Mamillius, and his fellow countrymen, Archidamus says “If the King had no son, they would desire to live on crutches till he had one.”

“We were two lads who thought there was no more in the future but such a day tomorrow as today, and to be boys eternal.”
Act 1, Scene 2, Lines 79-82. Hermione is Leontes’ wife, his queen. Complimenting her husband, as usual, Hermione has been trying to get Polixenes to stay in Sicilia a week more. Polixenes has been in Sicilia for some time, visiting his long-time friend Leontes. Hermione stirs up memories of the past, saying “tell me of my lord’s tricks and yours when you were boys.” Polixenes offers this quote. But in spite of her insistence, he is determined to quickly return to Bohemia. Polixenes has business to tend to in Bohemia.

“One good deed dying not spoken of kills a thousand accompanying it. Our praises are our wages.”
Act 1, Scene 2, Lines 118-120. Leontes praises his wife’s effort to encourage Polixenes to extend his stay in Sicilia. He says “once before you spoke to better purpose.” The two of them, happy as can be to have Polixenes there in Sicilia, banter with each other, Hermione responding to his comment, by saying “not twice; not more than twice?” She says “Cram us with praise, and make us as fat as tame things.” She then offers this quote. She asks “what was the first time I spoke to better purpose?” He says when “thou didst utter I am yours forever.There is no marital friction between them.

“I may be negligent, foolish and fearful. These are such infirmities that honesty is never free of.”
Act 1, Scene 2, Lines 310-325. Hermione has persuaded Polixenes to stay in Sicilia for another week. But Leontes has now become jealous pf Polixenes, believing that Hermione in her persuasive efforts has been seducing Polixenes. Now convinced that Hermione and Polixenes are more than just friends, believing she has had a “too close relationship” with Polixenes, Leontes throws a tantrum at his aide, Camillo, for not seeing what Leontes now believes is her adultery. Camillo doesn’t quite know how to react to Leontes, saying this to defend himself.

“Do not weep, good friends; there is no cause. When you shall know your mistress has deserved prison, then abound in tears as I come out.”
Act 2, Scene 1, Lines 141-146.  An enraged Leontes, believing Polixenes to be the cause of Hermione’s pregnancy,imprisons Herione. Hermione maintains composure, speaking only to her ladies, asking that they attend her in prison to help her during her late stage pregnancy.

“Often, the silence of pure innocence persuades when speaking fails.”
Act 2, Scene 2, Lines 50-51.  Knowing the king is very upset with Hermione, imprisoning her, Paulina, one of the queen’s ladies-in-waiting, offers to tell Leontes of the birth of their daughter, hoping she can “prove honey-mouthed” and ease the friction between the two of them. Paulina says “We do not know how he may soften at the sight o’ th’ child.” Paulina offers this quote. Emilia is another lady-in-waiting. Paulina remains ignorant that Leontes believes Polixenes is the child’s father.

It is the heretic that makes the fire, not she who burns in ‘t.”
Act 2, Scene 3, Lines 148-149. . Paulina has just told the king at length how much the child looks like him, saying “the print be little, the whole matter and copy of the father.” She continues to describe how much  the two look similar. Leontes believes none of it. He says “I’ll have thee burnt.” She says “I care not” and says this.

  “Some powerful spirit instruct the hawks and ravens to be thy nurses.”   Act 2, Scene 3, Lines 227-228. Leontes has just commanded Antigonus, another of the king’s courtiers, to take the child to some remote desert out-back in Bohemia and to desert the baby there. Antigonus, having agreed to do anything to save the child from being burned, agrees to the command. He picks up the child and offers this prayer.

If powers divine behold our human actions, as they do, I doubt not then but innocence shall make false accusation blush and tyranny tremble at suffering endured with calmness.”
Act 3, Scene 2, Lines 29-33. The court’s indictment has read that she committed adultery with Polixenes and conspired with Camillo to take away the life of her husband, Leontes. Leontes has been unjustly cruel Hermione was calm as she listened to the accusations. The queen offers this speech soon after the judgement.

