Tag Archives: Innovation

PM Modi announced Aatmanirbhar Innovation Challenge to techies and start-ups, after banning 59 Chinese apps in India

Prime Minister on Saturday announced the Aatmanirbhar Innovation Challenge, inviting India’s tech and community to create an Aatmanirbhar App Ecosystem.

The project was launched by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) in partnership with the Atal Innovation Mission and government think-tank Niti Aayog.

“Today there is immense enthusiasm among the tech & start-up community to create world-class ‘Made in India’ Apps. To facilitate their ideas and products @GoI_MeitY and @AIMtoInnovate are launching the Aatmanirbhar Bharat App Innovation Challenge,” he tweeted.

PM Modi also urges the techies and start-up community to participate if they have such a vision and expertise to create the products.

“This challenge is for you if you have such a working product or if you feel you have the vision and expertise to create such products. I urge all my friends in the tech community to participate.” PM Modi tweeted.

Addressing the tech community through a post on LinkedIn, PM Modi said: “Today, when the entire nation is working towards creating an Aatmanirbhar Bharat, it is a good opportunity to give direction to their efforts, momentum to their hard-work and mentorship to their talent to evolve Apps which can satisfy our market as well as compete with the world.”

This challenge will run in two tracks–Promotion of existing apps and development of new apps.”Track-01 will work in mission mode for identifying good quality Apps for the leader-board and shall be completed in around a month. The Track-02 initiative will work to help create new champions in India by providing support in ideation, incubation, prototyping, and roll out along with market access,” he wrote in the post.

The first track of the challenge is being launched in eight categories, which includes Office Productivity & Work from Home, Social Networking, E-Learning, Entertainment, Health & Wellness, Business including Agritech and Fintech, News and Games.

The outcome of this challenge will be to give better visibility and clarity to existing Apps to achieve their goals and to create tech products to find solutions to tech conundrums with the help of mentorship, tech support, and guidance during the entire life-cycle, he wrote.

After the banning of 59 Chinese apps –Tiktok, Helo Mi community and 56 others– in the country it will be a great opportunity not only for the existing tech companies but also for the start-ups too.

Prime Minister Modi in his post said that there is tremendous scope among these sectors for new Apps that solve specific issues for India and the world.”Can we think of making traditional Indian games more popular via Apps? Can we develop Apps with targeted and smart access to the right age group for learning, gaming, etc? Can we develop gaming apps for people in rehabilitation or getting counselling to help them in their journey? There are many such questions and technology alone can creatively give answers,” said PM Modi.

With this statement he questioned as well as challenged the Indian techies to utilise this opportunity for the betterment of the Nation.

This innovation challenge can be accessed through the MyGov platform from July 4. Companies will have to submit their entries by July 18 through an online submission process.

The government will provide the assistance for each of the tracks, which will include personnel from the private sector and academia to evaluate the entries.

Post evaluation, these apps will be given awards and features on “leaderboards for information of citizens”. The government has allocated ₹20 lakh, ₹15 lakh and ₹10 lakh for the first, second and third placed apps in each category. Further the winners of sub-categories will get ₹5 lakh, ₹3 lakh and ₹2 lakh for first, second and third position, respectively.

STRANDBEEST

 A “ strandbeest” is a kinetic creature created by Theo Jansen, since the year 1990.Theo Jansen who is a physicist turned artist, have been successful in creating lives on beach, which survives on wind. This animated sculpture which appear to walk, is actually a fusion between art , engineering ,mechanics and biology .To Theo Jansen, the line between art and engineering is illusion, and depends upon our minds. This sculptures  ,are like walking animals , believed to have artificial life. These are constructed from PVC pipes, zip ties, favric, wood. Theo Jansen have been dealing in strandbeest since 1990, and from then it is continuously improved every year. Such kinetic sculptures are based on the models, where the connecting links and triangle converts to stepping motion of six legs, by way of rotating the axle. If compared, the strandbeest travel way more efficiently and  faster than on wheels.

