All posts by UMESH RAJ

A case study of the knowledge of the Zimbabwe Educational Framework among teachers, school administrators and School Development Committees in Masvingo district.

Kudzayi Savious Tarisayi

Everjoy Munyaradzi


This study sought to assess the knowledge of education practitioners of the education legal framework obtaining in Zimbabwe. The participants in this study were sampled from workshops on financial management for teachers, school heads and School Development Committees in Masvingo district. The educational legal framework in Zimbabwe is composed of a number of statutory instruments as well as the Education Act Chap 25; 04 and the Zimbabwean Constitution. From this plethora of legal instruments guiding the Zimbabwean education system this study confined itself to the Zimbabwean constitution, Education Act Chap 25; 04, SI 87 of 1992, SI 70 of 1993 and Administration and finance Circular 6 of 1994. The study concludes that teachers, school administrators and SDCs know that education is a fundamental right. However, the study also revealed that teachers, school administrators and SDCs

were conversant on the legal instruments obtaining in Zimbabwe.

Key words: Education legal framework, Education Act, SI 87 of 1992, Zimbabwe


1.0 Introduction

This study sought to assess the knowledge of education practitioners of the education

legal framework obtaining in Zimbabwe. The participants in this study were sampled

from workshops on financial management for teachers, school heads and School Development Committees in Masvingo district. The educational legal framework in Zimbabwe is composed of a number of statutory instruments as well as the Education Act Chap 25; 04 and the Zimbabwean Constitution. From this plethora of legal instruments guiding the Zimbabwean education system this study confined itself to the Zimbabwean constitution, Education Act Chap 25; 04, SI 87 of 1992, SI 70 of 1993 and Administration and finance Circular 6 of 1994.

2.0 Legal Instruments

These are many pieces of legislation which were taken together form the education legal framework. This section takes a cursory analysis of the education legal framework.

2.1 The constitution of Zimbabwe

The Zimbabwean constitution as amended by the Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 20) Act enshrines that education is a fundamental right. Section 19 (2) states that, “The state must adopt reasonable policies and measures, within its limits of the resources available to it, to ensure that children-(d) have access to appropriate education and training.” Thus, the supreme law of the country acknowledges and protects the right of children to education. The Constitution is read together with the Education Act which provides that primary education is compulsory in Zimbabwe.

2.2 The Education Act (Chap 25; 04)

The Education Act (hereafter the Act) was passed as Act 5 of 1987 and has been amended by quite a number of times. The Act has been amended by Act 26/1991, Act 24/1994, Act 19/1998 and Act 22/2001. Section 4 of the Education Act as amended recognizes education as children’s fundamental right. Mapuva and Mapuva (2014) state that, “The right to education in Zimbabwe has traditionally been a creature of statute, with the Education Act forming the legislative framework for the provision of education in the country.”Section 36(1) of the Education states “The responsible authority of every registered school to which a grant is made in terms of section thirty five shall establish a committee, to be known as a school development committee. Thus, it can be argued that it is jurisprudent on education practitioners to be knowledgeable of this legal instrument. In addition, section 36(1) of the Education Act proscribes for the establishment of school Development Committees (SDCS). Therefore, this entails that the Education Act provides a legal framework for the participation of parents in the education of their children. The Education Act can be viewed as covering all the essentials of the education system in Zimbabwe. Consequently, it can be reasoned that knowledge of this Act for education practitioners it fundamental.

2.3 Stationary Instrument 87 of 1992

The statutory instrument is derived from the Education Act (Section 36) which provides for the establishment of School Development Committees for registered non-governmental schools. Statutory Instrument 87 (1992:613) spells out some of the objects of the SDC as to:

  • Provide and assist in the operation and development of the schools;
  • Advance the moral, cultural, physical and intellectual welfare of pupils at the school; and
  • Promote the welfare of the school for the benefit of its present and future pupils and their parents, and its teachers.

Therefore, according to this legal instrument the SDC is an organ that promotes participation and empowerment of both teachers and parents in the improvement of the quality of education. In addition, SDCs have the mandate to charge and administer levies from parents of students enrolled in their schools (Statutory Instrument 87 of 1992:621). Hence, it is essential that education practitioners be conversant with this legal instrument as it provides for the role of parents in the affairs of the school.

2.4 Statutory Instrument 70 of 1993

SI 70 of 1993 is also derived from the Education Act, just like SI 87 of 1992. The statutory instrument provides guidelines for parental involvement in government schools. Statutory Instrument 70 of 1993:494 empowers School Development Association (SDA) to;

  • Promote, improve and encourage the development and maintenance of the schools;
  • Assist in the advancement of the moral, cultural, physical, spiritual and intellectual welfare of the pupils at the schools; and
  • Promote and encourage programmes of interest, both educational and social, for the benefit of the students and their parents and teachers.

Hence, it can be revealed that SDAs are empowered to make full use of locally available resources to improve the provision of education in schools. There are a few schools which are government schools in the area under study.

2.5 Administration and Finance Circular 6 of 1994

The Administration and Finance Circular 6 of 194 is a manual on financial administration in non-governmental schools. According to Gumiro (1994) the manual contains detailed but very basic accounting procedures and other administrative matters which all school heads and SDCs need to be well acquainted with for the proper administration of the school. The Under Secretary (Revenue and Suppliers), Gumiro (1994) states that one copy of the circular should be kept by the head and another by the SDC chairperson. The distribution of the circular and explanation by the Under Secretary expounds glaringly the importance of the knowledge of its contents to the school administrator and SDCs. Thus, it becomes imperative that teachers, school heads and SDCs be conversant of the circular to a greater extent. The increase in the number of newspaper articles on alleged abuse of school funds reveals tellingly that there is non-conversance and non-adherence to the circular in schools. Examples of newspaper headlines include; Three school heads suspended over fees mismanagement (Newsday, 10 July, 2014); Two school heads jailed over fraud (The Herald, 16 July, 2012) and Three headmasters fired, four under investigation for abusing school funds (, 11 April, 2013).

3.0 Purpose of the study

The overall aim of the study was to analyse the knowledge of education practitioners of the legal framework obtaining in the education system in Zimbabwe.

4.0 Context of the study

The researcher used a case study approach. Yin (2003:13) states that the case study investigates, “contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context, addresses a situation in which the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident, and uses multiple sources of evident.” The researcher carried out the study in Masvingo district. The participants were drawn from workshops on school financial management that were carried out in the district. The workshops drew five participants from each and every school, the head and deputy head and a teacher as well as the chairperson and vice-chairperson of the SDCs. The researcher purposively sampled participants from the teachers, head and deputy heads and SDCs who participated in the workshops. A purposive sample of 40 participants was selected by the researcher based on the knowledge of the population and the purpose of the study (Patton, 1990). The researcher utilised a questionnaire which had both open and closed questions. The questions covered by the questionnaire included aspects on education in the Zimbabwean Constitution, the Education Act, SI 87 of 1992, and SI 70 of 1993 and the Finance and Administration Circular 6 of 1994.

5.0 Discussion

The majority of participants (80%) revealed that they knew that education was a fundamental right according to Zimbabwe’s legal framework. However, only 40 % of the participants were able to identify the legal instruments which provide that education was a fundamental right.

In addition, all the participants revealed that at their respective schools they had a file with all the four legal instruments. The teachers, school administrators and SDCs indicated that they had the Constitution of Zimbabwe, Education Act, SI 87 of 1992 and the Finance and Administration Circular Number 6 of 1994. However, only 50 % of the participants indicated that they were conversant with the dictates of the legal instruments.

Furthermore, 90 % of the participants revealed that they did not know that the Education Act had been amended Act 19/1998 and Act 22/2001. This finding shows that schools were still utilizing the Education Act as amended by Act 24/1994 that is the revised edition of 1996.

70 % of the participants revealed that they only heard about SI 87 of 1992 during SDC elections. Statutory Instrument 87 of 1992 covers procedures, qualifications and disqualifications of members for SDC membership. Therefore, the study revealed that the SI was mainly used as an election tool while negating its other core objects already alluded to in this paper.

Moreover, the majority of participants (80%) stated that they had attended only one workshop which covered the legal instruments pertaining to the education system. Thus, the study revealed teachers, school administrators and SDCs prior to the workshop which was used for this study had not attended any other workshop covering legal instruments obtaining in the education system.

6.0 Conclusion

From the preceding discussion of the main findings of this study the researcher concludes that teachers, school heads, deputy heads and SDCs know that education is a fundamental right. The study also concludes that education practitioners and SDCs & SDAs were not up-to-date with amendments to the Education Act as revealed by the lack of knowledge on amendments by Act 19/1998 and Act 22/2001. In addition, the study concludes the schools in Masvingo district have copies of the legal instruments obtaining in the education system in the country.

7.0 Recommendations

The researcher makes the following recommendations from this study;

  • Workshops on education legal instruments should be carried out regularly.
  • Workshops should include all stakeholders in the education system in order to clarify any sources of conflict in the school system.
  • The Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education should disseminate information pertaining to any amendments on the Education Act.



