Tag Archives: Articles on Public Administration


The Indian army is the oldest among the three armed forces.It has very and ancient heritage of more than 2000 year from the Times of Chandragupta Maurya . The foundation of the present army was inherited from the British Indian Army . Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose lead the Indian National Army (INA) during the world war 2 to fight for India’s Independence from British Rule . Women also formed part of the INA. Captain Laxmi Swaminathan headed the women’s wing.

Role of Indian Army

  • Go to war to defeat an External Aggression
  • Strengthen the internal security Management to defeat Internal threats.
  • Project force wherever and whenever called upon to safeguard the nation’s interest.
  • To support the peace keeping operations or Military Assistance to friendly foreign countries
  • Render Humanitarian, Disaster relief and Aid to civil authorities

The Indian Army spread over six operational commands based on geography and the preceived security threats.

Logistic support services

Areas of responsibility of geographical commands

Northern command: Northern command is head quater in Udhampur .It is responsible for operations in Jammu and Kashmir against china in the east and Pakistan In the west.

Western Command :Western Command in Chandigarh. It is responsible for operation in Punjab,and Himachal Pradesh against China in the east and Pakistan in the west.

South Western Command:South Western Command is headquarter in Jaipur .It is responsible for operations in North and central Rajasthan and Haryana.

Southern Command: headquater Pune, responsible for operation in south Rajasthan and Gujarat, Maharashtra, karnataka, Kerala, Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh

Central Command : headquater in Lucknow. It is responsible for operations in Uttarakhand, Uttar pradesh, Bihar, Orrisa, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh against China in the North as also security along the Indo-Nepal border with UP and Bihar

Eastern Command: headquarter in kolkata . It is responsible for operations in Sikkim, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram and also Against China and security Indo – Nepal, Mayanmar, Bangladesh Border


Challenges for the wastewater management system in AlQurayyat, Al-Jouf Region, northern KSA

Ahmed M. El-Naggar

Department of Applied Medical Sciences, Community College in Al-Qurayyat,

Al-Jouf University, KSA


The present study aims to evaluate the wastewater management system in AlQurayyat, with primary focus on the efficacy of the treatment plant that was operated 30 years ago. One of the objectives of the study is to throw light on the environmental consequences of wastewater and suggest innovative, novel solutions to this problem. Approximately 4000000 m3 of wastewater comes from localities served by the sewerage system every year. About 6000000 m3 of the total wastewater comes from the localities lacking any sewerage system services. About 20% of the wastewater discharges from such localities is transferred by truck tankers and dumped directly into open fields nearby Kaf village. Approximately 95% of the total existing waste flow is treated by a single treatment plant acquiring a capacity of 300 m3/hour (8500 m3/day). The raw sewage arriving to the plant varies markedly according to the human consumption and seasonal rainfall. A mean value of 900 m3/hour was recorded during January 2015. In 2014, more than 5000000 cubic meters of the wastewater were dumped either into a man-made pond or an open field nearby Kaf village, 15 Km northern AlQurayyat. Successful and sustainable management of wastewater requires a composite of innovative projects, for example innovative financing of appropriate wastewater infrastructure (design, construction, operation, maintenance, and upgrading). Thinking to the long-term and creating solutions for smart wastewater management in the light of rapid global change is strongly recommended. Strategic planning in the water sector must be appropriate at the social, cultural, economic and environmental scales.