He designed the planar leg mechanism to create a smooth mechanism. These have applications not only in giat analysis, but also in mobile  robotics. The central crank link used by him did wonders, as it seemed to work like an electric  motor. The central crank would make the other links move .Jansen here applied the Newton-Euler mechanism. Initially he had  started with mere skeleton, to walk over the beach ,but  with time such skeletons were improved on to survive weather changes and bear storm. The sculptures are eventually prepared in a way to release in the beach environment, and lead their own lives. They’re even prepared to store air-pressure ,so that they can make their lives go on , in case of absence of mind. Jansen have now come to a stage of evolution, where one such model can detect when they’ve entered the water, they would by themselves move away from them. One of special model is even capable of sensing an approaching storm, and would eventually anchor itself to the earth. These  self –propelled  creatures were presented in an exhibition in 2016 in North America, where the Dutch artist mesmerized everyone with its breathtaking innovation.

Each species of strandbeest, have an unique Latin name reflecting upon their character, and adaptations. 25 years of exploring lineage  of beach animals, each  species retain the successful features of the previous ones, while shedding the ones that were unsuccessful. The strandbeest are something unforgettable by anyone ,who comes across it. I remember coming across this, through my social media profile as a kid, and could not take my eyes off from it.

Let’s Have A Look At Few Of Them

“Animaris Vulgaris”, was the first such beech animal built with 28 legs. But it could move its legs, only when lying down. It would collapse as soon as it stood on it’s own legs. The next one ,  was “ Animaris Currens Vulgaris”.This  one was the first such kinetic sculpture, to stand and walk .With each passing time, the models got better . The latest one is , “Animaris Suspendisse” ,the biggest of all the ones made till date. It is believed to have all the features like Ordis’ legs, nose feelers, sweat glands.It can gulp the wind, stores wind into recycled plastic bottles by squeezing air, and can sense when it’s about to enter the water.

Animaris Suspendisse

Analysis Tools And software’s – Providing platform for Innovations

Humans have been working in science and technology for a number of decades and have brought advancement in the basic life’s so as to make it more comfortable and easier than it used to be. The advancement with industrial revolution and much more investment in new ideas and innovation helped us to make thoughts of the ideal things to turn into reality. Earlier humans used to pen down their ideas on paper and just gathered every part of the entity required to manufacture it. This really resulted in failure most of the time including, time, resource and money. Most of the people stopped working in this field of innovations as they cannot handle much of their losses.a

But soon came the softwares which made this job of innovation and ideas to be much easier through varied features in them. 

  1. Software of 3-d modelling and analysis not only helped most of the people to pen down their ideas, but also visualize them as complete models in those software with much less investment.
  2. These software helped scientists and researchers to modify any part of the object which they find doesn’t suit it or may create problems in the final operation.
  3.  Also these software helped humans to analyse various forces and stress acting on it while in motion. For example if we consider manufacturing a car or an aeroplane, to test it physically after creating would take time, loss of resources and money. This was a resource through proper analysis of 3-d models in software. 
  4. These Tools helped to analyze various forces ,stress and strain, at different highest and temperature and hence helped humans to understand the feasibility of their model and the required changes which must be done so as to assure proper working. Various other features of these 3-d softwares not only helped humans to build them, but also to test them, through various simulations. This truly transformed the ways in which things were made especially cars and airplanes and has saved much of resources and money. 

These days many other techniques have been discovered which not only makes these 3-d models in them but also print them out. 3-d printing provides us with the prototype of the actual model. It scales down the actual size if the object be it a car or any aeroplane  we could get a rough idea of how it would look like when it certainly lands as an actual one. These scientific tools and innovation in them have helped humans to create whatever they want, irrespective of their shape. The advantages of 3-d printing and these tools are that they can help us make complex shapes and of different sizes. These not only prove to be cost effective but also provide better efficiency in their work along with the best of accuracy. Accuracy is an important factor which we want especially while working on sensitive objects such as planes and small ignorance can lead to a big mishappening. Thus simulation and 3-d tools and analysis have transformed our life with better modes of production and manufacturing technologies. But the main issue with these software is that we do require skilled person to operate, and also takes time for new person to learn them. A single mistake can lead to mishappening, so companies do invest to get better use of the prison to operate these software and thus provide better and safe results. 

Humans have made a major shifted to 3-d printing and their analysis and almost all companies in today’s world working in the field of new idea and innovation, do use these software which not only save their time but also much of money and material. This we acknowledge  a future with much better ways to manufacture and produce and thus empower humanity with their dream to turn reality and ease their life. 

“Next-Gen Space Technology”.

