All posts by Dushyant Kumar

I am an enthusiastic content reader and writer inclined to the learning and fostering skills and key things to fortify the journey of learning and earning. I personally loved technical writing and content writing because it gave me an opportunity to express my inner voice and perception and knowledge what i explored over the time by doing various things.

Why Am I Writing…

I put some letters write some words but at the next moment, I erased the sentence and start thinking about another topic to write upon. Once I engaged in an imagination creating plot within mind creating the role of characters but at the same moment there comes a feeling which is obnoxious that someone is validating me, the title which I had imagined and articulated plot with it, is under some verification which arouses many questions in my mind is this topic valid with the perception of society ? is this articulated with the thoughts of people around me? Hence a kind of riddle framed within my mind draws me to erase the text and sentences again and again but amid of this confusion and determination of writing something my zeal of writing wins over the confusion which penetrates me which makes me arduous, fervent and enthusiastic about writing.

Writing an article or writing in any kind of format and structure is not just writing words and linking sentences it contains whole emotions, essence, comprehension, and themes. writing is a voice for an author it is what implies implicitly the tone and idea of the author. the writing speaks the author’s position in a certain situation what he thinks? what he analyses? what he is perceptible about? without any slightest count of physical indication, writing delivers its broad message without any violation. and here lies the answer to my question why am I writing?

Feeling Of Cherishing: With every word and with every sentence it gives me immense pleasure and feeling of cherishing when I sat and start writing vibrant ideas perceptions and thoughts etc. starts emerging in mind and when I pen down my world of imaginations it soothes me it cherishes me.

Message to the outward world: Being a common personality like billions I have no supporters like a big celebrity and political figure. it is very hard to gather a large number of people before a speaker from where you address a large number of interested people with your propaganda but it seems very easy and affordable for me to deliver my message my thoughts my propaganda through writing where I can circulate my message to a large number of people.

I would like to share my Emotions: I am not an expert in writing articles neither I am an expert in delivering my comprehension within the perfect boundaries of Context. But I have Certain Perception towards things going around me, I have Emotions and thoughts regarding society, country, politics, trade, philosophy, sports, and what the life witnessing I have an inner Voice which would like to say something the voice which can be paradoxical ironic, acerbic, critical, objective, etc. but does not influence by any dogma. it is the voice that would like to say something to the extrovert world and that voice can be best reached and can draw attention through writing. My Ideas Thoughts and perception towards things can be best delivered through my writing that does not stop me that does not count the number of words and constraints that only allowed me to inject my emotions and comprehension in my own way.

“Social Reforms In India”

Today we are living in an independent country with a well-framed constitution that guarantees equality dignity and provides fair chances to every single citizen of India it does not allow differences on the basis of sex or gender caste and status, everybody is equal before the constitution of India. Today Police provide social protection and protection against any kind of harassment, courts are established to confirm a justice to every single individual who approaches and believes in the judicial system. But the Era we are living in is so different and advanced in terms of social justice and practices articulated to it before independence Indian society was confronted with social differences people are exploited on the basis of caste and creed females did not enjoy equal rights and there was the well-established notion of conservative feelings, Evils like “SATI PRATHA” were practiced in which dowry of a dead husband got burnt with the funeral of the husband. There were no advocates for women education practices like child marriage, superstitions had covered the rational perception of the society, a lot of activities were in practice those are repugnant to an ideal Indian Society.

How India Laid Foundation For Social Reforms ? Who are the Heroes ?

From the 18th Century onwards India was being Ruled by Britishers, India was a colonial state of Britishers but this colonization era has impacted the Indian Society Deeply and this era became an era of Reforms and Social Upgradation. Social Heroes Swami Vivekanandan, Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Mahatma Gandhi, Vinoba Bhave, jyotiba phulle etc. laid the foundation For Social reform and lead the society for abolishing evils which prevailed the Indian Society.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1772 to 1833) : Raja ram Mohan Roy was an Indian Religious, social and Educational reformer who laid foundation for social upliftment, He was the founder of the Brahmo Samaj. Brahmo Samaj believes in the existence of one supreme God. Raja Ram Mohan Roy was a reformer and he writes ” The present System Of Hindus is not well calculated to promote their Political Interests is Necessary that some change should take place in their religion ,at least for the sake of their political advantage and social comfort. He put significant efforts and sight for abolishing ‘child marriage’ and ‘Sati Pratha’.

