On 25 june , 1975 Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declared a National Emergency , which is the blackest day in India’s Democracy.
There are total three type of Emergency provision in India’s Constitution National Emergency, President rule , Financial Emergency .All these Emergency cannot be declared without the approvement of President and that time President was Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed who approved the National Emergency declaration at mignight on 25 , June.
It was the third time when the National Emergency was a declareded within in the country.In 1962 the National Emergency was declared for the first time during the India-China war and the 2nd Emergency was declared in 1971 during Indo-Pak war.
This emergency was mainly imposed due to four reasons Navnirman Andolan in Gujarat .This movement in 1974 was lead by student and middle class against economic crisis(Hipe in food rates and fees) and Coruption. It all started by the protest by student .In December 1973 Amhedabad protest was lead by students of L.D. College of Engineering against a hike in fees .This was the first and only agitation which led to victory dissolving the state government.
After the successful movement in gujarat there were many movement led in other parts of country and Bihar movement is one of them intiated by students and led by Jayaprakash Narayan, the socialist who fought against misrule and corruption due to which the problems of indira gandhi started increasing .
The third reason behind the emergency was the Railway Strike by the workers of Railways in 1974.And the major and last i.e. forth reason was the Raj Narayan Verdict .
Indira Gandhi elected election from Rae Bareilly against Raj Narayan in 1971 .After losing election Raj Narayan filed a case in Allahbad High Court against Indira Gandhi to use malpractices like bribing voters with liquor and using misusing goverment machinery ,ultimately using her power in the wrong way.On 12 , june 1975 verdict was declared that she was found guilty and was barred for election for six years and high court declared the verdict that she have to leave the prime minister post .She was losing control and in order to be in power she filed a petion in supreme court ruling the high court decision.
On 24 june , 1975 Supreme Court judge, Justice VR Krishna Iyer ruled the vedict partially and she was allowed to remain prime minister but cannot vote as a MP until the final verdict .She was not happy by the decision .
On next day , 25 june 1975 she imposed National emergency at midnight.All prominent leaders Jayaprakash Narayan, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, LK Advani, Morarji Desai were arrested.
In order to save her legacy she imosed Emergency .After this outbreak press censorship was imposed i.e.freedom of press were totally carry off .Fundamental rights were demolished and many restriction was imposed and whosoever ,stand against the decision were sent into jail.
After many protest against her and when International Media started portraying her image as a dictator , After 21 months i.e. On 21,March 1977 she finally dispose of the Emergency .
According to experts , if there was no Raj Narayan nor the Energency would declared.it is no denial, 25 June was the darkest day in the Indian History since Independence .