All posts by Arpita Karmakar

Optimistic

CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT

OBJECT OF THE ACT According to the preamble, the Act is to provide for better protection of the interests of consumers and for that purpose to make provision to make provision for the establishment of consumer councils and other authorities for the settlement of consumer’s disputes and for connected therewith.

BASIC RIGHTS OF CONSUMERS [SECTION 6] The basic rights of consumers that are sought to be promoted and protected are;

a) The right to be protected against marketing of goods and services which are hazardous to life and property:

b) The right to be informed about the quality, quantity, purity, standard and price of goods, or services so as to protect the consumer against unfair trade practices;

c) The right to be assured, wherever possible, access to variety of goods and services at competitive prices;

d) The right to be heard and to be assured that consumers’ interest will receive due consideration at appropriate forums;

e) The right to seek redressal against unfair trade practices or restrictive trade practices or unscrupulous exploitation of consumers; and

f) The right to consumer education.

Complainant means

(a) a consumer

(b) any voluntary consumer association registered under any law;

(c) the Central or any State Government

(d) one or more consumers, where there are numerous consumers having the same interest; or

(e) in case of death of a consumer, his legal heir or representative, Who or which makes a complaint.
An association of persons to have locus standi as consumer, it is necessary that all the individuals forming the association must be the consumer having purchased the same goods or hired the same services from the party.
In case the affected consumer is unable to file the complaint due to ignorance, illiteracy or poverty, any recognized consumer association may file the complaint as per the above clause (b). Thus, rule of ‘privity of contract’ or ‘locus standi’ , which permits only the aggrieved party to take action, has very rightly been set aside in the spirit of public interest.


Complaint [Sec.2(1)(c)]
Complaint means any allegation in writing made by a complaint that – (i) an unfair trade practice or a restrictive trade practice has been adopted by any trader; (ii) the goods bought by him or agreed to be bought by him be suffer from one more defects; (iii) the services hired or availed of or agreed to be hired or availed of by him suffer from deficiency in any respect; (iv) the trader has charged a price in excess of the price;

(a) fixed under any law; (b) displayed on the goods or any package containing such goods; (c) displayed on the price list exhibited by him; or (d) agreed between the parties. (v) goods which will be hazardous to life and property when used are being offered for sale to the public; (vi) services which will be hazardous to life and safety of the public when used, are being offered by the service provider. With a view to obtain any relief provided by law under this Act.


Interesting Facts about Ladakh

The place brings peace to soul

The Bailey Bridge in Ladakh is the highest Bridge

A Bailey bridge between the Suru River and Dras River in Ladakh, India is the highest bridge in the world at an altitude of 5,602 metres  above sea level. It was built in 1982 by the Indian

Only place in India where twin Humped camel only be found

The Bactrian camel (two-humped) is a large, even-toed ungulate native. The Bactrian camel has two humps on its back, in contrast to the single-humped dromedary camel, they are rare compared to single hump camels

Zero-Gravity Hill

Technically speaking the Magnetic Hill of Ladakh is an optical illusion. Although it looks like an uphill route, it is actually downhill. So, if you leave your vehicle in neutral and turn off the ignition, it would look like your car is being pulled uphill.

Their Own Calendar

While the rest of the world follows the Georgian calendar, the Ladakhis follow the Tibetan calendar. Under this calendar, each year has 12 months with 30 days in each. It looks pretty normal, right? Well, here is where it starts to get weird. Every third year will have 13 months. The months do not have any name and are just numbered. The days are named after the five visible planets, the sun, and the moon. That extra month in every third year is added at the time of any auspicious days and any inauspicious weeks or days are just cut off from the calendar.

Highest Desert In The World

Katpana desert is the highest desert in the world, located 2,226m above the mean sea level. This desert runs between Khaplu Valley and Nubra Valley (Ladakh)

It has the highest natural ice hockey ring:

 The Karzoo Ice Hockey Rink in Ladakh is the world’s highest natural ice hockey rink. This rink comes to life during winters when the subzero temperatures are superior throughout the day. Winter sports are popular on a wide scale on this naturally built rink. Whereas the history of this sport in Ladakh dates back to the early 70s.

