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I am a college student who is energetic and I am learning new skills to develop myself to be a better human and being dedicated to every field known to me.

LEADERSHIP IN MANAGEMENT


As you know, management involves getting work done through the people and by virtue of their positions, managers can issue orders and instructions to their subordinates to get the work done, but it is also necessary to ensure that subordinates put in their maximum effort in performing their tasks and hence managers have to regulate and influence the subordinates behaviour and conduct at work and it is through the leadership role of managers that employees may be induced to perform their duties properly and maintain harmony in group activities. A manager, having formal authority, can direct and guide his subordinates and command their obedience by virtue of his positional power but as a leader, a manager can influence work behaviour by means of his leadership ability to get the cooperation of all members of the group. Leadership may be defined as a process of influencing group activities towards the achievement of certain goals. Thus, the leader is a person in a group who is capable of influencing the group to work willingly and he guides and directs other people and provides purpose and direction to their efforts and according to eminent writers Hodge and Johnson Leadership is “ Leadership is the ability to shape the attitude and behaviour of others whether in formal or informal situations” and According to Livingston Leadership is “ Leadership is the ability to awaken in others the desires to follow a common objective”.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERSHIP

Managerial leadership mainly possess the following characteristics:

  1. Leadership is needed in all walks of life, such as economical, social, political and industrial spheres.
  2. It is the duty of the leader to maintain proper discipline among his subordinates.
  3. It is a continuous process whereby the manager influences, guides and directs the behaviour of subordinates.
  4. A true leader is responsible for including encouragement and confidence among employees of any organization.
  5. The success of a manager as a leader depends on the acceptance of his leadership by the subordinates.
  6. The manager-leader is able to influence his subordinate’s behaviour at work due to the quality of his own behaviour as a leader.
  7. The leader leads his group with authority and confidence.
  8. The leader establishes the relationship between an individual and a group around some common interest.
  9.  A true creates a bond of friendship between organization and subordinates.
  10. Leadership helps others in choosing and attaining specified goals to the maximum satisfaction of both the leader and the follower.
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SOME IMPORTANT QUALITIES OF LEADERSHIP

1. Knowledge and intelligence

 A leader, to be effective, must have knowledge of group behaviour, human nature and activities involving technical and professional competence. He must have an intelligent perception of human psychology and the ability to think clearly and argue cogently on points of dispute.

2. Integrity and Honesty

A leader should possess a high level of integrity and honesty and he should be a role model regarding ethics and values.

3. Motivation Skills

A leader should be an effective motivator and he should understand the needs of the people and motivate them through satisfying their needs.

4. Self-confidence

Confidence about one’s leadership ability makes it possible for a leader to analyse and face different situations and adopt a suitable style and Lack of self-confidence often prevents managers to adopt a participative style and repose trust in their subordinates.

MASLOW’S NEED FOR HIERARCHY THEORY


Abraham Maslow
an eminent US psychologist, offered a theory of motivation called the ‘Need Hierarchy theory’ and he felt that wide range of needs which motivate them to strive for their fulfilment and human can be categorised into five types as- Physiology needs, security needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualisation needs.

HIERARCHY OF NEEDS

Motivation is concerned with the behaviour of a person or group of persons and nay behaviour is need-based, what is this need? A need is  a feeling that something is required and this feeling creates mental tensions and this tension in mind is transformed into want and to satisfy this want the person who feels the need (he or she who is  deprived of something), acts in one or another way to satisfy this want and satisfaction of a particular want releases the tension and then the behaviour to satisfy that want ceases, but in the meantime, some other need may be felt and thus need causing tension, tension causing the behaviour, satisfying the felt-need is a continuous process and needs are of different kinds and these have varying influences on motivation, for example:

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Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, a scalable vector illustration on white background

1. Basic Physiological Needs:

  Basic needs such as food, water, clothing, shelter, sleep and sexual satisfaction are included in this set of needs and these are the primary needs for sustaining human life itself and according to Maslow until these needs are satisfied to the extent necessary to sustain life these needs remain the motivating force.

