The intensity of the interaction between a city and its neighbouring towns and villages declines rapidly with distance from the city. Thus, people from nearby villages, within a distance of four to five kilometres, may commute daily to the city for work, shopping, education or entertainment. Farther away, a decline in the number of people commuting to the city (in both absolute as well as relative terms as well as in the frequency of movement of individuals to the city is noticed. Beyond a certain distance, which varies from city to city and is dependent on modes of transportation, daily movements are replaced by weekly or even irregular movements until ultimately such movements to the city become rare or absent. Apart from the effect on daily or periodic commuting to the city, the effect is also seen in the distribution of goods and services from the city to the surrounding villages. Similarly, the quantum of milk, vegetables, flowers and so on, coming to the city from the villages is also subjected to distance decay. Similar effect will be noticed in case of hospital patient’s or students attending school. The distance decay effect extends from the city to the outer limits of the city region. At this point the quantum of interaction becomes insignificant.


Though the social distance between urban and rural elite is substantial, Indian cities today play a major role in changing the social and economic environment of the villages. There is greater interaction between the city and the village than ever before and this interaction continues to increase. The city today serves as focal point for development in education and health and even for rural development. The spread of banking from cities to the rural areas was a remarkable achievement of the 1970s. In the process, rural wealth has been mobilized for development. The role of cities and small towns in bringing about the Green Revolution cannot be denied. The city is seen as a key element in regional development planning in India today. The city region is an area around the city over which the city exercises a dominant influence in relation to other neighbouring cities of equal importance. The structure of a city region is complex. It consists of a series of area of influence and area of dominance, apart from sets of smaller city regions which nest within it. There are three basic notions in relation to the structure of the city region which will help you in understanding it better.


Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) was launched during 1985-86 as a sub-scheme of Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP) and continued as a sub-scheme of Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY) since its launching from April, 1989. It has been delinked from the JRY and has been made an independent scheme with effect from January 1, 1996. 


The objective of IAY is primarily to provide grant for construction of houses to members of Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes, freed bonded labourers and also to non-SC/ST rural poor below the poverty line.


The target group for houses under IAY will be people below poverty line living in rural areas belonging to Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes, freed bonded labourers and non-SC/ST subject to the condition that the benefits to non-SC/ST should not exceed 40% of total IAY allocation during a financial year. From 1995-96, the IAY benefits have been extended to ex-servicemen, widows or next-ofkin of defence personnel and para military forces killed in action irrespective of the income criteria subject to the condition that (i) they reside in rural areas; (ii) they have not been covered under any other scheme of shelter rehabilitation; and (iii) they are houseless or in need of shelter or shelter upgradation. Priority be given to other ex-servicemen and retired members of the paramilitary forces as long as they fulfill the normal eligibility conditions of the Indira Awaas Yojana and have not been covered under any other shelter rehabilitation scheme. The priority in the matter of allotment of houses to the ex-servicemen and paramilitary forces and their dependents will be out of 40% of the houses set apart for allotment among the non-SC/ST categories of beneficiaries. 3% of the funds have been earmarked for the benefit of disabled persons below poverty line. This reservation of 3% under IAY for disabled persons below the poverty line would be horizontal reservation i.e., disabled persons belonging to sections like SCs, STs and Others would fall in their respective categories.


District Rural Development Agencies DRDAs) / Zilla Parishads on the basis of allocations made and targets fixed shall decide Panchayat-wise number of houses to be constructed under IAY, during a particular financial year and intimate the same to the Gram Panchayat. Thereafter, the Gram Sabha will select the beneficiaries restricting its number to the target allotted, from the list of eligible households, according to IAY guidelines and as per priorities fixed. No approval of the Panchayat Samiti will be required. The Panchayat Samiti should however, be sent a list of selected beneficiaries for their information. This amendment in the IAY guidelines shall come into force with effect from 1-4-1998. 


The order of priority for selection of beneficiaries amongst target group below poverty line is

as follows:

(i) Freed bonded labourers

(ii) SC/ST households who are victims of atrocities

(iii) SC/ST households, headed by widows and unmarried women.