The most visited “high grassland lake”

Pangong Tso means “high grassland lake” in the Tibetan language. Commonly referred to as Pangong Lake, it is an endorheic lake in the Himalayas situated at the height of about 4,350 meters. During winter the lake freezes completely, despite being a salt lake.

Types Of Ships In service with The INDIAN NAVY

The Indian Navy grew rapidly After Independence . As of now It is undergoing modernization with new ships Being added to fleet.

Aircraft Carrier is a warship with a full length flight deck and facilities for carrying arming, deploying and recovering , acting as a seagoing airbase

INS Vikramaditya aircraft Carrier

Destroyer is a fast, heavily, armed, maneuverable yet long Endurance warship.It is designed to escort longer vessels in a fleet like an aircraft carrier, troop, supply ships forming part of a convoy or battle group.

Destroyer

Frigate is a warship smaller in size than a destroyer , It is armed with guided missiles and used as an escort for aircraft carrier.

Frigate

Corvette is a fast, lightly armed warship which is smaller than a frigate and larger than a coastal patrol craft often armed for antisubmarine operation.

ASW corvette

Mine countermeasure vessel: also known as Minesweeper is a small naval warship designed to counter the threat posed by naval mines

Mine countermeasure vessel

Landing ship is a naval vessel which is used to transport large number of vehicles, cargo and troops directly to the shore no part facilities .

Landing ship

Submarines: A submarine (or sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability.

Patrol Vessel for patrolling costal area, Auxilary ship, Research Vessel, Tranning ship.

The Changes After 1991 In India

Today India is one of the most powerful nations in the world. Our progress in education, science-technology, business, economy, the defense system is really noticeable. India is always a unique country but India also passed many tough situations, this achievement comes after so many hardships, struggles, and fights.before 1991 the political situation in India is unstable, after 1991 certain changes in the Indian economy, science-technology held to be very important In the history of India.

Indian Economy: we wanted to establish an Economy based on social justice through planning for a National planning commission was established that would coordinate development through the policy of the Five Year Plan. The government started Economic Reforms are called as Economic Liberalisation. The foreign Invest In India increased, the field of information technology opened several avenues of employment in the country . Liberalization, Privatizati, and Globalization, India under its New Economic Policy approached International Banks for development of the country. These agencies asked Indian Government to open its restrictions on trade done by the private sector and between India and other countries.

Science and Technology: The experiment in the co-operative dairy movement By Dr.Verghese Kurien led to increase in milk production in India. This is called as White Revolution. Dr.Homi J.bhaba laid the foundation of the Indian atomic Power Programme. India insisted on using atomic energy for peaceful purposes like generation of electricity, pharmaceuticals and defense.

Change In Social Field: changes related to the women empowerment movement and other related to the policies regarding the uplift of deprived sections of the society

INDIAN ARMY

The Indian army is the oldest among the three armed forces.It has very and ancient heritage of more than 2000 year from the Times of Chandragupta Maurya . The foundation of the present army was inherited from the British Indian Army . Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose lead the Indian National Army (INA) during the world war 2 to fight for India’s Independence from British Rule . Women also formed part of the INA. Captain Laxmi Swaminathan headed the women’s wing.

Role of Indian Army

  • Go to war to defeat an External Aggression
  • Strengthen the internal security Management to defeat Internal threats.
  • Project force wherever and whenever called upon to safeguard the nation’s interest.
  • To support the peace keeping operations or Military Assistance to friendly foreign countries
  • Render Humanitarian, Disaster relief and Aid to civil authorities

The Indian Army spread over six operational commands based on geography and the preceived security threats.

Logistic support services

Areas of responsibility of geographical commands

Northern command: Northern command is head quater in Udhampur .It is responsible for operations in Jammu and Kashmir against china in the east and Pakistan In the west.

Western Command :Western Command in Chandigarh. It is responsible for operation in Punjab,and Himachal Pradesh against China in the east and Pakistan in the west.

