Tag Archives: Articles on Agriculture and Forestry

STRATEGY ON HOW  TO REDUCE INDISCIPLINE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KENYA

Nickson Moseti Ongaki, Dr. Okibo Walter Bichanga & Dr. Willy Muturi

  1. Introduction

This Innovative Programme is based on proper formation and efficient management of school based peer counseling clubs as the best way of reducing indiscipline and also restoring peace among pupils in secondary schools. In most schools the controversial issue of discipline and conflict management to enhance peace among the pupils has been left in the hands of teachers with pupils having no say on most of the issues affecting them at school. However, due to the soaring population and understaffing in most public secondary schools country wide, teachers have either inadequate or no time to deal with growing indiscipline among pupils. Moreover, very few teachers are trained in peer counseling and therefore posses limited skills to cope up with programmes that can restore discipline in secondary schools. More often than not, prefects are used to identify defiant pupils who are later handed to the teachers for appropriate punishment. Most teachers often take the prefects’ word when solving indiscipline cases among pupils and may subsequently ignore other testimonies from non prefects. This stereo type belief that prefects always tell the truth may increase conflicts among pupils rather than solve them. Other pupils may be depressed when they believe that it’s only the prefects who are trusted and believed by the teachers. Prefects are also sometimes given powers to even administer punishment to other smaller children thus increasing acrimony among the learners.

This innovative programme therefore identified a more participatory and efficient ay of discipline management in schools by piloting a way which would involve the children themselves in reducing the growing indiscipline in the school. Through the formation of peer counseling clubs many children would be involved in informing others on the best way to behave while in schools. Members of the school peer counseling clubs would be used as peace ambassadors who would not only enlighten others on the benefit of a peaceful co-existence but also be moulded into responsible models for others to admire.

  1. Problem Statement

Growing indiscipline among secondary school pupils has continued to have a negative impact on efficient education management and administration in Kenya. In Mugai secondary school, the school had the problem of growing indiscipline among the pupils which compromised peace among the learners. I observed frequent fighting and noisy quarrels among the pupils, rampant destruction of school property and poor relationships among the pupils despite punitive intervention measures from the teachers to check the vice. Furthermore, the school prefects were the most hated in the school because they were seen as either spies of the school administration or as representatives of the unjust and corrupt society.

The school administration on its part used non corporal punishment as the best way of restoring discipline among the pupils. The culprits were made to weed the school sugarcane farm the whole afternoon or uproot tree stumps in the school compound or slash tall grass in the playground. Weeding the school Napier grass was also another alternative to punish wrong doers. However, despite all those aforementioned interventions, indiscipline in the school continued to soar. There were more fighting among the pupils and the big pupils did not respect the teachers and the school subordinate staff. The drop out rate in standard six, seven and eight was very high. Some girls got pregnant and stopped coming to school while some boys opted for casual jobs this was may be due to lack of peace in the school.

The school administration involved both parents and guardians of the affected pupils but the results were negative. In most cases most parents and guardians sided with their children, accusing the administration of segregating the children on the basis of social class, gender or ethnic background. This led to a very poor relationship between the school administration and the community. During parents’ meetings, parents would turn such meetings into a finger pointing and shouting match. At times prefects could be waylaid on their way home by bullies and beaten; such issues would be left in the hands of the Provincial administration.

They were two teachers trained in peer counseling in our school but they were almost giving up on their effort to guide and council the growing number of deviant pupils. The purpose of this programme was therefore to use peer counseling club as the best way of restoring discipline among the pupils.

 

  1. Addressing the problem

In January 2009 I sought the permission from the school administration to start a peer counseling club which I was granted. With the help of two teachers trained in peer counseling, we held a two day school based inset in which we sensitized teachers on how the club was to function and the support we needed from them. Some  teachers were very co-operative although some argued that the club could not work in such a harsh environment. Yet others waited to see how we could start so that they could join us.

  The second step I took was to seek advice from other non- teachers who had a vast experience in working with the youth. I got invaluable advice from workers of non governmental organizations like Amkeni, APHIA II Western and members of Straight talk of which I was a coordinator. They gave me a lot of information and resource materials on how to educate the youths on emerging issues. I also held a one week awareness programme among the pupils from standard four to eight. The main objective of this programme was to inform the pupils on the role of peer counseling clubs in helping them cope with the every day’s challenges. The programme also gave them the opportunity to know their role in helping the fellow pupils and members of the peer counseling club in trying to reduce indiscipline. The forum also gave us an opportunity to find the root causes of indiscipline, depression and frustration among the pupils.