Swami Vivekananda (1863 to 1902): Swami Vivekananda was an Indian monk a chief disciple of Ram Krishna. He binds Indian philosophies in Vedanta and strongly emerged with the Idea of Hinduism. He revives the Concept of Hinduism in India with a strong vision carried Hinduism philosophies to the outward world and used the idea of Nationalism for fighting against Colonial state. He writes ‘ Each soul is potentially divine. The goal is to manifest this divinity within by controlling nature, external and internal. Do this either by work, or worship, or mental discipline, or philosophy by one, or more, or all of these and be free. this is the whole of religion. Doctrines, or dogmas, or rituals, or books, or temples, or forms, are but secondary details. He Delivered talks in Newyork and Said “Arise, Awake, and stop not till the Goal is Reached”.

Jyotirao Govindrao Phule(1827-1890): Jyotirao was an Indian Social Activist thinker and a social reformer. He laid the foundation for untouchability and was a pioneer who worked for women Education. He and his wife Savitribai Phule works significantly for the education of Women. He established School for girls and contribute significantly to Women Education and their Upliftment.

Social Reformation was an important Phase that Uplifts the conditions of Women Education abolished Evils which were as significant as the Stigma on the face of an Ideal Society.

“Different Types Of Tests Used To Detect Coronavirus”

Every day we are interacting with a surging number of cases across the country, every day we add another significant number of digits in confirmed cases, Active cases and total deaths and tolls are growing in each segment with a huge margin. today means ( on 02 July 2020 ) we have significant Number of Covid-19 reported cases that are terrifying increasing every minute rapidly Confirmed cases are (607416) Total Deaths are (17880) and Active Cases are (228410) Country had reached more then half a million cases and tolls are growing day by day. In this Scenario of helplessness where we can only witness the increasing tolls there is a big challenge for the Health Ministry to conducted tests all across the country or where the situations are worse or the possibility of vulnerability is high, and with this one of the most important parameter is to choose the type of test. There are a lot of discussions going on regarding the reliability of the test, cost of the test.

What kind of test one should prefer? What is the Reliability of the Test?

Picking the test is an important criterion or choosing between risk and safety. You are infected by Coronavirus or not how would you know it? Definitely, your body will respond to your symptoms will tell the story but conformity will be determined by a ‘Right test’. Undergoing a reliable authentic and preferred test is very crucial because it is the only test that determines the are you positive or negative hence choosing a test is a question of choosing life and death. There are criteria, parameters, and factors that categorized the kind of tests. Mainly there are three types of tests available or carried out to detect the presence of coronavirus or determines whether a person is tested positive or negative, they are Anti-Body test, RT-PCR test, and ICMR test.

Anti-Body Test: Antibody tests are also known as a serological test, they are carried out on a large scale throughout the country because of cheap availability. An antibody test is carried out to detect the presence of coronavirus by quantifying the number of Antibodies produced within the body. this test does not detect directly the presence of coronavirus a conclusion regarding the infection is measured by quantity of antibodies produced by immune system. Blood samples are taken and used to determine the number of antibodies released. this test is carried out to detect the presence of Immunoglobulin M and G. but overall this test is not reliable, it has not that preciseness and competence to detect the presence of coronavirus hence it is not reliable and data produced on the basis of Antibody test is not up to the mark.

RT-PCR TEST: According to a statement by the Health Ministry of India RT-PCR, the Real-Time reverse transcription-polymerase chain is a gold standard frontline test that can detect the presence of Coronavirus or whether a person is positive or not. this method of testing involves taking a Nasal / throat swab from the infected one, and from this sample RNA ribonucleic acid is extracted which is also the genetic code of Coronavirus patter of the genetic code obtained from RNA of the sample taken from the patient is undergone for matching if Pattern Of genetic code of patient match with the pattern of coronavirus Patient announced to be Positive or infected from Coronavirus. this method of testing is more reliable accurate, but this method requires machines for extracting RNA, skilled Lab technicians, chemicals, and best experts who can carry this test with preciseness, and all this makes this test expensive it costs about 4500 Rupees per test. Overall RT-PCR test is a reliable and accurate test for the detection of coronavirus.

