Tag Archives: Sociology and Human Settlements

“Problems Of Rural Labour, Bondage And Migration”

Rural labour are the workers in villages or rural parts of the country, remote part of the country who does not have any source of income other than selling their labours to earn money or piece of bread. they do not possess land or capital and do not have any kind of control over land and capital. They are solely dependent on daily wages which they gross through working physically engaging full day in the tough physical work. they works in agricultural or non-agriculture occupations in return for wages in cash or kind.

Rural Labour suffers with lot of miseries and have huge number of problems:

Security of tenure: There is a huge trouble faced by rural labour when there is come a question related to security of their tenures.

Wages: concern of wages as what they receive in their hands at the end of the day is much more less then what they put through out the day. Incomes of this workforce is significantly low, and within this there is discrimination and equal remuneration problem which comes forward as women are paid significantly low in comparison to man. there is a huge pay gap which Indian rural workforce witnesses. Women of rural parts of the India performs significantly more including working for wages and completing all household chores.

Bonded Labours: Labour which remain in bondage for specific period for debt incurred are called bonded Laboures. They mostly discharge their lives completing all the duties asked to perform by debt giver. These form of labour spent their lives in terms of bondage. There are several factors which contribute to bondage, national commission on rural labour spelled out factors responsible for it 1) Economic Factors 2) Social factors 3) Religious factors 4) etc.

Economic Factors : Economic factor is an emblematic factor responsible for emergence of bondage labour like Extreme poverty, inability of people to find the work, Inadequate annexation of land and capital by superior families. Natural Calamities like draught , flood etc. which creates a lot of economic instability for the poor people contributes to bondage labour emergence. Inflation and rising price of basic commodities which are consumed on daily basis.

Social Factors : In india social ceremonies are burden for an economical unstable household or for those who are dependent on daily wages. people or a particular class who are dependent on daily wages it is very hard for them to married their children because of economic instability as marriage ceremony carried a lot of expenses with it so these social ceremonies creates a lot of debts on these domain of people and this lead them to engage in bondage labour. apart from this factors such as caste based discrimination, lack of concrete social welfare scheme, unequal education system etc.

Religious factors: dividation of Varna system in vedic period, it is considered that religious authorities supresses them and enforced them to serve people of high caste. Religious factors are also responsible for bondage labour class emergence. etc.

Hence in the hope of better opportunities better wages and security people of this migrate with hopes and aspirations of better work better payment. and this brings migration people leaves rural parts , remote parts where they undergone serious exploitation by superiors and head their journeys for a better ‘TOMMOROW’ which never comes ! how long it will happen people will exploited according to their caste class and culture? how long it will take to end bondage labour ? Are we get so faltered that we can not answer these questions. if there is an answer for it what it will be !

Factors Leading to Migration

Causes of Migration

In this age of globalisation and commercialisation, everybody is looking for some avenue of gaining and not losing. The real estate developers have speeded up the process of urbanisation of the adjoining areas of the urban centres. The decreasing agricultural productivity and social injustices, poor villages are moving towards urban centres for sustenance and dream of better living conditions. Urban planners and policy makers see the migration as a necessary evil to meet the need of cheap labour for the domestic services and to meet the ever increasing demand for the cheap construction workers.

Migration is a two way process which is governed by the two prominent factors popularly known as the push factor and pull factor. Before, we start discussing the factors of migration, let’s define the term migration. Migration is the voluntary action of a group of people to move from one place of residence to another place for relatively longer period of time not for mere pleasure or recreation which tourist undertake. Migration can be classified into various categories like temporary and permanent, rural to rural, rural to urban, inter-state migration, international migration etc.

Having understood the basic character of the migration, we are in a position to move further in the direction of analysing the various factors of migration. Here, is necessary to discuss in detail the various push and pull factors that is fueling the process of migration. You will be surprised to know that the maximum number of the people who migrate from one place to others are the married women.

Lets discuss in some detail the push factors that lead to migration of the people. The economic sustainability of the family of small land holding farmers are becoming a serious problem due to subsequent subdivision of the ancestral land holding among the various members of the family. The snail pace of the rural development programmes are adding fuel to fire. The social discrimination among the different castes and creed lead to migration of well to do lower caste families in the urban areas for better and respectful living condition. The large scale famine and drought is now not coming in news but still some areas of the rural population are facing the challenge of meeting the basic necessities of life. The poor quality of the living condition forces many families to leave village. There are many smaller issues which can be overlooked like non-availability of basic amenities in rural areas.