O thou tyrant, do not repent these things, for they are weightier than all thy woes can stir.”
: Act 3, Scene 2, Lines 228-230. Hermione dropped unconscious when the Court was told that Mamillius had died. She was carried out of the courtroom. Paulina followed her out. Leontes apologized to the court. Paulina re-enters and reveals truth to the court. She says “But the last woe, O lords, the Queen’s dead.” She then offers this quote to the court and to Leontes, going on to say to the king “A thousand supplicants for ten thousand years could not move the gods to look that way thou wert.”

“What’s gone and what’s past should be past grief.”
Act 3, Scene 2, Lines 246-247. Paulina has reported to Leontes and to the court that Hermione is dead. Paulina continues to chastise Leontes. A lord asks her to “Say no more.” She says “I do repent.” She says this to the court.

“I cannot forget how I destroyed the sweet’st companion that e’er man bred his hopes out of.”
Act 5, Scene 1, Lines 12-13. Perhaps twenty years have now passed since Leontes’ wife Hermione collapsed and he was told she had died. At that same time he had learned that their son Mamillius had also died. It was then that Leontes, furious, had demanded that their baby girl Perdita be taken to the Bohemian out-back and left there. He continues to suffer from remorse over his willful orders.

Dear queen, who ended when I but began, give me that hand of yours to kiss.”
Act 5, Scene3, Lines 53-54.Paulina has led the royal family into the gallery to view the statue of the queen, all standing in honor and wonder at the statue as Paulina draws back the curtain. Perdita kneels and then talks to the statue, offering this quote. Paulina calls Perdita back, saying “O patience! The color’s not dry

When she was young, you wooed her; now in age is she become the suitor?”  Act 5, Scene 3, Lines 134-135. Paulina to Leontes. Paulina has just asked Hermione, standing in the gallery as a statue, to descend. She does. For the moment, all are in shock and awe. Leontes then says “O, she’s warm! If this be magic, let it be art.”

“You gods, from your sacred vials pour your graces upon my daughter’s head.”
Act 5, Scene 3, Lines 153-155.  Having appeared to be a statue, Hermione now has descended from a platform and embraced her husband. Paulina introduces her to her daughter. As we now know, Hermione hadn’t seen her daughter since the day she was born, some sixteen to twenty years ago.

Hermione represents a Christ figure who is crucified by the jealous, irrational and sinful man Leontes, to be resurrected 16 years later after Leontes repents of his jealousy, irrationality, selfishness and egocentrism. His sin was disbelieving the goodness and fidelity of Hermione, much like unbelievers crucified Christ and refused to believe he was their savior and Messiah. At her resurrection, Leontes comes to see how foolish he was all this while, much like the persecutors of Christ repent at his resurrection when they realize they had wrongly accused Christ and he is indeed the good and rightful Messiah of the world. The vindication of the innocent Hermione parallels the vindication of the innocent Christ who was wrongly accused and crucified for no crime of his own. The play thus testified to the vindication of the righteous over the course of time. Time will reveal the innocence of the wrongly accused, just as Hermione is vindicated at her resurrection Christ will reveal his true innocence and status as the true Messiah when he returns in final glory at the second coming.

Works cited:

Shakespeare, William.    The Winter’s Tale.  Dover thrift editions. New York. 2000.

 

A Study on Effectiveness of Digital Marketing amongst Students of Jaipur City

Dr Jyotsana Khandelwal

Sr.Co-ordinator School of Business &Mgmt, Jaipur National University,Jaipur

ABSTRACT

Digital Marketing is the contemporary aspect of marketing .With the advent of technology, consumers has become more tech-savvy and smart phones made them easy access to internet. Now, any information is needed by the consumers, they look upon by clicking of the internet. Hence, marketers started using this platform to provide information about their products, services and ideas popularly known as Digital Marketing. The main objective of digital marketing is to attract customers and allowing them to understand the features of the brands through digital media.

