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History of Bhopal

Rain: Nature’s Blessing.

Shashikant N. Sharma (Urban Planner)

Write a poem on rain

Rain, oh rain, how sweet your sound, As you pour from the sky and hit the ground. A symphony of droplets, a melody so fine, As you wash away the dirt and make everything shine.

You bring life to the earth, and refresh the air, As you fill the rivers, lakes, and oceans with care. The plants rejoice as you quench their thirst, And the animals play in the puddles, unrehearsed.

You come in many forms, a drizzle or a downpour, A misty fog, or a thunderous roar. Your colors range from gray to blue, As you paint the sky with a beautiful hue.

Your aroma fills the air with a pleasant scent, As you awaken our senses, and bring calm and content. You soothe our souls, and heal our pain, As you wash away our worries, and clear our brain.

Rain, oh rain, how blessed you are, A gift from above, a shining star. You bring joy to the heart, and peace to the mind, As you remind us of the beauty, that we often find.

Shashikant N. Sharma (Urban Planner)

History of Bhopal

Bhopal is the capital city of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The history of Bhopal dates back to the 11th century when the city was founded by Raja Bhoj, a famous king of the Paramara dynasty. The city was originally known as Bhojpal, named after its founder.

Over the centuries, Bhopal was ruled by various dynasties including the Mughals, the Marathas, and the Nawabs of Bhopal. It was during the rule of the Nawabs of Bhopal in the 18th century that the city began to prosper and grow.

In 1818, Bhopal came under the British rule, and the city remained a princely state until India gained independence in 1947. The last Nawab of Bhopal, Hamidullah Khan, signed the Instrument of Accession to India in 1949, and Bhopal became a part of the Indian Union.

In 1956, the state of Madhya Pradesh was formed, and Bhopal was chosen as its capital city. The city underwent significant development during the 1960s and 1970s, with the establishment of various industries and the construction of modern infrastructure.

However, Bhopal is perhaps best known for the tragic gas leak disaster that occurred in 1984, when a toxic gas leak from a pesticide plant owned by Union Carbide Corporation led to the deaths of thousands of people and affected the health of many others.

Today, Bhopal is a major cultural, educational, and commercial center in central India. It is known for its beautiful lakes, historical monuments, and vibrant bazaars. The city also has a rich tradition of arts and crafts, including embroidery, beadwork, and weaving.


Big Leap of India in Research Publication

India is one of the
fastest growing research hubs
in the world. But not all of that
research matters. And that
may be a matter of concern,
according to the QS which
took a deep look at what is be-
ing published, by who and
how much.
Between 2017 and 2022, In-
dia’s research output grew by
about 54%, according to re-
search insights database SciV-
al. This is more than double
the global average and far
greater than that of its more
academically established
western counterparts. The
global average for research
growth is at 22% between 2017
and 2022.
India’s research output
was the fourth highest world
wide (1.3 million academic pa-
pers between 2017 and 2022), be-
hind world leader China (4.5
million), the US (4.4 million)
and the UK (1.4 million). At its
current growth rate, India is
poised to surpass the UK for re-search volume in the near future. In all, India produced 1.3
million academic papers in the has scientific output that is
more than triple India’s size
2017-2022 period, generating 8.9
China has a scientific output
that is more than triple of Indian’s size and generates five times as many citations
million citations. But look clos-
er and there is another reality
at play. “When it comes to im-
pact of the research produced,
in citation count, India falls be-
hind, placing ninth in the world
for citations generated be-
tween 2017 and 2022, indicating that effort and funding would
be best directed towards high
quality, relevant research and
ensuring this research is dis-
seminated among the scholarly
community,” said QS research
director Ben Sowter.
China, on the other hand,
Times View: It is good
news that India is publishing
such a high number of
academic papers. However, the
goal should be improving the
country’s rank in the number of
citations, which is the real
indicator of the merit of an
academic paper.
and generates five times as
many citations. India’s most
prolific field of research is en-
gineering and technology
(52.6% of total research out-
put), in which its primary fo-
cus is evenly split between pet-
puter sciences, followed by an
roleum engineering and com-
almost equal proportion of re-
(36%) and life sciences and
search in natural sciences
medicine (35%). India pro-
duces 19% of its research out-
put along with international
collaborators, which is in
keeping with the global aver-
age of 21% and aligned with
that of its closest competitors.
India’s 11 public and private
Institutes of Eminence have
produced more than 1,50,000
academic papers, generated
1.4 million citations and re-
corded an average research
growth rate of 35% since 2017.