  •, 11 April, 2013
  • Mapuva, L and Mapuva, J (2014) Zimbabwe’s New Constitutional dispensation and children’s right to education; University for Peace and Conflict
  • Patton, M.Q (1990) Qualitative evaluation and research methods (2nd Edition); Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications
  • Newsday, 10 July, 2014
  • The Herald, 16 July, 2012
  • Yin, R.K. (2003) Applications of Case Study Research. Applied Social Research Methods Series, 34.London: Sage Publications
  • Legal Instruments
  • Government of Zimbabwe (2013) Zimbabwean constitution
  • Government of Zimbabwe Education Act Chap 25; 04
  • SI 87 of 1992
  • SI 70 of 1993
  • Administration and finance Circular 6 of 1994.



Anjali Sharma,  Dr. Jyotsana Khandelwal

ABSTRACT –  70 % of India Population Lives in 627000 Villages in rustic Areas.90% of the Rural Population is amassed in towns with a Population of under 2000, with agribusiness being the principle Business. This demonstrates the Potential India and needs to bring the much – required Volume Driven Growth. As far as possible in the Urban Market has come to and now advertisers are moving Rural. They are taking after “GO RURAL” Strategy.

There is an increment in Income of Rural People , development in rustic interest is required to expand twofold overlay each Quarter in light of the fact that buyers are climbing towards premium items. Notwithstanding, in the later past there has not been much change in the volume of premium cleansers in extent to economy cleansers, in light of the fact that increment in costs has driven a few shoppers to search for less expensive substitutes. The Maximum Advertisement is Personal Care Category originates from Toiletry Soaps .It will be additionally great to see some ground substances about country promoting before advertisers wander into rustic markets with their brands. Like in urban territories, People who sit in front of the TV in rustic zones, likewise impact the decision of numerous individual consideration items.


Key Words: Advertising, Rural India, Market Segmentation, Consumer buying behaviour.,


Foundation of study: The latrine cleansers business sector is evaluated at 530,000 TPA including little imports. Hindustan UniLever is, obviously, the business sector pioneer. The business sector is littered over with a few, driving national and worldwide brands and an expansive number of little brands, which have constrained markets. The famous Brands in the provincial ranges incorporate Lifebuoy, Lux, Cinthol, Liril, and Nirma, Santoor. Latrine cleansers, in spite of their dissimilar brands, are not all around separated by the buyers. It is, in this way, not clear on the off chance that it is the brand faithfulness or experimentation tricked by high volume media battle, which support them. A result is that the business sector is divided. It is clear that this must prompt an exceptionally aggressive business sector. Latrine cleanser, once just a urban marvel, has now entered for all intents and purposes all ranges including remote provincial regions. The incremental interest streams from populace expand and ascend in utilization standard affected as it is by a more noteworthy sympathy toward cleanliness. Expanded deals incomes would likewise grow from up degree of value or per unit esteem. As the business sector is constituted now, it can be partitioned into four value portions: premium, prominent, rebate and economy cleansers. Premium cleansers are evaluated to have a business sector volume of around 80,000 tons. This deciphers into an offer of around 14 to 15%. Be that as it may, by quality it is as much as 30%.

Market Segmentation: Soaps are likewise arranged into men’s cleansers, women’s cleansers and basic cleansers. There are a couple claim to fame cleansers as straightforward Glycerin cleansers, shoe cleansers, uniquely seasoned cleansers, cured cleansers and child cleansers. Forte cleansers are high esteemed yet appreciate just a little share of the business sector in worth terms.

The business sector is developing at 7% a year. This implies the incremental interest era is 5% far beyond the populace development. With expanding attention to hygienic measures, the business sector could develop at a rate higher than 8% yearly. Interestingly, 60% of the business sector is presently sourced from the rustic segment. This implies the change between the two fragments is not substantial. Since upper-end business sector center is the urban ranges, edges originate from the urban area.

Variables influencing purchasing conduct: Price is the most critical component which impacts the purchasing conduct of purchaser, by which a customer goes for the different section of cleanser like premium, mainstream, sub-famous and carbolic which are fundamentally chosen by the expense consider and fat substance the cleanser. The purchasing recurrence is either month to month that is finished by the families or if there should arise an occurrence of single guys it is more than once in a month. The events when premium cleansers are obtained are typically when there are celebrations and functions. Moti Soaps are typically introduced amid celebrations and events for presents and endowments. The special procedures support deals. Different strategies like the value off’s, purchase one get two free, free endowments and different plans support deals in short run furthermore help in clearing stocks. One of the essential focuses a cleanser advertiser ought to note is that the cleansers are normally acquired by ladies in urban territories as a large portion of the everyday utilization of individual consideration items are made by ladies. A point to note is that ladies utilize more individual consideration item than men do and thus premium cleansers are for the most part focused at them. Men ordinarily settle on buy choices in country territories. Henceforth the advertiser needs to receive diverse procedure for such a business sector.

Advantages looked for by different clients from different brands are:

Magnificence – Lux; Freshness – Liril, Cinthol

Characteristic – Medimix, Margo

Child – Johnson and Johnson, Doy

Cream – Dove, Doy Care (saturating)

Sedated – Dettol, Savlon,

Glycerin – Pears, Emami

Infiltration: One of the components, which influence the interest of cleansers, is the entrance, which the items have in business sector. In the event of cleansers this has not been a noteworthy issue as the entrance in the provincial zone is as high as 97% and that for urban zone is around 99%. In this manner the roughly the entrance is around 99% for general India.

The cost of the premium fragment items is twice that of economy portion items. The economy and well known portions are 4/5ths of the whole cleansers market. The infiltration level of can cleansers is 88.6%. Be that as it may, the per capita utilization of cleanser in India is at 460 gms for each annum, while in Brazil it is at 1,100 gms for every annum. In India, cleansers are accessible in five million retail locations, out of which, 3.75 million retail locations are in the rustic ranges. In this manner, accessibility of these items is not an issue. 70% of India’s populace dwells in the provincial ranges; consequently around half of the cleansers are sold in the rustic markets.

Development: With expansion in expendable wages, development in country interest is relied upon to increment in light of the fact that buyers are climbing towards premium items. In any case, in the later past there has not been much change in the volume of premium cleansers in extent to economy cleansers, in light of the fact that increment in costs has driven a few shoppers to search for less expensive substitutes. The real players in individual wash (Soap) business sector are HUL, Nirma and Godrej.


Publised by WPP COMPANY ( OGLIVY INDIA ) Developing markets, for example, India are a vital wellspring of development for Unilever. The organization is receiving exceptional advertising ways to deal with expansion utilization of its items in these districts, situating itself as a moral brand that advantages more extensive society.

Unilever’s Lifebuoy ‘Swasthya Chetna’ (‘Health Awakening’) effort is one case. This teaches individuals on the significance of wellbeing and cleanliness in averting loose bowels and urges them to embrace a basic hand-washing administration utilizing cleanser. Swasthya Chetna is India’s biggest ever country wellbeing and cleanliness instruction program. HUL have done forceful publicizing techniques to advance its “Swasthya Chetna” Program.

Lifebuoy wellbeing officers went to 43,000 Indian towns and schools more than five years where they utilized item shows, intelligent visuals, rivalries and dramatization workshops to spread the wellbeing and cleanliness message.

The project has come to 110 million country Indians since it started in 2002. Consciousness of germs has expanded by 30% and cleanser use has expanded among 79% of folks and among 93% of youngsters in the ranges focused on. Cleanser utilization has expanded by 15%.

The crusade got acknowledgment for its development and adequacy, winning Silver in the Rural Marketing Advertisers Association of India recompenses in 2006, and the excellent prize at the Asian CSR honors 2007. It was additionally perceived by the Indian government who made a unique version postal spread devoted to the crusade. .[1]

Publised in by Sawmya roy on August 18,2009 – Godrej No. 1. is a hit however, from the stables of Godrej Consumer Products Ltd. It asserted the number three spot in the latrine cleanser classification for the quarter finished June 2009, eating into business sector pioneer Hindustan Unilever’s (HUL) piece of the pie.

It is currently the third most elevated offering cleanser behind Lifebuoy and Lux. Lifebuoy and Lux, both HUL items and business sector pioneers, saw piece of the pie decrease by very nearly 2 percent to 16 and 15.4 Santoor additionally stakes case to the number three spot. The ACNielsen Repot demonstrates Godrej No. 1 in the number three opening, yet just as far as volume. Since it is a markdown brand, it tumbles to number five as far as worth. Santoor and Dettol take the third and fourth spots on the Neilson Report Table.

Can cleansers have risen as the most promoted item in the individual consideration classification in the first 50% of 2009, abandoning summer skewed class top picks’ similar to talcum powders and thorny warmth powders/creams by an impressive edge. The main 10 rundown saw three of the brands from latrine cleansers – Lifebuoy Swasth, Chetna 07, Godrej No.1 Papaya Lotus and Lux Pink Soap.