(iv) SC/ST households affected by flood, fire, earthquake, cyclone and similar

natural calamities.

(v) Other SC/ST households.

(vi) Non- SC/ST households.

(vii) Physically handicapped.

(viii) Families/widows of personnel of defence services / para-military forces, killed

in action.

(ix) Displaced persons on account of developmental projects, nomadic seminomadic

and de-notified tribals, families with disabled members and internal

refugees, subject to the households being below poverty line.




(Rs. In Crores)    

Number of

houses built





















































Under IAY, during 2005-06, 15.52 lakh houses were constructed against a target of 14.41 lakh houses and during 2006-07, against the target of 15.33 lakh houses, 14.98 lakh houses were constructed. In the financial year 2007-08, 19.92 lakh houses were constructed against the target of 21.27 lakh houses. Again for 2008-09, 18.04 houses have been constructed as on date. Thus over last four years 68.46 lakh houses have been constructed which is more than the target set under Bharat Nirman.


1. Objectives

  • To study the existing institutional setup and financial status of the city administration and the participation of various organizations / agencies involved in plan formulation.

2. Governance

Governance is the exercise of economic, political and administrative authority to manage a countries affairs at all levels. It comprises the mechanisms, processes and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations and mitigate their differences.

Governance may also be defined as the institutional structures, policy and decision making processes and rules (formal and informal) related to issues of public concern which determine:

· How power is exercised

· How decisions are taken

· How citizens have their say

3. Legislative Setup

3.1 Structure of governance in India

India has a 3 tier government structure. The lowest tier i.e. the local bodies has been introduced recently as compared to the other two.

The 3rd tier is provided for in the 73rd and 74th CAA 1992.


3.1.1 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992


The Act provides for decentralization of planning and governance in rural areas. It also provides for constitution of democratically elected Panchayats at 3 levels, preparation of plans for Economic development and Social justice, implementation of schemes for the same. Constitution of state finance commission – Setup to review the financial position of the Panchayats and make recommendations regarding the split of revenue between the state and the local bodies and other recommendations.

3.1.2 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992

It provides for decentralization of planning and governance in urban areas and the constitution of ward committees in municipalities to carry on the developmental works.


3.2.1 ‘Master plan’ means the master plan prepared and approved for any urban area in accordance with the stated provisions.


3.2.2 Power of the state government to order preparation of master plan: “the state government, by order, can direct that in respect of and for any urban area in the state specified in the order, a civil survey shall be carried out and a master plan shall be prepared, by such officer or authority as the state government may appoint for the purpose.”


3.2.3 Content of the master plan: the master plan shall define the various zones into which the urban area for which the plan has been prepared may be divided for the purposes of its improvement and indicate the manner in which the land in each zone is proposed to be used. Serve as basic pattern of frame work within which the improvement schemes of the various zones may be prepared.


3.2.4 Procedure of plan preparation:

Before preparing any master plan officially, the officer or authority appointed shall publish a draft of the master plan, and make a copy available for inspection and inviting objections & suggestions from every person before such date as may be specified. Such authority shall also give reasonable opportunity to every local authority to make any representations with respect to the master plan. After considering all objections & suggestions that may have been received, the authority shall finally prepare the master plan.

3.2.5 Approval of master plan:

Every master plan shall, as soon as maybe after its preparation, be submitted to the state government for approval in the prescribed manner. The state government may either approve the master plan without modifications or with such modifications as it may consider necessary or reject it with directions for the preparation of a fresh master plan.


3.2.6 Constitution of trusts: the state government may, by notification in the official gazette, establish a board of trustees to be called the ‘improvement trust’ of the place.


3.2.7 Constitution of trusts: the trust shall consist of, Chairman, such number of other persons, as may be determined by the state government for each trust.



3.3.4 Procedure of plan preparation & approval:

Before preparing any master plan officially, the municipality shall publish a draft of the master plan, and make a copy available for inspection and inviting objections & suggestions from every person before such date as may be specified. The municipality may, if it considers appropriate, constitute an advisory committee to consider the draft plan before it is given final shape. After considering all objections & suggestions that may have been received, the municipality shall finally prepare the master plan and send it to the state government for approval and after receipt of approval of the state government finally sanction the plan.