This paper discusses various advertising tools available for digital marketing, and popularity effectiveness of digital marketing among students. The sample of 50 students randomly selected to analyze the reasons for growing popularity and effectiveness of digital marketing as compared to traditional tools of marketing.

INTRODUCTION

Digital Marketing is the contemporary aspect of marketing .With the advent of technology, consumers has become more tech-savvy and smart phones made them easy access to internet. Now, any information is needed by the consumers, they look upon by clicking of the internet. Hence, marketers started using this platform to provide information about their products, services and ideas popularly known as Digital Marketing. Digital marketing, electronic marketing, e-marketing and Internet marketing are all related terms which, purely put, refer to “marketing online whether via websites, online ads, opt-in emails, interactive kiosks, interactive TV or mobiles” (Chaffey & Smith, 2008).

Digital Marketing implies a set of influential tools and methodologies used for promoting products and services through internet. It includes an extensive range of marketing tools than traditional business marketing due to the extra channels and marketing mechanisms available on the internet.

It uses internet to deliver promotional marketing messages to consumers. Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) define Digital Marketing as ―a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, which facilitates the creation and exchange of user-generated content. It consists of different Internet applications such as blogs, social networking sites, content communities, collaborative projects, virtual game worlds and social worlds.

 It includes email marketing, search engine marketing, social media marketing, many types of display advertising (including web banner advertising), and mobile advertising.

In India the internet has become powerful can be understand with the survey conducted –Internet users in India 2015 survey conducted by Internet and Mobile Association of India and MRB International.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Mohan Nair (2011) takes social media as a complex marriage of sociology and technology that cannot be underestimated in its impact to an organization marketing communication, choice as to when to engage, how to manage and measure, and whether to lead or to follow is complex but not an impossible task. These cannot be answered simply by one formula because the context and the market dynamics are strong variables in these decisions.

Foux (2006) suggests Social media is perceived by customers as a more trustworthy source of information regarding products and services than communication generated by organizations transmitted via the traditional elements of the promotion mix.

Russell S. Winer (2009) affirms that many companies today are using some or all of the new media to develop targeted campaigns that reach specific segments and engage their customers to a much greater extent than traditional media.

Jerry Ihejirika (2009) believes that Marketing on the internet have become the best and most widely accepted form of global communication. Internet marketing communication consists of the global sharing of ideas, concepts, and information about products and services.

OBJECTIVES

  1. To understand the reasons for increasing popularity of digital marketing amongst students.
  2. To know the awareness about the various tools of digital marketing
  3. To analyze the effectiveness and problems of digital marketing vis-a-vis to traditional marketing tools.

 

 

 

 

RESEARCH DESIGN

Methodology: The present research work is of marketing investigation which is based on exploratory and descriptive research design.

 Sample Design

  1. Universe: As the focus of the study revolves around the students of the Jaipur City, so the Universe for the same would be students studying in the colleges (both government and private) and universities in the City of Jaipur.
  2. Sample Unit: The sample unit will be 4 colleges (both government and private) and universities. The selection of these colleges/Universities is based on a pilot survey which revealed that the colleges and Universities in the city would be appropriate for the study to be conducted.
  3. Sample Size: This research study will be based on the views of 50 students studying in the colleges (both government and private) and universities in the City of Jaipur.
  4. Sampling Type: The sample for the research would be collected through non-probabilistic sampling, precisely through convenient sampling method.

Data Collection: The data for the study would be collected from the following sources:

  1. Primary Source: As it is known that primary data is the first hand information that is collected in order to make the study complete. Thus, the primary data for this research study will be collected through a Structured Questionnaire to be filled by the college/university students and observation.
  2. Secondary Source: It will be collected through books, Journals and articles.