The adjustment in pattern is on the grounds that customary summer classifications like talcum powder has come to stagnation because of purchasers’ work day towards different classes like the antiperspirants. The movement from talcum powders to latrine cleansers amid summers is additionally on the grounds that cleansers too are progressively being situated as a quality included, corrective class which could guarantee enduring scent, smooth skin and even decency at times. As per industry gauges, the cleanser portion is one of the greatest FMCG classes in India with washing and latrine cleansers constituting around 30 for every penny of the cleanser business sector..

Hindustan Unilever (HUL) is the greatest sponsor in the individual consideration class crosswise over print and TV media. Latrine Soaps had a 1/fourth partake in the whole individual consideration promoting in print, while the classification drove the publicizing with 30 for each penny offer on TV. HUL publicized with 42 brands in which Lux cleanser, Fair Lovely Multivitamin and Pepsodent Complete Germi Check had the most extreme share.[2]

GCPL is the second biggest shower cleanser maker in India, after Hindustan Unilever. The organization guarantees its Godrej No.1 brand is the top rated Grade 1; latrine cleansers ,have a higher fat substance than washing bars) and the business sector pioneer crosswise over north India. Rustic deals’ commitment to aggregate income has expanded to 42%, and GCPL has picked up a rate point each in piece of the overall industry of hair shading and cleansers. Godrej expanded its Market Share with the Advertising in Rural Areas with their Discount Schemes. GCPL dependably have been for the most part concentrating on “Tweak item and correspondence; construct acknowledgment through exhibition; assemble verbal exchange for the brand; and manufacture access through advancement and a savvy appropriation channel.” Conventional knowledge says rustic shoppers need redid items intended to suit their needs, their conditions and their wallets. Be that as it may, they likewise need items like those accessible in urban markets, such a variety of trust that little bargains in item quality are satisfactory. “Rustic purchasers need the same item as urban customers. On the off chance that you bargain on quality to make it reasonable now, they will avoid your image when their pay levels increment.

The arrangement lies in altering the measure of the offering, not the item itself. GCPL has done quite recently that, presenting littler bundles of the same items, at value focuses provincial customers can manage. Littler bars of cleanser, home grown henna bundles for 10 pennies, sachets of powder hair color and talcum powder for 20 pennies go about as passage focuses for country shoppers, who return for bigger packs when their financial plans license. Offers of shopper items in rustic markets top instantly after the harvest and amid celebrations and the wedding season (September through December), when a large number of India’s 600,000 towns are in a have-money will-spend mind-set.

Gone are the days when the rustic customer was content with utilizing mustard oil and plain cleanser. Today, he/she is looking for uncommon marked items for every day skin and social insurance needs. Rustic buyers crosswise over pay sections are demonstrating a checked affinity towards spending on premium top notch items, which are supported by solid brand values, For occurrence, take sustenance items. Not just has the interest for cream rolls gone up in provincial markets, the offer of moment noodles, too,is developing almost twice as quick in the country business sector contrasted with the urban one. Besides, in each six country purchaser of hair color now uses hues other than dark something, which would have been named liberality 10 years prior. Indeed, even apparently urbane brands in classifications like antiperspirants and cleansing agents are said to be developing much speedier in country India than urban. [5]


It have been out that Advertisement assume a critical part in Purchasing of latrine Soaps in Rural India. With regards to Rural Market individuals are more disposed towards security on the grounds that when asked to the respondents, they said they see the Fear Appeal and change to a brand and the battle by Hindustan Unilever Limited (Swastya Yojna) have assisted them with gaining them a piece of the overall industry in Rural Market. TV Media is the Most Effective Media in light of the fact that larger part of the respondents said that they are affected by TV notice’s as opposed to some other Media. Offers assume a vital part in impacting the clients and numerous organizations have been fruitful by giving different Offers to the last client, the offers may be Discounts, Coupons, etc…The Frequency of the notices Influence the obtaining Behavior of the Customers .i.e, when the same Advertisement is Shown Again and once more, it would tend the clients to purchase the Product. The Jingles, Tagline additionally plays a vital in buying Behavior on the grounds that individuals in rustic territories would effortlessly relate it with the brand. Promotions Campaigns with Celebrity and mascots impact individuals in Rural Market to purchase the Product.


Organizations like Hindustan Unilever, Godrej have great vicinity in the provincial business sector on account of their consistent Advertising and Sales Promotion endeavors, so for organizations like Nirma, Wipro, Reckitt Benkiser to pick up piece of the overall industry they have to expand their Promotion endeavors.

There is a discernment that individuals in the country markets are exceptionally value delicate, yet according to the study it was discovered that when it came to toiletry cleansers individuals were prepared to bargain for cost, if the nature of the item was great. There are numerous new contestants to the country market or in the latrine cleanser industry, For Eg: ITC have come up in can cleansers and they have to do thorough publicizing in rustic regions to pick up acknowledgment in the provincial business sector. With regards to Rural Area, People are more inspired by Offers and Schemes, so it would be a decent move for the organization to turn out with offers and plans frequently. There is dependably a feeling of apprehension in psyches Of Rural individuals , so organizations can exploit this and promote the Product. Eg: HUL did it with their Swastya Chetna Program for their Soap “Lifebuoy” and picked up piece of the overall industry from this move. On the off chance that the organizations need to taste Success in Rural Markets, they need to turn out with Separate Campaigns in provincial Areas, a completely new Campaign in Rural Market. Illustration: Godrej thought of Project Dharti for their Godrej No: 1 Soap and they have picked up piece of the overall industry out of it. There is Rise in Demand for Medicated Soaps in the business sector ,so it would be useful for organizations to present sedated cleanser as their new variant.



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       A hygienic practice is a broader term that insists not only on cleanliness but also on hygienic culture in general. Hygienic culture arises from one’s own practices and way of life. When these practices become habits, they automatically become character. Therefore this paper is an eye opener for the readers to maintain good hygienic practices in their day to day lives and thereby to experience good health and happiness. Results indicate that washing hands with soap after changing diapers for children ,touching the pet animal, washing hands after touching the currencies and coins, habit of nail biting, not brushing teeth twice a day, scratching the heads, walking barefoot require  the attention of the sample respondents through which they are easily susceptible to  diseases arising out of unhygienic practices. Therefore this paper recommends  a few suggestions like creating awareness among the fisherfolk regarding the impact of  poor hygienic practices in the form of street plays , role plays, advertisements and T.V. programmes through which the sample respondents learn the art of preventing or minimizing unhygienic related diseases like Dengue, Allergies, Chronic Diarrohea, Nausea, Hepatitis, Scabies etc. Thus the life of the fisherfolk who contribute 0.83 per cent to India’s total GDP and 4.65 per cent to agricultural GDP of our country could be sustained.


Key words: Hygienic practices, personal and household hygiene, unhygienic related diseases.

*Assistant Professor  of the Department of Commerce, Holy Cross College (Autonomous), Roch Nagar, Nagercoil, Kanyakumari District, TamilNadu, South India.



        Practice makes a person perfect. A human being learns hygiene through his/her own culture, habits and practices. When these practices become habits, they form the character of an individual and it becomes the way of life. As an outcome if the inhabitants as well as their surrounding are free from unhygienic aspects, they can minimise the unhygienic related diseases. Hygiene refers to the set of practices that keep oneself and one’s living and working area clean in order to prevent illness and maintain freshness and sound health. Hygiene is an old concept related to medicine, as well as to personal and professional care practices. It is also related to most aspects of living, although it is most often wrongly associated with cleanliness. Hygiene is also the name of a branch of science that deals with the promotion and preservation of health. Hygiene practices vary widely, and what is considered acceptable in one culture might not be acceptable in another. The ancient Greeks spent many hours in bathing, using fragrances and make-up in an effort to beautify themselves and be presentable to others. In fact, hygiene is actually a scientific study. Maintaining a high level of hygiene helps to increase self-esteem and confidence and also minimise the chances of developing imperfections. The word ‘Hygiene’ is derived from the Greek word ‘Hygeia’ meaning the goddess of health. Hygiene enables man to maintain good health and to improve that health for long living. Man makes a healthy relationship with the environment by practising hygiene. It is a key part for quality assurance to ensure perfect health and happiness of oneself and one’s household. In general, hygienic practices keep away bacteria, virus and germs and prevent the spread of disease-causing organisms.



                India is recognized as a global power in the key economic sectors. Despite these economic advances, poor hygienic practices and inadequate sanitary conditions that are prevailing in our country hamper the growth of the nation. Sanitation and hygiene are still a major concern, especially in the rural areas. According to United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) report, in India only 31 per cent of the population uses improved sanitation. According to the Public Health Association, only 53 per cent of the population washes hands with soap after defecation, 38 per cent washes hands with soap before eating and only 30 per cent washes hands with soap before preparing food. Wash Interventions significantly reduce diarrhoeal morbidity as it is well known that poor wash causes diarrhoea, which is the second biggest cause of death in children under five years. Unhygienic surrounding invites mosquitoes and flies. As a result, people are prone to both communicable and non communicable diseases. As per the statistics of the World Health Organization (WHO) diarrhoeal diseases remain a leading cause of illness and death in the developing world. Every year, about 2.2 million people die of diarrhoea; 90 per cent of these deaths are among children, mostly in developing countries. A significant number of deaths are due to a single type of bacteria, Shigella, which causes dysentery or bloody diarrhoea. It is readily controlled by improving hygiene, water supply and sanitation. At this juncture a few questions arise in the minds of the researcher like what are the personal hygienic practices that are prevailing among the sample respondents in the study area. How do they take care of household cleanliness and is there any significant difference between personal and household hygiene. To find fitting answers to this problem the research study is undertaken.