Later I formed the peer counseling clubs involving pupils from standard four to standard eight. The steering committee of the club consisted of elected class representatives of the four classes who were a boy and a girl representing each class. Other members were on voluntary basis but had to be disciplined to be maintained in the club. All club members were to be of very high integrity and to be role models to others. Any club member found breaching the club’s code of conduct was to be suspended from the club until he/she reformed.

The club’s meetings took place every Friday after classes. During such meetings, the club’s weekly activities would be evaluated. The meetings also enabled the peer counselors and other available resource people to educate the club members on how to carry out their roles effectively. The club members would also update us on more challenging and emerging issues which required attention from the teachers or peer counselors.

The club members on their part organized to interact with their fellow pupils every Wednesday after classes. With the assistance of teachers, peer counselors and other volunteers, the club members would use this opportunity to create awareness among the fellow pupils on the need to behave well while in school. Situations which were beyond the scope of the club members were referred to the teachers. The teachers also helped in grouping the pupils into manageable groups according to either gender or age; depending on the topic of discussion. Sometimes resource people were also invited to help the peer club members in clarifying the most challenging issues.

The club would also be involved in spreading peace messages in the school through music, drama, poetry, writing articles and drawing cartoons on the school notice board. During various school functions like Education Days, Parents’ Days and School Assembly, club members would get an opportunity to pass the message to the peers. The club members also made a suggestion box where responses from other pupils on their opinions concerning the school were dropped. Such suggestions were thoroughly discussed during club meetings and the necessary actions taken. The council of prefects also met club members once every month where they were advised on how to make fair and just decisions.

The major obstacle at the initial stages of the programime was lack of support from the parents. Most of them objected the idea of their children being tutored by others. They termed this as an attempt by the lazy teachers to delegate their work to minors who were not mature enough to lead. The school management on its part, managed to call a parents’ meeting where we enlightened them on the club’s call. Some parents were satisfied and started supporting the programme while others were still suspicious on the aims of the club. Another big obstacle was instilling confidence in club members. Most pupils were shy and had no exposure of standing and speaking before others; furthermore, some naughty pupils were always ready to humiliate their fellow peer tutors. However, we gave a lot of motivation and confidence to peer counseling club members and prepared them on how to endure the challenges from their friends. Furthermore, the teachers and other counselors were always ready to stand in for issues that would not be handled by the young ones. There also pessimism from some teachers who forecasted doom for the project. They argued that the peer counseling clubs could not have the necessary machinery to cure indiscipline. However, those determined always moved forward with program implementation. Lack of funds to purchase the necessary materials and stationery was also a big obstacle. The club had to rely on the school administration and volunteers for such materials. Moreover the club’s trips were limited to a few neighboring schools which were a walking distance away. With the availability of funds, the club intends to widen its scope to cover as many schools as possible in their campaign.

  1. Outcomes

Six months after initiating this programme, I have realized a lot of changes in the school. The club membership has risen from sixteen to over sixty members. The discipline of the school pupils has started to improve. This can be inferred from the few cases of indiscipline being handled by the teachers of late. The administration has also reported very few cases of culprits being send home on indiscipline grounds and very few pupils are punished for disobeying school rules.

Most parents and guardians have also started changing their attitudes towards the school after realizing what the club has achieved. Most of them report to the teachers that their children have improved their behaviour even at home. During parents’ meetings, many stakeholders still encourage the teachers to maintain the club for the benefit of the whole community.

The school notice board has become active with pupils’ letters, cartoons and articles on the benefit of the responsible youths. This is unlike before where the notice board only had announcements from the school administration. School functions are always lively with pupils’ performances in drama, poetry and music. This has increased the confidence and creativity among the learners. In fact, the school performed well I Choir up to the provincial level in the year 2009.

The attitude of pupils towards prefects has improved tremendously. Most prefects make just and fair decisions, they do not victimize their enemies on mistakes they did not do. Most teachers have now agreed to treat all children fairly, irregardless of the social background, gender or ethnic background. This has restored the confidence of pupils in prefects and teachers.

Teachers have also a very easy time controlling the pupils. They have also reported an improvement in the academic performance among the pupils this has boosted their morale and their perceptions on the behavior and ability of the children.