Analytical and Statistical Tools: The data so collected with the help of the questionnaire will be tested with the help of MS-Excel, Averages, pie charts and graphs. Selection of the type of tests will depend on the type of data that would be collected through the questionnaire.

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE STUDY

Demographic Profile of the Sample:

Survey was conducted in the city of Jaipur. Sample of 50 respondents was selected for survey. The questionnaire included students as a classification of their demographic factors such as gender, age & education. During data collection phase, due care was taken in order to make sure that the given questionnaire is completely filled by the respondents.

The detailed respondent profile is as follows:

DETAILS NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
GENDER
MALE 30 60%
FEMALE 20 40%
EDUCATION
UNDERGRADUATION 35 70%
POST-GRADUATION 10 20%
M-PHIL/ 5 10%
TOTAL 50 100%
AGE
18-20 35 70%
20-22 10 20%
22&ABOVE 5 10%
TOTAL 50 100%

Table 1- Demographic profile of the respondents

As seen in table no.1, Out of 50 respondents – 30 students are male, and 20 are females. The education profile is 35 are undergraduate, 10 are post graduate and 5 are Phil or PhD. The age of the sample is 35students in the age of 18 to 22, 10 students in the age of 20 to 22 and rest 5 in 22&above.

Statement 1 – Understand the reasons for increasing popularity of digital marketing amongst students

 

Seek of Information NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
Multiple Source 40 80%
Single Source 10 20%
TOTAL 50 100%

Table 2- Seeking Information from various sources

As seen in table no.2, Out of 50 respondents-40 (80%) respondents seeks information from multiple sources before making a buying decision and rest 10 (20%) respondents rely on one source before making a buying decision

 

Sources of Information NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
Traditional 15 30%
Digital 35 70%
TOTAL 50 100%

Table 3- Seeking Information from various sources

As seen in table no.3, Out of 50 respondents-15 (30%) respondents seeks information from traditional sources like newspaper, TV ,Pamphlets neighbors etc before making a buying decision and rest 35(70%) respondents rely on digital  source like online and mobile advertisement of information before making a buying decision.

 

Frequency of using Internet NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
Low 0 0%
Medium 5 10%
High 45 90%
TOTAL 50 100%

Table 4- Frequency of using internet

As seen in table no.4, Out of 50 respondents-the youngsters preferred to use internet on a medium (10%) to high frequency (90%) basis on internet and no students fall in category of low internet usage.

Conclusion – This shows that students of today generation prefer to use internet on high frequency and look for information on multiple sources that too through digital medium of information. Hence, it proves that the because of high access to internet amongst students, the concept of being digital and digital marketing is popular.


Statement 2-The awareness about the various tools of digital marketing

 

  NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS
Tools Yes No Can’t Say Total
  Frequency % Frequency % Frequency %  
E-Mail Marketing 37 74 13 26 0 0 50
Social Media 45 90 3 6 2 4 50
Affiliate marketing 33 66 10 20 7 14 50
Search Engine Optimization 25 50 13 26 12 24 50
Display Ad 30 60 2 4 18 36 50
Pop-Up 37 74 3 6 10 20 50
Web Banner Advertising 20 40 5 10 25 50 50

Table 5- Awareness about the various tools of digital marketing

As seen in the table above, it was been asked from the students that whether or not they know about the various tools of digital marketing and it was discovered that maximum students know about social marketing followed by e-mail and pop up and so on.