2. Security or safety Needs:

Security is means “the feeling which involves being able to hold on to that one has. Being sure that one will be able to fare as well in future as in the past”. Thus these needs include being free from physical danger and the fear of losing a job, proper food, clothing or shelter.

3. Affiliation or Belonging Needs:

These include the need for love i.e. the need for affection and desire for association with others and the need for affiliation or acceptance becomes more prominent and becomes a motivating force.

4.Esteem Needs:

These needs include the desire to enjoy social approval, self-assertion and self-esteem and such a knowledge (Gratification of need for esteem) contributes to a feeling of self-confidence, worth or capability and it generates satisfaction such as power, prestige and status and status is the relative ranking that a person holds in a group or organization.

5. Self-Actualization Needs:

This refers to the desire for self-fulfilment and achievement and it is the desire to become what one believes to be capable of becoming and he wants to maximise his potential and to accomplish something and this need is regarded by Maslow as the highest in his hierarchy of needs.

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ASSUMPTIONS OF MASOW’S THEORY

Maslow’s theory is based on the following assumptions:

  1. People’s behaviour is based on their needs. The satisfaction of such needs influences their behaviour.
  2. People’s needs are in hierarchical order, starting from basic needs to other higher-level needs;
  3. A person moves to the next higher level of the hierarchy only when the lower needs is satisfied; and
  4. A satisfied need can no longer motivate a person; only next higher need can motivate him.

MOTIVATION IN MANAGEMENT


The term motivation is derived from the word motive and motives are expressions of a person’s needs and hence they are personal and internal and in this context, the term need should not be associated with urgency or nay pressing desire for something and it simply means something within an individual that prompts him to action and motives or needs are ‘whys’ of behaviour and they start and maintain activity and determine the general direction of the person and motives give direction to human behaviour because they are directed towards certain goals which may be conscious or sub-conscious. Motives are directed towards the achievement of certain goals which in turn determine the behaviour of individuals and this behaviour ultimately leads to goal-directed activities such as preparing food and a goal activity such as eating food and in other words, unsatisfying needs result in tension with an individual and engage him in search of the way to relieve this tension.

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INTERRELATED TERMS

While discussing motivation, we need to understand three interrelated terms- Motive, Motivation, and Motivators.

1. Motive- A motive is an inner state or desire which energies an individual to move o to behave towards the achievement of goal and motive arises out of needs of an individual and it causes restlessness as he wants to fulfil his motive.

2. Motivation- It is a process of inducing people to perform to their best ability to accomplish a goal and it is a psychological phenomenon which arises from the feeling of needs and wants of individuals and it causes a goal-directed behaviour.

3. Motivators- Motivators are the incentives or techniques used to motivate the people in an organization and common motivators used by the mangers are increment, bonus, promotion, recognition, respect etc. 

 Motivations may be defined as the complex of forces inspiring a person at work to intensify his willingness to use his maximum capability for the achievement of certain objectives. According to Koontz and O’Donnell “ Motivation is a general term applying to the entire class of drivers, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces and to say that managers motivate their subordinates is to say that they do those things which they hope will satisfy drives and desires and induce the subordinates to act in the desired manner”

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FEATURES OF MOTIVATION

1. Motivation is an internal Feeling/ instinct

Motivation is a psychological phenomenon which generates from within an individual and needs are the feelings arising in the mind of a person that he lacks certain things and such feelings affect the behaviour of that individual and causes him to do work and hence, motivation is the process of making an individual feel his needs.

2. Motivation produces goal-directed behaviour

Motivation is a power which leads the employees to the achievement of their goal and the behaviour of the motivated employees clearly shows that they are inclined towards the achievement of their goal.

3. Motivation can either be positive or negative

Positive motivation provides positive rewards like an increase in pay. Promotion, recognition etc. Negative motivation uses negative means like punishment, stopping increments, threatening etc., which also may induce a person to act in the desired way. 