ICMR TEST : This involves usage of the tests discussed above Antibody test and RT-PCR test both. According to the availability consumption and Number of infected Patients.

“Dynamics Of Population In India”

Look around everywhere you will encounter a large number of masses in the malls, in public meetings, football matches, transportation, tourist places, or nowadays enlocked under the lockdown, every day we are adding over 220000 people to this planet approximately 150 people every minute that equals over 80 million more people every year. The population is growing at a breathtaking pace globally in this scenario India’s population is a significant contributor estimate about 1.3 billion changes yearly with a rate of 0.99% where world population clocks for 7.8 billion and accounts for second-largest in the world.

Population Size: According to the 2011 census India has 1.24 billion population and accounts for 2nd most populated country it contributes 17 percent to the global population a significant percentage contribution and alarming. and this huge number of population covers about 2.4 percent world area. During the period from 1901 to 1951, the rate of growth of the population is 1.33 percent per Annum. But after the Britishers when they leave India population of Independent India grew at a rate of 2.2 percent from 1961 to 1981. but the growth rate of population in India over a Century caused by the Annual Birth Rate and Death Rate of Migration. Over the period India Had witness different trends of the growing population.

Phase 1 : Period from (1901 to 1921 )

During this period the growth rate was very slow, because of the poor health services and poor medical facilities and illiteracy were the factors that contributed to the slower growth rate of the population. Illiteracy and Poor medical Facilities caused a high birth rate and death rate. even from 1911 to 1921 the growth rate was negative due to an influenza epidemic.

Phase 2 : (1921 to 1951)

During this phase India witness a steady growth rate of population. Medical facilities, health facilities and sanitization improves which contributes to steady growth rate of population. Transportation, communication systems were improved which provide connectivity to the various facilities which provides steady growth rate to population.

Phase 3: (1951 to 1981 )

This period had significant surge in population growth rate, this phase is known as phase of ‘population explosion’. Annual growth rate accounts for 2.2 percent. Due to high medical care and various other facilities this phase witness rapid fall in mortality rate but high fertility rate.

Phase 4 : ( Post 1981 till present )

This phase also witness the high growth rate, mean age was increased this period witness high growth with definite signs of slowing down. According to 1st march 2001, stood at 1027015247 comprising of 531277078 males and 495738169 females. and religious census of 2001 accounts 81 % Hindus and 13.5 % Muslims.

Composition : The distribution within a group of people of specific individual attributes such as sex , age , Marital status, etc. is known as composition of Population.

On the basis of religion : All religions accounts for 100% estimated 121 crores in which Hindu accounts for 79.80 % about 96.62 crores, Muslims accounts for 14.23 % which is about 17.22 crores and others which accounts 6% about 7 crores.

Rural-Urban Composition : Rural and urban distribution accounts for 68.84 % and 31.16% respectively. Level of Urbanization increased from 27.81% in 2001 census to 31.16% in 2011 census. The proportion of rural population decreased from 72.19 % to 68.84 %.

Gender Wise : Sex composition accounts for fewer females in comparison to males. According to 2011 census sex ratio of India is 108.176, i.e., 108.176 males per 100 females in means that India has 924 females per 1000 males. India accounts for 48.04 % female population compare to 51.96% male Population.

“Constitutional Law And Social Changes”

The constitution is not just a compiled set of rules and regulations it is what drives country. Indian Constitution is called ‘Transformative in nature’ as it has the competence to transform the socio-economic face of the country. In India, we encounter many different religions and traditions and all these religions have their respective written Holy documents in which people of respective beliefs believe and follow them in their conduct, but this accounts for a particular group all the people do not believe in single Religious system or any religious practices. Religion neither taught to keep differences but all religions have differentiated groups of people, no single religion in India has common beliefs followed separate principles of religion. But above all the Religions, every opinion and recognition there Is a document there is a written holy text which does not talk about the differentiated beliefs which promise common legal procedures and conduct for all and a document of belief for every citizen Of India that is the “The Constitution Of India” which promises social, economic, and political justice to every single citizen of India.

