All posts by chiragpadda

First year student of hotel management and catering technology. Good in speaking and writing English.


cigar should be stored at a temperature of 15 to 18
degree Celsius and a relative humidity of 65 to 70
degree. Drastic temperature fluctuations, dry heat,
smells damage the cigar. Cigars are best stored in
humidors. there are boxes made of Cider wood. A
damp pad is lined inside the lead of the box to
maintain humidity by moisturizing air if it is too dry.
If the climate is to damp. A dry pad will be used to
absorb any exercise moisture in the air. the box
has many sections each holding a different type
and size of cigar. Many cigarettes are individually
packed in metal tubes lined with Cider wood and
this tubes are seed that is, they are sealed tightly
to prevent the air from getting in.


Preparing cigar for smoking and lighting needs
special attention which the cigar handlers must
understand . before the cigar is lit, the head of the
figure which has tobacco leaf cap must be opened
with the cigar cutter to allow the smoke to pass
through smoothly. A v shaped cut or straight cut
may be made according to the choice of the guest
which should be ask before cutting.
The cut should be smooth and clean and not too
the foot and of the cigar is lit with the wooden
match or gas lighter but never with Sulphur or wax
coated matches or a petrol lighter which will spoil
the flavour of the cigar. The cigar should be
rotated while lighting and their should be slowly
drawn with gentle puffs. some guest warm the
length of the cigar with a lighted match before
which was used for sticking the leaves during
making of cigars a hundred or more year ago. The
practice of using that kind of glue was withdrawn long ago and the pinhead of gum used today is
odourless and tasteless. Hence this practice is


The following steps are to be followed in cigar
• Place a clean astray on the table
• Present the humidor from the left hand side of
the guest to select his / her cigar.
• Collect the cigar from the guest for
• remove the selected cigar carefully, making
sure your fingernail does not touch the
wrapper of any of the singers, it is advisable to
place the cigar in such a way that it is easy for
the guest to pick up without touching any of
other cigar.
• take the cigar to the side board to prepare
according to the guest request.
• On the side board if the cigar is covered with
cellophane tube then open it.
• open the closed end of the cigar by making a
flat or a v cut with an appropriate cigar cutter
avoid using a knife or other equipment.
• tap the cut cigar over the side plate to remove
any unwanted / extra tiny particles. Present the prepared cigar on a quarter plate
from the left hand side.offer a light from
matchstick or a gas lighter. Light it gently by
holding the flame slightly away from the cigar.


Mcleodganj which is located in the kangra district of Himachal Pradesh which is covered by the Dhauldhar ranges of the Himalayas. If you are among the person who loves travelling then this place is suitable place for you.
Top 10 places to visit mcleodganj:-
Bhagsu waterfall: – This the fall which is among the green mountains, the water came across all the way from snowy mountains and falls here which became it the famous tourist attraction. People usually visit here to have the feel of cold water and for clicking awesome pictures. The view from here just takes you to another level.
Bhagsunag temple: – This temple is situated between the snowy mountains, the temple has a pool nearby where people usually bath and around them many food corners which has the speciality of (Aloo ka prantha). The nearby structures just give you a lavish feel whenever you visit the temple.
Tsuglagkhang complex: – This place is famous because of the residence of Dalai lama. That is why people visit here because of the popularity of this area. Many Buddhist and Janis visit here because of the worshipping.
Dharamkot: – It is a famous tourist place because it located above mcleodganj. From here you can get the perfect view of the Dhauldhar mountains. It is commonly known because people visit here because of the medication centre. Another advantage of this area is because here they worship and take out the practice of Buddhism.
Tibetian museum: – it is the famous attraction point for the people because of its location inside Tsuglagkhang complex because it has the famous eye appealing documentary, pottery and artwork of the tibetian people, it shows how these people use to live and how they worship their lord
Maharana pratap sagar lake : – It also known as the pong dam lake, it is artificial river but became a famous tourist spot for many people because of the clear water. You can do many activities like boating, fishing, and bird watching with beautiful landscape.
Minikiani pass: – if you are among the people who likes adventure then this is the place for you, you can do hiking and trekking with various other activities out there is danger in hiking while monsoon because of the route became slippery. Bagalmukhi temple:- If you like to explore the ancient places and monastery then this place is for you, because it consist a marvellous architecture, which has a famous past of its own. It is said that it is dedicated to the ten mahavidyas of the supreme goddess according to their shaktism.
Kareri lake: – if you want to admire natural beauty then this lake will not make you upset. It is a great place for clicking pictures because of the crystal clear water.
Kangra fort: -It is a perfect place for those who want to indulge into history and wars, this fort has faced many wars and invasion which makes it a attraction point for tourist


Tobacco is grown commercially for its leaves and stems, which are rolled into cigars, shredded for use in cigarettes and pipes, processed for
chewing, or ground into snuff, a fine powder that is inhaled through the nose. Tobacco products contain nicotine, an addictive drug.
cigar and cigarettes are some of the tobacco products demanded by guest in a restaurant. It is the responsibility to serve cigars and cigarettes to
guest. However, most hotels and restaurants discourage smoking in public areas and do not sell tobacco products, some hotels have smoking
zones with name such as cigar terrace and tobacco corridor, for smokers to enjoy their figures for cigarettes without being frowned upon by non￾smokers. A well stocked bar will always have a good selection of cigar for all types.