SUPERVISION OF MANAGEMENT

Supervision is an important aspect of the directing function and it involves the managerial task of observing the subordinates at work to ensure that they are working according to plans and policies of the organization, keeping the time schedule and supervision also includes helping subordinates to resolve their work problems. Managers at all level are in direct contact with subordinates and oversee their work performance and the top management supervises the work of middle-level managers, who in turn supervise the first-line managers or supervisors and the first-line managers are in direct contact with the operatives and thus, all levels of management are generally engaged in supervising the work of their immediate subordinates. According to R.C. Davis “Supervision is the function of assuring that the work is being done in accordance with the plan and instructions”. Supervision includes the following three elements:

  1. Commanding
  2. Guiding
  3. Controlling

This is the reason why, “Supervisors are known as a friend, philosopher, and Guide of workers”.

ROLE OF SUPERVISORS

Supervision has special importance only at the lower management level and the question which is now required to be discussed is to what role does a person working at the managerial level, the supervisor play in the organization.

1. Supervisor as a key man

 In every organization, the work of putting the plans into action is done by non-managerial staff who works under the guidance of a supervisor but however, at this level, even a little carelessness may cause the closure of the organization and that is why the supervision is referred to as the key man in the organization.

2. Supervision as a middle man

   In the organization, the supervisor plays the role of a middle man and he acts as a link between the higher-level managers and him workers, and his main job is to prepare a co-operative atmosphere among the two parties in order to facilitate the achievement of the goal of the organization.

3. Supervisor as a human relation specialist

A supervisor is likely to face a number of problems related to human behavior, for which one has to try and find out solutions and he can do so only if he is a human relation specialist.

FUNCTIONS OF SUPERVISOR

1. Planning the work or schedule activity

The supervisor is a low-level manager and he is required to study and analyze the work of his department and decide what, where, which, why, and by whom the work is to be performed. He has to chalk out daily and weekly program and he has also to arrange the raw materials, machines, tools, and equipment and the successful supervisor is an efficient planner.

2. Achieving the target

It is the most important duty of the supervisor to achieve the target prescribed for his department by the management and this can be achieved if the supervisor enables the best possible use of the available resources of the department towards the desired goal.

3. Enbaling standardized output through instruction and guidance

It is the supervisor, who ensures that the actual performance corresponds to the norms and standards laid by the management and the supervisor must satisfy himself as to the quality of the output and he should concentrate on both quality and quantity of goods. 

IMPORTANCE OF DIRECTION IN BUSINESS WORLD


Directing is a very important function of management and its subordinates may not perceive the organizational goals in the absence of directing and the subordinates must be communicated what the organizational goals are, what the employees should do to achieve them, how they should do their jobs etc. Moreover, directing is directly concerned with human beings, so it should be executed carefully to achieve the desired goals. The part played by the manager is rather important as the CEO of the company from the point of managing the workers and the management and Getting things down is in the very nature of Directing.

THE IMPORTANCE

1. The benefit of unity of command

 Due to scientific supervision, effective communication, and proper motivation, there is no problem with conflicting orders or priorities and because of a complete reporting relationship with a single superior, personal responsibility for results becomes greater. Directing involves the management of human behavior and it creates cooperation and harmony among the members of a group and increasing people’s awareness has made managing human beings very difficult.

2. Increases potential

For reasons of physical nature’s productivity of managerial resources is limited, but the productivity and effectiveness of human resources have unlimited potential, and directing helps the enterprise in making use of this potential output of the human resources. Since humans evolve as the time goes by and stating together is an important aspect of keeping going together so everyone needs to understand the aspirations and expectations of their subordinates or their colleagues in order to manage them effectively.

3. Initiates action

All organizational activities are initiated through directing and along with planning, organizing, and staffing, managers must stimulate action by issuing instructions to subordinates and by supervising their work and the aim of directing is to activate employees to work towards the realization of predetermined goals of the organization and thus, without directing, other managerial activities like planning, organizing and staffing remain ineffective.