Like the push factors that we discussed above, there are many pull factors that attract people from one place to other. The improved health and educational facilities in urban area attract a lot of well to do families from rural areas. The diverse economic opportunities in urban areas attract a lot of people who are in search of some economically sustainable vocations. The living style of the urban populace popularised by the cinema and television also acts as an incentive for migration to urban areas. There can be many more smaller ones like the easy availability of water and other amenities in urban areas which are also adding to the pull factor of the migration. The ethnic violence is a major source of international migration. The war, terrorism and civil strife (internal terrorism) also fuels the international migration.

Controlling Migration

In the last article we have discussed the various factors that leads to migration of different types. Here, we will discuss how to manage the ever increasing number of migration year by year. There can be more than one effective way to manage and reduce the number of migrating population but no single method will be  more effective than a combination of the approaches which we should adopt as planners and policy makers. Let’s discuss some of the methods for controlling migration. The most effective and time tested method is to provide more opportunities for the people who are more likely to migrate due to lack of enough live saving and sustaining support systems. The generation of more and more employment opportunities will surely pave the way for controlling the migration. Every able person most utilize his resources in the productive manners. In India, we are more saving oriented people than investment oriented people. If one opens up some venture then he not only support his family but also generate employment for the others. If every graduates from well renowned universities start their own venture rather than waiting for government jobs then India can generate enough employment opportunities not only for her citizen but also embark on the path of progress.

The employment guarantee schemes like MGNREGA is doing a good job but not sufficient enough to control the migration. The dream of the former President of India, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam, to provide urban amenities in the rural areas is still dream for millions. The sporadic attempts by the state and centre government to provide such facilities under various schemes like Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission, Total Sanitation Scheme, Basic Services for Urban Poor etc. are falling to make any mark in the existing scenario of the majority of the areas of the country.

No law can control migration but development after all we are a democratic country and every citizen of the county has right to live in any part of the county and adopt any vocation for sustenance. The futile and politically motivated incidences of violence against the Biharis and people from North East India in Mumbai was an attempt to curb the migration. Such acts cannot solve the problem but defer it for some time. We have to search for measures that will solve this issue in long term in a effective manner.

If better educational and health facilities are provided in the rural areas than most of the well off families who migrate to urban areas can be retained in the rural economy for enhanced growth. New services industries can be promoted in the rural areas and the rural youths can be trained for such services which are usually undertaken by the migrated youths. The vocational training to the rural youth will also go a long way in resolving this issue.

The are endless measures that can be applied but the problem is that there are not enough innovative policy planners who think out of box. I feel then policy planners of Planning Commision does know the ground realities or they might be silenced by the political bosses who can survive in bare Rs 29 per day only in Parliament but not in any corner of India.

By Shashikant Nishant Sharma

Great Indian Patriot:- Chanakya (Kautilya)



Chanakya was not only a great thinker and diplomat but also a great patriot of India. He was one of the earliest noble man who envisaged the United India spanning from Kandhar to Kanyakumari and Dwarka to far East as India. A great nation divided into many small princely states and kingdoms but there was a strong cultural thread and history, geography and commerce which united the Indian peninsula. He trained a small kid who had a desire and dream for united India into Great Chandragupta Mourya. He not only proved the supremacy of the human being over the so called discrimination and differentiation based on birth and caste. He played key role in unifying India after he witnessed the outrage of the dignity and pride of India by Alexander.

He not only uprooted the foreign regime also weaved most on the Indian states into a single empire based on the dignity and pride for great Mother India.

Jai Hind.

Seclusion of a Section of Society from Media

The India media is a classic example of power capture by the social elite. There is rarely a proper representation of people from the so called down-trodden social section of our society. Well the Indian constitution guarantees the equality in all forms to every citizen of the nation but the ultimate decision lies in the sub-conscious mindsets of the people who are in power or are part of the India intelligentsia who command a great degree of influence in the field of print and electronic media.

The absence of a section of society in the media has resulted in the either misrepresentation or partial representation of the views and opinions of the people of the secluded class (not in the literal meaning of the term). Indian society is diverse and the problems are diverse. It is very often possible that we Indian fail to see our deficiencies or overlook them for the benefit of the own group. The Indian are notorious for their group identity rather than individual identity in modern era.