What is it that made Indian Constitution ‘Transformative in nature which can bring social changes with the time ?’

The preamble of Our constitution guarantees social, economic and political justice states “We the people of India having solemnly resolved to the constitution of India into a Sovereign socialist secular democratic Republic and to secure to all its citizens JUSTICE social, economic, and Political; LIBERTY of thought, expressions, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring dignity of the individual and unity and integrity of the nation. We have directive principles state policies rights provisions and amendments, etc. formulated by far-sighted people that are the basis of social change. The traditional Indian Religious system categorizes the people according to caste and ranks and works were allotted according to ranks but FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS (14 to 31) provides every single citizen fundamental rights, rights to dignity rights to lead the life independent of any social religious foundation providing him dignity equality and much more. Our constitution offers Directive Principle of state policy (Article 36 to 51), these are the 15 principles provided to the federal school governing the state of India which promises social justice economic welfare and state should minimize inequalities in income and eliminate inequality of status, provided with the state shall direct policies towards securing adequate means of livelihood for all citizens men and women equally.

In Sphere Of Law : State shall secure that operation of legal system promote justice on the basis of equal opportunities (Article 39A, 44, 50).

In Economic Sphere : The State shall within limit of economic capacity (Article 41, 47)

Rights Of Workers: Provisions for securing condition of work and their wages law (Article 43 , 43A).

In sphere of agriculture: The state shall Endeavour to develop the agri based industry along with modern scientific lines.

Constitution of Federal state of India promises Equality dignity and opportunities with fair regulations including all the spheres which result in social changes mindset changing where people exhorted to adopt equality among themselves in every aspect of their life leaving backward minded thinking leaving the narrow gate of thoughts motivated by social malpractices or traditional conservative and superstitious Beliefs and adopting a wide vision of equality, and dignity. Triple Talaq which was the suffering of many Muslim women abolished is a remarkable transformation bring by our constitution. Case Of Ayodhya Ram Mandir Temple Consoled After many years because of our constitution has might transform the social face of the country. Homosexuality is permitted within the country abolishing #377 Article Of Constitution Is a mark Of Transformative Nature Of Indian Constitution.

” Indian Constitution Is Transformative In Nature” A an Agent To Social Change.

Crowd: The Voice Of Cricket Match

Just Imagine a match without passionate fervent enthusiastic crowds who electrifies the atmosphere and produce sensation on every single ball delivered by baller tackled by batsman and collected by fielder. without crowd cricket match is like a ‘speaker without voice’ a ‘TV without signals’ and a ‘pizza without cheese’ . it is an obnoxious feeling even thinking about organising a cricket match without crowd. Crowd create the beats on every single ball. Not only ballers and batsman of opponent teams fought with each other but it is also crowd which fought with emotions hopes and contributes equally well as a batsman and a baller.

