Great Indian Patriot:- Chanakya (Kautilya)

Kautilya
Chanakya

 

Chanakya was not only a great thinker and diplomat but also a great patriot of India. He was one of the earliest noble man who envisaged the United India spanning from Kandhar to Kanyakumari and Dwarka to far East as India. A great nation divided into many small princely states and kingdoms but there was a strong cultural thread and history, geography and commerce which united the Indian peninsula. He trained a small kid who had a desire and dream for united India into Great Chandragupta Mourya. He not only proved the supremacy of the human being over the so called discrimination and differentiation based on birth and caste. He played key role in unifying India after he witnessed the outrage of the dignity and pride of India by Alexander.

He not only uprooted the foreign regime also weaved most on the Indian states into a single empire based on the dignity and pride for great Mother India.

Jai Hind.

Seclusion of a Section of Society from Media

The India media is a classic example of power capture by the social elite. There is rarely a proper representation of people from the so called down-trodden social section of our society. Well the Indian constitution guarantees the equality in all forms to every citizen of the nation but the ultimate decision lies in the sub-conscious mindsets of the people who are in power or are part of the India intelligentsia who command a great degree of influence in the field of print and electronic media.

The absence of a section of society in the media has resulted in the either misrepresentation or partial representation of the views and opinions of the people of the secluded class (not in the literal meaning of the term). Indian society is diverse and the problems are diverse. It is very often possible that we Indian fail to see our deficiencies or overlook them for the benefit of the own group. The Indian are notorious for their group identity rather than individual identity in modern era.

Conservation of Heritage

The inaction of states and local bodies will cost a lot to India which is know world wide for its rich cultural and architectural heritage. The development does not mean that old should give place to new ones. Development is all about conserving and restructuring the path of progress in such a manner that the old structures which has cultural values, architectural values, age values and place values must get a proper place amid the new ones.

Delhi is a good example for the rest of the country in taking effective measures to protection and revival of the heritage buildings. The Archaeological Survey of India is also doing its part but it has its own limitations. Therefore, every state and local bodies should come forward for striking the balance between the development and the conservation of the rich heritage of each and every corner of the country. The conservation alone can ensure their survival for the future generations. Strong legal provisions must be enacted and implemented soon.

The National Disaster Management Authority(NDMA)- Pro-active agency

The National Disaster Management Authority(NDMA) and State Disaster Management Authorities(SDMA) are doing well as it is evident from the recent warning signal communicated well in advance due to the Earthquake having epi-centre in Indonesia and measuring 8.5 on the Richter scale and its aftershocks, one of which was of 8.2 magnitude, sent tremors across many countries like Thailand, Indonesia, Myanmar and Malaysia, India, Sri Lanka.

We have kept pace with the need of time. Other south-eastern Asian countries also passed the test of time. The global cooperation and collaboration in the field of disaster management can go a long way in minimizing the fury of nature. The capabilities developed in this field of disaster management can be further highlighted by the fact the India has largest National Disaster Response Force and the recently conducted successful mock drills to check the disaster response system and staffs. This exercise has also raised sincere awareness among the public.

USER-FRIENDLY LAND-USE AND TRANSPORT PLANNING

There is a need for policies and practices to promote walking, cycling and other modes of active transport for trips to and from source and common destination, and also regular public transport where this is appropriate and possible. This can be done through  two things: (i) arranging land uses and transport facilities so as to reduce transport’s adverse effects on users when they are travelling and when they are doing other things; and (ii) improving the travelling experience for users, which could mean, for example, making it more enriching for users and providing more independence for youth. Two-thirds of parents report that their users participate in unorganized physical activities after school; these activities might include bicycling, walking, or running. Several studies have found that users who actively commute to school are more physically active outside of school. Adults who live in highly walkable communities report two times more walking trips per week than adults in low walkable communities. Furthermore, adults who are physically active are more likely to have users who actively commute looked at pedestrian travel of users aged 5-18.

Progress made towards creating safer environments, and the best practices of countries that have made concerted efforts to reduce the risk to users from traffic are many to explore. The World Health Organization and UNICEF World Report on Child Injury Prevention road safety recommendations include reducing speeds to 30 km/hour in residential areas, around schools and around play areas to protect pedestrians; separation of child cyclists from other road users through dedicated cycle lanes; use of bicycle helmets; and increased education for users on pedestrian and cycling skills. An Australian study reported that pollution concentrations in pedestrian “breathing zones” resulting from passing vehicles (travelling less than 45 km/hr) were on average six times higher. These guidelines could be used to ensure that users are consulted in the development of these plans and that they reflect their needs and aspirations for active transportation.