Space technology and research related to it have often been very complex, compound and in short not easy.Different difficulties while in manufacturing, launching or even while reaching in space have been observed while through our journey to space. But all these efforts have helped us to learn from them and make more better and effective machines and technology capable of least threat to the mission and auto repairable. Since our first space flight in late 50’s and then landing of first manual flight in the second half of 60’s gave all the hard work and dedication and a true payoff. Since then we humans have been into this space business and have been putting more of our efforts in building these technologies both with ideas and thus with much better implementation. But along with these , development of other new techniques of manufacturing and building new things also came across all these years. Man’s Dream to build homes on the moon and a proper base on it along with the same on Mars is the next big mission of the space agencies, especially like NASA and Spacex. But for all these we do require to make a proper base at these places so that humans could start the initial processes and thus the dream becomes a reality

But the main issue which surely is interfering in the mission is “How to set up base on these places knowing the difficulties involved with it”. It’s difficult to carry building material from our surface to these for obvious reasons. Then what could be the best thing which were can do to overcome these troubling factors. When these companies were thoroughly entangled with this issue, a company name “MadeInSpace” came up with a brilliant idea which could be used to solve the problem of carrying loads and building materials to space and also much manual work. They came up with the idea of 3-d printing. 3-D printing is a technique used these days to manufacture things just by giving the command to the machine and with the help of plastic , metal, carbon fiber, and many  more. 

The idea of 3-d printing came in early 70’s and was brought into practice by 1980’s.in this printing, a design of any object is made using the software and then this printing machine creates the object by just printing out the shape by laying layer after layer so as to obtain the desired shape. There were numerous benefits of this printing observed which included:

  1. Economical
  2. Accuracy in shape
  3. Took less time for manufacturing. 
  4. Difficult designs could easily be manufactured. 
  5. Durable
  6. Better quality and finishing of object
  7. Reducing the risk of manufacturing as less manual power is used
  8. Reduction in wasting of material 
  9. And many more

This technology significantly brought a change in production of objects and their quality. So made in space brought up the idea of manufacturing of these space based and various tools through 3-d printing. The idea was revolutionary but still the agencies doubted on the efficiency and working of these machines in space. Sp for this, as in collaboration with MadeInSpace sent a 3-d machine in 2014 . The machine manufactured the object from plastic which was from earth and regolith which is the powder rock and the objects were commanded to be printed. And the mission was successful as strong objects were able to be printed. So this technique made it very easy to set up base or anything easy to be made in space and thus reducing the material required to be sent for manufacturing them. This truly is beneficial as the moon soils rock Regolith which is converted into powder form, thus we just need to send plastic material which wood be mixed with the regolith and would be passed on through a heated nozzle to get the desired shape. 

“With the help of this technique it would be feasible for us to send things in space which could manufacture and assemble themselves. These are truly revolutionary technologies which truly will open our approach to space, along with different possibilities, new adventures and certain different problems which might even be solved soon in the future with other better ideas and technologies”. 

Navyasrota with ISSN 2249-8133

Navyasrota with ISSN 2249-8133 is a UGC Approved half yearly journal for resarch publication. Visit journal site at http://www.navysrota.com and submit papers for publication to editor@navyasrota.com or editor@eduindex.org arts and humanities.jpg

Journal Archives available at https://journals.eduindex.org/index.php/ns/

UGC Journal Details

Name of the Journal : Nāvyaśrota, Half Yearly Research Journal
ISSN Number : 22498133
e-ISSN Number : 2249-8133
Source: UGC
Subject: Multi-disciplinary
Publisher: Pen2Print, India
Country of Publication: India
Broad Subject Category: Arts & Humanities

Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Collaboration in OIC Countries

 

Ang Kean Hua1

1. Department of Science and Technology Studies, Faculty of Science,

University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Abstract

There is a grave need nowadays to increase institutional and international STI collaboration. Countries are now seeking opportunities to work together not only to cut down the cost but most importantly to learn from each other. This paper attempts to analyses current stance of STI collaboration among OIC member states. First section will present a brief introduction, followed by the importance of STI collaboration in the second section. The roles of several influential actors in shaping the direction of STI cooperation in the Islamic world will be discussed in section 3. The next section talked about recurring issues that hinder the progress of STI co-operation and broad recommendations to reinvigorate scientific and technological collaboration among OIC will be proposed in the fifth section.