  1. Findings

The best way of initiating positive changes in the behaviour and perceptions of children is to actively involve them in youths’ awareness campaigns through clubs. The peers spend most of their time together during various activities and it is easier and cheaper to involve them in self-corrections and correcting others than involving the adults. Playmates, for instance, can get corrections from friends and change for the better than when the corrections come from others. When peers correct others, they gain a lot of responsibility and acceptance in the society. They also practice leadership roles when they are still young. This can go along way in reducing indiscipline and strikes witnessed in most public secondary and private secondary schools country wide.

The teachers can use peer counseling clubs as the most efficient way of reducing indiscipline in schools. Use of drama, music and sports in helping children correct their behaviour has a lot of success.

I also encouraged the peer counseling campaign to go beyond the school boundaries and capture the neighbouring schools and the community at large. This was by arranging visits for club members to visit other schools for the awareness campaign. During days such as National AIDS Day and Public Holidays the club members would perform music or plays which stressed on peaceful co-existence among members of the community. This was well received in the community and encouraged. With the availability of funds, the club plans to extend its visits to cover a larger population.

  1. Sustainability

The future plans for the club are to widen the scope of the content of the club’s campaign to include HIV awareness and gender equality campaign among the learners. This will enable the club address the most challenging and contemporary issues facing the youths.

In trying to intensify community participation in the programme, we have scheduled visits in the neighbouring school community. The visits will serve to sensitize parents and guardians on how to help the club achieve its goals. They will be advised on how to support disciplining their children and ensure that they are in good company. Parents will also be updated on their children’s behaviour and how they can help their children to change in the positive. The club is also planning to hold a fundraising targeting parents and other well-wishers. The funds will cover advertising costs for the club’s programmes and visits to other schools to exchange views on emerging challenges.

The formation of peer counseling clubs can be used by schools, colleges or other institutions of higher learning to reduce riots and strikes witnessed in many institutions countrywide. Other stakeholders can also replicate this programme by expanding it to campaign on issues like gender mainstreaming, HIV AIDS awareness and reduction in levels of corruption. This is because peer counseling clubs is the best platform for creating responsible and peace-loving citizens and hence foster the achievement of Vision 2030

Advertisements

 SIGNIFICANCE OF SOME INDICATORS OF UNDER-FIVE YEARS MORTALITY IN NIGERIA

1Ogunsanya B.G.                   2Adewunmi Olusola A.          3Olagbegi  Moses

ABSTRACT

This study examines the level and determinant of under-five mortality in remote Area of Ikorodu Local Government, Lagos state, Nigeria. The survey was carried out through self-administered questionnaires on selected 200 respondents. A multiple stage sampling was used to select the eligible respondent. 4 wards were selected at random from the 7 wards at Ikorodu Local Government Area. Thereafter four streets were randomly picked at random from each of these houses were selected on each street using systematic random sampling method with the interval once a house is chosen. A house hold was selected randomly from a house that has more than one household. In any polygamous household the respondent were chosen among the wives by lettering method. Data collected was analysed electronically, using SPSS 21.0. The analysis revealed that eighteen (18) of the twenty four (24) indicators paired under study were significantly correlated while twenty three (23) of the twenty six (26) indicators paired were found to be significant indicators of under five years mortality in Nigeria.

Keywords: Indicators, Mortality, Nigeria, Significance, Under Five, Years.


INTRODUCTION

            Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population per unit time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1000 individuals per year, in that entire population, or 0.95% out of the total. It is distinct from morbidity rate, which refers to the number of individuals in poor health during a given time period (the prevalence rate) or the number who currently have that diseases (the incidence rate), scaled to size of the population.

A condition such as tuberculosis can cause morbidity and mortality (disease and death). A mortality rate is a death rate. There are a number of different types of mortality rates such as:

  • The foetal mortality rate: The ratio of foetal deaths to the sum infant mortality rate.
  • The maternal mortality rate: The number of maternal deaths related to child bearing divided by the number of live births or by the number of live births.