Conclusion-It can be concluded that the students of the sample selected are well versed about the various tools of digital marketing

 

Statement 3 The effectiveness and problems of digital marketing vis-a-vis to traditional marketing tools

  NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS
Factors Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total
  Frequency % Frequency % Frequency % Frequency % Frequency %  
Easy 38 76 5 10 5 10 2 4 0 0 50
Time Saving 32 64 12 24 3 6 2 4 1 2 50
Low Cost 25 50 10 20 5 10 6 12 4 8 50
Interactive 15 30 5 10 10 20 15 30 5 10 50
Up gradation 10 20 13 26 12 24 10 20 5 10 50
Exclusive Content 5 10 10 20 10 20 15 30 10 20 50
Fun & Entt 2 4 11 22 12 24 10 20 15 30 50

Table 7- Reasons for effectiveness of various tools of digital marketing

As seen in the table above, it was been asked from the students that Reasons for effectiveness of various tools of digital marketing  and it was found that students considered  digital marketing is the easiest mode of gathering  information  followed by time saving and low cost and so on.

 Preference NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS Percentage
E-Mail Marketing 10 20%
Social Media 30 60%
Affiliate marketing 5 10%
Search Engine Optimization 1 2%
Display Ad 1 2%
Pop-Up 1 2%
Web Banner Advterising 2 4%
Total 50 100%

Table 8 –Preference of various tools of digital marketing

As seen in the table above, it was been asked from the students that preference  of various tools of digital marketing  and it was found that students considered  social media marketing is the most preferred form of digital marketing followed by e-mail marketing , affiliate marketing and so on.

Statement 4- Problems of various tools of digital marketing

Problems NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS Percentage
Suspectible 18 36%
Fraud 20 40%
Interrupting 3 6%
Privacy issue 5 10%
Lack of demonstration 4 8%
Total 50 100%

   Table 9 –Problems of various tools of digital marketing

As seen in the table above, it was been asked from the students that problems of digital marketing  and it was found that students considered  fraud as one of the biggest problem followed by susceptible and so on.

Limitations of the study

The study is limited to Jaipur students only with limited colleges

Future scope of the study

The study could be extended; so as to cover all the states of India as the researcher believes that consumer buying behavior w.r.t online marketing may be at the variance in different states.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that the students of the sample selected found digital marketing as the effective mechanism of marketing due to various benefits provided by digital marketing, also youngster’s preferred marketing activity while being on social media through social marketing despite the problem of fraud and suspicion involved.

Bibliograhy

  1. Belch, G. E. and Belch, M. A., 2004. Advertising and Promotion – An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective. 6th ed. New York: Tata McGraw-Hill
  2. Chaffey, D. (2002). “Achieving marketing objectives through use of electronic communications technology.”
  3. Foux, G., (2006). Consumer-generated media: Get your customers involved. Brand Strategy, pg. no.38-39
  4. Fournier, Susan. (1998). Consumers and Their Brands: Developing Relationship Theory in Consumer Research. Journal of Consumer Research 24 (4): 343-73.
  5. Gangeshwer, D. K.(2013). E-Commerce or Internet Marketing: A Business Review from Indian Context” , International Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology Vol.6, No.6, pp.187-194
  6. Gurau, C. (2008). Integrated online marketing communication: implementation and management, Journal of Communication Management, vol. 12 no. 2, pp. 169-184
  7. Krishnamurthy, S. (2006). Introducing E-MARKPLAN: A practical methodology to plan e-marketing activities. Business Horizons. 49(1), 49, 51, 60.
  8. Mohan Nair PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), 2009; BuddeComm & Chiltern Magazine Services Ltd. (BCMSL), 2009)
  9. Prahalad, C.K. and Ramaswamy V. (2005). The Future of Competition: Co-Creating Unique Value with Customers. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press
  10. Sheth, J.N., Sharma, A. (2005). International e-marketing: opportunities and issues. International Marketing Review vol. 22 no. 6, 2005 pp. 611-622
  11. Schultz, D. E., and Schultz, H.F., 1996. Transitioning Marketing Communication into the 21stCentury. Journal of Marketing Communications, 4, pg. no. 9 – 26.
  12. Warren J. Keeyan, Global Marketing Management, USA, Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., 2002, pg. no. 3

 

A Misreading of the Poem of Maya Angelou’s’ My Arkansas’