Tobacco is grown in China, India, Java, Sumatra, japan, Central and South Africa and many other
countries. Although cigarettes are made in many part of the
world the best cigars come from Cuba and named after its capital, Havana. Tobacco is grown all over
Cuba and the finest one come from the vuelta, abajo, partidos,oriente.
all four of them produce fine quality tobacco cigar leaves, but the best quality comes from vuelta
abajo .

After tobacco is harvested, it is cured (dried), and
used to improve its flavour. There are four
common methods of curing tobacco. They are as
• Air curing
• Fire curing
• Flue curing
• Sun curing
The curing method applied depends on the type
of tobacco and its use.
Air curing: it is carried out in a well ventilated barn where the tobacco is air- dried for six to eight weeks. Air cured tobacco is low in sugar, which
gives the tobacco smoke a light, sweet flavour and it is high in nicotine. This method is suitable for making cigar.
Fire curing: in this method, smoke from a low burning fire on the barn floor spreads and passes through the leaves. This gives the leave a distinctive smoky aroma and flavour, it take about 3 to 10 weeks and producer tobacco low in sugar
and high in nicotine. It is suitable for pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff.

Flue curing: in this method, tobacco is kept in an enclosed barn heated by hot air from flues. That tobacco is not directly exposed to smoke. This
method produces tobacco that is high in sugar and has medium to high levels of nicotine. It is the fastest method of curing, acquiring about a week. It is suitable for all kind of cigarettes. Virginia tobacco that has been flue cured is also called
bright tobacco because flu curing turns the leaves gold, orange, or yellow. Sun curing: in this method, tobacco is dried and covered in the sun. This method is used in Greece, Turkey and other Mediterranean countries to produce or enter tobacco. Sun cured tobacco is low both in sugar and nicotine. It is used in


cigar are grouped according to their shapes and sizes which together
are known as vitola . According to the shape figures are classified into two groups
Parejo: this is the common shape of cigar, has cylindrical body, straight sides, 1 and open and around tobacco leaf cap on the other end. FIGURADO : this is come in irregular shapes, the
common shapes are as follows.
Torpedo: it is like a parejo but the cap is pointed.
Pyramid: it has a broad foot and Narrows to a
pointed cap.
Perfecto: it is narrow at both ends and bulged in
the middle.
Tuscanian: it is also termed as cherrot long, slim
at the ends and thicker in the middle.


