Homo – sapiens is the word used all over the world, scientifically for the modern human beings and has greatly evolved from the beginning of this human civilization. The story of human civilization marks it’s beginnings million years ago (23 million to 5.3 mya) to the development of tool-based and symbolically structured modern human culture.
Beginning of the human race-
It was 5.6 mya when historians first trace the existence of a creature which resembled the features of present day human beings. A large number of species emerged on this earth and got extinct, it was nearly 160,000 years ago human beings resembling us originated over the earth’s surface. And gradually evolved into what we see as present day human beings, sometimes learning how to make tools, or obtaining food, hunting animals and discovering the use of wheel and fire.
The story of human evolution is enormously long, and somewhat complicated. There are many unanswered questions, and new data always come up which ultimately leads to a modification of earlier understandings of the human history.
The story of evolution –
The story of evolution of humans started back between 36 mya (million years ago)to 24 mya when primates a category of mammals emerged in Asia and Africa. It was by 24 mya when a subgroup of these wild primates emerged, namely, Hominoids, who were primarily Apes.
Again these hominoids evolved into a more advanced category which famously came to be known as Hominids (5.6 mya). Now, these primates or “modified primates”, so to say started to make and use tools at the same time. These had a larger brain size as compared to the former and walked upright unlike the hominoids. While hominids included all forms of human beings, they can also be subdivided into branches-
- Australopithecus (southern ape)
- Homo (man)
2.5 mya, the period when the species of Australopithecus depleted, leaving behind the Homos. It was due to the major climate changes (glaciation) that the former failed to adapt itself, leading to their gradual extinction.
- The Homos –
Homo is Latin word, meaning man, although there were women as well! The specie further evolved itself into more modernised being and four types of fossils were found which were then regarded as –
- Homo habilis ( discovered at Omo in Ethiopia)
- Homo erectus (discovered both in Asia and Africa)
- Homo Heidelberg (discovered at Heidelberg in Germany)
- Homo Neanderthal (discovered at Neander valley)
All of the above existed between 1 mya -40, 000 years ago.
The story of modernization –
The real step towards modernization started between some 195 mya to 16 mya,when the archaic Homo Sapiens in different regions gradually evolved at different rates into modern humans.
- The race towards being modern-
The tools and techniques that we see today is the evolution of the simplest methods that were used by early humans, a large part of our lives is prompted through the use of such substantial art of living that was used million of years ago, be it hunting, cloth making, discovering fire, or finding the way of living.
Talking about the food they collected for themselves, evidences prove that hunting started about 5 mya when hominids were in existence. And this eventually made them use fire in order to grapple the thick meat of animals.
When the earliest humans watched for the need of a fine and peaceful shelter for themselves, they sorted to move from open air or trees to a more safer place, i.e. caves. It is evident from the finds that date between 7 mya to 5 mya. It is possible that places with abundance of food resources were repeatedly chosen to live.
Tool making is again a useful technique which has contributed massively towards human growth. The earliest evidence for the making and use of stone tool makers comes from Australopithecus. About 35,000 years ago, improvements in the techniques were evident along with the language development. It were the Hominids whose language involved hand gestures; spoken language was evolved only by vocal but non -verbal communication, such as singing;human speech probably began with calls like the ones that have been observed among primates.
An overall observation of the evolution of Homo Sapiens makes us come to a conclusion that, it is not merely a thousand years of work and scientific developments that we have reached such a stage when “human is the cruelest animal”, but million of years have been passed to achieve such a degree of unhackeneyed society.