3.3.5 Implementation of the plan: after coming into operation, the municipality may initiate such action for implementation of the plan as may be deemed necessary, subject to the provisions of the act. Any master plan prepared under the provisions of any other law for the time being in force prior to the commencement of this act, shall be deemed to have been prepared under the provisions of this act.


3.3.6 Review of plan: it the state government or municipality at any time within ten years from the date on which a plan comes into operation is of the opinion that the revision of such plan is necessary, the state government may direct the municipality to revise or the municipality may of its own motion undertake revision of such plan.


3.3.7 Declaration of development areas: as soon as may be after a plan comes into operation, the municipality may, with the approval of state government and by notification, declare any area in the city to be a development area for the purposes of this act.

4. Line Departments

Electricity, irrigation, PHED, PWD, etc. are termed as line departments. They comprise of nominated/ appointed members. Their major role as of now is in the form of providing physical and social infrastructure. However, there is no inter-department co-ordination as of now.

5. Observations

The process of master plan preparation as of now, primarily involves the town planning department. The involvement of other organisations and agencies is limited to objections & suggestion. The District Planning Committee is presently concerned only with the preparation of district development plans. They do not have any major role to play in town level development plans. Under the municipalities act, 2009 the responsibility for the preparation and implementation of the master development plan rests with the municipal board. Further the municipal board is expected to distribute the responsibilities for implementation to the various line departments at the city level. It will also act as the coordinating body between them.

6. Finance

The income of municipality is generally from government grant in aid, chungi, house tax and other small cesses. Lalsot has also received financial aid under schemes like Nehru Rozgar Yojna and Swarnajayanti Shahri Rozgar Yojna. Revenue: the main sources of revenue include, land revenue, motor vehicles passenger and goods tax, exise, stamp duty registrations and stamps, sales tax, entertainment tax, registration of vehicles fee.

7.1 Grants and Aids:

  • National finance commission

  • State finance commission

  • Swarnajayanti shahri rozgar yojna

  • Mla fund

  • Government special aid

  • Other aid

  • Octroi compensation


The current process of planning is very isolated and limited in terms of inter department co-ordination. It would be a good idea to redistribute the powers and responsibilities such that the process can be made hierarchy friendly and more efficient.


Here, it becomes imperative to clearly understand the different terms used to indicate some form of participation of the public and their differences so as to use them in a proper context wherever it is used. The following paragraphs attempts to distinguish between commonly used terms in order to arrive at the appropriate term for the purpose of the study of participatory planning process in plan making.

Public participation may be defined as “It is distribution of powers which enables the have-not citizens presently excluded from political and economic processes to be deliberately included in the future. It is a strategy by which the have-nots join in determining how information is shared, goals and policies are set, tax resources are allocated, programs are operated and benefits like contracts and patronage are parceled out. In short, it means by which they can induce significant social reforms which enables them share the benefits of the affluent society” (Arnstein, 1969). Here the author has stressed on the redistribution of power as participation enabling process. Now let’s see some more definitions by some other authors and agencies.

“Participation is an active process by which beneficiary/ client group influence the direction, execution of a developmental project in a view of enhancing their well-being in terms of income, personal growth, self-reliance or any other value they cherish” (World Bank, 1987). Here, participation leads to influencing the decision making process.

“Empowering people to mobilize their own capacities, be social actors rather than passive subjects, manage the resources, make decisions and control the acts that affect their lives. It involves people directly and actively in all stages of the management and decision-making process” (Uganda Project Team, 2007). Here, empowerment of the public is sought after for making public efficient in taking decision and controlling the acts that affect them more often directly.

“Participation is the process through which stakeholders influence and share control over priority setting, policy-making, resource allocations and access to public goods and services” (World Bank, 2000). Here, participation means taking a shared responsibility for controlling and influencing policy making which leads to proper resource allocation and access to serves.

“Participation is a voluntary act that occurs when people become conscious of the value of participatory action and deem it desirable to become involved in the different activities undertaken in participatory project or initiative” (Wiesenfeld and Sanchez, 2002). Here, authors feel that participation is a voluntary action and depends on them to decide to what extent they should participate in the development initiatives.