Users benefit from active transportation networks that are safe and accessible. Greater synergy amongst school board, municipal body and state government representatives could improve active transportation planning with respect to all trips made by young people. Infrastructure that would make active transportation a safe option (sidewalks, paved shoulders, non-motorized bike paths and trails), bike safety lessons for youth, bike racks at schools and other locations, youth-led activities (e.g. hiking clubs, running groups on trails) and appropriate modeling of active transportation by users.

The development of safe bicycle corridors and other infrastructure, policies and legislation suitable would support active transportation. Safe pathways or transportation routes must be created and transportation bylaws revised. An essential feature of putting users first is that transport and land-use planning issues are seen from perspectives of users. Providing for users on bicycles (and other wheels)

The guidelines below should be considered in conjunction with bicycle safety programs for users. For older users, ensure that destinations that cannot be a walk away are no more than a bicycle ride away. Help ensure that school policies and practices favour walking, cycling and other modes of active transport for trips to and from school, and also regular public transport where this is appropriate and possible. Recognizing the transportation responsibilities of school boards and the concerns regarding physical activity of users, it would seem advisable for school boards and Municipalities to work together towards enabling students to travel through active means of transportation. On the other hand, given the evidence noted on air quality in school buses, not reducing users’ exposure to pollutants in these vehicles could be more costly in the long run.

The guidelines are directed towards reducing all adverse Traffic impacts on young people (and others), whether or not they are in a vehicle. To the extent that users’ travel by car is undesirable-because of poor in-vehicle air quality, and opportunities lost to exercise, gain independence, and experience neighbourhood-land-use and transport planners should help ensure that the distances users travel by car are kept as short as possible. The barriers are grouped into three main challenges: 1. Increase users’ active transport for the trip to school, 2. Increase active transport for users on non-school trips, and 3. Reduce adult automobile and motorized vehicle use (and thus users’ exposure in and outside vehicles).

Shashikant Nishant Sharma(Urban Planner and Consultant)

SNSHARMA.SPA@GMAIL.COMWWW.CATCHMYPOST.COM/SHASHIKANTNISHANTSHARMANew Delhi-110065

May, 2012

References:

  1. Catherine O’Brien and Richard Gilbert, (March, 2010), Child- And Youth-Friendly Land-Use And Transport  Planning Guidelines For Nova Scotia, The Centre for Sustainable Transportation, the University of Winnipeg
  2. Stallard, P, Velleman, R, & Baldwin, S (1998). Prospective study of post-traumatic stress disorder In children involved in road traffic accidents, British Medical Journal
  3. Hillman, M, Adams, J, & Whitelegg, J (1990). One False Move: A Study Of Children’s Independent Mobility, London, UK:
  4. Watson, M, & Danneberg, AL (2008), Investment in safe routes to school projects:  Public health benefits for the larger community, Preventing Chronic DiseasePublic Health Research, Practice, and Policy, 5(3), A90.
  5. WHO (2008). World report on child injury prevention. Available at http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/child/injury/world_report/en/index.html

Participatory Planning in Plan Preparation: A Case of Delhi

Participatory planning is very sought after concept in the domain of planning in current practices. Delhi is a very progressive city and the city planners and administrators are very active in adopting and implementing current best practices across the world. There are many practices in Delhi which is seen as a good example of participatory planning and the concerns arises when we want to replicate in other cities and towns then it becomes imperative to look in detail the process and their allied pros and cons so that a more effective model can be adapted and adopted for implementation. For Delhi also we are in the process of preparation of ‘Local Area Plan’ an initiative of Municipal Corporation of Delhi to realize the provisions of Master Plan for a planned development taking into account the existing ground realities. The thesis cum research project will be of great help in looking at the shortcomings of the participatory planning process and the recommendations can give us an opportunity to strengthen the scope and effectiveness of public participation in planning at local level. The author thinks that his research work will be of some help in devising more efficient mechanism for public participation and demand responsive planning by the local body of the national capital.

The need of the study has arisen due to the combined effect of various factors like lack of awareness and understanding of the concept and applicability of the participatory planning processes. Sometimes it is called ad hocism in the practice of participation taking place in the current scenario where people are awakening to the need and demand for more participatory planning approach. Case studies of different practices in Participatory Planning arena viz. decentralized planning in Kerala, National Policy for Urban Street Vendors and Bhagidari Scheme of Government of Delhi has showcased how the plan or scheme has been able to deliver or fail. Further, the author has developed a framework for analysis will helps in judiciously considering the case of Participatory Planning in Delhi.

The detailed analysis of the Participatory Planning mechanism used in the cases of Master Plan, City Development Plan and Local Area Plan preparation in Delhi gives the pros and cons of public participation and the loopholes in the planning processes. Here, author feels in a position to understand the virtues and shortcomings of the different participatory practices and how they can be beneficially adopted and adapted for the preparation of Local Area Plan in a more effective participatory manner.

Finally, author tries to evolve a realistic and implementable framework for effective public participation in Local Area Planning which is undergoing its final stages. His interactions with many consultants and planners engaged in this project can also be put forward for better comprehensibility and feasibility of the framework.