There has been increasing interest in measuring under-five mortality as a health indicator and as a critical measure of human development. In countries with complete vital registration system that capture all birth and deaths under-five, mortality can be directly calculated. In the absence of a complete vital registration system however, child mortality must be estimated using surveys that ask women to report the births and death of their children. Two survey methods exist for capturing these information: Summary Birth History and Complete Birth History. A summary birth history requires a minimum of only two questions: how many live births has each mother had and how many of them have survived. Indirect methods are then applied using the information from these two questions and the age of the mothers to estimate under-five mortality going back in time prior to the survey. Estimates generated from complete birth histories are review as the most accurate when survey are required to estimate under-Five mortality especially for most recent time period. However, it is much more costly and labour intensive to collect these detailed data especially for the purpose of generating small area estimates.

The main tenets of the fourth and fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4 and 5) are to reduce under-five mortality rate and improvement in maternal health which by implication increases the chance of child survival. Child mortality is a fundamental measurement of a country’s level of socio-economic development as well as the quality of life especially of the mothers. Under-five mortality rate (5q0) represents the probability of a child who survives to age one, dying between age one and age five (Adlakha & Suchindra, 1984; National Population Commission and ICF Macro, 2009; World Health Organisation (WHO), 2011). Almost half of the child mortality (42%) in the world occurs in Africa and about 25,000 under-five children that die each day are concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia (WHO, 2011). Under-five mortality rate (U5MR) is generally 29 times higher in developing nations compared to developed countries (Black & Liu, 2012; Gambrah & Adzadu, 2013; Marx, Coles, Prysones-Jones, Johnson, Augustin, Mackay, Bery, Hammond, Nigmann, Sommerfelt et al, 2005). Globally, under-five mortality has dropped significantly by almost 45 percent between 2009 and 2011 but this progress is not the reality for all countries. Despite much progress in advanced countries, Nigeria has failed to make significant progress in checking the rising mortality rate among the under-five. Currently, about half of the world’s under-five deaths occur in Nigeria, India, Congo, Pakistan and China (National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), 2011; World Bank, 2013).

Statistics revealed that up to 20 per cent of child deaths in sub-Saharan Africa still occur in

Nigeria. Also, the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4) report indicated that under-five

mortality in Nigeria increased from 138 per 1,000 live births in 2007 to 158 per 1,000 live births in 2011 (National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), 2011; World Bank, 2013).

Under-five mortality rates within Africa also vary. In some countries, one-quarter to one-third of children die before reaching the age of five. Also, within the under-five age group, there are specific periods of increased vulnerability. For instance, 60 percent of under-five mortality can be attributed to deaths that occur during the first year of life, of which the first 24 hours of life is the most vulnerable period, followed by the first week and then the first month (Marx et al, 2005). Among the suspected factors that have contributed to drastic reduction of under-5 mortality in advanced economies include but not limited to improvement in socio-economic and environmental conditions and strategic implementation of child survival interventions (Finlay, Özaltin & Canning, 2011; Kyei, 2011; United Nations Children’s Fund, 2010, 2011, 2012).

Child mortality can be associated with two categories of acquired ailments: one is a heavy load of infectious diseases and the other, those diseases that are caused by inadequate nutrition (Cooper, Hickson, Mitchel, Edwards, Thapa & Ray, 1999; Katona & Katona-Apte, 2008). Socio-economic factors including immunizations, exclusive breastfeeding and the adoption and usage of insecticide-treated nets have been revealed by several studies have strong predictors of child mortality especially in the developing countries. Included among these proximate determinants are the risk of morbidity and mortality, education of mother, sanitation facilities, access to safe drinking water and maternal and child health care services (Uddin, Hossain & Ullah, 2008). However, despite these known factors, under-5 mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa is abysmally far above the prevalent rate in other countries of the world.

 

 

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

 

The purpose of this study is to examine the level and determinant of under five mortality in remote Area of Ikorodu Local Government, Lagos state, Nigeria.

The specific objectives are:

  1. Identification of socio-economic health and behavioral factors affecting under-five mortality in remote area of Ikorodu local government.
  2. Determining the significance of selected mortality indicators.
  3. Determining the correlation significance of the selected mortality indicators.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

 

This study covers some selected indicators of under-five years mortality in Nigeria. The indicators were correlated and put to paired test to achieve the set purpose.

The study survey was carried out through self administered questionnaires on selected respondent. A multiple stage sampling was used to select the eligible 200 respondents. Four (4) wards were selected at random from the 7 wards at Ikorodu Local Government (case study) Area. Thereafter four streets were randomly picked at random from each of these houses were selected on each street using systematic random sampling method with the interval once a house is chosen. A house hold was selected randomly from a house that has more than one household. In any polygamous household the respondent were chosen among the wives by lettering method.