Keywords: Science, Technology, Innovation, Collaboration, OIC

1. Introduction

Science, technology, and innovation (STI) collaboration is in fact not an uncommon or a new activity within scientific world. During the epoch of Golden Islamic Civilization, scholars and scientists travelled to and fro various countries and institutions to exchange views, study under well-learned teachers, and to make joint observations or researches. The European Renaissance was accompanied by similar trend where international collaborations were frequently established through numerous scientific communities or projects. During those periods, STI collaboration is regarded as highly significant in advancing science and technology understanding.

With the establishment of the Organization of the Islamic Cooperation (OIC), interest in joint STI activities in the Islamic world is rekindled in accordance to the organisation’s aim to promote collectiveness and cohesion among Ummah. However, OIC is not alone in recognising the importance of global engagement in STI. For instance, in 2000, a review of Canada’s role in international science and technology was published and among its recommendations include the establishment of a special fund for international cooperative research (PMSEIC, 2006). The same strategy was echoed as well by United Kingdom who is aspired to become the ‘partner of choice’ for scientific collaboration in the future (GSIF, 2006).

1.1 The Need for STI Collaboration

Growing interest in international STI collaboration may be driven by various reasons. For example, STI collaboration is inevitable for Muslim countries if they wish to catch-up within this competitive knowledge-based economy. Gaining comparative advantage against other countries relies on how well researchers perform STI activities both individually and collaboratively. In addition, collective effort in the area of STI is imperative among OIC countries either to solve their inherent problems or to achieve common goals. Poverty, diseases, and other social wellbeing issues within OIC cannot be accomplished merely by a single country’s effort. The need for STI collaboration among OIC states is also very much driven by the deficiency of resources. Hiring sufficient qualified STI personnel or financing scientific projects may be beyond the capacity of a least developed country and thus cooperation from other OIC countries or organizations especially those with capital and human resources are required.

1.2 Existing STI Organizations and Collaborative Efforts in OIC

Royal Society in their 2010 report entitled ‘A new golden age? The Prospects for Science and Innovation in the Islamic World’ asserted that greater international outreach and collaboration is essential in order for the OIC members to enjoy the advancement of STI. For this purpose, various efforts have been conceived both at institutional and individual levels and some of the major progressions are discussed in the following.

COMSTECH

OIC through Standing Committee on Science and Technological Cooperation (COMSTECH) has acted as the umbrella body in promoting intra-OIC STI cooperation. COMSTECH is established during the Third Summit Islamic of OIC held in Saudi Arabia in January 1981 with the aim to strengthen the individual and collective capacity of OIC member states in science and technology through mutual cooperation, collaboration, and networking of resources (COMSTECH, 2012). Table 1 highlighted some of the programmers that have been implemented by COMSTECH to fulfill its main objective.

Table 1: Programmed under COMSTECH

Programmed

Details

Inter Islamic Network (IIN)

IINs act as the focal institutions that aim to bring together scientists from all OIC countries to work on selected STI niche. To date, there are 13 IINs across OIC – 9 of them are active in status while the remaining 4 are currently suspended by the Executive Committee.

Visiting Scientists Program

Launched in 1998 to provide financial assistance to researchers desirous of visiting Centres of Excellence in OIC member states to conduct joint research or to deliver lectures in the selected fields of STI.

COMSTECH-TWAS Program for Young Scientists

COMSTECH and the Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS) is established in response to the needs of promising young researchers in OIC countries, particularly those attached to institutions that are lacking appropriate research facilities.

COMSTECH-IFS Program

COMSTECH collaborates with the International Foundation for Science (IFS) to support research project of importance to meeting the development needs of the OIC member states.

Source: COMSTECH

COMSTECH is also responsible in governing another OIC organisation named Science, Technology and Innovation Organization (STIO). STIO, following its approval during the 34th Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers in May 2007, is envisaged to be the implementation organ of the COMSTECH with Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Syria are considered as the founding members. After six years of establishment, 20 OIC countries have declared their membership to STIO (Osama, 2013). STIO is mandated, among others, to promote regional and international cooperation, coordination, and to encourage activities in the fields of STI between member states, with the view to elevate the level of STI and human capital in the OIC (COMSTECH, n.d).