A Visit to Gurh, Madhya Pradesh

Gurh is a small town 22 km away from Rewa, district head quarter. The area if the town is 850ha and population is 14590 as per the latest census 2011. The town can be reached through bus, jeep.

Now let’s see what is to be seen in the small town of the Madhya Pradesh.

At town level, Gurh has few tourist destination i.e. Kashtaharnath Temple and the old fort is notable among them. The old fort built by Jayant Rao is lying in dilapidated condition due to the negligence of the archaeological and tourism department of of the state. Currently, a a portion of the old fort has been converted into high school which is being expanded in the compound of the fort. The grim negligence of the heritage structure is quite visible as you can see a toilet has been constructed in the interior part of the fort. The existing water bodies (i.e. river front development of Bhichhiya and Bihiya and ponds) can be developed as recreational area for town and also as a major eco-tourism site for the locals. Baba Bhairao temple is situated at a distance of 5km from the town and the place has good potential for tourism as the area has good scenic beauty. The idol is in lying position having a length of 24ft. Yearly, fair is held during the month of July-August near the premises of the temple. There is lack of sufficient and efficient modes of transportation, infrastructure services in town that can hold the tourist. Tourist coming to Orchha or Khajuraho, Maihar, Panna National Park, Bandhavgarh National Park can be tapped. Thus, the town Gurh falls under Khajuraho–Panna–Bandhavgarh-Chitrakoot-Allahabad tourist circuit.

Two day fair is organised at Kashtaharnath Temple on Vasant Panchmi amd Shivratri. A fair is also organised at the Dam on the way to Nagar Parishad while going there from Rewa.

Hanuman Mandir is also good for attacting local tourists in the month of November. And Ram-vivah programme is organised during the event.

Unfortunately, the town has not been able to capitalize its potential in this sector as the site is in un- developed stage and lacks sufficient and efficient modes of transportation, infrastructure services such as street lights, public drinking water, public toilets, eating places etc. that can hold the tourist.

Problems of Slum in India…

The condition of slum is not unknown to anybody. The problem lies in the implementation of plan and policies for eradication and improvement of the slum. The problem of slum is not going to end until and unless we are able to provide the requisite number of houses for the increasing population and meeting the housing demand of of the floating population and the migrants to the big urban centres. The large backlogs of the affordable housing and housing for Economically Weaker Section (EWS) and Low Income Group(LIG) negates all the efforts of the Central and State government policies and efforts of the urban local bodies to the extent that such programmes seems to be of no use. The pace of supply of housing in general is not upto mark and fails to meet the demand whatever may be the categories of income groups. This causes usurpation of even EWS and LIG housing by the upper income strata. You go to any of the EWS or LIG colonies of Delhi and you will be amazed to find the number of cars. Why I am saying to look at the number of cars as I think that that is a good indicator to show the income level of people.

Planners and policy makers can only initiate the process of eradication of slums and making cities and towns slum free. If you look at the factual data of various slum improvement and slum eradication programmes you will find that in the name of making cities slum free they are just making plans and schemes to delineate the location of slums in the towns and cities. The slum free plan is just a new way of making mockery of the ground realities. There are many plans and schemes already made and wrapped in the papers of reports and maps. The politics of planning is one of the reason why the problem of the slum in India is still the grim and in near future it will torment the mind and thinking of planners and policy makers of India.

We must be optimistic and hope for the better future for all but at the same that we must keep our base of thinking and vision on the ground of realities. Development of all regions of the nation must be made more balanced and the fruits of prosperity should be distributed among all rural and urban centres so that the migration is minimized. Economic development and planning must go hand in hand for better result.

User-Friendly Landuse Planning

 There is a need for policies and practices to promote walking, cycling and other modes of active transport for trips to and from source and common destination, and also regular public transport where this is appropriate and possible. This can be done through  two things: (i) arranging land uses and transport facilities so as to reduce transport’s adverse effects on users when they are travelling and when they are doing other things; and (ii) improving the travelling experience for users, which could mean, for example, making it more enriching for users and providing more independence for youth. Two-thirds of parents report that their users participate in unorganized physical activities after school; these activities might include bicycling, walking, or running. Several studies have found that users who actively commute to school are more physically active outside of school. Adults who live in highly walkable communities report two times more walking trips per week than adults in low walkable communities. Furthermore, adults who are physically active are more likely to have users who actively commute looked at pedestrian travel of users aged 5-18.