LITERATURE REVIEW

According to UNICEF (http://www.unicef.org/nigeria/children_1926.html), every single day, Nigeria loses about 2,300 under-five year olds and 145 women of childbearing age. This makes the country the second largest contributor to the under–five and maternal mortality rate in the world.

Underneath the statistics lies the pain of human tragedy, for thousands of families who have lost their children. Even more devastating is the knowledge that, according to recent research, essential interventions reaching women and babies on time would have averted most of these deaths.

Although analyses of recent trends show that the country is making progress in cutting down infant and under-five mortality rates, the pace still remains too slow to achieve the Millennium Development Goals of reducing child mortality by a third by 2015.

Preventable or treatable infectious diseases such as malaria, pneumonia, diarrhoea, measles and HIV/AIDS account for more than 70 per cent of the estimated one million under-five deaths in Nigeria.

Malnutrition is the underlying cause of morbidity and mortality of a large proportion of children under-5 in Nigeria. It accounts for more than 50 per cent of deaths of children in this age bracket.

The deaths of newborn babies in Nigeria represent a quarter of the total number of deaths of children under-five. The majority of these occur within the first week of life, mainly due to complications during pregnancy and delivery reflecting the intimate link between newborn survival and the quality of maternal care. Main causes of neonatal deaths are birth asphyxia, severe infection including tetanus and premature birth.

Similarly, a woman’s chance of dying from pregnancy and childbirth in Nigeria is 1 in 13. Although many of these deaths are preventable, the coverage and quality of health care services in Nigeria continue to fail women and children. Presently, less than 20 per cent of health facilities offer emergency obstetric care and only 35 per cent of deliveries are attended by skilled birth attendants.

This shows the close relationship between the well being of the mother and the child, and justifies the need to integrate maternal, newborn and child health interventions.

It is important to note that wide regional disparities exist in child health indicators with the North-East and North-West geopolitical zones of the country having the worst child survival figures.

Under-five mortality rate (U5MR) is the probability of a child born in a specified year dying before reaching the age of five if subject to current age-specific mortality rates and expressed as a rate per 1,000 live births (United Nations Children’s Fund, 2012; United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, 2013). It also refers to as the death of infants and children under the age of five. Child mortality has remained a national and global concern and its import in socioeconomic rating of country’s development cannot be overemphasised. Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia face the greatest challenges in child survival, and currently accounted for more than 80 per cent of global under-five deaths (United Nations Children’s Fund, 2012). Several factors had been identified as contributors to the increasing levels of child mortality in most developing countries. Studies have shown that there is a close relationship between educational attainment and lower mortality rates (Antai, 2011; Fayehun & Omolulu, 2009; National Population Commission and ICF Macro, 2009). This was further established through the results in the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) Report (2009), that children born to mothers with no education have the highest under-five mortality rates (209 deaths per 1,000 live births), while mothers with secondary education have 68 per 1,000 live births.

Although, there are vagaries of statistics and estimations for child mortality for different countries and the world by different sources, the patterns and trends are specifically similar. Among the general patterns is that the global under-five mortality rate has declined by almost 47 percent between 1990 and 2012 (measuring 90 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990 and 48 in 2012) while the trend in sub-Saharan Africa is apt to increase (United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (2013). Globally, several causes of under-five mortality were noted among which are: pneumonia which contribute up to 17 percent of the entire death, preterm birth complications that cause about 15 percent of child death, intrapartum-related complications (10 percent), diarrhoea (9 percent) and up to seven percent due to malaria (United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, 2013). Also, a survey carried out in Bangladesh shows that child mortality rate was highest (1.64%) for the children of illiterate mothers and lowest (0.54%) for the children whose mother’s educational level is secondary and above (Uddin, Hossain & Ullah, 2009). Educated mothers are more likely than non-literate mothers to ensure a healthy environment, nutritious food, and have better knowledge about reproductive health at conception and health care facilities for their children. Literate mothers will give birth to healthier babies because they themselves tend to be healthier and are likely to experience lower mortality among their children at all ages (Pandey, 2009).