The general objective of this paper deals with the hygienic practices of the sample respondents in the study area. The following are the specific objectives of the study.

  • To find out the demographic profile of the sample respondents in terms of personal  and household hygienic practices in the study area
  • To measure the extent of personal and household hygienic  practices of  the respondents




Ho 1: Opinion regarding “personal hygienic practices” is equal to average level.

Ho 2 : Opinion regarding “household hygienic practices” is equal to average level.

Ho 3: There is no significant difference in mean score of personal hygiene and household hygiene


    This study is based on both Primary and Secondary data. The primary data were collected from the three coastal taluks (i.e Agaeesthwaram, Kalkulam, Vilavancode) in Kanyakumari District wherein the coastal belt is located. These belts consist of 47 villages and from each taluk two villages were selected for this study: one with the highest population while the other village with the lowest population. From each taluk, 75 sample respondents were selected. Out of which 50 sample respondents were from the village of highest population and 25 sample respondents from the village of lowest population on the basis of multistage random sampling. The selected villages are Kanyakumari (H) and Siluvaiyanager (L) of Agaeesthwaram taluk. Colachel (H) and Chinnavalai (L) of Kalkulam taluk. Neerodi (H) and Helen Colony (L) of Vilavancode taluk. Further, from these six villages 225 samples are chosen on the basis of proportionate stratified random sampling. The collected data had been analyzed with the help of the statistical tools like percentage analysis, one way ANOVA, one sample t-test and paired sample t-test. The secondary data were collected from various books, journals and websites.

         (H) Indicates the village with the highest population in the taluk and (L) indicates the village with the lowest population in the taluk



Demographic profile is one of the important variables which decide about the practices and usage of the respondents. The following table clearly depicts the demographic profile of the respondents with hygienic practices in the study area.

   Note: ** denotes significant at 1% level

                *denotes significant at 5% level

    Since p-value is less than 0.01, the null hypothesis was rejected at 1% level of significance in case of personal hygiene and 5% level of hygiene in case of households hygiene. Hence, it is concluded that there is a significant difference between age group and hygienic practices. The younger generation that is below 25 are conscious and careful about hygienic practices through an awareness of social media and their social gathering in public places. Hence they are clean and careful about the hygienic related diseases.

 Since p-value is less than 0.01, the null hypothesis was rejected at l % level of significance in case of both personal and house hold hygiene. It is concluded that there is a significant difference in case of education and hygienic practices. Now- a-days a good number of fisherfolk are being educated in schools and colleges compared to yesteryears. Hence they are conscious about hygienic aspects and the impact of unhygienic practices.

Since p-value is less than 0.05, the null hypothesis was rejected at 5% level of significance. Hence, it is inferred that there is a significant difference between the sizes of the family with hygienic practices. It is understood that the hygienic practices depend upon the size of the family because when members in the family are less in number, they are able to maintain both personal and household hygiene. So, family size determines the personal and household hygiene practices.


Personal hygiene helps us to keep bacteria, viruses and fungal far away from our bodies. It is an aid to protect our mental health and activity. Good personal hygiene will help us to keep feeling good about ourselves. Since those who do not take care of their personal hygiene i.e., dirty clothes, body odour and bad breath will suffer from discrimination and this will mainly lead to mental problems. The following table clearly depicts the personal hygiene practices of the sample respondents in the study area.

          Ho 1 : Opinion regarding “personal hygienic practices” is equal to average level.

             Note: ** denotes significant at 1% level

                        *denotes significant at 5%level

Since, p value is less than 0.01, the null hypothesis is rejected at 1 per cent level of significance. Hence, it is concluded that the opinion regarding personal hygienic practices are not equal to average level. Based on the mean score, the first three highest score is given to washing hands before eating, taking bath daily and washing hands before cooking, are reaching the above average level with mean scores of 4.23, 4.20 and 4.04, respectively. It shows that washing hands help the respondents to avoid bacteria and keep them cleaner and healthier. It is the outcome of influence of media and the literacy rate of women in the houses.

The lowest mean score is given to the habit of nail biting, not brushing teeth twice a day and washing hands after touching the currency (money) with mean score of 1.29, 2.32, 2.22, respectively. It shows that the respondents lack awareness regarding these variables. Studies show that brushing teeth twice a day for at least 3- 5 minutes help people to keep free from bacteria, viruses and illnesses. It reduces plaque by 70 per cent and gum problems by 36 per cent. ( Sobiya Moghul:2012). Brushing the teeth at least twice a day ensures our breath stays fresh and clean smelling (Ruth Taylor: 2014). Hence it requires the attention of the policy makers as well as the well wishers of the fisher folk. Through these aforesaid practices the sample respondents are easily prone to get germs and bacteria which are susceptible to unhygienic related diseases.


Hygiene in home and everyday life settings plays an important part in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. The main sources of infection in the home are people (who are carriers or are infected), foods (particularly raw foods) and water. Household water treatment and safe storage ensure that drinking water is safe for consumption. The following table clearly depicts the practices of household hygiene

Ho 2 : Opinion regarding “household hygienic practices” is equal to average level.

      Note: ** denotes significant at 1% level

       Since, p value is less than 0.01 the null hypothesis is rejected at 1 per cent level of significance. Hence, it is concluded that the opinion regarding household hygienic particles are not equal to average level. The highest score is given to the variables like Washing the vegetables /meat thoroughly, Drying the clothes in the sunlight, Washing the sink and  the bath room daily with its mean score of 4.47,4.41 and 4.17 respectively. It is inferred that through their personal experiences and advice of medical people they follow the basic household practices.   While the lowest mean score is given to Cleaning water tanks/pots regularly, Sharing the towels/Using other’s dress and Washing the vessels with hot water 2.88. 2,86 and 1.39 respectively. It is inferred that when one member in the family is affected by communicable diseases, it easily spreads to the others through sharing of towels or clothes. It is concluded that through all these attributes, one is easily prone to health related problems and they are exposed to bacteria, germs and virus. Hence their immune system is very poor and weak. Moreover   Cleanliness in the kitchen helps to prevent the spread of diseases ( Dodi Tov:2014). Hence the vessels in the kitchen and plates should be rinsed in hot water which avoids food poisoning. The following clearly shows that whether there is a significant difference between personal and household hygiene of the sample respondents in the study area.

Ho 3: There is no significant difference in mean score of personal hygiene and household hygiene

Since, p value is less than 0.01, the null hypothesis is rejected at 1 per cent level of significance. Hence it is concluded that there is a significant difference between personal hygiene and household hygiene. Based on the mean score, the opinion on measurement of hygiene shows that household hygiene (67.07) is higher than personal hygiene (45.69). From this, it is clear that people are giving more importance to household hygiene than personal hygiene. It is understood the proximity of houses of the sample respondents are very close to one another. Moreover there are no source of outlet of drainage facilities and all these dirty waters run off in the street and fish being a perishable product bring bad smell to these households. Hence for household hygiene more priority is given in the study area than personal hygiene. It requires the attention of the policy makers.


  • Since p-value is less than 0.01, the null hypothesis was rejected at 1% level of significance in case of personal hygiene and 5% levels of hygiene in case of house hold hygiene. Hence, it is concluded that there is a significant difference between age group and hygienic practices
  • Since p-value is less than 0.01 the null hypothesis was rejected at l % level of significance in case of both personal and household hygiene. It is inferred that there is a significant difference in case of education and hygienic practices
  • Since p-value is less than 0.05 the null hypothesis was rejected at 5% level of significance. Hence, it is understood that there is a significant difference between size of the family and hygienic practices.
  • For personal hygiene the highest score is given to washing hands before eating, washing hands before cooking, wearing clean clothes daily, taking bath daily which reach the above average level with mean scores of 4.23, 4.04, 4.04 and 4.20 respectively
  • The lowest mean score is given to  washing hands with soap after changing diapers for children, touching the pet animal, washing hands after touching the currencies or coins  habit of nail biting, not brushing teeth twice a day, scratching the heads, walking barefoot with mean score of 2.51, 1.29, 2.32, 2.22, 2.74 and 2.72 respectively.
  • In case of household hygiene the lowest mean score is given to Cleaning water tanks/pots regularly, Sharing the towels/Using other’s dress and Washing the vessels with hot water 88.2,86 and 1.39 respectively. It is inferred that due to absence of these practices if one member in the family is susceptible to germs automatically the rest of the members in the family are prone to communicable diseases.
  • The opinion on measurement of hygiene shows that household hygiene (67.07) is higher than personal hygiene (45.69). From this, it is clear that people are giving more importance to household hygiene than personal hygiene.