The term community participation had been in use for a long time and this refers to a limited number of participants ensuring efficiency of participation. Here, we will explore the views of some of the authors and World Bank on the term community participation.

“Community participation as the process by which individuals, families and communities assume responsibility for their own welfare and develop capacity to contribute to their own and community’s development” (Oakley and Marsden, 1984). Here, different individuals or groups on their own resume responsibility for the development of capacity and finally contributing to the development of the community as a whole.

“Community participation is a process through which community groups help advance their interests and the greater opportunity for it the greater the chance of making improvements in living condition” (Sandhu, 2005). Here, the author talks of a practical approach to the development initiated and advanced by the community themselves.

“Community participation is a process through which stakeholder’s influence and share control over development initiatives and the decisions and resources which affect them” (World Bank, 2000). World banks talks of the sharing of the control over the development initiatives and decision making by the way of the involvement of the stakeholders.

Participatory planning has been in practice for a long time in the field of the urban planning. There have been a number of interpretations of the same term by different authors and organization/authorities involved in policy framing. Here, we will explore the different connotations of the term participatory planning as professed by various authors.

“Participatory planning is a set of processes through which diverse groups and interests engage together in reaching for a consensus on a plan and its implementation” (RTPI, 2001).The Royal Town Planning Institute of London sees participatory planning a set of processes for consensus building.

Collaborative planning is a method designed to empower stakeholders by elevating them to the level of decision-makers through direct engagement and dialogue between stakeholders and public agencies, to solicit ideas, active involvement, and participation in the community planning process (Innes, Judith, Booher and David, 2000). Modified form of the participatory planning is collaborative planning and it stresses on the engagement of various stakeholders for reaching atconsensus.

“Participatory planning is the initial step in the definition of a common agenda for development by a local community and an external entity or entities” (Olthelen, 1999).In the article on Participatory Approaches to planning for Community Forestry, author defines participatory planning as initial steps for deciding common agenda for the development.

“Participatory Planning depends not on some virtuous ‘good planners’ but on struggle and hard work, insight and imagination, moral sensitivity and political perception too” (John Forester, 1999). Here, authors feel that there is something more than the thinking of virtuous planners which leads to the practice of participatory planning.

Participatory planning can be defined as joint actions of local people and professionals with the objective of formulating development plans and selecting the best available alternatives for their implementation of the plan for the development of the community and society at large.

Participation of the citizen is enabled by the social and political system of the country and the local bodies which are primary players of the game of the development. In this regards the concept of the local self-governance becomes a ray of hope.

“Local self-government is essentially the empowerment of the people by giving them not only the voice, but the power of choice as well, in order to shape the development they feel is appropriate to their situation. It implies maximum decentralization of powers to the elected bodies to function as autonomous units with adequate power, authority and resources to discharge the basic responsibility of bringing about ‘economic development and social justice”(Sen Committee, 2001).

In 2007, the term Local Area Plans was included in the MPD – 2021 stating it as a plan for ward/sub-zone. Zonal Plans also stated in their preamble that indication of uses other than residential and facility corridor shall be undertaken at the stage of Local Area Plans.

“Local Area Planning is … for addressing the unplanned and illegal urban development … By combining neighbourhood-level data with stakeholder participation … to reform Delhi’s entire building byelaw system including procedural, planning and building performance components” (USAID, 2009).

“Local area plan is by definition a plan based on the local needs and characteristics. Thus, it requires framing area specific objectives” (MCD, 2005).

“Local area plan means the plan of a ward/sub-zone to be prepared by the concerned body” (Review of Draft MPD, 2007).

“Local area plan means the plan of a ward/sub-zone of existing built up areas where redevelopment/ renewal/ rejuvenation etc. are to be done with public participation to achieve the ultimate goal of planned development at the macro level” (DDA, 2008).