“The G” ground of Melbourne Australia known as MCG, or Cricket ground of lords known as ‘Home of cricket’ or whether it is Eden Gardens Kolkata or Wanderers Stadium Johannesburg, etc. all these grounds are a mark of Cricket where emotions and aspirations of crowd gather to support their nations their Heroes and produced triumph sensation in the field. A lot of fans and every cricket lover walk miles within the country or abroad to support to encourage their heroes and make the spirit of cricket live and unbeatable. May it is the scorching heat of summer or rainy season nothing stop crowd to gather for a cricket match and shows the great presence of fighting spirits supporting spirits. Clapping produce a thundering phenomenon when the baller starts to run up the crowd creates a rhythm of claps with his rhythm of run-up. All the facilities all the arrangements and beauty of ground is colorless without crowd sought noises chanting of star names over the electrifying atmosphere in the ground increase the beats of every single player. what makes the contest nail-biting? without any doubt, players are keys to making the contest thrilling with their efforts and skills and endeavor and fighting with the aim of never give up. every edition of the game produces some thrilling and terrific moments which stuns every single cricket lover witnessing contest live or on broadcasting channels sitting in their homes or anywhere else, the crowd also contributes significantly in synthesizing such key moments. it’s their enthusiasm and active participation which making beats high creating a phenomenon in which all the ground players produce magic played glorious innings took wickets to catch some stunning catches. this 2019 world cup we witness the same scenes of electrifying and thrilling stuff when England chasing down levels the score it was just an overthrow by martin Guptill which struck to the bat of stokes and gives extra runs and match got tied. World of cricket every cricket lover and fans all around the world witnessed one of the biggest contest worlds was on the verge of getting its new champion, but something dramatic was happening we have finals without result teams have to show their endeavor in super over to achieve the title of world champions. every single pulse witnessing the contest in ‘Home of Cricket’ at the Lord’s got stagnant beats were the high situation of worry and anxiety was at its high and crowd gots stunned cheers when first-time England lifts the world cup, no doubt it was the determination of all the players their fervent and arduous mindset not to loose which honored them the title of world champion but the crowd was also an inevitable part of this win who leaves their homes travel miles to enrolled in the spirit of their nation to stood for them to support their heroes. “Crowd is an inevitable part of Cricket” without the crowd Cricket match is like “A speaker without Voice”.

“Indian Prime Ministers and Their Significant Works”

It was 15th of august 1947 when India got its first independent prime minister ‘jawaharlal nehru’ and India awake to its freedom and liberty towards new journey of hope with the aspirations of crores of Indians who were dominated by various invading forces. We had covered 73 years of independent journey flourishing democracy the ‘praja rule’ covered the journy of biggest democratic country in the world, overcome many challenges but yet to overcome many challenges and hurdles. over the 73 years of independence india had witness tenures of many prime ministers who had laid foundation of Development and prosperous India their policies far sighted thinking and works provides New mile stones.

Jawaharlal Nehru(1947- 1964) : He was the the first prime minister of Independent India Appointed by Lord Mountbatten and at the stroke of midnight hour took oath in the name of constitution of india to became the first prime minister and remained in office for 16 years and 286 days.

Significant Works : Jawaharlal nehru was regarded as the founder of modern india. modernisation was his national policy with seven goals National unity, parliamentary democracy, industrialization, socialism, development, of the scientific temper, and non-alignment. He advocate import substitution industrialization and mixed economy where government controlled public sector.He adopted soviet economic model. He formulated some significant social policies in which he emphasizes on education established management schools, all indian school of medical science, indian institute of technologies, national institute of technologies built thousands of schools, etc. He wrote article 44 of the indian constitution which states “The state shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India”. and apart from it there are many agricultural social defence and nuclear language and foreign policies which he adopt for the better tommorow for the better India.

Lal Bahadur Shastri(1964 -1966) : He was appointed as the second prime minister of democratic state of India preceded by Gulzari Lal Nanda. He remained in office for 1 year 216 days. A picture of simplicity and serenity.

Significant works: He was known for ‘Green revolution’ in india, it was under his tenure when agriculture was transformed into industrial system due to adoption of modern methods and technologies use of modern techniques were encouraged High yielding variety (HYV ) seeds were promoted use of tractors , irrigation facilities fertilizers insecticides pesticides were promoted . and this trnasformed agriculture to a new standard and agriculture becames the rigid basis for economy contributes significantly he encouraged green revolution to enhance the rural income and economy. during 1965 india import wheat from united states and there was an ongoing war between india and pakistan US threatens india to cut supply of wheat if India did not stop the war but he did not bent down before US and on AIR India he gave a famous Slogan ‘jai jawan jai kishan’. He was also known for ‘White Revolution’ which had revolutionized the production and supply of milk. He formulated the National Diary Development Board, support the campaign lead by Amul.