The earliest Historical Letter Written by a Woman in Britain

“Can you please come to my birthday party? It sure would be cool. Thanks.”

Sure, those aren’t the exact words, but a very personal message with sentiments was found on a wooden tablet written just about 2,000 years ago.

It was part of a group of about 750 tablets, each roughly the size of a postcard, that were discovered in northern England at the site of the Roman community of Vindolanda, near the present-day Northumberland region.

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The area was considered the northern frontier of the Roman Empire, near the future site of Hadrian’s Wall, marking the empire’s official northern boundary. The time range of the tablets is estimated to be 95-105 ACE.

While many of the discovered historical letters from Vindolanda are considered of interest to scholars because of what they say about military activity, frontier life, or interactions and communications with officials in Rome, one particular note has received a lot of attention since its discovery: a message from one woman to another woman discussing an upcoming celebration and why her attendance would be welcome.  

This historical letter is considered the first recorded letter in Britain to be written by a woman. Although it’s more than likely that women painted much of the early art in caves or were involved in creating early religious displays and taking part in ceremonies, no formal letters have been found that specifically indicate female authorship.

The historical letter was hand-written in Latin, in cursive script, both of which showed a high degree of literacy. Handwriting and reading by women weren’t necessarily common in that time period.

Its author was Claudia Severa, who Roman records showed was married to Aelius Brocchus, who was the appointed commander of an unnamed Roman fort believed to be located near Vindolanda.

In her letter, she was addressing Sulpicia Lepidina, who was married to Flavius Cerialis, who at the time was the commander of the Vindolanda fort and garrison.

The short note extended an invitation that Sulpicia would please consider attending Claudia’s upcoming birthday party, saying “it will be more enjoyable for me for your arrival.” She exchanged affectionate terms, calling Sulpicia her sister, and saying the festivities would be more enjoyable if she were able to attend.

The historical letters on the tablets were found in 1973 and not fully translated and published until the early 2000s.

Historians say they are unique beyond the subject matter. Previous tablets with this type of routine information were usually carved into stone, but these were carved into wood. It is surprising they were still intact, especially since they were found in an area of the fort that had stayed damp over the centuries. 

The tablets are currently part of the British Museum’s collections, although discussions are taking place to have some of them, or at least decent reproductions, to be displayed as part of the interpretive displays at Vindolanda.

Interestingly, Vindolanda is still considered an active archeological site and more tablets are found regularly. It’s a good way to show life in that part of the world as well as in the Roman legions during that time.

Revealed: The Existing State of Employee Onboarding Satisfaction in the UK and Ireland

Onboarding is a critical process for both employers and employees. It sets the tone for the new relationship and can make or break a successful transition into the company.

As a Cezanne HR onboarding report shows, there are some major trends that will shape the onboarding process in the next few years. The survey polled over 1,000 employees across the UK and Ireland to find out their thoughts and experiences of onboarding.

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Here’s a look at some of the key findings from the report and what they mean for the future of onboarding:

1. Remote working is popular, but most employees still work in a physical office

Most employees work in a hybrid environment, with a mix of office-based and remote working. This could be since the traditional workplace is still popular, with 40.9% of people surveyed working in a shared workspace full time.

Despite the rise of remote working, only 15% of employees work from home full time. Many companies still don’t offer the option to work from home, or some employees feel they need the social interaction that comes with working in an office.

2. Face-to-face meetings are vital when building lasting engagement with new hires

Employees value the personal touch when it comes to onboarding. Meeting their manager and colleagues in person helps them feel more comfortable and part of the team. It also allows them to ask any questions they might have about the company or their role.

When asked about the best part of their onboarding experience, 42% of people said meeting their manager in person was the highlight. This was closely followed by a virtual meeting with 34.6% of employees, and the rest didn’t find any difference.

3. Onboarding should make employees feel part of the team before day one

Effective onboarding should be for every employee joining a business, and it should start as soon as a candidate accepts a job offer – not when they ‘walk through the door’ on their first day. This means having all the ‌paperwork and equipment ready for them and making sure they know where to go and who to ask for help.