From the above definitions of the local area plan it becomes clear that it is a local level planning by local urban bodies in a participatory manner. It has always been the responsibility of top managers who prepare project proposals and plan interventions to the stage of implementation, without consulting those whose very lives are to be affected by such projects. As a result, such plans are usually considered donor/government driven and hence the intended beneficiaries do not take full responsibility for the process and outcome. The communities do not feel part of the process, which leads to limited sustainability after the expiry of such projects or interventions.

“The bottom-up planning process involves extensive opportunities for community participation, surveys, focus group convened at neighbourhood level, active interest of city’s youth, public hearings and public awareness campaign” (Wheler and Beatley, 2004). Bottom up planning is a methodology that seeks to involve communities in the planning process right from the inception of the project idea, risk assessment, and through proposal development to project implementation.Strategic planning is long term planning. Closely related to the overall goals of the response and focusing on policy priorities. This concept of planning, given the fact that resources are scarce, requires that its priorities and objectives yield maximum benefit and impact.

It is assumed that citizen participation is a desired and necessary part of participatory planning mechanism. As Spiegel (1968) noted, “Citizen Participation is the process that can meaningfully tie programs to people.”In time, many of the urban settlements began to grow and expand, both numerically and economically. This made it increasingly difficult for every citizen to actively participate in all community decisions. To fill this void in the decision making process, people began to delegate their involvement to a representative, either directly or through a community group. Examples of this delegation were seen in the establishment of our system of selecting officials by public elections, and the increase of volunteer associations and organizations.  In spite of the fact that direct citizen participation has declined, ample opportunities for citizens to get involved in their community’s destiny. Let’s understand:

a)    The importance of participation.

b)    The conditions under which citizens will participate

c)    The approaches to involving citizens in community improvement programs and projects.

Citizen participation can be viewed from the perspective of benefits to be gained and costs to be borne. Some of the benefits that participation can provide are as follows:

a.    The citizen can bring about desired change by expressing one’s desire, either individually or through a community group.

b.    The individual learns how to make desired changes.

c.    The citizen learns to understand and appreciate the individual needs and interests of all community groups.

d.    The citizen learns how to resolve conflicting interests for the general welfare of the group.

e.    The individual begins to understand group dynamics as it applies to mixed groups.

Additional reasons could be cited to emphasize why citizens should participate in community decisions. However, the case is rested with these. In summary, decision making that is delegated by others will not always be in the best interest of an individual and his or her neighbors. Community betterment is a product of citizen involvement.


Here we will discuss about how the landuse and the transport planning can go a long way in making the living joyful for the young people. There can be school policies and practices favouring walking, cycling and other modes of active transport for trips to and from school, and also more use of regular public transport where it is possible.  While deciding the land-use and transport planning, we should keep in mind the special need so the young people and then ensuring for them facilities which they use as pedestrians, as cyclists, and as transit users. This will meant two things, first, arranging land uses and transport facilities so as to reduce transport’s adverse effects on children and youth when they are traveling and when they are doing other things; and second, improving the traveling experience for children and youth, which could mean making it more enriching for children and providing more independence for youth. Many parents can be found reporting that their children participate in unorganized physical activities after school; these activities might include bicycling, walking or running etc. Parents of young children use entirely active modes to travel to and from school each day.

The availability of the safe routes can lead to improved walking and cycling environment younger people. There is no doubt that most of the accidents occur due to high speed of the vehicles and hence the access roads used for commuting between home and school should be made free from road rash.

The World Health Organization and UNICEF World Report on Child Injury Prevention and Road Safety recommendations include reducing speeds to 30 km/hour in residential areas, around schools and around play areas to protect pedestrians; separation of child cyclists from other road users through dedicated cycle lanes; use of bicycle helmets; and increased education for children on pedestrian and cycling skills.

Both children and the elderly benefit from active transportation networks that are safe and accessible. Greater synergy amongst school board, municipal government and traffic authorities could improve active transportation planning with respect to all trips made by young people. Planners and other concerned government agencies should work together to improve our roads, and other infrastructure and encourage safe walking, cycling and other modes of commuting.

The development of safe bicycle lane and other infrastructure, policies and legislation suitable for pedestrian movement, would support active transportation. An essential feature of putting children and youth first is that transport and land-use planning issues are seen from perspectives of children and youth.