A blanc- cooking in buttercauliflower, au blanc- white liquid- mushroom, a
brun- to brown
A la- amandine, láncienne, l’anglaise, bourgeoise, broche, carte, diable,
francsaise, al’huile, greque, king, minute (to order), mode, orly, parmigiane
westphaliene- salt pork wrap roast, juniper berries, herbs, diced apples,
thick gravy
Abaisser- to roll a pastry/ dough
Abatis de volaille- giblets, gizzards
Abats- offals,
Acidulated water- 1 tspn lime juice / pint
Acrolein- on excess heating, fats and oils decomposes into fatty acids and
acrolein, responsible for pungent smell
Aging—34-36f Agneau￾Aile- wing part of poultry/ game bird
Aigrettes- cheese straw
Ailerons- winglets
Airelle rouge- cranberry
Aloyau- sirloin
Alylest- a dish of giblet and liver
Ameaux- puff pasry incorporating eggs
Amourettes- bone marrow
Anana- pineapple
Anchois- anchovy
Anchoidae- nchovy flavoured dish Andouille- sausages of pok chitterlings, andouillette
Angelique- angelica,
Animelles- means the internal edible viscera of animals.
Anis- aniseeds
Appareil- prepared mix
Arroser- baste
Arromates- flavoring compouns in stock.
Artichoke- globe- flower, Jerusalem- tuber
Ascorbic acid, acetic acid, citric acid,
Assaisonner- to season
Assiette anglaise- cold meat platter
Assorti- assortment
Attereaux- skeweres
Attelet- skewers with metal head
Au – beurre- butter, choix, four (baked) Italian, gras (meat rich gravy),
gratin- (under salamander with sauce, cheese, butter, breadcrumbs), jus,
maigre, naturel, sec (reduce)Vin blanc- white wine, Vin Rouge- red wine,au
choix- of choice, de choix prime quality
Avocado- Alligator pear
Large kernel, soft rind, yellow pulp, delicate rich flavor, red purple, green
Bacteria- microorganisms
Bag out- piping
Baking soda- in vegetables- spoil Vit C
Barder- covering with bacon fat, fat strips- lardon
Bar le duc- jam from red currantwithout seed, town in Lorraine, France
Baron- roast with leg and loin, double baron- poultry boat shaped pastry case
Bast- to brush with fat or a mix with flavours and liquids brushed
Bat out- press to get a size
Baume- Antoine Baume, hydrometer, concentration
Beaf tea- concentrated beef stock
Beignets- fritters
Bel passé- a cheese
Beurre – fondue (melted), noir (black), noisette (walnut),
Beurre manie- kneaded butter, equal butter and flour, thickening agent,
Blanchir- white (bones, meats), retain color (green), skin out (tomato), limp,
less volume, preserve, further cooking faster- in particular without color,
preservation, taste, maintain texture,
Blanquette- white stew
Bloaters- a processed fish
Bloom- chocolate- White, bread crust, sugar- white specled appearance,
Boiled icing- thread stage- 238f, egg white, confectioners’sugars
Boaston Bake- baked beans
Bouchees- small puffcastry cases with filling
Bouilir- to boil
Bread- 11-13% gluten, two ways, high ratio method,
Brine- salt solution used for canning and food preservation
Brunoise- saltsolution used in culinary
Bouillon- a variety of clear unpassed soup without thickening
Canape- the smallest variety of open sandwich
Carapace- shell of lobster Casserole- dish used for stews
Cassoulet-de Toulouse- beans cooked with sausage meat.
Chapelure- dried bread crumbs- fried dried bread, dry- Raspings
Chateaubriand- middle/ family steak
Chauffant- Pan of hot salted water for reheating foods
Chili corn carne- Mexican beans cooked with tomato puree, and meat
Chinois-china cap
Choux paste- egg added at 68c/ 150f,
Civet- brown stew, game- hare, blood
Cloute- studded, cloves
Concasse- roughly blanched chopped tomatoes and cooked sauce with this
Contrefillet- boned sirloin of beef
Cook- Au bleu, saignant, a point, bien cuit
Cordon- thread/ line of sauce, kidney shape, Cordon bleu cookery style
Cote- rib chop
Cotelette- cutlet
Coulis – puree
Coupe with accent- cut, without accent- individual serving bowl, mould,
Crème fraiche- fresh cream
Creole-a sophisticated pidgin -Eng, Dutch/ Portugaise, Fr- language that
served as a mother tongue and spoken in the Caribbean, people of mixed
descent living in the Caribbean or Latin America
Crepe- pancake
Crepinette- flat sausage with crepine
Cromesquis/ Kromeskis- fried with yeast battertill golden brown
Croquettes- Frit a lánglaise Croustades- on crust
Cuisine- Care of equipments, Understanding the basic methods, Safety in handling equipments, you and others, Initiation you have to take, neatness in doing workand presentation, efficiency in yourself
Cuisse de poulet- chicken leg
Couvrir- cover, coat
Darne- cut of fish on the bone in round fish
Deglacer- taking out theflavouring from cooking pot
Degraisser- scum,
Desosser- debone
Duxelle- choppe mushroos, garlic and scallions or onions cooked togrthet,
basic continental flavoring,
Ecclairs- choux pate baked finger shape with sweet /savory filling
Entoleter- Antifungal machine-Maida, high impact against hard surface
Escalope- thin slice of meat favorably veal
Entrecote- a steak cut from the boned sirloin￾Escherichia coli- sewage, soil, vegetables,
Fait tout- flared sides
Fines herbes- Parsley, Tarragon and Chervil
Flake-break into natural segments- fish, chicken,
Flan- a type of baking flat with filling and bright finish, asavory or sweet with
differet names
Fleurons- half moon shape flakies for garnish specifically dfish
Flutes- a gsrnish in French onion dsoup, a floating bread crust with chesse
and egg yolk
Fondue- dish- egg, milk, cheese, bread,
Frappe—chilled Fricasse- meat, poultry
Frijoles- beans, fat, seasoning
Friture- pan with deep fat, frying kettle
Gamberoni- large Pacific prawn
Glace- / Glaze- color ubnder salamander, reduce vegetable liquid- carrot,
Graham Flour- whole wheat flour named after Sylvester Graham, 19th
century, American dietary reformer
Hache- finely chopped/minced,
Hollandise- hot emulsion sauce with egg yolk and clarified butter
Herrings- a popular variety of fish in Europe
Jardinière- jardin- garden, baton
Jus lie- false gravy prepared with carcasse, deglaced liquid, mirepoix, and
other flasvourings available to match the dish.
Knock down- punch to remove carbon dioxide after fermentation
Lardon- batons of thick streaky bacon
Limpa- Swedish rye bread,
Lobster- tomalley, Medaillon, Tomalley (liver), Carapace
Macedoine- ½ cmxcmxcm, ¼ “x”x”,