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4.Optimization of individual efforts

 The ultimate success of an enterprise depends on the optimum efforts put in by all individuals with willing cooperation and through effective supervision, motivation, leadership, and communication directing makes it possible.

5.Means of motivation

The organizational objectives cannot be realized unless people working in an organization are motivated to work willingly and perform well to the best of their abilities and directing is motivating employees to contribute their maximum efforts towards the achievement of organizational goals.

6.Provision of a stable and balanced organization

Directing provides effective supervision, motivation, correct leadership, and a well-understood communications, and therefore the organization as a whole work in a balanced way and it lasts for a long time.

7. Integrates employees efforts

At all levels of management, there are subordinates under the managers and the work entrusted to these individuals is interrelated and the performance of each individual affects the performance of others and thus individual efforts need to be integrated so that the organization achieves its goals and the directing functions integrate the activities of the subordinates by supervision, guidance, and counseling.

DIRECTING

Directing, in simple words, is instructing the subordinates to follow a certain process to attain a given objective and it is getting the work done through instructions and orders and directing is an important element of management without which success cannot be achieved in the managerial process and it is very essence of management and in fact, it is the sum total of all managerial efforts and it helps in the organization marching towards its defined goal. After planning, determination of objectives, organization, and forecasting, the working force needs briefing about the stated goals which have to be accomplished following the policies, programmes and schedules. Directing is the managerial function of guiding, motivating, leading and supervising the subordinates to accomplish desired objectives. It is an important managerial function that initiates organiser’s action and it is a connecting and activating link with various functions of management and it is a process around which all performance revolves and directing bits of help in mobilising and synthesizing human resources and efforts to accomplish the goals of the organization and directing is the heart of management-in-action and essence of operations. According to Ernest Dale directing is “Directing is telling people what to do and seeing that they do it to the best of their ability and it includes making the assignment, corresponding procedures, seeing that mistakes are corrected, providing on-the-job instructions and of course, issuing orders” and according to another author Newman directing is “ The process of directing is concerned with the way an executive issues instructions to his instructions to his subordinates or otherwise indicates what is to be done”. As a continuous process, directing comprises of:

  1. Issuing orders that are clear, complete, and within the capabilities of subordinates to accomplish.
  2. Training and instructing subordinates to carry out their assignments in the existing situations.
  3. Motivating subordinates to try to meet the expectations of the manager; and
  4. Maintaining discipline and rewarding those who perform properly.

NATURE OF DIRECTING

1. Directing Initiates Actions

Directing is a key managerial function and a manager has to perform this function along with planning, organizing, staffing, and controlling while discharging his duties in the organization and while other functions prepare a setting for action, directing initiates action in the organization.

2. Directing takes place at every level of management

Directing is a pervasive function of management and it exists at every level, location and operates throughout an enterprise and every manager, regardless of the number of subordinates, performs this function and he has to give instructions to the instructions, guide them and motivate them for the achievement of certain goals.

3. Directing is a continuous process

Directing is a dynamic and continuing function and it is the essence of management practice and the techniques and methods of directing have to be changed with t eh changing organizational conditions and a manager are expected to guide his subordinates in all the changing environments. Directing’s objectives are to get the work done and to see that the management works ore responsibly and the manager has to make sure that the problem faced by his mens are solved quickly.

EDUCATION AND TRAINING


Though education and training are parts of the learning process, yet education is wider in its scope than the training and the training is concerned with increasing knowledge and skills in doing a particular job, and the major burden of training fall upon the employer. But education is a broader field of subject and has a lot of connections in its roots and has a lot of scopes and its purpose is to develop individuals in each of their respective fields and it is very concerned with increasing the general knowledge and understanding of the total environment. Education also teaches us to solve any analytical, statistical concepts in a better manner with an in-depth understanding of all the complexity in them.