The findings showed that nearly 21.5% didn’t know what to expect on their first day. This is ‌worrying for remote workers, who make up a growing percentage of the workforce.

4. A lack of communication can lead to a rocky start in a new job

Many new employees don’t receive any communication from their new line manager before starting their role, which can lead to confusion and a lack of clarity about what is expected from them.

The survey found that 22% of employees didn’t receive any information about their new role before starting work. HR should encourage managers to contact their new joiners to confirm their roles and duties and what their first week at work will look like. This will help them to fully prepare for their first day and get off to the best possible start.

5. Misleading job listings are a turnoff for potential candidates

Inaccurate job descriptions can lead to high staff turnover. In fact, over 17% said their current role if it wasn’t what they were expecting, which can lead to disengagement and a lack of motivation.

Recruiting managers must ensure job descriptions are accurate and realistic. This will help to attract suitable candidates for the role and reduce the risk of them leaving if they’re not happy with what they find when they start work.

6. New hires feel they’re missing out on crucial training

About 26% of new employees feel they’re not receiving enough training to help them settle into their roles. Organisations should ensure that all new employees receive adequate training as part of their onboarding process. This will help them feel more confident in their roles and better equipped to perform their duties.

Regular training and development opportunities will also help to keep employees engaged and motivated in their roles. Encouraging managers to provide performance feedback can also help ensure employees are aware of their development needs and know what they need to work on.

7. Poorly designed onboarding processes can lead to a high staff turnover

Organisations with inefficient or poorly designed onboarding processes risk losing new employees. Over 21% of respondents were concerned that they might leave their current roles because of the onboarding process.

The onboarding process is the first impression that a new employee has of their organisation, so it’s essential to get it right. Creating a positive and supportive environment from the start will help new employees feel valued and motivated in their roles.


Onboarding is a crucial part of the employee lifecycle, yet many organisations are not doing it effectively. The findings from this survey highlight some of the key areas that need to be addressed in order to improve the onboarding experience for new employees.

Organisations should ensure that they have a well-designed and implemented onboarding process in place to help new employees settle into their roles and feel supported in their development.

Why Do Companies Need Harassment Training in the Workplace?

Harassment, whether physical or verbal, can be a significant problem at many workplaces. However, this doesn’t mean it’s not worth addressing, and this is something that should be taken seriously. Your human resource or the higher-ups should have an official policy in place to address harassment and deal with the aftermath of these kinds of issues.

When it comes to bullying, racial slurs, sexual innuendos, abuse, and others, a prompt investigation should occur after someone has reported this incident. This is why many corporations need to undergo a DFEH harassment training program so everyone will know what to do during these instances. No one would want to experience abuse, but this is something that should not go unreported, or the offender should be given a penalty or a consequence of their actions.

Definition of Harassment

Harassment is a form of abuse that involves verbal or physical conduct, which is offensive and frightening to the target, who may feel threatened or believe that they are in danger. Harassment can take many forms: physical, verbal, written, or Internet-based.

This is intimidation that can be directed at any individual and may be repeated multiple times for one day or the course of years. Harassment may be carried out by means of a single act or by a number of actions. It can include offensive slurs, sexist remarks, unsolicited sexual favors, unwanted touching, and many more.

How to Recognize these Behaviors

Bullying or getting sexual favors are not just things that happen in an office setting, but they can also occur anywhere. And as a result, employees often don’t recognize it when they see it.

To help the companies handle these kinds of complaints, they can go ahead and get in-depth training about clear-cut policies that they should have in the workplace. With this type of training, employees can identify and prevent instances of when someone is taking advantage of them and what to do about it. However, if this method doesn’t work, employees may resort to filing lawsuits or cases against the offender or even the corporation itself.

Preventive Policies to Know About

1. Have a Zero-Tolerance and Clear-Cut Policy in Place

It’s essential to have an easy-to-understand, clear-cut, and comprehensive zero-tolerance policy in the company about these activities. These should apply to all employees with no exceptions. Make sure that in crafting this guidance, the HR personnel will get the help of legal counsel to make sure that they’re fully compliant with the federal, local, and state laws. More about the rights to get legal counsel in this link here.

