In Modern times, democracy seems to have triumphed. Most countries today either are or pretend to be democracies. Their political system may vary, but they all claim that system may vary, but they all claim that these are based on popular sovereignty. It means that the authority of the state belongs to the means that the authority of the state belongs to the people who are citizens of that state. The different types of democracies discussed below.
Direct Democracy: – In this form, the right to make political decision rests in the entire body of citizens, unmediated by a political organization such as parties. The examples of direct democracy can be found in Greece of the 5th century BC and contemporary Switzerland. Indirect Democracy, citizen involvement or participation is personal but in a representative democracy, it is through people chosen by them, to speak for them.
In Modern times some states have combined representative democracy with measures of direct democracy, in that they refer certain matters to the vote of the city as a whole be a referendum. Thus direct democracy can be practised in the form of a referendum.
Representative Democracy: – It is a form in which citizens elect their political representatives through periodic, popular elections, who then represent the people in the government at national (in a parliament) or local (in local authority or city council) level. In this form of democracy, the people have no direct power.
Deliberative Democracy: – It is a form of democracy which stress on the participation of the people in collective decision- making through a process of rational and considered deliberation. In simplest terms refer to the conception of democratic government secures the central places for reasoned discussion in political life.
Liberal Democracy: – Liberal democracy is a form of representative democracy where the political power of the government is tempered by a constitution which protects the right and freedom of individuals and minorities.
Illiberal Democracy: – It is a political system where democratic election exists, and the govt. is not constrained from encroaching on the liberty of individuals, or minorities. Some critics of illiberal regimes now suggest that the rule of law should take precedence over democracy, implying a de facto western acceptance of what are called ‘liberalized autocracies’.
Participatory Democracy: – It is an alternative label for direct democracy. However, it does have a slightly wider connotation because participation need not necessarily mean ultimate decision- making power. Thus if there is a much greater degree of citizens participation in a political system, though the ultimate decision making and law-making functions are given to a small body of elected representatives. It is known as a participatory democracy.
Social Democracy: – It is a label used to indicate a reformist and non-Marxist left-of-centre party. Many social democratic parties in the world are inspired by socialism that for ideological or pragmatic reasons opted for a strategy of gradual change through existing institutions. Social democratic parties may also work for liberal reforms before introducing more profound social change. Social democrats reject the sudden revolutionary change. A social democratic party is likely to favour higher proportional direct taxation for a more equitable distribution of wealth and a social net for the weak and the vulnerable.