Tag Archives: Articles on Sociology

“Dynamics Of Population In India”

Look around everywhere you will encounter a large number of masses in the malls, in public meetings, football matches, transportation, tourist places, or nowadays enlocked under the lockdown, every day we are adding over 220000 people to this planet approximately 150 people every minute that equals over 80 million more people every year. The population is growing at a breathtaking pace globally in this scenario India’s population is a significant contributor estimate about 1.3 billion changes yearly with a rate of 0.99% where world population clocks for 7.8 billion and accounts for second-largest in the world.

Population Size: According to the 2011 census India has 1.24 billion population and accounts for 2nd most populated country it contributes 17 percent to the global population a significant percentage contribution and alarming. and this huge number of population covers about 2.4 percent world area. During the period from 1901 to 1951, the rate of growth of the population is 1.33 percent per Annum. But after the Britishers when they leave India population of Independent India grew at a rate of 2.2 percent from 1961 to 1981. but the growth rate of population in India over a Century caused by the Annual Birth Rate and Death Rate of Migration. Over the period India Had witness different trends of the growing population.

Phase 1 : Period from (1901 to 1921 )

During this period the growth rate was very slow, because of the poor health services and poor medical facilities and illiteracy were the factors that contributed to the slower growth rate of the population. Illiteracy and Poor medical Facilities caused a high birth rate and death rate. even from 1911 to 1921 the growth rate was negative due to an influenza epidemic.

Phase 2 : (1921 to 1951)

During this phase India witness a steady growth rate of population. Medical facilities, health facilities and sanitization improves which contributes to steady growth rate of population. Transportation, communication systems were improved which provide connectivity to the various facilities which provides steady growth rate to population.

Phase 3: (1951 to 1981 )

This period had significant surge in population growth rate, this phase is known as phase of ‘population explosion’. Annual growth rate accounts for 2.2 percent. Due to high medical care and various other facilities this phase witness rapid fall in mortality rate but high fertility rate.

Phase 4 : ( Post 1981 till present )

This phase also witness the high growth rate, mean age was increased this period witness high growth with definite signs of slowing down. According to 1st march 2001, stood at 1027015247 comprising of 531277078 males and 495738169 females. and religious census of 2001 accounts 81 % Hindus and 13.5 % Muslims.

Composition : The distribution within a group of people of specific individual attributes such as sex , age , Marital status, etc. is known as composition of Population.

On the basis of religion : All religions accounts for 100% estimated 121 crores in which Hindu accounts for 79.80 % about 96.62 crores, Muslims accounts for 14.23 % which is about 17.22 crores and others which accounts 6% about 7 crores.

Rural-Urban Composition : Rural and urban distribution accounts for 68.84 % and 31.16% respectively. Level of Urbanization increased from 27.81% in 2001 census to 31.16% in 2011 census. The proportion of rural population decreased from 72.19 % to 68.84 %.

Gender Wise : Sex composition accounts for fewer females in comparison to males. According to 2011 census sex ratio of India is 108.176, i.e., 108.176 males per 100 females in 2020.it means that India has 924 females per 1000 males. India accounts for 48.04 % female population compare to 51.96% male Population.

“Emergence Of Middle Class In India”

Middle class is the emerging class in India which shares about 300 to 350 million of the total population. The class emerged as an application of social policy and new economic system and industrial world. eighteenth century Industrial Revolution brings about large scale productions and invention of new technologies which had changed the course of production across the globe and framed new ways to economies. In India middle class emerged because of the policies trends new systems involving land issues , legal policies , introduction of education system of western culture , theory of modern capitalism , enterprises, improved interactions and commercial changes etc. How to Define Middle classes ?

According to economic principles it is defined as : if more than one third of the income left with a family after paying food and shelter such families came under considerations of middle class families. According to B.B Mishra it is defined as seventy five percent to one twenty five percent of median salary, such salary categories also come under the Defination of middle class.

Evolution of Middle Class in India :

In INDIA middle class idea is not new it was categorized under colonial rule this term was used for newly emergent groups of people in urban centers flourished mainly under the colonial period British policies And systems were the basis of rise of Middle class in India mainly the tax collections, advent of their education system , cultural, intellectual , and artistic movements or Indian Renaissance , modern perspective of education, and Freedom movements and all this background was prepared by religious and social reformers, scholars, literary giants, journalists, patriots, orators, scientists and technical giants freedom fighters all these laid foundation for the Indian Renaissance and hence towards a class that is middle class.

Cause of rise of Middle class in India:

ECONOMIC: For Emergence of middle class In India economic perspective is Commercialization and Industrialization.

POLITICAL: One of the important factor which contribute to rise of Indian Middle Class is ‘Democracy’ Equal participation in decision making equal enjoyment of Choice and Power and Universal adult franchise.

B.B Sharma in his book on The Middle class in India Concluded very sharply And clearly that Foundation of Indian Middle class was laid during the reign of Britishers , under colonial period Indian class came under transformation and head its way to Middle class which serves as a link between people and new rulers.

Sanjay Joshi View: He made a clear depiction about emergence of middle class, articulate the defination of power of middle class was from its propagation of modern ways of life and Heterogeneity was an attribute the rise of middle class in India.

Values Related to family, marriage, and women status among Middle Class :

Today World is confronted with modernity and we are living in the era of Modern world but even today marriage is considered as an important traditional social institution choices available with individual specifically, Women are very few as, marriage and motherhood taken to ultimate goal. even today marriage is still seem as a way of life through which an individual entered adulthood in both upper and upper middle class in both of urban india who outwardly appears to be modern.