Several of diseases causing child mortality have connections with hygiene condition and unclean environment these are not limited to dirty feeding bottles, utensils, inadequate disposal of household refuse, poor storage water, to mention but few (Jinadu, Olusi, Agun & Fabiyi, 1991; NBS, 2011). Other reports have shown that maternal education is a significant factor influencing child survival (Caldwell, 2009; Osonwa, Iyam, & Osonwa, 2012). Children from poorer or rural households are reported to be more vulnerable than their counterparts from other regions (United Nations Children’s Fund, 2010). A child born to a financially deprived and less educated family is at risk of perinatal death or within the first month of life. The reasons for these are obvious since the mother may be poorly nourished during pregnancy, had little or no antenatal care and likely to deliver in ill-equipped health facility. Besides, the level of competition over resources when the family is large could enhance poor care among the family members including the very young ones. All these factors are further aggravated by limited access to health services due to poor income and low levels of maternal education, often leading to the non-immunization of the child (Policy Project/Nigeria, 2002).

 

METHODOLOGY

 

The most widely available type of data on child mortality is report by mothers on the number of children still surviving. Frequency distribution, bivariate correlation analysis and paired t-test were employed as analysis techniques for the study.

RESULTS

 

From the analysis, 59(29.5%) of the respondents were currently in the age bracket of 30-34 years while only 1(0.5%) of the respondents was in the age bracket of 15-19 years. 81(40.5%) had their first marriage in the age bracket of 20-24 years while 7(2.5%) had their first marriage in the age bracket of 30-34 years. 72(36.0%) of the respondents were civil servants while 7(3.5%) were into Nursing. 73(36.5%) delivered their children at private hospital while 15(7.5%) deliver at home. 53(26.5%) have 4 children while only 1(0.5) has more than 10 children. 107(53.5%) have pregnancy interval of two years between children. 101(50.5%) of the respondents have only primary education while 4(2.0%) have post secondary education.

Table 13 revealed that there is a negative but imperfect correlation between indicators Paired 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 16, 17, 20 and 23, while there is a positive but imperfect correlation between Paired 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 21, 22 and 24. However, of these correlations, only correlations for Paired 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 23 and 24 were significant at 0.05 level of significance.

Table 14 revealed that twenty three (23) of the twenty six (26) indicators paired were found to be significant indicators at 0.05 level of significance.

CONCLUSION

From the analysis of the research study, it can be concluded that eighteen (18) of the twenty four (24) indicators paired under study were significantly correlated while twenty three (23) of the twenty six (26) indicators paired were found to be significant indicators of under-five years mortality in Nigeria.

 

RECOMMENDATIONS

  1. Care during labour and child birth should be provided by a skilled attendance. Early recognition of slow progress in labour and timely interventions to prevent prolonged labour and intra partum foetal distress which can reduce mortality.
  2. Poor sanitation, lack of accessible clean water and inadequate personal and domestic hygiene are responsible for an estimated 88 percent of diarrhea cases everywhere. Proven prevention measures that can significantly reduce the burden of diarrhea include early and exclusive breast feeding (a non-breastfeed child is 10 times more likely to die diarrhea in the first 6 months of life than an exclusively breastfeed child).
  3. To accelerate progress and achieve improved health outcomes for all children ensuring universal-access to high quality care safe water and sanitation, safe and nutritious food and safe housing is crucial as is access to education, social security and other social services.

  1. In addition, investment in women’s health and education and in the empowerment of women and the poorest and most disadvantage population groups is vital to ensure an effective response to under-five mortality rate.

 

REFERENCES

[1]        Adlakha, A.L. & Suchindra, C.M. (1984). Biological and Social Factors affecting Infant and Child Mortality in Jordan, Tunisia, Egypt and Yemen Arab Republic. Final Report, July 1984. DOI: PN-AAT-222.

[2]        Antai, D., (2011). Regional Inequalities in Under-5 Mortality in Nigeria: A Population-based Analysis of Individual and Community-Level Determinants. Population Health Metrics, Vol. 9, No. 6, 2011.

[3]        Black, R.E., & Li, Liu (2012). Global Under Five Mortality: Where Do We Stand Today? Johns Hopkins, Bloomberg School of Public Health for the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group of WHO and UNICEF.

[4]        Cooper, O. William, Hickson B. Gerald, Mitchel F. Edward, Edwards M. Kathryn, Thapa B. Purushottam & Ray A. Wayne (1999). Early Childhood Mortality from Communityacquired Infections. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 150, No. 5, 1999. The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, USA. 1999. Pp 517-527.