2. Instituting Awareness Programs for Employees

Everyone needs to get trained and have refresher courses with harassment. The new hires should have orientations, and everyone must participate regularly. What everyone will learn in these orientations are the following:

  • Unacceptable and acceptable behaviors while in the workplace
  • How they can recognize sexual harassment and whether it’s taking place with their colleagues
  • Steps to take to report the inappropriate behavior

Just because some comments are not going to bother you does not always mean that it’s not offending someone else who will hear it. It’s not the intent that’s important but the actions and their effect on the recipient.

3. A Specialized Training for Supervisors and Managers

Managing employees is the supervisors’ responsibility, and this should be done impeccably in the workplace. Managers must be skilled at recognizing harassment and making clear warnings about these kinds of behaviors. This can’t be tolerated, and everyone should be aware that they can be punished for a highly inappropriate behavior.

The training that’s specific for managers is highly individualized and specialized. This is where they know where to call, report the abuse to the proper authorities, file the appropriate sanctions, how to call out the behaviors and make sure that the offenders are warned the first time. It’s also worth noting that either women or men can be a victim or instigators of bullying, and this is where they should know where to step in.

4. Building a Culture where Harassment is Absent

The leaders and owners of businesses should mold and reinforce a culture where the employees and managers should act professionally at all times. This includes on-site gatherings, off site parties, and off-hour assemblies. The intimidation or demeaning of someone and calling it “humor” should never occur in the office. Read more about related posts for bullying when you click here:

Behaviors of the perpetrators that promote disrespect and making advances to anyone should never be tolerated. Those who are in charge of this should continuously ensure that they are dedicated to a bullying-free workplace. Get in touch with your HR for training about sexual harassment and know the laws surrounding it so you would know what to do when you’re faced with it. Gather evidence and witnesses if it’s necessary if this is something that has happened to you.

Five Signs That You Need to Hire an Employment Lawyer

The contract between employer and employee is meant to provide protection to both sides. But when the employer isn’t living up to their end for certain reasons, it may be time to bring in an employment lawyer.

There are more than a few signs that your employer may not be playing fair. When that happens, it is time to bring in a professional who will defend your rights and not allow the employer to take advantage of you. Here are some of the signs that you need to hire an employment attorney.

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1. Employer Not Taking Abuse Seriously

A serious issue in recent times has been workplace harassment. It can run the gamut from sexual harassment to racial abuse. Companies in both the public and private sector are having to face it head on because if they don’t, there are serious consequences.

If you are a target of abuse, inform human resources or your employer directly. If they haven’t done anything after a certain period of time or multiple submissions, bring your case to an employment attorney. That will get the company’s attention for sure.

2. Labour Code Violation

There are codes in place that are meant to place employees from being taken advantage of by employers. Proper businesses should hire an employment attorney of their own to ensure that they are abiding by laws and regulations.

That said, it still doesn’t stop some companies from violating said code. If you feel as though your employer is in violation of a major code, getting in touch with an employment attorney is the way to go. It may prove beneficial not only for yourself, but for current colleagues and even future workers if wrongdoing is proven.

3. Too Many Papers

At the end of the day, businesses are doing what they can so that they can be protected from lawsuits or any other legal wrongdoing. That may include trying to get you or other employees to sign documents that absolve them of said wrongdoing.

If your employer is putting a lot of papers in front of you and trying to get you to sign them quickly, there is a good chance that there is something amiss. An employment lawyer can advise you on what to do next and could potentially save you from signing something that will come back to haunt you.

4. Not Receiving Benefits

For the most part, companies are pretty good at providing benefits owed whether they are for current employees or recently departed. That said, there are always a few that are really not very good at this kind of thing.

If you haven’t been given severance pay or are missing vacation pay, then you have a claim against your employer. Sometimes following up is enough, but there are times where you have to dig your heels in and bring in an employment attorney to stand up for your rights.

5. Wrongful Termination

The majority of modern-day regulations are also meant to protect employees from being let go in an unjust manner. Depending on your situation, there is a chance that you have a wrongful termination case which would need to be pursued.

Having an employment attorney means having someone who knows cases similar to yours and potentially fighting against that wrongful termination. It could mean getting your job back, getting pay you are owed, and so much more depending on the circumstances. But the first step is to bring in the professional help that will protect your rights and put you in the right position.

Why Electronics Never Seem to Have Enough Storage

Thanks to technology, people enjoy the utility of a wide range of electronic devices, starting from powerful PCs to easily accessible and cheap smartphones. Zhejiang Jieda Technology is good place to get the best of technology solutions for your company.