Mackerel, Kippers- fish
Mayonnaise- cpold emulsion of salad oil and egg yolk, developed by Bayon,
Mignonette- coarsely ground pepper, mill pepper- from peppermill
Mousse- is a light soft preparation either sweet or savory in which the
ingredients are whisked, or blended and then folded together. Mousses are
often set in a mouldand usually served cold. Savory mousse are served as an
horsdóeuvre or entrée, msy be based on fish, shell fish, poultry, foie gras,
ham, vegetables etc. Sweet mousses are usually based as fruitsor flavoring
such as chocolates or coffee. Mushrooms- Cepes- Boletus edutes- spongy gills,chanterelles. Chanterellus cibaricus- fluted margin , smoothy yellow on top, plated up the
stack, under the cap like ribs in a fan vaulted church, Field mushroom￾Agaricus campestris- pushing its white cap up through the grass in the
morning. Pinkish fawn benearh and soft to tough makes the best sreakfast
dishes, Grisette, Matsutake/ Gucchi, Morel- Morchella esculenta- springtime
mushroom resembles a brown sponge, and is hollow in the center, Oyster,
Rubbe Brush, Shittake, Truffle,
Napper- coat, mask
Native- English oysters
Navarin- brown, lamb/ mutton
Noisette- boned out loin of lamb
Nouvelle cream- adding cream to reduced stock
Oignon Pique- Pricked onion with cloves, wrapped in bay leaf
Oignon brule- Burnt onion
Pailarde- scallop of meat pounded until thin, usually grilled
Pane- sprinkle or coat with crumb, fry mis en place,
Pantin- pate baked in a crust without any mould, simply in a baking sheet,
not a common preparation- like wellington
Papillote- wrapped in paper for further cooking
Par stock- Stocks necessary to cover operating needs between deliveries
Parts of knife- point, edge, back, blade, rivet- blade inside handle, handle,
heel, tan/ nots
Pastrami- Highly spiced corn beef brisket
Paupiette- stuffed and rolled (strip of meat)
Paysanne- fermier- even, thin, pieces- triangle, round, square
Pellicle- membrane,
Persillade- a mix of parsley, breadcrumb, butter / oil and other things for
roasting and grilling Persil- parsley
Pesto- thick, puree, herb- basil, for pasta, garnish soup, with grated cheese,
nuts, seeds, seasoning and of various types
Petite marmite- stock pot literal meaning, seasoned stock used as sopup
served in a double handled special container in large quantity
Pie- covered crust with height for baking
Pince- Fr- to caramelize – sauté- tomato
Pique- oignon pique
Poultry and games- Breast- Blanc, Carcass- Carcasse, wing- Aile, Wnglet￾Ailerons, Drumstick- Grass de cuisse, Thigh- Pilon,
Profiteroles- small chous paste bakes with filling
Raft- consommé residue
Refresh- to put into hot water and remove
Rissoler-frying to golden brown
Rondeau- shallow- straight side, two loops
Roulade- rolled in french
Sabayon- the ribbon flowing consistency or a sweet made with syrup, egg
yolk, port/ Marsala/ Rum -Zabaglione
Sachet dépices- Fr- Parsley stems, cracked peppercorns, dried thymes,
Sautoir- straight, Sauteuse- slope
Scald- to put into very hot water and remove
Score- to put cut marks and also the evaluated marks given by connoisseurs
Scrapple- boiled mixture of pork trimming, buckwheat, corn meal
Silverskin- tough connective tissue that surrounds certain muscles
Singe- cook to golden brownSmorrebrod- smothered breadlurry- liquid with starch
Smother- to cook in a covered pan with a little liquid over the heat
Smitane- mild- onion, scallion, not shallots, mild flavour
Souffle- puffed- a hot preparation which is served straight from the oven
that it is well risen above the height of the mould in which it is cooked. It is
served as horsd’oeuvres (savory) or sweets
Spas cooking- cooking style – high quality, well presented, help the chef de
pertie as necessary
Spring form pan- round, straight side pan; sides are formed by a hoop that
can be unclamped and detatched from base
Spumoni- i/c, in different layers with nuts
Squab- domesticated pigeon that has not begun to fly, 3-4 month, 1lb, light,
tender, sauté, roast, grill
Steel- 14’’/ 33-50 cm rod used to refresh the knife, keep sharp
Stroganoff- Sauteed beaf in sour cream with mushroom and onions
Strudel- Pastry made of paper thin rolled dough
Sucrose Polyester- SPE- looks, smells, tastes like ordinary cooking oil, but is
not absorbed by body.
Supreme- veloute and heavy cream, breast, fillet and wing of chicken, fish
fillet cut into triangles like fillet of small fish
Sweat- Cook in fat under a lid without color
Swiss- pound meat, (beef), flour, seasoning, – breaks–tender
Taste- sweet- sugar 1 -200 parts, salt- inorganic salt,- 1-400 parts- sour￾acid1 to 1, 30, 000, bitter-alkaloids1- 20, 00, 000- quinine delectably bitter
Tea rolls- small sweet buns
Temper- heat chocolate gently and gradually, gradually raise temperature,
incorporate hot liquid gradually into a liason, add flavoured hot oil- Indian
with panchphoran
Tempura- seafood, coated with batter, deep friedTorte- german, cakes, layer, large fancy, enriched wuth cream, marzipan,
Tragacanth- gum to set, from Astragalus exudes,
Trichinella spiralis- spiral, Trichinosis vulgare-Trichinosis nematode,
Trifle- desserts, English, layers, sponge, custard sauce, whipped cream,
preserves, jelly
Tripe- edible stomach lining
Trough- shallow container, hold large mass of rising dough
Tunnel- hole in bread, a problem in slicing and making sandwich
Tutti frutti- mixture of candid fruits
Vacherin- crisp meringueshell, cream, fruit,. Other item
Waffles- American confection baked from a thin batter between heated
waffle irons. They are eaten with liberal helps of maple syrup, jam, honey or
melted butter.—veg cut- grid/ basket weave,
Weinerschnitzel- breaded veal cutlet served with lemon
Xantham- gum, emulsifier, stabilizer, fillings, syrup, solution very thick but
Tremp- soak, steep
Tripe- 1
st and 2nd stomach- Rumen, Reticulum- of bovines, cleaned, scalded
Truffles- Perigord – France, Umbria in Italy, White- Piedmont- Italy
Vesiga- spinal marrow of Beluga sturgeon
Vichy- springs
Vichyssoise- potato, leek soup, chicken stock, cream, chill, chives
Vol au vent – puff pastry shell with filling
Zabaglione- a special Italian sweet
Zampone- skinof pig’s feet stuffedwith sausage mix
Zwieback- hard, crispy, toasted biscuits