  • The Primary Health Organisation can organise Health awareness camps to maintain the personal and household hygienic practices among the coastal inhabitants
  • The Social Welfare Department can conduct awareness programmes on poor hygienic practices and its outcome and how the germs and dirt enter from hands to mouth and create diseases, in the form of street plays or advertisement or T.V serial programmes .
  • The schools and colleges can impart the knowledge of hygienic practices and teach how to enhance health and well being.
  • The fisher folk can be motivated to brush twice a day to maintain oral health. As a result the general health of the fisherfolk can be improved.
  • Once in 5 years the banks can collect the old currency notes from its customers and exchange with the new currency note which might prevent the bacteria, virus, germs and dirt that are sticking in the
  • The Government can request the RBI to print currency notes in the form of eco friendly materials so that the currency notes which pass from hands to hands could be hygienic.
  • The fisherwomen can wash their household utilities after cooking or eating with the help of warm water which prevents the spread of diseases and avoid food poison.
  • The local authorities or municipalities should construct drainage channel to dispose the household wastages which in turn reduces the mosquitoes, flies, germs and worms.


              “With the onset of multi-resistant germs increasing, proper hand hygiene is one of the most effective measures to maintain good health.” According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), some scientists estimate that up to 80% of all infections are transmitted by hands.  So it is the sole responsibility of every citizen to keep oneself, household and public places clean and free from microorganisms and dirt by washing hands with soap regularly. Then automatically we can experience perfect health and happiness. The Government who is the guardian of the common people should see that the hygienic practices are followed by the people at regular intervals with the help of primary health care services and NGOs. Then the life span of human index might rise and people could experience good health and happiness. Thus our nation would be the trend setter in adherence and maintaining the hygienic practices and proudly we can call our nation as ‘Clean India’.


            The author is thankful to the University Grants Commission for financial support to carry out this work.


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Product Innovation in the Smart Phone Industry: Giving a New Path to Business

Naib Singh


Product innovation is the dynamic marketing practice which helps the business firm to compete in the market. Every product needs innovation to fulfill the requirements of the customers time to time. India is having the third largest market in the world in case of selling the smart phones. The country holds second largest market after China in this area. Now a smartphone user can perform various operations along with calling through its phone such as the function of remote control of the television set and even various medical tests are also available in many smartphones. Product innovation is enabling the smartphone firms to do business with the interest and confidence in the market.

Key words: Smartphone, Product Life Cycle (PLC), International Data Corporation (IDC).



A business organization survives on its product or service. Every manufacturing enterprise sells its products to the customers for attaining the growth as well as goodwill. Customers purchase the products as per their requirements. Requirements of the customers change as per their aspirations. Every product needs innovation as time passes to fulfill the requirements of the customers. Every product has its life cycle which is called Product Life Cycle (PLC).PLC of any product includes five stages namely, Product development, Introduction, Growth, Maturity and Decline. In the development stage the firm develops the new product with the latest idea. In this stage the business firm suffers investment costs and there are no sales in this stage. In the second stage product is introduces the market. The rate of sales is very slow which results in lower profits. Heavy expenditure is incurred on product promotion. Growth stage includes market acceptance of the product among the customers. A high sale yields high profits. Sales starts to be slow in the maturity stage of the product. Customers prefer some new features in the product in this stage to fulfill their needs in the competitive environment. In the decline stage product has no sale. Hence maturity stage requires product innovation.

Product innovation has the great importance in this modern competitive era. The main reason of the product innovation is the dynamic market. Product innovation is essential to compete in the market. Various changes are performed by the manufacturer in the product under this process. When existing product looks entirely different from its previous look, then this process is termed as innovation. There are various reasons for product innovation like, competition, business growth, market change, maximum utilization of resources, reducing the risk, technological development etc.

Statement of the Problem

Smart phone has brought revolution in the communication world. In this paper, product innovation by the smart phone firms has been analyzed in the context of Indian market. In India communication through mobiles have prominent place. For the purpose of the study, the author has analyzed the innovative practices by the various leading smart phone firms in India. Product innovative practice has the great role to play in the competitive marketing environment. After the technological revolution all over the world, the rate of obsolesce in the smart phone area has increased. Smart phone manufactures have to be alert in the area of product innovation for attaining the fruitful business in the modern environment.

Objectives of the Study

This paper is based the product innovative practices in the area of smart phones. The main objective of this paper is to study the innovative practices by the various smart phone companies in India. Innovative practices lead to enhance the business. An attempt has been made in this study to highlight the impact on smart phone business as the result of product innovation.


This paper is based on three main segments describing the introduction of the concept, objectives and methodology in the beginning part, information about the smart phones business and innovative practices by the various firms in India in the body text and discussion in the ending part of the study. The study is based on information obtained from various published and online sources. Secondary data have been used for the purpose of drawing the inferences.

Smart Phone and Product Innovative Practices        

Smart phones have attained the prominent place in the routine life of every person in the modern era. In India smart phone are used at large in the communication process. According to the research firm Canalys, India is having the third largest market in the world in case of selling the smart phones. The country holds second largest market after China in this area. In India, Samsung, Micromax, Motorola, BlackBerry, Karbonn, HTC, Sony, Spice, LG, Huawei and G’Five are the leading smartphones. Manufacturers of these brands are using product innovations for making their phones more competitive.

International Data Corporation (IDC) has depicted in its report that in the second quarter of 2015, India has imported 26.5 million smartphones and this figure is 44 % up for the same period of 2014. This trend shows that the smartphone market is increasing in India day by day

Figure1: Share of Smartphone Vendors in India (2015-Quarer-2)

Source: International Data Corporation AP Quarterly Mobile Phone Tracker, 2015Q2

Samsung is having 23 % share in the Indian market and is leading in the business of smartphones. According to the viewpoint of Mr. Anirbn Banerjee, the Associate Vice President of the Research and Advisory Services Division of CyberMedia Research, Nowadays Indian people giving preference to the characteristic phones which offers high speed and power.

Smartphone firms are focusing on fulfilling the aspirations of the customers by making their smartphone more and more innovative time to time. All the leading companies have launched quad-cores and android phones with high quality cameras. Edge-to-edge display feature has been introduced in the phones for attracting the buyers. Various apps related to various aspects of routine life have been uploaded in the phones. Now a smartphone user can perform multitasks through its phone such as the function of remote control of the television set and even various medical tests are also available in many smartphones.

Many companies has introduced phone cum mini-computers which fulfill the requirements of personal computer. These phone are easy to handle and carry at the workplace and moreover less costly to Desktop and Laptop. This type of revolution has totally changed the market scenario of smart phones in the communication world. This fast changing business environment requires more innovative handsets for the smartphone users.


Product innovative practices have the great importance for competing in the modern business environment. Smart phone market is changing very fast due to technological advances and consumer needs. Smart phones firms are practicing the innovative practices for making their products more useful and attractive for the modern business environment. This marketing practice is enabling the smartphone firms to do business with the interest and confidence in the market.


Kotler Philip, Armstrong Gary, Agnihotri Prafulla Y. and Haque Ehsan Ul (2011):Principles of Marketing- A South Asian Perspective, Pearson Prentice Hall, Published by Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.

Sontakki C.N. (1999): Marketing Management, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi.

Agarwal S.C. (1996): Marketing Management, Dhanpat Rai & Sons, Delhi.

Vashisht Monica Gupta and Chandhok Anil (2015); “Positioning in the Smartphone Market”, GGGI Management Review-A Bi-Annual Refereed International Journal of Management, Jan-June, Vol 1, issue 1, pp18-21.



Mastery of Language of Instruction and Its Influence on Student Academic Performance: Evidence from Secondary Schools in Tanzania

Paschal Banga Nade


This study focused at determining the relationship between the language of instruction which is English in this case and the student overall subject performance in secondary schools in Tanzania. A cross-section design was employed and data were collected through the National Examination of Tanzania Website. Three secondary schools from three different regions in Tanzania were purposively selected in this study. The findings show that student performance in English language as the language of instruction has an influence on overall subject performance. The students who scored F and E grades in English language, their respective overall subjects GPA fall under Fail and Pass categories. While the student who scored C and above grades, their overall GPA fall under Credit, Merit and Distinction categories. No significant relationship has been found between language of instruction performance and sex of the students. Further recommendation and analysis has been made clear in this document.

Key words: mastery, language of instruction, academic performance


 Learning process is facilitated by using a language that learners understand best as the medium of instruction. Language of instruction is a vehicle through which education is delivered and is an indispensable medium for carrying, or transmitting education from teachers to learners and among learners (Qoro, 2006). Essentially, language mastery / competence is ones’ underlying knowledge of the system of a language – its rules of grammar, its vocabulary, all the pieces of a language and how those pieces fit together ( Bodunde and Akeredolu-Ale, 2010).