Progress made towards creating safer environments, and the best practices of countries that have made concerted efforts to reduce the risk to users from traffic are many to explore. The World Health Organization and UNICEF World Report on Child Injury Prevention road safety recommendations include reducing speeds to 30 km/hour in residential areas, around schools and around play areas to protect pedestrians; separation of child cyclists from other road users through dedicated cycle lanes; use of bicycle helmets; and increased education for users on pedestrian and cycling skills. An Australian study reported that pollution concentrations in pedestrian “breathing zones” resulting from passing vehicles (travelling less than 45 km/hr) were on average six times higher. These guidelines could be used to ensure that users are consulted in the development of these plans and that they reflect their needs and aspirations for active transportation.

Users benefit from active transportation networks that are safe and accessible. Greater synergy amongst school board, municipal body and state government representatives could improve active transportation planning with respect to all trips made by young people. Infrastructure that would make active transportation a safe option (sidewalks, paved shoulders, non-motorized bike paths and trails), bike safety lessons for youth, bike racks at schools and other locations, youth-led activities (e.g. hiking clubs, running groups on trails) and appropriate modeling of active transportation by users.

The development of safe bicycle corridors and other infrastructure, policies and legislation suitable would support active transportation. Safe pathways or transportation routes must be created and transportation bylaws revised. An essential feature of putting users first is that transport and land-use planning issues are seen from perspectives of users. Providing for users on bicycles (and other wheels)

The guidelines below should be considered in conjunction with bicycle safety programs for users. For older users, ensure that destinations that cannot be a walk away are no more than a bicycle ride away. Help ensure that school policies and practices favour walking, cycling and other modes of active transport for trips to and from school, and also regular public transport where this is appropriate and possible. Recognizing the transportation responsibilities of school boards and the concerns regarding physical activity of users, it would seem advisable for school boards and Municipalities to work together towards enabling students to travel through active means of transportation. On the other hand, given the evidence noted on air quality in school buses, not reducing users’ exposure to pollutants in these vehicles could be more costly in the long run.

The guidelines are directed towards reducing all adverse Traffic impacts on young people (and others), whether or not they are in a vehicle. To the extent that users’ travel by car is undesirable-because of poor in-vehicle air quality, and opportunities lost to exercise, gain independence, and experience neighbourhood-land-use and transport planners should help ensure that the distances users travel by car are kept as short as possible. The barriers are grouped into three main challenges: 1. Increase users’ active transport for the trip to school, 2. Increase active transport for users on non-school trips, and 3. Reduce adult automobile and motorized vehicle use (and thus users’ exposure in and outside vehicles).

References:

  1. Catherine O’Brien and Richard Gilbert, (March, 2010), Child- And Youth-Friendly Land-Use And Transport  Planning Guidelines For Nova Scotia, The Centre for Sustainable Transportation, the University of Winnipeg
  2. Stallard, P, Velleman, R, & Baldwin, S (1998). Prospective study of post-traumatic stress disorder In children involved in road traffic accidents, British Medical Journal
  3. Hillman, M, Adams, J, & Whitelegg, J (1990). One False Move: A Study Of Children’s Independent Mobility, London, UK:
  4. Watson, M, & Danneberg, AL (2008), Investment in safe routes to school projects:  Public health benefits for the larger community, Preventing Chronic Disease: Public Health Research, Practice, and Policy, 5(3), A90.
  5. WHO (2008). World report on child injury prevention. Available at http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/child/injury/world_report/en/in

Renewable Energy (Power) Generation in India

India is a very large country not only in terms of population but also in terms of area and the gross domestic product (GDP) which is increasing at around 7-8% in spite of the global economic slow-down. The increasing share of tertiary and secondary sectors of economy in the GDP will really need increasing amount of power supply and for this there will be need for upgradation of the existing power grid and development of new sources of electricity production based on nuclear power and hydel power which will be more sustainable keeping in
view the shortage of conventional sources of energy like coal and petroleum.

India has a large reserve of thorium which can be converted into useful fuel with the improvement in the nuclear fuel technology. It should be remembered that India’s domestic uranium reserves are small and the country is dependent on uranium imports to fuel its nuclear power industry. Since 1990s, Russia former USSR has been a major supplier of nuclear fuel to India. In recent years we, have tried to make deal for fuel with Australia and we are exploring other venues of buying uranium from other countries. There is need for investing in the technology development for thorium enrichment and development of reactors reactors capable of using thorium as a fuel.

Another bright and promising option is hydro-electricity generation which can be expedite in the states like Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and other hilly states. The scope of development of hedel power is immense in these states.

There is small but some scope for development of wind mills in the states of Gujrat, Maharastra, Rajasthan and other coatal states of India.

The ministry for renewable energy must take initiative to harness these existing sources of energy and promote the technology development for the use of solar energy in for the streetlighting and water heating. This can be promoted through the development controls devised by urban planners and policy makers.
We are steadily but slowly moving towards the optimum utilisation of the available sources of energy.

Shashikant Nishant Sharma

IJR Journal is Multidisciplinary, high impact and indexed journal for research publication. IJR is a monthly journal for research publication.

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