This can be achieved through increasing children’s active transport for the trip to school and non-school trips. Reduce adult automobile and motorized vehicle use in and around the residential and institutional areas. Help children learn safe walking behaviour and provide adult supervision for school trips. Identify destinations frequented by children and create safe routes with sidewalk and bicycle paths; consider children’s travel patterns in planning processes only then we will be able to create a true amicable living space for the young and the elderly people. Hope, planners and policy makers in India will take this into account while deciding the future course of action regarding the land use and transport planning.

Have a wonderful moment in your user-friendly neighbourhood!

Factors Leading to Migration

Causes of Migration

In this age of globalisation and commercialisation, everybody is looking for some avenue of gaining and not losing. The real estate developers have speeded up the process of urbanisation of the adjoining areas of the urban centres. The decreasing agricultural productivity and social injustices, poor villages are moving towards urban centres for sustenance and dream of better living conditions. Urban planners and policy makers see the migration as a necessary evil to meet the need of cheap labour for the domestic services and to meet the ever increasing demand for the cheap construction workers.

Migration is a two way process which is governed by the two prominent factors popularly known as the push factor and pull factor. Before, we start discussing the factors of migration, let’s define the term migration. Migration is the voluntary action of a group of people to move from one place of residence to another place for relatively longer period of time not for mere pleasure or recreation which tourist undertake. Migration can be classified into various categories like temporary and permanent, rural to rural, rural to urban, inter-state migration, international migration etc.

Having understood the basic character of the migration, we are in a position to move further in the direction of analysing the various factors of migration. Here, is necessary to discuss in detail the various push and pull factors that is fueling the process of migration. You will be surprised to know that the maximum number of the people who migrate from one place to others are the married women.

Lets discuss in some detail the push factors that lead to migration of the people. The economic sustainability of the family of small land holding farmers are becoming a serious problem due to subsequent subdivision of the ancestral land holding among the various members of the family. The snail pace of the rural development programmes are adding fuel to fire. The social discrimination among the different castes and creed lead to migration of well to do lower caste families in the urban areas for better and respectful living condition. The large scale famine and drought is now not coming in news but still some areas of the rural population are facing the challenge of meeting the basic necessities of life. The poor quality of the living condition forces many families to leave village. There are many smaller issues which can be overlooked like non-availability of basic amenities in rural areas.

Like the push factors that we discussed above, there are many pull factors that attract people from one place to other. The improved health and educational facilities in urban area attract a lot of well to do families from rural areas. The diverse economic opportunities in urban areas attract a lot of people who are in search of some economically sustainable vocations. The living style of the urban populace popularised by the cinema and television also acts as an incentive for migration to urban areas. There can be many more smaller ones like the easy availability of water and other amenities in urban areas which are also adding to the pull factor of the migration. The ethnic violence is a major source of international migration. The war, terrorism and civil strife (internal terrorism) also fuels the international migration.

Controlling Migration

In the last article we have discussed the various factors that leads to migration of different types. Here, we will discuss how to manage the ever increasing number of migration year by year. There can be more than one effective way to manage and reduce the number of migrating population but no single method will be  more effective than a combination of the approaches which we should adopt as planners and policy makers. Let’s discuss some of the methods for controlling migration. The most effective and time tested method is to provide more opportunities for the people who are more likely to migrate due to lack of enough live saving and sustaining support systems. The generation of more and more employment opportunities will surely pave the way for controlling the migration. Every able person most utilize his resources in the productive manners. In India, we are more saving oriented people than investment oriented people. If one opens up some venture then he not only support his family but also generate employment for the others. If every graduates from well renowned universities start their own venture rather than waiting for government jobs then India can generate enough employment opportunities not only for her citizen but also embark on the path of progress.

The employment guarantee schemes like MGNREGA is doing a good job but not sufficient enough to control the migration. The dream of the former President of India, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam, to provide urban amenities in the rural areas is still dream for millions. The sporadic attempts by the state and centre government to provide such facilities under various schemes like Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission, Total Sanitation Scheme, Basic Services for Urban Poor etc. are falling to make any mark in the existing scenario of the majority of the areas of the country.