 Øzerk (1999) argues that linguistic interaction constitutes a significant part of any learning activity and that the quality of the linguistic interaction in learning activities consequently represents an important factor in the learning effect of school subjects. He points to two important processes involved in teaching and learning, which are referred to as input and intake. He explains that input in this respect refers to the intensity, or frequency of the language of instruction the teacher confronts the student with during a learning period. The process of intake decides how much of the total amount of this the student understands and is able to attain. A precondition in transforming input into intake is understanding. Mlay, (2010) noted that children who had a language background of studying English from kindergarten or class one and a home environment that was supportive which allowed them to practice English with family or with friends, had a positive contribution in helping them learn English language while those who started English later (from class three) and usually spoke Kiswahili or their mother tongue at home or with friends indicated that their poor competence in English was due to the weak foundation from primary school.

Still a number of developing countries, especially in Africa maintained a foreign language as the medium of instruction, particularly in post- primary education (Galabawa and Lwaitama, 2005)  For example, English is the language of instruction in secondary schools in Tanzania as stipulated in the national education policy of 1995 and of course in the proposed new policy of education of 2014 which state that the medium of instruction for secondary education shall continue to be English, except for teaching of approved languages, and Kiswahili shall be a compulsory subject up to ordinary level. The rationale given in the document as to why English is to be used as the medium of instruction at post-primary education is that most instructional media and pedagogical materials are written in the English language and it is assumed that the situation is likely to remain so for a long time in the foreseeable future (Tibategeza, 2010).

Neke, (2003) noted  that the continued use of English language as medium of instruction in post-primary education in Tanzania makes it difficult for students at these levels to understand and internalize scientific and technological principles due to their poor proficiency. Some secondary school teachers teach in Kiswahili to make the subject matter easier instead of English which is officially assigned despite the fact that the examination are set in English (Senkoro, 2005)   Criper and William (1984) studied on the level of English across the education system in Tanzania confirmed that the levels of competence in English were insufficient in most schools for effective learning to take place. This study therefore, needs to establish relationship between Language of instruction and overall subjects’ exam performance.

 Statement of the problem

Recently, Language of instruction competency has been blamed as one among the factors that cause poor student exam performance in Tanzania. For example 2010-2014 National Form Four Examination results evaluation has evidenced that English language as subject was ranked second to Mathematics in terms of failure. The evaluation went further by suggesting language of instruction to be changed to Kiswahili language (Kamugisha and Mateng’e, 2014). Godfrey (2014) noted that the learning process in recent years becomes challenging for most students in secondary school as the majority of them largely lack a basic command of English language. Nevertheless, Qorro (2006) observed that only a handful of students take part in active learning and majority of students simply sit and copy notes that their teachers have written on the blackboard. UDSM Academic Audit report suggested that because of serious communication problems, they have to switch to Kiswahili as language of instruction or officially allow bilingual policy adopted at university of Dar es Salaam. Similarly, Senkoro (2005) evidenced that most students have a problem with the language of instruction; also proficiency in language is low and leaves much to be desired.

English language as medium of instruction is noted as an obstacle in learning for secondary school and higher institutions in Tanzania. Students lack proficiency in expressing themselves and therefore limit their participation in the general learning process especially learner centrered approach of learning. Qorro (2006) further assert that, as a matter of efficiency and efficacy, only the language which teachers and students understand can effectively function as the language of instruction. Only when teachers and students understand the language of instruction are able to discuss, debate, ask and answer questions, ask for clarification and therefore construct and generate knowledge.

Studies have concentrated on identifying those competency based limitations such as grammar, fluency in speaking and the presentations in writings, however, the overall mastery/competency relationship on other subjects measured in terms of exam performance at individual level has not being clearly addressed hence creating a gap for this study.  Thus, the study therefore needs to establish, indeed, if language of instruction mastery have an influence on overall subjects’ exam performance (evaluated in grades and Great Average Point (GPA)).

Bilingual Late-Exit Education Model

Although teacher quality plays a crucial role in facilitating the acquisition of English by students, it is arguable, based on child development research, that the manner in which the language is introduced to students in the earlier years of their development may be the reason of their inability to develop sufficient competencies in the language in later years (Tikolo, 2012). The presumption here is that cognitive development for language is the foundation of language learning, while other factors such as teacher competency facilitate the development of this already developed foundation.

A late-exit transition model involves the delay of transition from mother tongue as a medium of instruction to a different target language to year five to six (Ouane and Glanz, 2011). An efficient late-exit model which maintains the mother tongue beyond year five to six as a subject can lead to additive bilingualism, where effective first and second language pedagogy is used in the classroom along with adequate content area literacy instruction. It is for that reason, Tanzania employs a late-exit transitional bilingual model where mother tongue (Kiswahili) is the instructional language for 8 years and then a switch is made to English. The official language of instruction in Tanzania as articulated in its Education and Training Policy (United Republic of Tanzania, 1995/2014) in pre-primary and throughout primary education is Kiswahili, the local language spoken across the country, while English is to be taught as a compulsory subject. Thereafter, English is to become the medium of instruction from secondary school onward with Kiswahili taught as a compulsory subject.

Student Medium of Instruction Language mastery and overall subjects performance

Aina  et al, (2013) made a correlation between proficiency in English language and academic performance of students in science and technical education, they found that students in technical education performed better than their counterpart in science education; students who passed English language performed better than those who failed both in science and technical education. Similarly, a prediction research done by Kong et al, (2012)   indicated that English language proficiency scores are significantly predictive of academic reading test scores for K–12 EL (America) students. However, the magnitude of the relationship depends on the content alignment between the assessments and characteristics of the populations included in the study

Likewise the study that aimed to measure the relationship between English Language subject performance on the Accessing Communication and Comprehension in English State to State (ACCESS) for English Language Learners (ELLs) and Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) have shown that when student characteristics are held constant, a significant positive, though moderate, relationship exists between Els’ performances on the ACCESS for ELLs and CRCT. Also the findings show that the time spent in English language development programs along with disability status and grade levels explain more variance in CRCT scores than students’ ELP scores and gender (Margaret, 2011).

Regarding the students’ proficiency in secondary school in Tanzania (Gran, 2007) noted that the number which is  getting within reach of being able to read unsimplified text is less than 10%. It is extremely worrying to find that nearly one third of all students are at the picture book level after four years of official English medium education. These results are a clear indication that throughout their secondary school career little or subject information is getting across to about 50% of the pupils in his sample. Only about 10% of Form IVs are at a level where one might expect English medium education to begin. Commenting on the English situation in Tanzania, Rubanza (2002) asserts that students do lose their English skills after completing their studies because the society they work and live in does not demand the use of the English language. This suggests a major effect of poor implementation of the bilingual education in Tanzania.

 Brock-Utne (2005) did a comparative study on the language of instruction in two secondary school classrooms in Tanzania; the two languages were English (Second language) and Kiswahili (first language). As an experiment, the same teacher was teaching the same topic in biology to two different classes of Form I students in a large secondary school. The teacher taught the topics in English to one class and in Kiswahili to another class. In the English class; students were silent, grave and looked afraid, they were trying to guess the answers the teacher wanted. Also miss-pronunciation, miss-spelling, silence/poor cooperation was observed; for instance, Teacher (T): Speak loudly. (It sounded like “lovely”) One of the boys, who had been standing for a long time, tried to read in his book and when the teacher pointed at him. He said: Student (Ss): Bird. (He pronounced it “beerd”) T: Spell it. S: B – I – R – D. The teacher then wrote “bird” on the blackboard and pronounced it “bird”. While in Kiswahili class, students in Kiswahili classroom have demonstrated smiles and much laughter during this lesson and it went quickly (for the teacher, the students and the observers) and students were competing to answer.

Similarly, in a   study which instituted treatment as a variety of language of instruction (Kiswahili or English) among secondary form II pupils in four selected schools. Teaching content was selected from the national secondary school syllabus in Biology and Geography. It was found that, the average test scores administered at the end of the teaching period were generally higher in the Kiswahili treatment than those obtained in the English treatment (Galabawa Waitama, 2005).Likewise Kinyanduka and Kiwara (2013) found that 69.5% of students could not understand when taught in English language through classes. Also 78.9% of teachers said that English language was a setback to a student academic achievement. Surprisingly, 64.5% of teachers, 53% of parents and 78.1% of student respondents preferred teachers to use English as a language of teaching and evaluation. In the meantime, 71.4% of students felt that it was better for teachers to use both Swahili and English during classes. This study recommends the use of both, English and Swahili in teaching and evaluation.

 Also Peterson (2006) noted positive perception to Kiswahili by students as they expressed that they understand the courses which are given in Kiswahili a lot better than the courses offered in English as it equip them with the availability of terminology/vocabularies, and it is the language they use outside the classroom, and encounter everywhere as part of their daily lives, like at the market, at home, in churches and mosques and school. He further asserts that when English is used as the medium of instruction, on the other hand, students expressed that they learn very little. The main reasons for these difficulties as perceived by the students included problems with understanding the English language structure, for example the difference between writing and pronunciation, and that some of the books provided in English employ complicated language.