The origin of cooking in general goes back to the prehistoric era. Humans
began eating the products of their own pickings. Such as fungus, , roots,
fruits etc. Then they began to kill or catch animals to eat flesh.
The discovery of fire marked the beginning of cooking. Cooked meats or fish was first eaten by accidental when the forest caught fire. And one could discover some flesh of some animal. The same may happened in case of salt with – mountain or sea.
Later the human learnt the art of agriculture. They started living together in groups for bettersecurity. They cultivated cereals, pulses and gradulally vegetables. Frits tree were introduced by Romans such as peaches, lemon,Cherries, apricots, plums etc. brought from far awaytrips to eastern countries.
At the very early stage of First Civilization, Mesopotanians, Aryans,
Egyptians, Greeks, Romans developed the art of cooking for their kings.
Game meat was almost a unique one until came geese and pork breeding.
The Romans also taught French people how to make wone, and bread which have remained staple diet. Most oprobably cumin was the first spiceand vinegar, the first condiment.
Onion and arlic were the main aromates and spices came from Asia and were of high prices. At thwe end of the 12th century most of the
commodities were used. When the spice road opened, invasions mainly
contributed to gastronomy.
The Greeks and Latins created the basics of modern cookery, wine making, baking, stewing, pickling etc. Epicuro and Lacullus were the most famous gourmet who spoke about the art of eating well. The invasion of France by Romans and then Scandinaviansand North
Africans were dominant factors in culinary history. India, Turkish,
Moghulsinvasion and British occupancy influenced the style of contintental foods served. 11:04 AMhe Portuguese and the French people in their respective colonies were also responsible for theirregional development. Pilgrimage, travel and trade were the factors in opening the first roadside eating place INN. Probably Marco Polo’s trip to China is ne of the reason why the pasta is the staple food of Italy. The King’s table contributed to thefast promotion of gastronomy with many chefs’ contributions like: Antonie
Careme, Auguste Escoffier etc. They were considered Chef of Kings and king of Chefs. Soup was ntroduced. Soupa means with slice of bread. Su Pa in Sanskrit means good food taken from the frirst book from Philip IV and Charles Iv. In 1392, William Tyral was Chef de Cuisine and wrote a book on royal kitchen, “Le Lure Fort Excellent”, published in 1540AD, written by
P.Pinoux. Catherine de Medici in 1575 ad brought to France the culinary art.
Italian cooks and pastry chefs- Pllatina, Messitrya, Romati, and Roselli have
contributed lot. The fork for eating was introduced by Henry IV.
Menus beceme balanced with more vegetables and less meat. Around17th
century Champagne, a famous sparkling wine from France was discovered
by monk Dum Perignon. In Table service crystal were introduced. Potatotes
were introduced by Parmentier.
In 1653ad, Laverine, cook of Marguis Deuxelle wrote the French Cook Book.
L.S. Robert’s wrote on 15 years of progress in 1660 in 1671. A sauce stiil has
a name Vatil , was the first victim of cookery. He committed suicide when
the fish delivery for the King’s banquet did not arrive on time. During the
reign of Louis XIV also known as Louis de Bechamel created a sauce. The Duke of Rechelein, winner of battle named the sauce Riche. The Duke of Mirepoix created exotic recipes with Quail. Chocolate was introduced as beverage as tea and coffee. An Italian named Prolopioli Colleti opened the
first café in 16 78 wich still exists. Tea was introduced during
renaissance and mostly used as drugs. The first critic for restaurants was
Grimod de Reeymere