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THE DIFFERENCE

By, education, we generally mean formal instruction in a school or a college or in a research facility or in a corporate environment, whereas the training is a vocationally oriented before you work on a complex or sophisticated machine or environment and is generally imparted at the work-place. Educational is theoretical, while training is practical and education is the process of developing and understanding of some organized body of knowledge and it is usually formal and aims at the total growth of an individual and it develops mental skills that enable one to use the knowledge acquired effectively in problem-solving situations. Training increases the aptitude, skills, and abilities of employees to perform specific jobs and it leads to the developmental of manual skills for a particular job, whereas education aims at enhancing the general knowledge of a person so that he may accomplish a job in an economical way or can start his own venture or a company to develop his knowledge that gives way for the evidence of his general intellect. As Flippo said in training “Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job”.

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Actually, the distinction between training and education is not precise because in many cases both training and education occur at the same time in the form of some formal vocational school programmes are job-oriented only, whereas some employee development programmes in the industry are quite wider in scope and they may be viewed as education. The scope of training is narrow as it restricted to a specific job that requires a lot of practical knowledge to complete the given work or the job, whereas the scope of education is wide as it gives information about a specific area instead of a specific job. The objective of the training is to learn the method of accomplishing a specific job successfully whereas education aims at enhancing the general knowledge of a person to enable him/her to accomplish a job in an economical way giving evidence of his general intellect and training is imparted by a business organization, on-job or by setting up a separate training centre whereas the main source of education in schools, colleges and university. The burden of expenses for imparting training is the responsibility of the business organization, hence it alone bears are borne by the employee himself.

TRAINING IN MANAGEMENT

Training is the process of helping employees to acquire more knowledge of the job and to learn or sharpen the needed skills, attitudes and values associated with the efficient performance of their job and new employees, as also existing employees, often need training as a means of their progress in their jobs and careers and it is an important element of the staffing function and many organizations make formal or informal arrangements for providing training to their managerial and non-managerial personnel. Training is practical education and it is a technique that brings out the hidden abilities in a person and teaches him to use his skills effectively. Training is an art and the trainer selects the best methods for training, keeping because of the requirements of the job and the ability of the concerned persons. Training is an activity which changes the outlook and behavior of persons and training may be understood as the practice of theoretical knowledge and the importance of training is well-recognized all over the world but the methods of training may vary from job to job and from industry to industry and typically, a separate training department under the charge of an expert in training techniques is established for the purpose. As Dale Yoder said, “Training is the process by which manpower is filled for the particular jobs it is to perform”.

METHODS OD TRAINING

1. On-the-job Method

On-the-jib methods are the methods that are applied, while the employee is working and it means Learning while doing and training is provided by superiors to subordinates and it is economical and less time consuming and it is used where jobs are simple, as in case of plumbers and motor mechanics.

a. Apprenticeship Programme

   Under this method, trainees are apprentices and they work under the direct supervision of the experts, who guide and help them in learning the job.

 b. Internship Training

In this method, professional institutes enter into arrangements with big business enterprises and send their students to these industrial enterprises to gain practical work experience.

c. Job Rotations

It is shifting the trainees from one department to another department or from one job position to another job position.

d. Induction Training

 It is training to help a new employee to settle down quickly into the job by becoming familiar with fellow workers the job and its environment including other people and machines in the business.

2. Off-the-Job Methods

Off-the-road jobs methods are used away from the place of work and it means Learning before doing and it is provided by experts either from within or from outside the organization and it is more expensive and more time consuming than on-the-job and it is used where jobs are complex involving the use of sophisticated machinery.

a. Vestibule training

 Under this method, training is given in a classroom and where the actual work environment is stimulated, a supplicate model of the workshop is prepared and instead of using original equipment, employees are trained on the dummy models.

b. Programming Instruction

The total information amount the job is broken into meaningful small units and are arranged in a logical sequence from simple to complex and the trainee goes through these units one by one by answering questions or by filling the blanks.