We had witness the rule of many other prime ministers in this journey of 73 years but they both laid the Foundation of Development reforms and visions for Future of India. they created base to build new pillars of hopes and building of aspirations in which lies the confidence of 1.3 billion people of India.

child labour: A Question Of Livelihood

have you ever seen a little boy serving tea on a tea stall in scruffy clothes with glittering eyes with common words “Chae Lenge Aap”, or making a puncture in a cycle store rubbing the spot of puncture with a piece of a particular paper, no doubt he is a child does he like emerging bubbles in a bucket of water when he dipped tube with a spot of puncture or is it fun for him to add another cup of milk consecutively for preparing tea? as I can remember my childhood I had spent a lot of days playing in scorching heat but it is far different from working under scorching heat under a contractor. there are many pathetic scenes that are agitating creates a feeling of disconcerting, discountenance, and shook every Soul which have some piece of Humanity. If this troubles you compelled you to think about you are clear about the picture of ‘child labor’.

But child labour can be portrayed in many aspects or there are many definitions articulated with the concept of child labour. According to sociology one who must be in ‘Education’ but working is categorized as ‘Child Labour’. according to the general definition person below 14 years of age. and according to UN definition Children below 18 years of age. But the reality is articulated with compulsion, Helplessness creates situations which bounds children with labouring.

Causes which Creates compulsions or helplessness that Force a child not to hold a pen but a tea kettle:

Poverty: it is the basic problem which compelled a child to engage in child labour for earning bread to feed their bellies.

Underemployment of parents: there is a direct effect experienced by children of employment in which their parents are involved. it is found in study children who enrolled themselves in child labor have parents whose employment is undermined. even it is very hard for their parents to arrange the meal for themselves this helplessness encourages innocents young and soft hands to hold a bag of wheat or any material on their vests.

Illiteracy: Illiteracy is the important factor contributes to the emergence of child labor, because of illiteracy people remained unaware of necessary education, social activities, health, family planning, etc. which lead them to irresponsible decisions without knowing ill effects of child labor they engage their children in child labor and prevents them to take right decisions.

unhappy homes, lacking social security, large families, orphan protection failures, preferences for child labor, etc. contributes to child labor.

But how long will it be Prevelent in our society ? how long children who must serves basic education drag weights and hold tea kettles ?

The best solution for child labor is public awareness public should participate directly to heal the matter of child labor why we should wait for filing applications and response for the system it always took months years and we have nothing in terms of result whenever on any spot if child labor is associated or encouraged we must collectively discourage it. NGOs must come forward to support and monitoring. there must be the enactment of policy for child labor, there must be CREDA (center for rural education and development associations). Banning child labor is not enough parents must be punished, media must come with series on child labor for awareness there must be a public campaign not in mobs holding banners for a single day popping slogans, there must be an internal campaign which is intuitive in nature which encourages people by heart against child labor. Child labor is a sensitive issue we must collectively forward to abolish child labor.

“Emergency:Stigma on The Face Of Democracy”

It was 25th of June 1975 a warm day not only by weather conditions but due to the political movements and revolutions were increasing the political temperature and the lines spoken by Indira Gandhi stunned the nation “The president has proclaimed emergency, this is nothing to panic about”. Indira Gandhi extinguish the lamp of democracy whose wick was ignited by her father 28 years before after a long struggle of Independence and life to democracy. it was quit interesting and contemporary that both Independence and state of emergency were declared at the stroke of mid night hour but with different principles one of them was the awakening to life and freedom another was the censorship on life. It was officially issued by President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed Under Article 352 of the constitution but President only served as a stamp real masters were Indira Gandhi and Sanjay Gandhi.

Why it was happened that the biggest democratic nation who had struggled for centuries for freedom and life faces the Dark Era of ‘Emergency’ ?