Mlay, (2010) assert that one of the reasons why students in secondary schools face so much difficulty using English is their reluctance in the language. She further noted that students are unwilling to actively participate in class discussions because teachers would criticize them or other students laugh at them because of their lack of ability to express themselves in English. However, students who have had early exposure to English from the beginning of primary school are able to cope using English as a medium of instruction in secondary school and their performance tends to be better off in comprehension tests conducted unlike those who started learning English from class three and thus have less exposure in the language.

Vuzo, (2002) pointed out that students can fail to answer well questions simply because they fail to understand the question, not because they do not know the answer. Language can affect a learner’s ability to interpret instructions and questions. It can also lead to failure to express their ideas appropriately. His overall findings from this study indicated that there were differences in teaching and learning when the different MOI were used. Student –teacher interaction in Kiswahili MOI was high on average as the majority of students actively gave answers and quite a number asked questions. In English MOI lessons it was minimal as most students were silent, not asking questions or giving any responses.

 Sex relation to Medium of Instruction Language Competency

Razmjoo and Movahed (2009) descriptive statistics analysis show that females outperformed males in language proficiency, but their independent sample t-test revealed that the difference is not significant. On the same vein, Hassani (2005)   made clear that there was no significant interaction among motivation, gender, and level of English proficiency. Also Sabatin (2013) found no statistically significant differences in performance in reading comprehension between male and female subjects who have cultural background knowledge and those who do not have any knowledge. Mohammadi (2007) investigated if the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) and Foreign Language Reading Anxiety (FLRA) among Iranian EFL learners correlate and can predict each other and the findings showed that both age and gender affect the FLCA and FLRA. In another study girls showed no advantage in general intelligence, but performed significantly better on all subjects except Physics (Deary et al, 2006).

In contrary, Dayıolu and Türüt-Aık (2004) noted that smaller number of female students manages to enter the university and when they do so, they enter with lower scores. However, once they are admitted to the university, they excel in their studies and outperform their male counterparts. Wilberg and Lynn (1999 ) found that female student tend to have better language abilities including essay writing skills, vocabulary and word fluency which contribute to better course work. Younger, Warrington and Williams (1999) focus on the gender gap in English secondary schools and their analysis was based on the performance of boys and girls in GCSE examinations in the UK and girls were found to get better grades than boys. Their findings was explained by boys’ disregard for authority, academic work and formal achievement, differences in students’ attitudes to work and their goals and aspirations and girls’ increased maturity and more effective learning strategies.

Education, Audio-visual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA) report (2010) showed that recent international assessment studies agree that girls tend to have a higher reading achievement than boys. For instance, among students in the fourth year of schooling girls had significantly higher reading achievement than boys in all countries in Europe except two countries, Spain and Luxembourg, where average achievement was equivalent between the sexes. Also further interesting gender differences regarding reading domains or reading purposes show that Girls have a significantly higher average achievement in literary reading in all European countries (EACEA, 2010). Superior average performance in language by girls at all three ages in reading, writing and talking, with a few specific tasks where boys are superior has been noted. However, overall reading comprehension was differentially easier for the female group than the matched group of males, and males tended to perform better on antonyms and analogies than their female counterparts with equal ability (Song, 2014).

 Wilder and Powell, (1989) observed few or no sex differences during the early years, but evidence for a divergence between the sexes starting around age 11. Females scored higher on tasks involving receptive and productive language, fluency, analogies, comprehension of written material, and creative writing. This superiority of females was thought to increase through high school and possibly beyond, and, although the extent of the female advantage tended to vary with the study and the ability under scrutiny, the most commonly cited magnitude was about one fourth of a standard deviation. Although these reviews agree that there are gender differences in verbal ability, they disagree about the kinds of verbal tasks that show such differences and also about the nature of developmental trends in gender differences.

 Study Design

 This study employed a cross-section design. The design was chosen since it allows data to be collected at once from different cases. It therefore fit for this study because the data has been collected from three secondary schools which are located in three different regions at one point in time. The target population was all form four graduates who sat for the National Examination in the year 2014 and one of their compulsory subject being English and that subject is a language of instruction for all other subjects they sat for. Three secondary schools were purposively selected because they share the attributes; one being geographical location as they are all located in urban areas and second, their medium of instruction is English and English is one of the subjects they set for that National Exam.  The selected secondary schools were Rau (Kilimanjaro), City (Dodoma) and Mwembetogwa (Iringa).

The total of 306 students of the three secondary schools who sat for Form Four National Examination in the year 2014 was selected as a sample size.  Primary data was collected through reviewing the Form four National   results.  Both published and unpublished materials including, books, journals, papers, chapters, reports and thesis were reviewed as secondary data to see the scope, nature of the problem and its relationships with other variables and for consistency and validation of the data. The review of the form four results was done by the researcher. The data were obtained from the National examination council of Tanzania websites ( Both objective one and two were analysed descriptively by using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) program. The association/ relationship between sex and English grades scores likewise GPA score versus English grades scores were computed by using Chi-square model and percentages. Its interpretation and relation with other findings are presented in the findings section.

 Findings and Discussion

The review of results show that 10.1% of 306 sample size have exam problems; therefore their results were not disclosed and regarded as missing cases in this findings and the valid cases were 89.9% of the sample size as shown in the table number 1.

The relationship between English subject performance and overall subjects’ performance


The results show that students who scored F grade in English language, their respective GPA largely fall under “fail category”, which is equivalent to 88.3 per cent while it is only 11.7 percent who fall under “pass category” of GPA who scored F grade in English Subject. No any student with F grade in English language fall under credit, merit and distinction category of GPAs.

As grade performance increases the number of student falling under GPA category of fail decreases. For instance the student who scored E their GPA under fail category dropped to 58.2%, and for grade D, it dropped to 4.8%. Unlike decreasing percent for Fail category GPA as grade goes up, the Pass category GPA rises as the grade go higher level; for instance for F grade, percent in pass category was 11.7, for E grades is 41.8% and for D grade is 79.0%. However, starting from C to B+ performance grade in English language, their per cents in Pass category of GPA begin to decline.

It is unfortunate that no student scored A grade in English language for the entire sample size, however, there are two students who scored Distinction category of GPA in overall subjects with their grades in English Language being B and B+ respectively. The following table 4 provides more clarification of these relationships.

Majority of student under study have poorly performed in English language as shown in results. Besides, the correlation performed in assessing the relationship between sex of the student and English language subject performance show no significant relation. In terms of grade category of GPA ranging from pass to distinction; there is mixed variation of results as female performed better in some grades and fail in other grades and similar results was found for male counterpart. This result show improvement for gender balance in Tanzania with the assumption that the factors that affect female students have been worked upon by the government and associated stakeholders

However, significant relationship between English Language performance of the students and the overall student subjects’ performance has been revealed by this study. When student perform better in English language subject, their respective GPA tend to be in the higher category and when student perform poorly in English language and their respective GPA tend to be in lower category especially fail and pass.

The implication of this result is that much of improvement is needed in language of instruction in classrooms so as to achieve better academic results. This means better understanding of overall subject content largely depend on the language that is used for instruction. Alternatively, the government of Tanzania needs to recast its policy for secondary school and higher institution language of instruction by switching to Kiswahili which is the first language to majority of Tanzanians.


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A Study of Time Management In Relation To Stress and Self Efficacy among Married Working and Non- Working Women

Dr. Gargi Sharma     Dr. Monika Sanger

The main aim of the present study was to examine if there was significant difference between working and non-working married women on time management, stress and self- efficacy. The sample was consisted of 150 married women (75 working married women and 75 non-working married women).Self- Efficacy scale (Sood), Stress Scale (Kaur, Kumar and Mehta) and Time Management scale (developed by investigator) were used to measure self-efficacy, stress and time management respectively. For analysis of the data t- test was used. Result showed that there was a difference between working and non-working married women regarding their time management, but there was no significant difference between working and non-working married women regarding self efficacy and stress.


Keywords: Time Management, Stress, Self Efficacy, Working Married Women, Non-Working Married Women.




One of the most challenging aspects in life is time management. In the current fast changing environment, time management is very important in both personal and professional life. Keeping pace with today’s fast changing society and fast growing economy, not only the professionals are trying to be maximally efficient in their multifaceted roles, but also the organizations are highly emphasizing on being productive as well as effective. Being effective also means being constructive and using time positively. “Time” being the most finite and scarce resource, needs to be planned and managed. Managing ones time does not mean the quantity of time utilized but how well it is utilized.

Durbin(1997) refers to time management as process of structuring and organizing time to result in better productivity and also to ensure a high quality of living for individuals. Thus the key to time management is to gain control of one’s time a working smarter and not harder as ‘time management is more concerned with thinking than doing.

Time management is the art of arranging, organizing, scheduling, and budgeting one’s time for the purpose of generating more effective work and productivity. Good time management involves keeping a schedule of the tasks and activities that have been deemed important. Keeping a calendar or daily planner is helpful to stay on task, but self-discipline is also required. The most efficient to-do list in the world will not help someone who does not look at or follow his own daily planner.