Do’s and Dont’s while working in kitchen


  1. Wear shoes of good quality and that should suit you.
  2. Maintain uniforms and cap is amust.
  3. Keep wounds, cuts and burns covered.
  4. Keep face, body and uniform clean.
  5. Avoid scratching habit anywhere when at work or relaxing.
  6. Keep hairs covered.
  7. Follow rules. Do right thinhs rihtly and then have speed.
  8. Learn hygiene and never compromise with practice.
  9. Always walk to left and be concern to avoid accident.
  10. Work safe and never overload nor overwork and be tired.
  11. Cover coughs, sneeze and wash.
  12. Enjoy your job. Give your best and leave the rest on Almighty.
  13. Avoid filthy eating practices.
  14. Keep working area clean.
  15. Wash your hands with soap at intervals, when coming to duty and
    always after sneezing, blowing the nose, smoking, cleaning dirties, cleaning
    equipments, and using toilet.


  1. Don’t spit, sneeze, smoke nor chew gums in working area.
  2. Don’t use finger for tasting.
  3. Don’t allow to touch anypart of the body while working or after.
  4. Don’t taste food very often. Taste with a tea spoon never the cooking
    utensils. Avoid filthy eating practices.
  5. Don’t make you and your working area dirty.
  6. Never encourage heavy ornaments, harmful cosmetics and strong
  7. Never touch food when suffering decentery.
  1. Never nail by teeth.
  2. Don’t keep peels, raw food, cooked food or two foods together.
  3. Don’t smoke. If you smoke go out of kitchen. One must wash mouth,
    face and hand before food handling.
  4. Waste not, want not.
  5. Don’t taste food very often.
  6. Don’t use lavish cosmetics and strong perfumes.
  7. Don’t lean or sit on work surface
  8. No nose picking.
  9. No heavy abrasion on skin.
  10. No heavy jewellery, rings, bangles etc. and watch.
  11. Don’t touch raw food, disinfectant.
  12. Never carry knives or other tools with the points protruding.
  13. Don’t attempt to catch a falling knife.
  14. Maintain work environment. Never encourage alcohol and drugs.
  15. Don’t dream in daylight. Don’t ever run nor slide. No hastyness no
  16. Knives must never be left in sinks of water.
  17. When using a knife, cut away from your fingerline
  18. When cleaning a knife wie the edge away from you.
  19. Keep work benches clear of unnecessary tools, especially knives.
  20. Keep oven clothes dry.
  21. Never use your hands where it is unsafe.e.g.mincing machine, bowl
    chopper, liquidiser etc.
  22. When using electric mixer ensure that it is in the first gear before
    switching onWhere pans are removed from the oven do not leave hot handles unmarked.
  23. Combine extremes of temperarure in cooking must be done slowly.
  24. Don’t leave saucepan handles protruding from the stove top,
  25. Avoid the use of excess fat when grilling, frying, roasting etc.
  26. Never put cans in bainmarie to heat up.
  27. Unsealed containers with liquids should not be left above shoulder height.
  28. Spillages of water and grease on the floor must be cleared up immediately
  29. Breakages of glass and chinamust be cleared awayand checked immediately
  30. When lifting heavyy objects from the floor do so with a straight back.
  31. Be particularly attentive when using electric mechanical equipments.
  32. Avoid distractions when carrying out tasks particularly when doing so at allspeed.
  33. Never taste by hand.


Hat/ Cap / net- Headgear – circulation of air, doesn’t allow the hair to come
into the food. One can’t touch in case of trouble. Partly absorbs sweat,
prespirations. A pride for worker and it differentiates a chef. Modern trend￾disposable

Neckerchief– absorbs perspiration, de mark the grade and help in classifying.
Jacket/ Coat/ overall coat– not loose to cause inconvenience and look odd,
inconvenience to work, nor tight to restrict free movement, double breasted to protect front body from spillage and heat, save scalding, sleeves protects from accidents and does not allow sweat to fall on food, protect high heat, protect from hot liquid and spillage. Designed jackets look more attractive and distinct.

Dusters– two- should be clean and at least one dry, to confirm a clean and
dry plate in which the food is servd. Help in cleaning table top, vegetables,
fruits, gas range andother working areas, utensils and equipments. Always wash it in between to keep clean and dry it if there is any opportunity and avoid bad smell.
Appron– should be below knees to save you immediately.
Trouser– protective, should be fresh, loose, never tight that restricts
movement particularly while seating.
Shoes– protective foot wear- strong, stout, durable, repair- safety during
working, sensible hard heel- keep firm footing and avoid slip. Elevated heels
keeps toes closed, pain and give instability during pressure.
Shocks– absorb sweating, smooth to walk, save foot,
Goggles– for oven
Gloves– protect hand
Hair net– for lady chefs
Gunboots– protect leg in ice carving, to enter deep freeze cabinet, cleaning


The discharge of warm water into a river is usually called a thermal pollution. It occurs when an industry removes water from a source, uses the water for cooling purposes and then returns the heated water to
its source. Power plants heat water to convert it into steam, to drive the turbines that generate electricity. For
efficient functioning of the steam turbines, the steam is condensed into water after it leaves the turbines. This
condensation is done by aking water from a water body to absorb the heat. This heated water, which is at least 15oC higher than the normal is discharged back into the water body

EFFECTS:- The warmer temperature decreases the solubility of oxygen and
increases the metabolism of fish. This changes the ecological balance of the river. Within certain limits thermal additions can promote the growth of
certain fish and the fish catch may be high in the vicinity of a power plant.
However sudden changes in temperature caused by periodic plant shutdowns both planned and unintentional can change result in death of these fish that are acclimatized to living in warmer waters. Tropical marine animals are generally unable to withstand a temperature increase of 2 to 30C and
most sponges, mollusks and crustaceans are eliminated at temperatures above 370C. This results in a change in tthe diversity of fauna as only those species that can live in warmer water survive