ISESCO

Islamic Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (ISESCO) was formally established in 3rd May 1982 after its approval during the Third Islamic Summit Conference held in Makkah Al-Mukarramah on 25-28 January 1981. To enhance collaboration in STI, ISESCO and its subsidiary organs particularly ISESCO Centre for Promotion of Scientific Research (ICPSR) has implemented various programmes – all of which aimed to coordinate individual scientists, research institutions, and centres of excellence in the member states so that they can establish effective scientific liaison among them. ‘Resource Sharing’, ‘Capacity Building (Scientist Training)’, and ‘Reducing Brain Drain’ are amongst the top priorities of ISESCO and ICPSR (ISESCO, n.d.).

In addition, the importance of collaboration is also addressed in ISESCO’s Three-Year Action Plan and Budget for the Years 2013-2015. In the plan, ISESCO is aspired to espouse a new perspective where the Islamic countries cooperation and its executive mechanisms will be translated into integrated programmes and projects that address fundamental issues and propose radical and effective solutions (ISESCO, n.d.).

ISTIC

The trend is reinforced with the establishment of the International Science, Technology, and Innovation Centre for South-South Cooperation (ISTIC) in 2008. The creation of ISTIC under the aegis of UNESCO is a follow up of the Doha Plan of Action which has been adopted by the Head of States and Government of the Group of 77 and China, during the meeting in Doha, Qatar in June 2005 on the occasion of the Second South Summit of the Group of 77 (ISTIC, 2010). With the aims to be an international platform for countries of the G77 and the OIC to collaborate in STI, ISTIC focuses on STI policy for development, capacity building, and collaborative initiatives that leverage existing networks (Day and Amran, 2011).

University-University or University-Research Institutions Nexus

Efforts to bolster STI co-operations are not solely restricted to international governing bodies nowadays. Bilateral agreement between higher educations and public research institutions across OIC countries often served as a mechanism for promoting co-operation in STI as well. In recent development for instance, Malaysia and Mozambique agreed in August 2012 to promote cooperation in joint research, development, and design projects that will include exchange of research findings, scientists and specialists, conferences, courses, and exhibitions (MOSTI, 2012). MOSTI further affirmed that under the agreement, a joint committee on STI cooperation will be established to determine priority areas, plan, coordinate, and monitor their collaboration in STI, and consider proposals for further cooperation. It is also reported that among the projects Mozambique is strongly interested in the establishment of an Industrial Scientific Research Council and a Lim Kok Wing University in Mozambique.

Collaboration in International Scientific Publications

Co-authorship of scientific publications has always been used as one of the most common indicators to evaluate the pattern of global STI collaboration. Plume (2011) in his article, for example, dealt with the issue of collaborative pattern among OIC countries based on their jointly authored scientific papers from 2004 to 2008 and eventually a collaboration map amongst OIC members is developed as part of his findings. Relationship between two countries is represented by their proximity with each other and the lines that connecting them (see figure 1). Countries that enjoy collaborative efforts are grouped together while those that do not are placed further apart. Meanwhile, the lines that run clockwise out of a country reflect the total output that is produced in partnership with the targeted countries – the thicker the lines, the stronger their collaborative ties and vice versa. For example, Malaysia shared a strong collaborative effort with Indonesia as indicated by their proximity on the map. However, the thick line running clockwise from Indonesia to Malaysia denotes that the nexus is stronger for Indonesia than for Malaysia (note that the line running clockwise from Malaysia to Indonesia is thinner).

Figure 1: Collaboration Map between selected OIC Countries from 2004-2008

clip_image002

Source: Plume (2001)

In addition, Plume (2011) also highlighting one critical point in his article that is scientific collaboration is frequently driven by the efforts and personalities of individual researchers, and not by governmental or international scientific organizations. This deduction was drawn upon the case of Pakistan and Cameroon where 34 out of 45 jointly authored papers among the two nations were written by Professor Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary from the University of Karachi and other co-authors from the University of Yaounde I.

2. Recurring Issues in the Islamic World

Despite many concerted efforts to encourage it, there is a unanimous acknowledgement that STI coordination is functioning rather poorly among OIC members (Hashmi, 1983; Mehmet and Moneef, 2006; Osama, 2010). STI collaboration is not a constant endeavour and this has widened the scientific and technological gap, not only between the developed countries, but also among Muslim countries themselves. As a result, there are only nine out of 57 OIC members that can be categorised as Scientifically Developing Countries (SDCs), followed by 14 Scientifically Aspiring Countries (SACs) and 34 Scientifically Lagging Countries (SLCs) which include 20 OIC’s least developed countries (Naim, 2010).

