Tag Archives: Articles on Agro-Industry

An Analysis on Production and Export of Fresh and Dry fruits in Jammu and Kashmir

Rubeenah Akhter*

* Ph.D Research Scholar, School of Economics. DAVV Indore.


Abstract: The aim of the present paper is to analyze the production and export performance of major Fresh and Dry fruits in Jammu and Kashmir. This paper will also give some suggestion for increasing the production in Jammu and Kashmir. The Regression analysis has been done in order to see changes in production during the study period. Under the changing agricultural scenario, it has been realized that the horticulture sector plays a vital role in providing livelihood security to the farmers globally. Area, production, productivity and export of horticultural produces are vital for increasing farm income and overall employment in the agricultural sector. Horticulture in recent years has emerged as an important and viable option in agriculture and has transformed the subsistence level of farming into a high value commercial enterprise. Horticulture crops provide food and nutritional security, generate employment, maintain ecological balance and provide raw materials for agro-processing industries, thereby improving the economy of state. Horticulture sector in the state of Jammu and Kashmir has a large share in export earnings and employment potential in the state.

Keywords :- Horticultural Production, Export, Employment, Agricultural sector


Innovation of a Farmer Transforming Social and Economic Living Conditions: A Case Study of Farmer Inventing Tractor

Dr. Priyanka Sharma & **Nishi Slathia

*The First Author is Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Jammu, J&K, India, 180006.

** The author is PhD Scholar in the Department of Strategic and Regional Studies, University of Jammu, J&K, India. 180006



Necessity is the mother of invention. Although there is a relentless problem of lack of mechanical and scientific knowledge in countryside, rural people becomes grassroots innovators to solve their and community’s problems by coming up with solutions. Rural Entrepreneurship is often conceived as innovation, creativity, the establishment of new activities, or some kind of novelty. The rural entrepreneurial ventures play a vital role in providing employment opportunities and income for the needy people in rural sector. It helps in sinking the exodus of people from rural to urban areas in search of livelihood and provision of employment opportunities. As the population pressure grows in the land-scarce and developing countries like India, the growth in the agricultural production cannot absorb the ever increasing rural labour force in farming employment. This leaves the rural non-farm sector in the form of rural SMEs (small and medium entrepreneurial ventures) to absorb those released from agriculture but not absorbed in the urban industries. The rural sector is best poised for a rapid expansion in the small and medium industry arena.

In the present scenario, majority of the rural natives are unaware of technological skills, marketing etc. Shortage of funding and raw materials, lack of proper infrastructure and communication facilities etc. are main difficulties faced by rural entrepreneurs. The policy makers and executors have to find scope and space in the farm based entrepreneurial ventures to address to the daunting problem of unemployment in the country. The experiences of the people involved in such ventures needs to be cashed and used to make shift in the policy paradigm in the given context. The present paper is an attempt to analyze the case study of a rural entrepreneur of India and analysis is done about his life experiences leading to the advent of innovation, which have transformed the lives of rural agricultural community.

Key words : Rural entrepreneurship, Innovation, Employment, Technology, Technical Knowledge.

Definition of Handmade Carpets/Rugs

Ms. Mamta Lall

(Associate Professor), H.O.D.

Dept. of Design, School of Art Design Media Studies,

Sharda University, Greater Noida. (New Delhi).

Abstract: The papers fixate on paramount of handmade carpets/Rugs also attempts to discuss about the hand-tufted carpets, knotted oriental carpets, which could strengthen the design development activity of the weaving sector, see different wide variety of Design in Hand Knotted Carpets. We also see the wide variety of design in tribal rugs.


Key words: Contoured pattern, inexpensive, smoothed, appearance, asymmetric, hangings, saddlebags, tent hangings, ground covers, animal trappings, and storage sacks, loop structure




The hand-tufted carpets production differs significantly from all other production methods. The carpet is not woven or knotted row by row, but rather the pile yarn is incorporated by hand into a backing fabric using a tufting gun. There are two kinds of tufting guns: electric and purely manual ones. If the pile is cut open in the process, a velour surface emerges. In order to retain a loop structure, the pile yarn is not cut.

As soon as the pile is completed, the pile threads have to be fixed because they are only loosely incorporated into the backing fabric and can be pulled out easily. The entire back of the rug is thus bonded, generally with Contoured pattern the back of the rug is then covered using a cotton duck fabric for a clean look. Contoured pattern details are often subsequently carved out.

Unlike knotted rugs, whose patterns must be created row by row from the bottom to the top, all pattern details in one colour or type of yarn can be produced before moving on to the next. Curves can also be created easily using this technique. After the design is stamped into a film by hand, applied colour particles are used to make it visible on a primary backing made of poly acrylic or polyamide.

The rug is sheared to ensure an equal pile height. A velour surface results if the pile was cut open during application. In order to preserve the loop structure, the pile yarn is not cut open. During finishing, overlaying pile threads are cut off, edges are smoothed out and stitched down if necessary, and the rug cleaned.

In order to better reveal the contours of the rug design, and to ensure that the pattern is clearly visible, the rug is sheared again by hand.

The pile is usually made from poly acrylic fiber, polyester, viscose or wool.

Hand-tufting is a fast process, thus making the rugs produced inexpensive. The main countries of production are China, India and Thailand. Especially high-quality pieces are also produced in Europe.

We can see wide variety of Design in Han Tufted Carpet look:

  • Abbusan Rug
  • Contemporary Design
  • Abstract Design
  • Shaped Carpet


A carpet is said to be knotted when the pile yarn is incorporated into its basic weave by means of a knot. The basic weave, that is warp and weft, is usually made from wool or cotton, the knotted pile is usually made from wool.