1.Veeramani, S. Ph.D.& 2. Mr. M. Chinnadurai

Assistant Professors of English, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College

Abstract

Literary texts are significantly made up of signifiers from the definition of poststructuralist perspective. The author’s literary product is a dynamic, when a reader is making multiple readings. That is to say that a primary reading is not an end. There are multiple readings are in literature. This kind of multiplicity of reading is safely called ‘misreading’

Keywords

Culture, deconstruction, environmental concern, misreading, nature

Introduction

The well-known African American poet is Maya Angelou. She is a civil activist in Arkansas.  Arkansas is a place in America, where black people live and were discriminated brutally on the racial issues. She is labelled as postcolonial / subaltern writer. Her most famous poem is ‘My Arkansas’. Generally this poem deals with the poet’s reminiscent of her experience of the poet. As it is well known that this poem is a note of autobiographical. Angelou has brought bitterly out the present and the past experience. From the perspective of post structuralism, a theorist can reread this poem in the aspect of multiplicity of meaning. The surface level of the meaning is defaced and the hidden meaning is unearthed. The constant unearthing activity is the primary act of post structuralism.

       Post structuralism has not emerged suddenly. In arts and humanities the theory has been developed from structuralism. Post structuralism has produced a term called ‘deconstruction’. Originally the term deconstruction announced and practised by Jacques Derrida.  Derrida was a French philosopher, born in 1930. In his intellectual account, he has written three significant books. Those are: a) Speech and Phenomena b) Writing and Difference and c) Of Grammatology. Derrida is not to the diametrically opposite meaning in a text. Rather, he is to the unread meaning, which is left in a text by a common reader. The term deconstruction is not a new one. It already existed in the 18th century. Derrida says that a literary text is already dismantled by itself. Therefore, he says that the left over meaning with the play of signifiers is reread.


Misreading- A note:

The term deconstruction is derived from old French word. Derrida himself says that deconstruction is not a new term. It better to quote from Julian Wolfreys’ essay ‘Deconstruction, What Remains Unread’:

‘The first known written appearance of the word in English is in 1882’. As with its French predecessor, it has legal connotations: ’a reform the beginnings of which must be a work of deconstruction’ (wolfreys, 117.)

    Misreading of a literary text is not the reading of a literary text in a wrong manner, but it is a reading in which the other meaning is exhumed from a literary text. There are two kinds of method of reading, which can be functioned analyse a literary text.

A)Intended meaning (author’s / general /surface meaning)

  1. B) Unintended meaning (reader’s reconstruction/misreading/unread meaning/deconstruction)

The intended meaning defines that the surface level of the meaning in a text which the author wants to convey to readers. And it has a sequential logic at giving the meaning.

The unintended meaning defines that a reader deconstructs a literary text / art not from a reader’s own perspective, but to discover the unread he meaning, which is already dismantled by itself. In a linguistic network the play of signifiers are already tended to be deconstructed.


Deconstructive Analysis of the poem ‘My Arkansas’

Maya Angelou’s ‘My Arkansas’ is a well-known African American poem. Some readers and critics say that the poem deals with the theme of autobiography. Through this poem Angelou has depicted that there is a racial discrimination in her country. This poem is an example for that. In a deconstructive reading all the readings are the provisional. Therefore, in the practice of deconstruction, the term aporiais used.

                                    There is a deep brooding

                                    in Arkansas

                                    old crimes like moss pend

                                    from poplar trees

the poet has utilized the metaphorical and figurative language in the above stanza. The poet says that in Arkansas old crimes are prevalent even now. The words ‘old’ ’crimes ‘make sense that the poet is in dilemma between old crimes and the modern crimes, since the old crimes are emphasized figuratively.