Figure 2: Percentage Collaboration with OIC and Non-OIC

clip_image004

Source: Naim and Atta-Ur-Rahman (2009)

Lack of collaboration among researchers in OIC countries is also highlighted in a study by Naim and Atta-ur-Rahman (2009). They pointed out two visible trends of research collaboration; scientist in OIC countries on average publish 80-90 per cent of all papers in collaboration with scientists in developed countries while only about 10-20 per cent of research papers are published in collaboration with scientists in other OIC countries. For example, in South East region, a total of 17,921 research papers were collectively contributed by the three OIC countries, Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam, and Indonesia during 1998 – 2007 where Malaysia leads with 70 per cent of the total number followed by Indonesia (28 per cent) and an insignificant contribution by Brunei Darussalam (Naim and Atta-ur-Rahman, 2009). The pattern of research collaboration in the region is similar to that observed in other regions with majority of the inter-institutional collaborative papers were published with scientists in developed countries. Only 1.3 to 5.4 per cent of the total papers were published in collaboration with scientists in OIC countries.

There are numbers of reasons associated with the meagre level of cooperation and coordination among the Islamic countries in the area of STI. Some of them, as argued by Osama (2010), are caused by insufficient research fund and lack of political power. Some of the issues impinging the development of STI collaboration in OIC countries are discussed further in this section.

Among the most acute impediment that is faced by OIC countries is the scarcity of qualified STI personnel. Figure 3 indicates that OIC member countries, on average, fall well behind the world average in terms of researchers per million people; 457 vs. 1,549, respectively (SESRIC, 2012). The gap is much larger when compared to the European Union that has an average of 4,651 researchers per million. Large disparity among OIC member states is also observed – Tunisia has 3,240 researchers per million inhabitants while Niger has merely 10 (SESRIC, 2012). Insufficient numbers of STI personnel in OIC countries affect science and technological activities such as research and this condition will eventually limit the prospect of STI collaborations in OIC.

Figure 3: Researcher per Million People

clip_image006

Source: SESRIC (2012)

The lack of capacity to train adequate STI workforces is further worsened with the continuous outflow of skills to other nations. Countries such as Malaysia have been struggling over the past few years to retain and to attract back their talents. The World Bank (2011) estimated about one million Malaysians diaspora are currently working and/or residing in all over the world. The numbers of émigrés’ is reported to have quadrupled over the last three decades and Singapore alone absorbs 57 percent of the entire diaspora, with most of the remainder residing in Australia, Brunei, United Kingdom and United States (World Bank, 2011). Some of the factors which influence their decisions to migrate include better economic prospects, greater opportunities for learning and research (better research infrastructures, research grants, research students etc.), and a progressive cultural environment for innovation, business start-up, and self-employment in the country of destination (OECD, 2002; Millard, 2005, quoted by Naim, 2010).

Another major hurdle facing OIC scientific smart-partnership is the availability of funding as mentioned earlier in this section. Financial support for scientific activities is relatively limited if not completely lacking in some South-South countries (Osama, 2008) including those in OIC and this impedes the feasibility of any collaborations. Current report pertaining to global R&D expenditures shows that the OIC countries account for only 2.1% of the world total Gross Expenditures on R&D (GERD) (see Figure 4). Without ample funds, multi- or trans-national collaboration in STI is hardly viable especially for the least developed economies.

Figure 4: GERD percentage of the World

clip_image008

Source: SESRIC (2012)

Lack of political power and commitment among OIC member states present another counter-productive attitude which will subsequently compromise any cooperative endeavours. During its chairmanship of the OIC between 2003 and 2007, Malaysia has proposed Vision 1441H, a strategic policy recommendations to revitalise Islamic countries. Among designated action plan to meet its vision is by fostering S&T collaboration among OIC nations. Every members is inspired not only to pursuit research partnership in the emerging technologies such as nanotechnology but also to share their own expertise – for example, petroleum engineering for Malaysia or water desalination for Middle East countries – through joint projects among interested parties (Vision 1441H, 2003). However, the plan is transpired to be in vain and Malaysia has expressed disappointment about the lack of commitment among OIC states (Day and Amran, 2011).