It is a story which had many roles and characters and ground which was prepared over the time which collectively draws Mrs. Gandhi to go for one of the worst decision ever made in the history of democracy. its roots lies in general elections of 1971, when Raj Narain (who was a freedom fighter and a politician) Contested elections against Indira Gandhi and defeated against her. Narain filed a petition against the verdict of Indira Gandhi claiming that Mrs. Gandhi had used government officials as agents who campaign for her , government machinery , and bribery. Then comes the crux of the story which laid foundation for declarations of State of Emergency On 12th of June 1975 Justice Jagmohanlal Sinha found Mrs. Gandhi guilty of malpractices conducted by her during her electoral process and Sinha declared the verdict in Raebareilly constituency ‘null and void’ prohibited Mrs. Gandhi to remain on any government post or holding of any office and banned her for 6 years to context any election in future. This lead her to implement the state of Emergency to change the decision given by Allahabad High court. Justice Sinha without any influence and with his pure conscience laid the judgement which not only reflects might of Free Judiciary but also changed the course of India’s history Seniors Advocate Shanti Bhusan Who represented Raj Narain said- “yes indeed the emergency as well as Indira losing the 1977 election was the direct result of Justice Jagmohanlal sinha’s Judgement. “His Judgement was unassailable and Mrs. Gandhi had to change the law retrospectively to get over his Judgement. His judgement was hailed all over the democratic world as a great triumph of an Independent Judiciary In India” Shanti Bhushan the former law minister Said. This hypocrisy Exhorted people for movements against Gandhi in Gujrat in Bihar and in Uttar Pradesh and all opponent parties were collected together asking for resign from Mrs. Gandhi It made her frightened and there comes a fear of losing power. and this greed for power draws her to one of the most darkest point where she decided to impose the state of emergency the dark day in the history of democracy. people were prisoned without any course of crime censorship was imposed on News it was nonetheless Dictatorship. Freedom and liberty had lost their significance there was only single rule which remained for 21 months that was Indira Rule. Fundamental rights were suspended all that was remained there was the ‘INDIRA RULE’ the Darkest Event In the History Of Democracy.

“Problems Of Rural Labour, Bondage And Migration”

Rural labour are the workers in villages or rural parts of the country, remote part of the country who does not have any source of income other than selling their labours to earn money or piece of bread. they do not possess land or capital and do not have any kind of control over land and capital. They are solely dependent on daily wages which they gross through working physically engaging full day in the tough physical work. they works in agricultural or non-agriculture occupations in return for wages in cash or kind.

Rural Labour suffers with lot of miseries and have huge number of problems:

Security of tenure: There is a huge trouble faced by rural labour when there is come a question related to security of their tenures.

Wages: concern of wages as what they receive in their hands at the end of the day is much more less then what they put through out the day. Incomes of this workforce is significantly low, and within this there is discrimination and equal remuneration problem which comes forward as women are paid significantly low in comparison to man. there is a huge pay gap which Indian rural workforce witnesses. Women of rural parts of the India performs significantly more including working for wages and completing all household chores.

Bonded Labours: Labour which remain in bondage for specific period for debt incurred are called bonded Laboures. They mostly discharge their lives completing all the duties asked to perform by debt giver. These form of labour spent their lives in terms of bondage. There are several factors which contribute to bondage, national commission on rural labour spelled out factors responsible for it 1) Economic Factors 2) Social factors 3) Religious factors 4) etc.

Economic Factors : Economic factor is an emblematic factor responsible for emergence of bondage labour like Extreme poverty, inability of people to find the work, Inadequate annexation of land and capital by superior families. Natural Calamities like draught , flood etc. which creates a lot of economic instability for the poor people contributes to bondage labour emergence. Inflation and rising price of basic commodities which are consumed on daily basis.

Social Factors : In india social ceremonies are burden for an economical unstable household or for those who are dependent on daily wages. people or a particular class who are dependent on daily wages it is very hard for them to married their children because of economic instability as marriage ceremony carried a lot of expenses with it so these social ceremonies creates a lot of debts on these domain of people and this lead them to engage in bondage labour. apart from this factors such as caste based discrimination, lack of concrete social welfare scheme, unequal education system etc.

Religious factors: dividation of Varna system in vedic period, it is considered that religious authorities supresses them and enforced them to serve people of high caste. Religious factors are also responsible for bondage labour class emergence. etc.

Hence in the hope of better opportunities better wages and security people of this migrate with hopes and aspirations of better work better payment. and this brings migration people leaves rural parts , remote parts where they undergone serious exploitation by superiors and head their journeys for a better ‘TOMMOROW’ which never comes ! how long it will happen people will exploited according to their caste class and culture? how long it will take to end bondage labour ? Are we get so faltered that we can not answer these questions. if there is an answer for it what it will be !