Moreover, the author has used the figurative words comparatively that ‘deep’ ‘brooding’‘moss pend’ and ‘poplar trees’, which have the nature of fast growing. Here the figurative words are representing the crimes committed by people in the Arkansas are culture. The words ‘moss’ and ‘poplar’ are representing ‘nature’. The poet seeks for assistance to bring out culture from ‘nature’. This is what a poststructuralist reading calls a concept of binary opposition. That is nature X culture, man X woman as such. In the poem the signifiers reiterate nature for emphasizing culture. The poet explains that nature of fast growing trees like ‘moss’ and ‘poplar’. The above few lines of the poem have the nature of culture

                                    the sullen earth

                                    Is much too

                                    Red for comfort

The above lines are the environmental concern rather than her autobiographical note. The words ‘sullen earth’ and ‘too red’ are in the metaphorical sense. Again the poet seeks for assistance from nature ‘earth’. The words ‘too red’ might have explained that the earth is destroyed by the crimes.  It shows that the earth is being deteriorated into loss of fertility, nature and greenish, because of the man-made violence. It is better termed as anthropocentrism. Therefore, it might to say that the poet has eco-concern

Sunrise seems to hesitate

                                    And in that second

                                    Lose its

                                    incandescent aim, and

                                    dusk no more shadows

than the moon

The above lines are the explanatory of change of whether /climatic condition. The sun is not able to appear and disappear in the proper region /location. The sun loses its brighter light to flash. The line ‘the past is brighter yet’ shows that the line is connected with the ‘old crimes’ like ‘moss pend’. The explanatory note here is the cultural degradation makes more on nature and it has lost ‘values’ and ‘nature’. Again the poet seeks for assistance from natural phenomena like ‘earth, moon’. The poet is so concern about the environmental degradation and is compared with past/old crimes in Arkansas.

Old hates and

                                    Ante-bellum lace, are rent

                                    But not discarded

                                    Today is yet to come

The poet might to say that before the American Civil war the condition was unsatisfactory. This might be a reason that the American civil war could bring peace. The term ‘ante-bellum’ is on par with before the American civil war. Therefore the poet makes importance to the environmental concern rather than her autobiographical note in the poem.

References

Barry, Peter. Beginning Theory:An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory.UK: Manchester University Press, 2010. print.

Wheeler, Kathleen and Indra, C.T. Explaining Deconstruction. Chennai: Macmillan, 1997. print.

Wolfreys, Julian. Introducing Literary Theories:A Guide and Glossary. UK: Edinburgh University Press, 2001. print.

 

Factors Affecting Customers’ Satisfaction on Banglalink Users in Sylhet City

Mohammad Kamrul Ahsan

Senior Lecturer, Department of Business Administration

Metropolitan University, Sylhet, Bangladesh

Abstract

Customers’ satisfaction is the most talkative issue in the competitive business environment. The telecommunication market of Bangladesh is too competitive. Banglalink is the 2nd largest telecommunication company in Bangladesh. The aim of this study is to identify some important factors that satisfy the Banglalink customers. A highly structured questionnaire was prepared to collect the primary data from 228 customers. Several tools i.e. Descriptive Statistics, ANOVA, Pearson Correlation, and Multiple Regression analysis have been used to analyze thesecollected data. The researcher has found 15 important factors that have positive association on customers’ satisfaction. The findings of this study is that call rate on same operator, call rate of fnf numbers, available recharge points and number of fnf are core cause of customers’ satisfaction of Banglalink. In the same way value added services, call rate of international calls, bill payment systems, promotional offers and network quality are the most dissatisfied factors of Banglalink users. So the authority of Banglalink should take care of these factors to make customers satisfy.

Key wards:Customers’ Satisfaction, Factors, Banglalink, Users

Aren’t ‘Article 370 of the Constitution of India’ and the Presidential Orders purported to be dependent on it, just as relevant as the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 1938? – A succinct inspection.