Finally, COMSTECH and STIO are also seen by the experts as being merely rhetoric in addressing the issues of STI development in Islamic countries. Professor Atta-ur-Rahman, COMSTECH’s former Coordinator-General, deemed COMSTECH to be a failure in boosting cooperation among OIC members (Sawahel, 2013). He asserted that resolutions agreed by members are not followed up by any real action. Other central figures also blame both COMSTECH and STIO for the status quo in OIC’s STI collaboration. Dr. Mohammed Ali Mahesar, incumbent Assistant Coordinator-General of COMSTECH proclaimed that the present problematic situation in OIC’s science and technological progress deserves urgent action and not hollow slogans by both parties (Sawahel, 2013).

3. The Way Forward

Ensuring OIC’s STI collaboration prospers is one of the most profound organisational and political challenges facing the scientific community in OIC. Below are some broad recommendations that are highly relevant to OIC’s condition.

1. Creating the political will and financial support for STI collaboration is a high priority. Political force is a powerful tool to determine a country’s strategic policies and action plans.

2. Joint ventures among universities, research institutes, or companies within OIC member countries in research intensive sectors should be encouraged towards more effective and cost efficient R&D investments. OIC countries may also take advantage of R&D spill-overs by rapidly learning about new technologies developed in other countries and improving them, or by importing technological goods and services from their trade partners.

3. It is imperative to learn from other’s success. In this connection, intra-OIC networking opportunities could be facilitated through projects, similar to the Framework Programmes of the European Union, to support research and technological development in the Islamic world and to promote joint research initiatives among the member countries (SESRIC, 2012). One of the main objectives of the Framework Programme is to make Europe the leading world forum for science and technology by supporting co-operation between industries, research centres, and public authorities both across the EU and with the rest of the world (Europa, 2010).

4. Encouraging and facilitating scientists’ mobility across regions is crucial in the process of internationalisation of scientific community. By engaging one another, OIC’s scholars and scientists will be able to benchmark themselves by learning best practices and consequently improve the quality of STI personnel.

4. Conclusion

In developing and harnessing STI collaborations, it is vital for the Islamic world to adapt to new situations in a rapidly changing world and to react positively in response to the advancement of STI. Problems within OIC’s collaboration must be handled wisely to prevent negative interferences. Development plans, programmes and policies in the OIC member countries should also be geared to improve the effectiveness of existing collaborative programmes. At the same time, OIC should start building new smart-partnership and networks both intra-OIC and outside OIC blocks. On the whole, collaboration between countries in the Islamic world is important if OIC is to benefit from STI. The needs and strengths of STI key actors i.e. governments, academia, industries, and societies should be integrated and taken into considerations in order to optimise the outcome of any collaborative efforts.

Reference

Azmi D. (2013). High-speed brain drain?. The Star Online. Retrieved from:

http://thestar.com.my/columnists/story.asp?file=/2013/3/3/columnists/contradictheory/12769860&sec=contradictheory

COMSTECH. (2012). Retrieved from: http://comstech.org/default.aspx

COMSTECH. (n.d.). Brief Report on Science, Technology and Innovation Organization (STIO).

Retrieved from: http://www.comstech.org/docs/14thGA/STIO_Report%20(English).pdf

Day, N. and Amran Muhammad. (2011). Malaysia: The Atlas of Islamic-World Science and

Innovation Country Case Study No. 1.

Europa. (2010). Retrieved from:

http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/research_innovation/general_framework/i23026_en.htm

Global Science and Innovation Forum. (2006, October). A Strategy for International

Engagement in Research and Development [PDF document]. Retrieved from: http://www.dti.gov.uk/files/file34726.pdf

ISESCO. (n.d.). Retrieved from:

http://www.isesco.org.ma/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&layout=item&id=56&Itemid=83&lang=en

MOSTI. (2012). Malaysia and Mozambique Sign MoU on Science and Technology Cooperation.

Retrieved from:

http://www.mosti.gov.my/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2469%3A16-august-2012-malaysia-and-mozambique-sign-mou-on-science-a-technology-cooperation-&catid=133%3Anews-highlights&Itemid=446&lang=en

Naim, S. T. K. (2010). OIC Member States – The Road to a Knowledge Economy [PDF

Document]. Retrieved from http://www.visbdev.net/visbdev/fe/Docs/Contrasting_Innovation_Systems

Naim S. T. K and Atta-ur-Rahman. (2009). Mapping Scientific Research in Member States of

The Organization of Islamic Countries. Retrieved from:

http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001831/183175e.pdf

Osama A. (2013, April 14). Islam Analysis: Do or die for OIC science cooperation. SciDev.Net.