A knot has to fully enclose at least one warp yarn. Today the symmetric knot, the asymmetric knot, the Tibetan (Nepalese) knot and the very rare Berber knot are used.

The manufacturing process of a knotted rug starts with stretching the warp across the loom, also called beaming. The tension of the warp is important for the quality of the rug. Rows of weft yarn are then woven in at right angles into the stretched warp. The resulting so-called initial weave (also known as Kilim band) provides stability.

Now, row by row, the pile is knotted around the warp. Each knot runs over a pair of warp threads. Each knot is incorporated individually, which allows for different colours and patterns to emerge. The knotting is done either from memory or according to a patter, so-called vaghires, point paper designs or talims.

The knots are always pulled downwards, which produces the pile bias, or the grain. It always leans towards where the carpet was started to be knotted. After each completed row of knots, the knotter then puts in one or several wefts. Finally, he beats the wefts and knots down using a heavy, comb-like tool called beater. It is important that the impact always has the same force to ensure that the final appearance is uniform. If the impact is lower in one part, for instance in order to save time, the carpet will be looser and the patterns will no longer be in proportion.

As soon as the knotting is completed, the carpet is washed, which makes the pile shiny and removes excess dirt and wool. The pile is thentrimmed to its final length. The finer the knotting, the lower the pile, or the pattern blurs.

Two types of knots are generally used for the production of classic oriental carpets: the symmetric (Turkish) and the asymmetric (Persian) knot. Despite their names, these types of knot are not bound to a particular region, since both types are used in Turkey and in Iran.

The asymmetric knot is knotted asymmetrically over a pair of adjacent warp threads; the pile yarn fully enclosed one pile yarn, and halfof the other. Other names for this type of knot are: Persian knot, Sennehknot and Farsi baff.

The symmetric knot is knotted symmetrically over an adjacent pair of warp threads; both threads are fully enclosed by the pile yarn. Other names for this type of knot are: Turkish knot, Ghiordes knot and Turk Baff.So-called looped carpets represent a special category. Here, the pile is incorporated into the basic weave using W or V loops. But there is no knot that truly enclosed the warp thread. Nevertheless, these carpets are considered to be knotted carpets. The pile of such looped carpets is less durable.

In Nepalese carpets, Indian imitations and Chinese Tibetan rugs, the Tibetan knot is used. This knot is endlessly wound around rod. Once one row of knot loops in one colour is completed the loops around the rod are cut to fan out the pile. This produces the typical striped knot appearance. The knot that is cut open resembles the asymmetric knot.

We can see wide variety of Design in Hand Knotted Carpets.

  • Tabriz
  • Mir
  • Abusson
  • Herati
  • Bidjar
  • Heriz
  • Kirman
  • Prayer Rugs
  • Kazak
  • Keshan
  • Sarouk
  • Isfahan etc.


Oriental Rugs are floor coverings that are done by nomads and villagers. Such rugs are available from almost all over the world. . Such expressions of tribal culture are very popular and treasured in homes worldwide. Product likerugs, wall hangings, saddlebags, tent hangings, ground covers, animal trappings, and storage sacks etc., where these are used as every day usage articles.

Oriental rugs with a plush pile are woven in small sections of dyed yarn attached tightly to pairs of warps. Weavers use this weaving style where they work with free end of a continuous yarn. The yarn covers each knot separately and clipping the yarn before the subsequent knot. Following after each knotted row, single or a number of wefts are inserted and stressed down taut. Tribal rugs are ornamental geometric motifs woven on the loom. There are traditional designs such as totemic, religious, talismanic ones that give a peerless look to an exclusive tribal rug. Sometimes the weaver depicts important aspect of their daily life.

Fibers of organic origin are used in weaving tribal rugs. Generally, with a wool, cotton and natural fibers such as mohair, camel hair, goat hair and silk are also used to form the pile. Symmetrical knots also known as Ghiordes and asymmetrical known as Senneh actually bring out the splendor in the rug. The special feature of tribal pieces is that often the weft threads are tied with a different colored yarn that does not matches with the color of the rug,mainly brighter colour,which makes them unique among themselves. Other creation of tribal origin consists of flat weaves like Kilim that also looks exceptionally fine.

Tribal weavers in the rugs also use motifs of noble animals and birds. However, they are woven in a secondary, stylized and geometric manner,there could be a battle scene depicted against a geometric background with a simple pattern border. These Versatile rugs creates a fashionable look to the ambience.

We can see wide variety of Design in Tribal Rugs.

  • kilims
  • Tribal Rugs



With growing market potential for textile products there is a wide range of career options in this field. Textile design comprises both surface design and structural design. Textile designers usually hadle embroidery designers, print, weave and texture. Textile designers need to have details information about textile fibres and different methods of textile design. Thus, there of lots of opportunities existing in the carpet industry, which may be cashed.

Designers takes the idea of colour from nature and fills it, sometime the natural colours added by the designer may not be in trend with the market.


  1. Cover:Carpets & Textiles for modern interiors, winter,2014.
  2. Ikoku, Ngozi, The Victoria & Albert Museum’s Textile Collections: British Textile Design from 1940 to the present.
  3. Home accent Today, Vol.30, No.1, and January, 2015.
  4. Home Furnishing News, January, 2015.
  5. HFN, August, 2015.
  6. Gantzhorn, Volkmar:Oriental Carpets, Taschen, London.
  7. Sakhai,Essie: The story of Carpets,Studio Editions, London.