Pradeep Kumar Sharma[1]

ABSTRACT

Even 67 years after India’s Independence, the country’s statute book has been still bearing the burden of a law which provides for punishment to those who dissuade people from taking part in a war in which the “British Empire” is involved. The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 1938, framed just before the World War-II that started a year later, is one of the 73 obsolete laws recommended by the Law Commission for repeal, in 2014. Article 370 of the Constitution of India has been universally agreed to violate fundamental rights guaranteed in Part III of the Constitution and proven itself to be ultra vires the basic structure of the Constitution of India. The politicians of Jammu and Kashmir are credited with carrying this ‘Human Rights violative law’ 60 years after it was scheduled to be repealed. They cry foul to even a debate on its uses, due to the fact that it is the largest mechanism of perpetuating political fraud by allowing the executive to perform the functions of the legislative- a classic violation of the ‘Separation of Power’ doctrine. This research paper will inspect the same in reference to a recent controversial court judgement that has shaken the faith of the Indian people generally and Indians of Jammu and Kashmir in particular.


[1] Research Scholar on Constitutional Law. Editor of book entitled, ’Article 370: Evolving Clarity Beyond the Conundrum’.

Call for Papers – February – 2016

Submission open for February – 2016

Last Date of Submission : February 23, 2016

Last Date of Publication : February 29, 2016

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Authors are cordially invited to submit papers for the upcoming edition Volume 3, Issue 02, February – 2016.

You may easily submit paper via email to editor@edupediapublications.com

 


 

 

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An Analysis on Production and Export of Fresh and Dry fruits in Jammu and Kashmir

Rubeenah Akhter*

* Ph.D Research Scholar, School of Economics. DAVV Indore.

 

Abstract: The aim of the present paper is to analyze the production and export performance of major Fresh and Dry fruits in Jammu and Kashmir. This paper will also give some suggestion for increasing the production in Jammu and Kashmir. The Regression analysis has been done in order to see changes in production during the study period. Under the changing agricultural scenario, it has been realized that the horticulture sector plays a vital role in providing livelihood security to the farmers globally. Area, production, productivity and export of horticultural produces are vital for increasing farm income and overall employment in the agricultural sector. Horticulture in recent years has emerged as an important and viable option in agriculture and has transformed the subsistence level of farming into a high value commercial enterprise. Horticulture crops provide food and nutritional security, generate employment, maintain ecological balance and provide raw materials for agro-processing industries, thereby improving the economy of state. Horticulture sector in the state of Jammu and Kashmir has a large share in export earnings and employment potential in the state.

Keywords :- Horticultural Production, Export, Employment, Agricultural sector

AN ANALYSIS OF MARINE POLLUTION: DANGER TO COASTAL INHABITANTS IN KANYAKUMARI DISTRICT

* Dr.Sr.S.Sahayaselvi

Abstract

The short-sightedness policy of economy, commerce, and production inject the slow poison to people, flora and fauna in the name of pollution. The gravest effects of all attacks on the environment are suffered by the poorest especially in case of marine pollution; it is the fisherfolk of any country. Fishermen who are considered to be marginalized and backward in all aspects- socio, economic, educational, cultural and even political suffer a lot due to marine pollution in terms of health and loss of fish stock. Therefore this paper is an eye opener for the readers to know that how far marine pollution bring havoc in the life of the coastal inhabitants and bring danger to their livelihood. Results from 225 sample respondents indicate that how the marine water is polluted due to domestic and industrial sewage water and bring danger to fishermen community in the form of health hazards. This paper too offers few suggestions to the government and the well wishers of the fishermen to take care of marine sea with far sightedness which protects the life of quarter of the world’s population lives on the coast or nearby and that the majority of our megacities are situated in coastal areas .Otherwise14.47 million fishermen may be washed up and peril in the marine pollution.

Keywords: Marine pollution, Coastal inhabitants, Environmental diseases, Coastal Erosion.

*Assistant Professor of the Department of Commerce, Holy Cross College (Autonomous), Roch Nagar, Nagercoil, Kanyakumari District, TamilNadu, South India.