CONTROL MEASURES:-Thermal pollution can be controlled by passing the heated water through a cooling pond or a cooling tower after it leaves the condenser. The heat is dissipated into the air and the water can then be
discharged into the river or pumped back to the plant for reuse as cooling water.There are several ways in which thermal pollution can be reduced. One method is to construct a large shallow pond. Hot water is pumped into one end of the pond and
cooler water is removed from the other end. The heat gets dissipated from the pond into the atmosphere. A
second method is to use a cooling tower. These structures take up less land area than the ponds. Here
most of the heat transfer occurs through evaporation Here warm waters coming from the condenser is
sprayed downward over vertical sheets or baffles where the water flows in thin films. Cool air enters
the tower through the water inlet that encircles the base of the tower and rises upwards causing evaporative
cooling. A natural draft is maintained because of the density difference between the cool air outside and the warmer air inside the tower. The waste heat is dissipated into the atmosphere about 100 m above the base of the tower. The cooled water is collected at the floor of the tower and recycled back to the power plant condensers. The disadvantage in both
these methods is however that large amounts of water are lost by evaporation.


Environmental Pollution:- Pollution is the effect of undesirable changes in our surroundings that have harmful
effects on plants, animals and human beings. This occurs when only short-term economic gains are made at the cost of the long-term ecological benefits for humanity. No natural phenomenon has led to greater ecological changes than have been made by mankind. During the last few
decades we have contaminated our air, water and land on which life itself depends with a variety of waste products. Pollutants include solid, liquid or gaseous substances present
in greater than natural abundance produced due to human activity, which have a detrimental effect on our environment. The nature and concentration of a pollutant
determines the severity of detrimental effects on human
health. An average human requires about 12 kg of air each day, which is nearly 12 to15 times greater than the amount of food we eat. Thus even a small concentration of pollutants in the air becomes more significant in comparison to the similar levels present in food. Pollutants that enter
water have the ability to spread to distant places especially in the marine ecosystem.

From an ecological perspective pollutants can be classified
as follows:
Degradable or non-persistent pollutants: These can be
rapidly broken down by natural processes. Eg: domestic
sewage, discarded vegetables, etc.
Slowly degradable or persistent pollutants: Pollutants that
remain in the environment for many years in an unchanged
condition and take decades or longer to degrade. Eg: DDT
and most plastics.
Non-degradable pollutants: These cannot be degraded by
natural processes. Once they are released into the
environment they are difficult to eradicate and continue t


Air pollution occurs due to the presence of undesirable solid
or gaseous particles in the air in quantities that are harmful
to human health and the environment. Air may get polluted
by natural causes such as volcanoes, which release ash, dust,
sulphur and other gases, or by forest fires that are
occasionally naturally caused by lightning. However, unlike
pollutants from human activity, naturally occurring
pollutants tend to remain in the atmosphere for a short
time and do not lead to permanent atmospheric change.
Pollutants that are emitted directly from identifiable
sources are produced both by natural events (for example,
dust storms and volcanic eruptions) and human activities
(emission from vehicles, industries, etc.). These are called
primary pollutants . There are five primary pollutants that
together contribute about 90 percent of the global air
pollution. These are carbon oxides (CO and CO2), nitrogen
oxides, sulfur oxides, volatile organic compounds (mostly
hydrocarbons) and suspended particulate matter.
Pollutants that are produced in the atmosphere when
certain chemical reactions take place among the primary
pollutants are called secondary pollutants . Eg: sulfuric acid,
nitric acid, carbonic acid, etc.

Carbon monoxide is a colourless, odorless and toxic gas
produced when organic materials such as natural gas, coal or
wood are incompletely burnt. Vehicular exhausts are the
single largest source of carbon monoxide. The number of
vehicles has been increasing over the years all over the
world. Vehicles are also poorly maintained and several have
inadequate pollution control equipment resulting in release
of greater amounts of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is
however not a persistent pollutant. Natural processes can
convert carbon monoxide to other compounds that are not
harmful. Therefore the air can be cleared of its carbon
monoxide if no new carbon monoxide is introduced into the
Sulphur oxides are produced when sulphur containing fossil
fuels are burnt.
Nitrogen oxides are found in vehicular exhausts. Nitrogen
oxides are significant, as they are involved in the production
of secondary air pollutants such as ozone.
Hydrocarbons are a group of compounds consisting of
carbon and hydrogen atoms. They either evaporate from
fuel supplies or are remnants of fuel that did not burn
completely. Hydrocarbons are washed out of the air when it
rains and run into surface water. They cause an oily film on
the surface and do not as such cause a serious issue until
they react to form secondary pollutants. Using higher
oxygen concentrations in the fuel-air mixture and using
valves to prevent the escape of gases, fitting of catalytic
converters in automobiles, are some of the modifications that can reduce the release of hydrocarbons into the
Particulates are small pieces of solid material (for example,
smoke particles from fires, bits of asbestos, dust particles
and ash from industries) dispersed into the atmosphere.
The effects of particulates range from soot to the
carcinogenic (cancer causing) effects of asbestos, dust
particles and ash from industrial plants that are dispersed
into the atmosphere. Repeated exposure to particulates can
cause them to accumulate in the lungs and interfere with
the ability of the lungs to exchange gases.
Lead is a major air pollutant that remains largely
unmonitored and is emitted by vehicles. High lead levels
have been reported in the ambient air in metropolitan cities.
Leaded petrol is the primary source of airborne lead
emissions in Indian cities.
Pollutants are also found indoors from infiltration of
polluted outside air and from various chemicals used or
produced inside buildings. Both indoor and outdoor air
pollution are equally harmful.