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The common thread among these electronic devices is that they all require virtual or physical storage to operate. And some of the most common problems with these devices also involve this particular issue.

If you own multiple electronic devices and constantly ask yourself why your devices always seem to run out of storage space, here are some of the most common culprits responsible!

Continuous Download of Applications and Programs

While most electronic devices are subject to downloads, PC and laptop users are more likely to continuously download multiple programs and multimedia files like movies, songs, video games, and more. Considering the download speeds and spaciousness of an empty storage drive, users often fall into the trap of downloading files intended for future use.

Phone users are also prone to frequently downloading stuff, but not on the same level as PC and desktop users due to the lower capacity storage space of smartphones, tablets, and other smart devices. Keeping your download habits in check is the best solution to this problem.

Infection of Electronic Device by Viruses

Since the beginning of computers, viruses and malware have been around and are here to say for the foreseeable future. Storage devices are the primary targets of these viruses and malware since important data and files are stored there. Viruses and malware can affect hard disks and other storage devices in various ways, starting from slowing it down to corrupting parts of it.

Not depending on the default antivirus software that accompanies operating systems is a smart idea. Check the offerings from some of the most dependable antivirus solution providers such as Norton, Kaspersky, Avira, and more to find one suitable for your device’s physical and virtual storage. Most of them offer trial runs for you to evaluate whether it’s a good fit for your device and needs.

Auto-update of Apps and Programs

Modern operating systems, apps, and programs depend on continual updates to function correctly, which unfortunately results in increasing folder sizes as time goes on. This happens so subtly that most users don’t tend to even realize it, especially with smartphones. This can leave you at a loss when installing new files or programs. 

The easiest way to counteract this problem is to turn off all updates and manually update your OS and programs as you see fit. In all honesty, keeping your storage device free of unused or unnecessary devices can be the best solution to minimize update and storage issues.

Absence of External Storage Facility

The absence of external storage of data for an electronic device can result in an unnecessary clogging of its memory and the consequent reduction in the device’s storage space. A couple of years back, PC and laptop users had a general trend to buy external hard drives to store secondary files and documents. But these days, the practice has fallen out of favor.

Buying an external hard drive is not the only solution to keep your storage drive decluttered and at optimal efficiency. You can also store your valuable files and information in cloud storage drives offered by many digital market leaders like Google, Dropbox, and more. These cloud services offer free trials or limited free usage, making them useful even if you don’t pay for full versions.

Lack of Routine Maintenance

Routine maintenance is necessary to fix the underlying issues plaguing a device, no matter how big or small. The reduction of storage spaces could result from any of those mentioned above. The straightforward approach to mitigating such circumstances is contacting an expert. If you think your device needs an in-depth checkup, you can search for a computer repair shop near you online.

If not, you should learn the basics of routine storage device maintenance, especially for computers and laptops. You can’t tinker much with smartphones, but desktops and laptops storage drives can be optimized, tweaked, and modified by users with little risk of damaging the OS or the storage device by itself. 

Now You Know What To Do

Now that you know all the major culprits responsible for eating up all the storage drive space for your electronic devices, you should now have an easier time maintaining and optimizing your device hard drives. Note that your storage drives will end up getting filled over time despite your best efforts. But by taking the proper precautions, you can significantly delay that point in time.

Tips and advice on how to play the trumpet

Listening to music has always provided enjoyment to people around the globe. To be a famous musician is just one of many people’s dreams. Playing musical instruments has become an incredibly popular hobby. In recent times, the number of budding musicians has grown as people try to keep themselves occupied during the testing times of the Covid pandemic. It seems like everyone has been struggling the last year or two.

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While the sale of musical instruments has surged during the pandemic as people aim to try something new, it’s not only guitars that have got pulses racing. Brass instruments have garnered enormous attention, with of course one of the most popular of these instruments being the trumpet. If you have found yourself becoming increasingly interested, and looking for information, here below are some suggestions to make your adventure a little easier.

Take your Time

Upon purchasing a new instrument, (along with your dreams of success!), it’s likely that you will be aiming to practice as much as possible. While this is admirable, it’s unlikely you will be playing at the level you crave overnight. Rather than playing a lot on certain days, try to fit in a little practice each day. This will slowly build your confidence and skills as you get to grips with your new instrument.