South Western Command:South Western Command is headquarter in Jaipur .It is responsible for operations in North and central Rajasthan and Haryana.

Southern Command: headquater Pune, responsible for operation in south Rajasthan and Gujarat, Maharashtra, karnataka, Kerala, Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh

Central Command : headquater in Lucknow. It is responsible for operations in Uttarakhand, Uttar pradesh, Bihar, Orrisa, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh against China in the North as also security along the Indo-Nepal border with UP and Bihar

Eastern Command: headquarter in kolkata . It is responsible for operations in Sikkim, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram and also Against China and security Indo – Nepal, Mayanmar, Bangladesh Border

Remembering Alluri Sitarama Raju : Hero Of The Jungle

After the passing of the 1882 Madras Forest Act, its restrictions on the free movement of tribal people in the forest prevented them from engaging in their traditional podu agricultural system, It’s a curse for tribal of agency area

Podu is a traditional system of cultivation used by tribes in India, whereby different areas of jungle forest are cleared by burning each year to provide land for crops. The word comes from the Telugu language.Podu is a form of shifting cultivation using slash-and-burn methods. Traditionally used on the hill-slopes of Andhra Pradesh.

Alluri Sitarama Raju (1897 or 1898 – 7 May 1924) was an Indian revolutionary involved in the Indian independence movement. Raju led the Rampa Rebellion of 1922, during which a band of tribal people and other sympathizers fought in the border areas of the East Godavari and Visakhapatnam regions of Madras Presidency, in present-day Andhra Pradesh, against the British Raj, which had passed the law. He was referred to as “Manyam Veerudu” (“Hero of the Jungle”) by the local people. He spearheaded a two-year-long tribal uprising against the British Raj. He inspired, motivated people, to fight for their rights, He often raided police Station to steal guns and ammunition  and killed several British police officers.He lost his life in the battlefield, fighting for rights until his last breath.

ROOPKUND: SKELETON LAKE

ROOPKUND locally known as skeleton Lake or Mysterious Lake , It’s lies in the Lap of Trishul  Massif , located in the Himalayas. It’s a high altitude glacial lake in the Uttarak hand  Roopkund is one of the important places for trekking in Chamoli District, Himalayas, near the base of two Himalayan peaks: Trisul (7,120 m) and Nanda Ghunti (6,310 m)  The Lake is flanked by a rock face named Junargali to the North and a peak named Chandania Kot to the East. Roopkund lake is covered with ice for most of the year Roopkund is known as a mystery lake and is surrounded by rock-strewn glaciers and snow-clad mountains. The lake is about two metres deep and invites hundreds of trekkers and pilgrims every year

IN 1942 A BRITISH FOREST guard in Roopkund, India made an alarming discovery. Some 16,000 feet above sea level, at the bottom of a small valley, was a frozen lake absolutely full of skeletons. That summer, the ice melting revealed even more skeletal remains, floating in the water and lying haphazardly around the lake’s edges.

SKELETON AT ROOPKUND

Something horrible had happened here. The immediate assumption (it being war time) was that these were the remains of Japanese soldiers who had died of exposure while sneaking through India. The British government, terrified of a Japanese land invasion, sent a team of investigators to determine if this was true. However upon examination they realized these bones were not from Japanese soldiers—they weren’t fresh enough. As it turns out, all the bodies date to around 850 AD. DNA evidence indicates that there were two distinct groups of people, one a family or tribe of closely related individuals, and a second smaller, shorter group of locals, likely hired as porters and guides. Rings, spears, leather shoes, and bamboo staves were found, leading experts to believe that the group was comprised of pilgrims heading through the valley with the help of the locals.The researchers concluded that the death was due to a fatal blow on the back of their heads and not due to any wound by weapons, avalanche or landslide. The marks on their skulls and shoulders indicated at being hit by something round, like a cricket ball. The absence of injuries to other body parts indicated that hard round objects, possibly cricket ball sized hail stones or ice balls, fell from above.