[5]        Fayehun, O. & Omololu, O., (2009). Ethnic Differentials in Childhood Mortality in Nigeria. Paper Presented at Detroit, Michigan, USA. April 30 – May 2, 2009.

[6]        Finlay, E Jocelyn, Özaltin, Emre, Canning, David (2011). The association of maternal age with infant mortality, child anthropometric failure, diarrhoea and anaemia for first births: evidence from 55 low- and middle-income countries. BMJ Open, Vol. 1, Issue 2, 2011. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000226. ISSN 2044-6055.

[7]        Gambrah, Patience Pokuaa & Adzadu, Yvonne (2013). Using Markov Chain to Predict the Probability of Rural and Urban Child Mortality Rates Reduction in Ghana. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, Vol. 2, Issue 11, November 2013. P73-78. ISSN 2277-8616.

[8]        Jinadu, M.K., Olusi, S.O., Agun, J.I. and A.K. Fabiyi (1991). “Childhood Diarrhea in Rural Nigeria: Studies on Prevalence, Mortality and Socio-Environmental Factors” Journal of Diarrhea Diseases Research, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1991. P323-327.

[9]        Katona, Peter & Katona-Apte Judit (2008). The Interaction between Nutrition and Infection, In (ed.) Ellie J. C. Goldstein, Clinical Practice Invited Article, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Oxford Journals, Vol. 46, No. 10, 2008. Pp1582-1588. DOI: 10.1086/587658

[10]      Kyei, A. Kwabena (2011). Socio – Economic Factors Affecting Under Five Mortality in South Africa – An Investigative Study. Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences (JETEMS), Vol. 2, No. 2, 2011. Scholarlink Research Institute Journals. Pp104-110. ISSN: 2141-7024.

[11]      Marx, M., Coles, C., Prysones-Jones, S., Johnson, C., Augustin, R., Mackay, N., Bery, R., Hammond, W., Nigmann, R., Sommerfelt, E., Lee Benntt, H.J., and Lambert, R. (2005). Child survival in Sub-Saharan Africa: Taking Stock. Washington DC, USA: Support for Analysis and Research in Africa (SARA) Project.

[12]      National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) (2011). Nigeria: Monitoring the situation of children and women. Nigeria Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011Summary Report. National Bureau of Statistics, Abuja Nigeria. 2011.

[13]      National Population Commission and ICF Macro (2009). Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey 2008. National Population Commission, Federal Republic of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria and ICF Macro Calverton, Maryland, USA. 2009. P630

[14]      Osonwa, O.K., Iyam, M.A., & Osonwa, R.H., (2012). Under-Five Mortality in Nigeria: Perception and Attitudes of the IKWERRES in Rivers State towards the Existence of “OGBA – NJE”. Journal of Sociological Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2012. ISSN 1948-5468.

[15]      Pandey, M. J. (2009). Maternal Health and Child Mortality in Rural India. ASARC Working Paper 12. Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi, INDIA.

[16]      Policy Project/Nigeria, (2002). Child Survival in Nigeria: Situation, Response, and Prospects.

[17]      Uddin, M., Hossain, M., & Ullah M.O., (2009). Child Mortality in a Developing Country: A Statistical Analysis. Journal of Applied Quantitative Method, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2009.

[18]      UNICEF (nd). http://www.unicef.org/nigeria/children_1926.html

[19]      United Nations Children’s Fund (2010). Levels and Trends in Child Mortality – Report 2010. Estimates Developed by the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. United Nations Children’s Fund. 2010.

[20]      United Nations Children’s Fund (2012). Levels and Trends in Child Mortality – Report 2012. Estimates Developed by the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. United Nations Children’s Fund. 2012. http://www.unicef.org/videoaudio/PDFs/UNICEF_2012_child_mortality_for_web_0904.pdf.

[21]      United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (2013). Levels & Trends in Child Mortality – Report 2013. UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. United Nations, New York. 2013. http://www.mamaye.org.ng/evidence/levels-trendschild- mortality-report-2013.

[22]      World Bank (2013). World Development Indicators: Mortality (Table 2.21). World Bank Group. 2013. http://wdi.worldbank.org/table/2.21

[23]      World Health Organisation, WHO (2011). Child Mortality: Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4. The Partner for Maternal and New Born Birth, World Health Organisation. September, 2011. http://www.who.int/pmnch/media/press_materials/fs/fs_mdg4_childmortality/en/.