Retrieved from: http://www.scidev.net/en/science-and-innovation-policy/opinions/islamanalysis-do-or-die-for-oic-science-cooperation.html

Osama A. (2010, September 7). Islam Analysis: Promoting Scientific Collaboration. SciDev.Net.

Retrieved from: http://www.scidev.net/en/opinions/islam-analysis-promoting-scientific-collaboration.html

Osama, A. (2008, May 14). Opportunities and Challenges in South-South Collaboration.

SciDev.Net. Retrieved from: http://www.scidev.net/en/policy-briefs/opportunities-and-challenges-in-south-south-collab.html

Plume, A. (2011). A Rebirth of Science in Islamic Countries? Research Trends. Retrieved from:

http://www.researchtrends.com/issue21-january-2011/a-rebirth-of-science-in-islamic-countries/

Royal Society. (2010, June). A new golden age? The Prospects for Science and Innovation in the

Islamic World [PDF Document]. Retrieved from: http://royalsociety.org/uploadedFiles/Royal_Society_Content/policy/publications/2010/4294971224.pdf

Sawahel, W. (2013, February 25). Islam States Under Fire for ‘Empty Promises’ on Science. SciDev.Net. Retrieved from: http://www.scidev.net/en/news/islamic-states-under-firefor

empty-promises-on-science-1.html

Sawahel, W. (2012, September 2). New Islamic Collaboration on Higher Education and

Research. University World News. Retrieved from: http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20120901091940778

SESRIC. (2012). Current Stance of Science and Technology in OIC Countries [PDF document].

Retrieved from: http://www.sesrtcic.org/files/article/436.pdf

The World Bank. (2011). Malaysia Economic Monitor: Brain Drain [PDF Document]. Retrieved

<

p align=”justify”>from: http://www.wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2011/05/02/000356161_20110502023920/Rendered/PDF/614830WP0malay10Box358348B01PUBLIC1.pdf

Innovation of a Farmer Transforming Social and Economic Living Conditions: A Case Study of Farmer Inventing Tractor

Dr. Priyanka Sharma & **Nishi Slathia

*The First Author is Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Jammu, J&K, India, 180006.

** The author is PhD Scholar in the Department of Strategic and Regional Studies, University of Jammu, J&K, India. 180006

INNOVATION OF A FARMER TRANSFORMING SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC LIVING CONDITIONS: A CASE STUDY OF FARMER INVENTING TRACTOR

ABSTRACT

Necessity is the mother of invention. Although there is a relentless problem of lack of mechanical and scientific knowledge in countryside, rural people becomes grassroots innovators to solve their and community’s problems by coming up with solutions. Rural Entrepreneurship is often conceived as innovation, creativity, the establishment of new activities, or some kind of novelty. The rural entrepreneurial ventures play a vital role in providing employment opportunities and income for the needy people in rural sector. It helps in sinking the exodus of people from rural to urban areas in search of livelihood and provision of employment opportunities. As the population pressure grows in the land-scarce and developing countries like India, the growth in the agricultural production cannot absorb the ever increasing rural labour force in farming employment. This leaves the rural non-farm sector in the form of rural SMEs (small and medium entrepreneurial ventures) to absorb those released from agriculture but not absorbed in the urban industries. The rural sector is best poised for a rapid expansion in the small and medium industry arena.

In the present scenario, majority of the rural natives are unaware of technological skills, marketing etc. Shortage of funding and raw materials, lack of proper infrastructure and communication facilities etc. are main difficulties faced by rural entrepreneurs. The policy makers and executors have to find scope and space in the farm based entrepreneurial ventures to address to the daunting problem of unemployment in the country. The experiences of the people involved in such ventures needs to be cashed and used to make shift in the policy paradigm in the given context. The present paper is an attempt to analyze the case study of a rural entrepreneur of India and analysis is done about his life experiences leading to the advent of innovation, which have transformed the lives of rural agricultural community.

Key words : Rural entrepreneurship, Innovation, Employment, Technology, Technical Knowledge.