Patent for ISRO protective garment for human spaceflight

Another feather adds to the ISRO crown. ISRO has got an Indian patent for its liquid cooling and heating garment suitable for the space Application. The patent is valid for 20 years from the date of application that is, February 8, 2016, and was granted on June 19. while ISRO is a patent owner, the four investors are Srirangam Siripothu, Reshmi Balachandran, Saraswati Kesava Pillai Manu, and Gurumurthy Chandrasekaran.

Spacesuit

The garment is made of biocompatible Fabrics and parts which help maintain comfortable body temperature. According to ISRO the garments has superior heat transfer efficiency and can be conveniently used for maintening the body temperature of the wearer at levels suitable for the physiological performance require. The outer and Inner Layer of the garment are separated by plurality of tubes configured to exclusive a heat transfer fluid

Direct tax collected In India

A direct tax is a tax that is paid by an individual or an organization to the imposing entity, or to be precise, Direct Tax is the one which is paid to the Government by taxpayers. These taxpayers include people and organization both. Also, it is directly imposed by the Government and cannot be transferred for payment to some other entity.

With Direct Taxes, especially in a tax bracket system, it can become a disincentive to work hard and earn more money, as more money you earn, the more tax you pay.

Income Tax- It is imposed on an individual who falls under the different tax brackets based on their earning or revenue and they have to file an income tax return every year after which they will either need to pay the tax or be eligible for a tax refund.

Estate Tax– Also known as Inheritance tax, it is raised on an estate or the total value of money and property that an individual has left behind after their death.

Wealth Tax– Wealth tax is imposed on the value of the property that a person possesses.

However, both Estate and Wealth taxes are now abolished.

The Central Board of Direct Taxes in India

The Central Board of Direct Taxes or the CBDT, which was formed as the result of the Central Board of Revenue Act, 1924 looks after the Direct Taxes in India. This department is part of the Department of Revenue in the Ministry of Finance and is responsible for the administration of the direct tax laws. Besides that, the Central Board of Direct Taxes also provides inputs and suggestions for policy and planning of the direct taxes in India.

The latest data of tax collection as per the Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) was released. The data reveals that Maharashtra, Delhi, and Karnataka contribute 61% of the country’s total revenue from direct taxes. Including the contribution of Tamil Nadu and Gujarat will aggregate to 72% of the total revenue.

Direct taxes include income tax paid by individuals and corporate tax paid by firms. It is a general notion that more revenue collection implies higher income. It also implies better employment opportunities and greater ease-of-doing-business. Greater revenue collected states are also those that have greater avenues for economic activities.

It was found that the large and populous states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal fare poorly. Bihar, the third most populous state accounts only 0.65% to the total direct tax collection. Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state and West Bengal, the fourth most populous state contributed to 3.12% and 4% of the total tax collection. 

The poor collection of taxes shows the absence of formal sector employment and corporates. It also shows that the working population in these states are not part of the salaried class. If they were a part of the salaried class, the revenue from income tax would have not been so low as compared to the population of these regions

So if we assume the total direct tax collected in India would be 100/-how much would each state contribute

Maharshtra:38/-, Delhi:13.5/- ,Karnataka:10/-

  1. Tamil Nadu : 6.7/-
  2. Gujarat: 4.6/-
  3. Andhra Pradesh :4.3/-
  4. West Bengal:4/-
  5. Uttar Pradesh:3/-
  6. Haryana : 2.4/-
  7. Odisha: 1.2/-
  8. Madhya Pradesh: 1.8/-
  9. Kerala: 1.6/
  10. Rajasthan:24/-
  11. Punjab : 1.1/-
  12. Bihar:0.65/-
  13. Telegana:0.46/-
  14. Jharkhand:0.5/-
  15. Assam : 0.56/-
  16. Goa:0.3/-
  17. Jammu and Kashmir:0.16/ Himachal:0.25/-
  18. Chhattisgarh: 0.25/-  Uttarakhand : 0.3/-Chandigarh : 0.25/- 19.Meghalaya: 0.08/- 20. Tripura:0.03/-