SELECTION

Selection is the process of choosing the most suitable candidates from applicants for the various jobs and it follows the recruitment and much information has to be obtained, from the prospective candidates to facilitate the selection process and it is then analyzed and evaluated and the information relates to the qualifications, work experience, age, levels of skills and other accomplishments, family background, aptitudes and interests, physical and mental fitness and so on. The enterprise has to choose the best and the most promising persons from among the applicants and in this sense, it may be said that while recruitment is a positive function, in that it seeks to induce as many persons as possible to apply for a job in the enterprise, the selection is a negative function because it aims at eliminating or weeding out those applicants who are not found suitable in one respect or the other. Thus, the selection is the process of securing relevant information about an applicant to evaluate his qualifications, experience, and other qualities to match these with the requirements of a job, and it essentially a process of picking out the man or men best suited for the organization’s requirements. According to Dale Yoder “Selection is the process in which candidates for employment, are divided into two classes-those who are to be offered employment and those who are not”.

SIGNIFICANCE OF SELECTION

Hiring of employees is an important function of the personnel department and this function must be performed careful because errors committed at the time of selection may prove to very costly and of selection process is faulty, absenteeism will be too high and the rate of labour turnover will also be higher and whenever unsuitable candidates are hired, the efficiency of the organization will go down and such persons will shrink work and will be absent themselves from the work more often and in many cases unsuitable employees have to leave their jobs and this will lead to waste of time, energy and money in hiring such employees and the training cost incurred on them will also go waste and proper selection and placement of personnel go a long way towards building up a suitable workforce and it will keep the rates of absenteeism and labour turnover low and will increase the morale of the employees and if the employees are quite suitable according to the requirements of the jobs, they will show higher efficiency and will enable the organization to achieve its objectives effectively. Recruitment and selection are two separate functions that usually go together and recruitment aims at stimulating and attracting job applications for positions in the organization, while selection consists of choosing among the applicants, to choose those, most suited to the job requirements, keeping in view the job analysis information. Recruitment is simple and candidates are not required to cross several hurdles whereas the selection process is complex and consists of many hurdles created by the management internally and Recruitment initiates the procurement aspect of personnel management whereas the selection completes the procurement aspect of personnel management.

RECRUITMENT

The term Recruitment denoted that process by which the management locates the source of supply of manpower and then traps that source and it encourages outside manpower to apply for the jobs in the organization and search for the proper person for the right type of job at the right time is the basic function of the personnel department. The selection of wrong persons for the right job can ruin the process of work. A well-planned recruitment policy ensures increased productivity, decreased costs, increased employee morale and goodwill of the organization and thus recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and encouraging them to apply for the jobs in an organization and it aims at securing as many qualified applicants for the jobs as possible so as to decrease the hiring ratio and before searching for applicants, an organization should consider the most likely sources of the type of employees it needs. According to Edwin Flippo “Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an organization”. Recruitment also includes seeking and attracting a pool of people from which qualified candidates for job vacancies can be chosen. There are various sources of recruitment of workers and the personnel manager will select a source of recruitment, keeping in view the requirements of the departments concerned, the type of persons needed and the advantages of a source of recruitment and different sources of recruitment can be tapped on different occasions for different types of persons.

INTERNAL RECRUITMENT

One important source of recruitment is a promotion from within and it is the best method for recruitment of high and the medium cadre of managers and many companies feel that the best practice is to fill jobs from within the organization and they feel that inside employees already know the company and its policies and presumably have proved their ability and loyalty. This keeps the employees happy contented and in good morale and they know that they will earn promotion to a higher position. A performance test is the best test to determine a person’s suitability for a job. Filling of a vacancy from an internal source is very economical and no time and money are required to spend on a new candidate and a person who is selected for a job from within an organization knowns the organizational relationships.

EXTERNAL RECRUITMENT

By the external sources of recruitment, a vast mass of skilled, semi-skilled, and unskilled people is recruited from outside the organization. By using external sources of recruitment the organization can expect to get talented candidates from outside and the selection process is characterized by competition and the prospects that the organization can pick up the best candidates and fresh talents for the job are high. External candidates are expected to be trained and be efficient in work as they join the organization they work with great vigor and put in their best efforts to achieve the objectives and this creates healthy competition and congenial work environment in the organization.