Introduction:Water is the essential element that makes life
on earth possible. Without water there would be no life. We
usually take water for granted. It flows from our taps when
they are turned on. Most of us are able to bathe when we
want to, swim when we choose and water our gardens. Like
good health we ignore water when we have it.
Although 71% of the earth’s surface is covered by water only
a tiny fraction of this water is available to us as fresh water.
About 97% of the total water available on earth is found in
oceans and is too salty for drinking or irrigation. The
remaining 3% is fresh water. Of this 2.997% is locked in ice
caps or glaciers. Thus only 0.003% of the earth’ total volume
of water is easily available to us as soil moisture,
groundwater, water vapour and water in lakes, streams,
rivers and wetlands.
In short if the world’s water supply were only 100 litres our
usable supply of fresh water would be only about 0.003 litres
(one-half teaspoon). This makes water a very precious
resource. The future wars in our world may well be fought
over water. By the middle of this century, almost twice as
many people will be trying to share the same amount of fresh
water the earth has today. As freshwater becomes more
scarce access to water resources will be a major factor in
determining the economic growth of several countries
around the world.


Water that is found in streams, rivers, lakes, wetlands and
artificial reservoirs is called surface water. Water that
percolates into the ground and fills the pores in soil and rock
is called groundwater. Porous water-saturated layers of sand,
gravel or bedrock through which ground water flows are
called aquifers. Most aquifers are replenished naturally by
rainfall that percolates downward through the soil and rock.
This process is called natural recharge. If the withdrawal rate
of an aquifer exceeds its natural recharge rate, the water
table is lowered. Any pollutant that is discharged onto the
land above is also pulled into the aquifer and pollutes the
groundwater resulting in polluted water in the nearby wells.
India receives most of her rainfall during the months of June
to September due to the seasonal winds and the
temperature differences between the land and the sea.
These winds blow from the opposite directions in the
different seasons. They blow into India from the surrounding
oceans during the summer season and blow out from the
subcontinent to the oceans during the winter. The monsoon
in India is usually reasonably stable but varies geographically.
In some years the commencement of the rains may be
delayed considerably over the entire country or a part of it.
The rains may also terminate earlier than usual. They may be
heavier than usual over one part than over another. All these
may cause local floods or drought. However in India even areas that receive adequate rainfall during the monsoon
suffer from water shortages in the post monsoon period due
to lack of storage facilities.
When the quality or composition of water changes directly or
indirectly as a result of man’s activities such that it becomes
unfit for any purpose it is said to be polluted.


What you will when we will tell you that we are going to use every single space of your home. Therefore came up with matte colour wardrobe attached open racks that will be going to make up a lot of space for you. That will be going to perfectly suit your white background and wooden floor.


What is your kitchen if your cabinets and appliances are not fitted properly?I had the answer for you because the kitchen cabinets today we made are not more than the wings to future. The stainless steel gives and additional style and finish to the cabinets and the sliding racks just changed the game for you.


White and brass today are taking place of every colour in the kitchen. I came up with white colour kitchen design with a brass touch to every appliance. This kitchen contains both cabinets and open shelves. The floor is also given a reddish touch with the help of floor paper and a table in between it so it can be used to take out activities and used as a dining area too.


What will be the things that might entertain you while dining with your family and friends? For that I will provide you the world class dining with the beautiful combination of colours and lighting. Today our team came up with a open area dining concept, which consist of a large white colour U-shaped shelve to take out kitchen activity and have your meal. The attached cabinet gives it a “peninsular kitchen” look which shows it modernity. The shadow lighting also gives it a amazing look which makes your kitchen look more amazing. The floor paper gives an overwhelming and astonishing look to the dining area.


Are you in love with you washroom or not? If not then I am there for your help, by building an international standard of washroom console. The combination of matte black and dark colour gives an over whelming shape to your washroom. Every appliance is given a dark colour finish whether it’s that commode, taps and hangar etc. The walls are given a matte finish to make it look astonishing. The floor is cover with white shiny tiles which looks pleasant to the eye. The ceiling is brightening the floor with led light as well as the mirror has given the background light to give luxurious look.


What is a room without some shine in that? Today I came up with a living room design with a wall covered long wardrobe. With a wooden colour floor paper a textured look is given to it and the rest of the work is done with the natural lighting through the window and the astonishing look by appliances and wooden cabinet.