No law can control migration but development after all we are a democratic country and every citizen of the county has right to live in any part of the county and adopt any vocation for sustenance. The futile and politically motivated incidences of violence against the Biharis and people from North East India in Mumbai was an attempt to curb the migration. Such acts cannot solve the problem but defer it for some time. We have to search for measures that will solve this issue in long term in a effective manner.

If better educational and health facilities are provided in the rural areas than most of the well off families who migrate to urban areas can be retained in the rural economy for enhanced growth. New services industries can be promoted in the rural areas and the rural youths can be trained for such services which are usually undertaken by the migrated youths. The vocational training to the rural youth will also go a long way in resolving this issue.

The are endless measures that can be applied but the problem is that there are not enough innovative policy planners who think out of box. I feel then policy planners of Planning Commision does know the ground realities or they might be silenced by the political bosses who can survive in bare Rs 29 per day only in Parliament but not in any corner of India.

By Shashikant Nishant Sharma

Interim Budget 2014- Government of India

The minister, Shri P. Chidambaram aforesaid, that the govthas turbulently espoused the reason for science, promoted research and supported scientific applications and inventions. Now, a ‘Research Funding Organization’ is to be originated to fund analysis comes hand-picked through a competitive method. This was planned by the minister, Shri P. Chidambaram whereas presenting Interim Budget 2014-15 in Parliament here these days. He aforesaid, that contribution thereto organization is eligible for tax edges. This can need legislative changes which may be introduced at the time of the regular Budget.

In his last Budget speech as minister within the UPA-II government, P Chidambaram had plenty to mention, however abundant of it absolutely was high on intent and low on content. His vote-on-account, being a budget with none major new proposals, is very important just for one reason: it tells US, however honest the minister has been in showing a real and honest image of the state of the government’s finances.

As markets and rating agencies thirstily are careful for financial  consolidation administrated before the approaching elections, the minister rumored a financial  deficit of 4.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP), under his initial target of 4.8%, helped by a colossal cut in expenditure and gains from medium spectrum auction. He has conjointly pegged the next year’s financial deficit at 4.1%. accounting deficit (CAD) will be contained at US $45 bn. However, once the main points of the financial  deficit range ar out then solely the quality of the economic policy statements are often observed. this is often as a result of the govthas used several accounting tricks to bring the deficit range down.

The FM actually deserves credit for not presenting a proponent budget. The FM didn’t roll out freebies however the grant bill of Rs a pair of.4 trillion is probably going to be another underestimate – for it’s nearly constant as this year, once Rs 350 bn has been rolled over. The FM has conjointly cut excise duty on capital product, bikes, cars and SUV. this can facilitate consumption to select up.

The FM has courageously tried to color a American centaury image of the economy. this is often at the same time as the key bottlenecks for growth stay. Chidambaram may win praise for meeting the dual deficit target this year, however, he has left a deep hole for successive government to failSuccessive government has to target key sectors that kind an indispensable a part of our economy and overall growth of the country.

As a way as stock markets are involved, a budget with none major selections on reforms is unlikely to own any result on long run fundamentals of the economy. Hence, one would be more contented not specializing in it an excessive amount of investment. Attention ought to instead be paid to the basics of the corporate and also the valuations that it’s commercialism that is engulfing the country. There must be promotion of small scale industries and the there must be financial support for the entrepreneurs who are doing good in their enterprise. Country is now bound to move on the path of development.

Bahai Lotus Temple- “Temple of Peace”


The Bahai Lotus Temple is situated int he heart of the metropolitan city of Delhi yet you will feel the peace and calmness that exist here which is becoming rare day by day due to increasing number of vehicles and sound pollution.

The temple is designed in such a manner as you make you feel one with the nature and enjoy the peace of mind.

You will find a nearby metro station which has made this monument more accessible to people coming from other countries.

You can enjoy the ISKON temple which is situated nearby this monument of Delhi.

IJR Journal is Multidisciplinary, high impact and indexed journal for research publication. IJR is a monthly journal for research publication.

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