 

Food insecurity and ART non adherence, Nampula, Mozambique.

Paulo Pires[1], Abdoulaye Marega[2], José Craegh[3].

ABSTRACT

Introduction: ART scale up in Mozambique was followed by an under evaluated treatment abandon rate, supposedly due to food unmet needs and low access to health centres. This research will evaluate food security contribution to ART abandon in Nampula Province.

Methods: quantitative research, transversal cohort study in 5 health centres of 5 Nampula Province Districts with high HIV incidence and ART abandon rates, using surveys (patients on ART, patients who have abandoned treatment) and statistic documents consultation to evaluate ART non adherence.

Results: we surveyed 208 patients on ART and 86 abandons in Lalaua, Mossuril, Murrupula, Nacaroa and Nampula districts and 58% consider they do not have enough food. ART adherence for patients on treatment over the last 3 months was estimated at 69%. Last 24 hours food intake survey shows that 21% had only one meal, 22% did not eat any vegetables, 24% did not eat any proteins, 56% any fruits. About who is responsible for food supplies, 58% are themselves. About economic income, 63% work in subsistence agriculture, 29% have informal activity and 18% are employed.

Discussion: the ART adherence for the last 3 months at 69% is far under desirable. Our results show that food insecurity affects deeply this population and allow as confirming it as a determinant abandon factor. We may suggest a diet with beans, peanuts, eggs, cabbage and fruits, locally available, as an ART adherence facilitator.

Conclusion: diet seems to have a direct influence over ART abandon rate in Nampula Province and patient nutritional inhabits show high food insecurity. We recommend implementing a nutritional education programme and rural extension intervention with this group, to better families’ food security.

Key words: ART non adherence, nutrition, ART, Nampula, Mozambique.


[1] MD, FCM, Lecturer, Health Sciences Faculty, Lúrio University, Nampula, Mozambique.

[2] MD, Lecturer, Health Sciences Faculty, Lúrio University, Nampula, Mozambique.

[3] Pedagogic Sciences PhD, Lecturer, Health Sciences Faculty, Lúrio University, Nampula, Mozambique.

Innovation of a Farmer Transforming Social and Economic Living Conditions: A Case Study of Farmer Inventing Tractor

Dr. Priyanka Sharma & **Nishi Slathia

*The First Author is Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Jammu, J&K, India, 180006.

** The author is PhD Scholar in the Department of Strategic and Regional Studies, University of Jammu, J&K, India. 180006

INNOVATION OF A FARMER TRANSFORMING SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC LIVING CONDITIONS: A CASE STUDY OF FARMER INVENTING TRACTOR

ABSTRACT

Necessity is the mother of invention. Although there is a relentless problem of lack of mechanical and scientific knowledge in countryside, rural people becomes grassroots innovators to solve their and community’s problems by coming up with solutions. Rural Entrepreneurship is often conceived as innovation, creativity, the establishment of new activities, or some kind of novelty. The rural entrepreneurial ventures play a vital role in providing employment opportunities and income for the needy people in rural sector. It helps in sinking the exodus of people from rural to urban areas in search of livelihood and provision of employment opportunities. As the population pressure grows in the land-scarce and developing countries like India, the growth in the agricultural production cannot absorb the ever increasing rural labour force in farming employment. This leaves the rural non-farm sector in the form of rural SMEs (small and medium entrepreneurial ventures) to absorb those released from agriculture but not absorbed in the urban industries. The rural sector is best poised for a rapid expansion in the small and medium industry arena.

In the present scenario, majority of the rural natives are unaware of technological skills, marketing etc. Shortage of funding and raw materials, lack of proper infrastructure and communication facilities etc. are main difficulties faced by rural entrepreneurs. The policy makers and executors have to find scope and space in the farm based entrepreneurial ventures to address to the daunting problem of unemployment in the country. The experiences of the people involved in such ventures needs to be cashed and used to make shift in the policy paradigm in the given context. The present paper is an attempt to analyze the case study of a rural entrepreneur of India and analysis is done about his life experiences leading to the advent of innovation, which have transformed the lives of rural agricultural community.

Key words : Rural entrepreneurship, Innovation, Employment, Technology, Technical Knowledge.