You can increase the time spent practicing as your level of endurance grows. It’s recommended to do some physical exercise to help you prepare for the rigors of playing the trumpet. Rest is highly important after playing. Don’t be afraid to take a day off now and again either and give yourself a break. Constantly playing can become repetitive, and a simple break could be all the inspiration you need to come back refreshed and better than before!

Get your Back Straight!

If you intend to play your new favorite instrument a lot, it’s important not to form any bad habits from the beginning. Starting out, people, unfortunately, tend to form stiff posture. If they continue to do so, it could lead to pain and problems in later life, affecting them both in their personal and musical adventures.

Whether you are standing or sitting down, it’s vital that your back is straight. Your spine will lengthen, and your airway will become longer. This can only help with your breathing as you prepare to play the trumpet. Your shoulders should be relaxed, and while it’s normal that the trumpet will be angled slightly downwards, ensure it’s not facing the floor.

Don’t Be Shy

Like any other hobby, it’s important to have fun while you learn to play the trumpet. This does not mean you constantly have to be stuck playing in a room alone. It can be of benefit for both your trumpet skills and confidence skills to find a partner. Socializing is important, and simply talking and playing together with a fellow musician may provide some helpful Tips to playing the trumpet.

If you are lucky enough to have a jazz club in your area, be sure to drop by and check out the acts on show. It’s possible you may end up playing there someday! Watching other players can give you an idea of how they go about their play efficiently.

Of course, these days, we are lucky to have online streaming sites such as Youtube. This is a one-stop place, where videos to cater to all your musical needs can be found. Whether you are looking for lessons or tips, or again, you are aiming to watch other players, Youtube has it all. Perhaps if you have the confidence, you could set up your own channel. This way you can openly display your talents while being open to any advice that may come in your direction.

Have a Target

Instead of possibly just stumbling through practice sessions with no apparent goal in mind, it can be helpful to set yourself some targets. This may in fact give you the motivation to succeed in your aim of playing the trumpet. Asides from lessons that may be given to you which you have to complete to further improve, achieving personal goals can be very satisfying.

Be realistic when you set these targets. While they are possible, try not to put yourself under severe pressure which can lead to stress. You may be comfortable enough to practice playing a different piece in your house every day, but how confident would you be playing it in public?


While its true trumpet playing is known for its use in the military, the popularity of orchestras and jazz musicians has meant that public interest in learning how to play the instrument remains. It’s wise to begin slowly, and take time to get used to the instrument. Start as you mean to go on, and ensure your posture is correct, hopefully leading to a long and unhindered career.

It can be helpful to get involved with other people. Getting advice that can improve your playing skills is only to be appreciated. Putting yourself up for scrutiny on sites like Youtube can be beneficial. It’s important that you set targets to proceed on your journey of successful development of playing the trumpet. Achieving these goals can be immensely satisfying.

Social Evils that prevail in India

EduPub News

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India is a country which is known for its diverse heritage and mesmerizing culture. However, it also has some unavoidable rigid belief systems or evils which, if not reformed, can be really harmful for the Indian society. Such social evils can also be harmful for the growth and progress of the society.

Social evils can be defined as the toxic beliefs due to which the societal progress is hindered. Such evils can be born out of sheer ignorance or blind faith in religion or culture or both. These evils are not only harmful for the believers themselves but for the society as a whole.

There have been several personalities who, in order to bring reforms in the society, tackled and attempted to remove the practices of some rigid belief systems which, in turn, brought reforms in the society.

Here are some evils that either…

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Munshi Premchand: a prolific Indian writer

EduPub News


Munshi Premchand also known as Dhanpat Rai Shrivastava, is a known writer of India and famous for his modern hindustani literature. An early 20th century writer, celebrated for his foremost hindi writings. His famous writings include gaban, Idgah, godaan, etc. The list of his works includes about 300 short stories, more than a dozen novels, many essays and many literary works translated into hindi.


Premchand was born on July 31, 1880 and died on October 8, 1936. When he first began writing, his pen name was Nawab Rai which later changes to Munshi Premchand. He was the fourth child of his parents with 3 older female siblings out of which earlier 2 died as infants. At 7 years of age he started his learning at a nearby madarsa and learnt urdu. At 8 his mother died due to illness and soon afterward his grandmother died. His sister was…

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