A survey of the population of married Indian women indicates wide individual differences in the mental and physical capacities of married Indian women. These married women achieve different levels of education, social and economic status in their society as a result of their varying inherited potentialities and the varying opportunities that they receive since their birth.

Although nature has gifted varying levels of abilities and opportunities to different women, the time gifted to each individual women for a single day is the same i.e. 24 hours each woman tries to spend these limited 24 hours in such a way so as to have maximum satisfaction from life. It depends upon their needs and values how they spent their valuable yet limited time each day. Apart from the routine activities there are certain activities for which a particular set of women would definitely spare some time for example women with hedonistic values would spend time for entertainment activities and those with high spiritual values would spare some time for meditation, religious practice and charitable activities. The total time of 24 hours a day would therefore be classified into four categories in the time management scale

1)         Time spent on Routine Personal Activities

2)         Time spent on Family oriented activities

3)         Time spent on entertainment activities

4)         Time spent on spiritual activities.


Life is full of struggles against the obstacles, challenges and threats in our environment. Success is most often measured not in the defense of set points, but in our ability to adapt to such conditions, and the ease with which such adaptation occurs. Throughout history, people have lived in close relationship to nature in developing the special skills and traits necessary for their survival. Thus adaptation not stability is the essence of life, biological fitness and health.(Seley,1978)

Stress is unavoidable consequences of life; it afflicts people regardless of their life situation. Stress everywhere within the family, business, organization/enterprise and any other social or economic activity. Right from the time of birth to the last breathe drawn, an individual is invariably exposed to various stressful situation. The 21st century is experiencing on era of rapid changes, complexities, challenges and pressures to survive than any other time. Stress is physiological, emotional and psychological reaction to certain threatening environmental events. It refers to the amount of a person’s psychological energy released, in response to a stimulus situation exceeding from what he can constructively use.

In modern life stress is a common problem. The negative effects of stress affect individual’s health and performance. As a result, individuals have their own stress perceptions and they develop different kinds of strategies in order to manage stressful situations. Culture is a relevant aspect that influences this process. Considering that stress is presented in different dimension of daily life, educational experiences can also be perceived as stressful. In addition, stress could be strongly experienced at work, and to be teacher is considered one of the most stressful jobs.

The concept of stress is first introduced in life science by Hens Selye in 1936.The word stress is derived from Latin word “stringerd”. Stress was popularly used in 17th century to mean hardship, strain, adversity or offication.

According to Selye (1956), “Any external or any internal drive which threatens to upset the organism equilibrium is stress”.

Stress is a concept that, although it is familiar for all, is understood in different ways. The use of this term in a vague and general form creates this context of different interpretations that sometimes are contradictory (Rutter, 1983). In this context, authors attempt to categorize the different definitions of stress instead of creating a general definition. Seley (1976) recognized the common set of reactions occurring in response to wide variety of conditions resulting in producing a sequence of physiological changes in the body. This reaction from the General Adaptation Syndrome.

 It has three stages

  • Alarm Reaction
  • Stage of Resistance
  • Stage of Exhaustion

The two topics of time management and stress management are often addressed together because they are so closely interrelated.

Stress could be strongly experienced at work (Fletcher, 1988; Fletcher, 1991; Warr, 2005), and there are jobs which are considered more stressful than others, for instance to be teachers(Carlyle and Woods, 2002; Kyriacou, 1998).

Self -efficacy is a self evaluation of whether a person feels they can accomplish a certain task or not (Karen Lewis, 2007). According to Bandura (1997), self-efficacy is people’s beliefs about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance for assigned tasks. The outcome of this exercises influence over events that affect individual’s lives.

Self efficacy makes a difference in how people feel, think, and act. In terms of feeling, a low sense of self efficacy is associated with depression, anxiety, and helplessness. Such individuals also have low self-esteem and harbor pessimistic thoughts about their accomplishment and personal development. In terms of thinking, a strong sense of competence facilitates cognitive process and performance in a variety of settings, including quality of decision making and academic achievement. When it comes to preparing action, self- related cognitions are a major ingredient of the motivation process. Self- efficacy levels can enhance or impede motivation. People with high self- efficacy choose to perform more challenging tasks Bandura (1995). They set higher goals and stick to them. Such person invests more effort and persists longer than those who have low self- efficacy level. When setbacks occur, they recover more quickly and remain committed to their goals. They also have the ability to explore and to create new environment for them. Therefore, it refers to a global confidence in one’s coping ability in the wide range of demanding or novel situations. While general self efficacy refers to the stable sense of personal competence to deal effectively under the stressful and challenging circumstances (Schwarzer,

Self -efficacy has been found to be intimately associated with capacity to change one’s situation and has been used as a predictor of behavior, usually job seeking behavior, (Wenzel, 1993). According to Flammer (2001), People with higher perceived self- efficacy to fulfill job functions consider a wide range of career options. The construct of self-efficacy, which was introduced by Bandura, represents one core aspect of his social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1977, 1997). Valiante (2004) believes that efficacy contributes more heavily to occupational preferences. Perceived efficacy is a robust contributor to career development. Self-efficacy characterized by spiritual improvement creates a set-back and variations in the rate of progress. Perceived self-efficacy affects how well individuals manage requirements and challenges of occupational pursuits (Bandura, 2005). Bandura (1997) and Flammer (1990) found that individuals with high self-efficacy beliefs also report strong feelings of well-being and high self-esteem in general.



  1. Is there any difference in the level of time management (family oriented activities, routine personal activities, entertainment activities and spiritual activities) between working and non-working married women?
  2. Is there any difference in the level of stress among working and non-working married women?
  3. Is there any difference in the level of self- efficacy among working and non-working married women?


  1. There is no significant difference in the level of time management (family oriented activities, routine personal activities, entertainment activities and spiritual activities) between working and non-working married women.
  2. There is no significant difference in the level of stress among working and non- working married women.
  3. There is no significant difference in the level of self- efficacy among working and non-working married women.


The sample was consisted of 150 married women (75 working and 75 non-working married women) in Jaipur &Alwar were chosen, with the following criteria of inclusion and omission:

  1. Equal numbers of women (75 working and 75 non- working) were chosen.
  2. Only married women were taken.
  3. All of them must be graduates.
  4. They have middle socio- economic status.
  5. They must have 21 to 45 years.



Time management was measured by time management scale. This scale was prepared by investigator herself.  The scale consists of 25 items. Stress was measured by stress scale. It was developed by Kaur, Kumar and Mehta It consists of 26 items. Self-efficacy was measured by Self- efficacy scale. It was developed by Sood. It consists of 10 items.


 ‘t’ test was used to examine the significant difference in time management, stress and self-efficacy of working and non-working women .



Table-1clearly reveals that the mean score obtained from working women on time management was1288.3 and mean score obtained from non-working on time management was 1199.3. The difference between the two means was significant at .01 level. The higher mean score for time management was obtained by working women in comparison to non-working women

It is clear from the results that the working married women have more efficient in managing the time in comparison to non-working married women. There are many causes; working married women appear to have a personal value structure different from that of non-working married women; economic and political value are more prominent among working married women.

On the other side the result found by Myra, Strober and Charles, Weinberg, (2009) is that there appear to be limited differences between employed and nonemployee wives in their use of strategies to relieve time pressures.


Table-2clearly reveals that the mean score obtained from working women on stress was 53.05 and mean score obtained from non-working on stress was 51.25 The difference between the two means was not significant. The higher mean score for stress was obtained by working women in comparison to non-working women. Aujla and Harshpinder, (2006) found that the various financial and temporal factors causing stress among working and non-working women in India. Results indicated that expenses on sudden emergencies, more work and less time to do them were considered to be the stressors by women in both categories. Working women were stressed due to shortage of time for doing work, planning, sharing with family, leisure or social activities and personal health care. Non-working women were stressed due to unavoidable expenses, and irregular income. On average, non-working women were stressed due to financial factors and working women due to temporal factors. It is also consistent with Hsatami (2007) also found in their study that there was significant difference between stress among working and non working married women.


Table-3clearly reveals that the mean score obtained from working women on self-efficacy was 28.8 and mean score obtained from non-working on self-efficacy was 29.8. The difference between the two means was not significant. The higher mean score for self-efficacy was obtained by non-working women in comparison to working women. Kumthekar (2000) examined the working women, being an earner in the family, is easily accepted and respected. Hence; it was thought that working women would have a more positive self- efficacy as compared to non working women. The result was found, it is amazing to note that no significant difference between working and non working women. All women had a devaluated self- efficacy.



In the end it may conclude that working women are more efficient in managing the time in comparison to non married working married women. Result also shows that there is no significant difference in stress among working and non-working women. Surprisingly result also shows that working and non working married women have similar level in self- efficacy.

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Sood Sonali (2006). A Journal of Research Papers, Department of Psychology, St. Bede’s College, Shimla: 2(1).

Valinate G.(2004).Self-efficacy: The exercise of cost role (Albert Bandura). Emory University.

Warr, P. (2005).Work, Well-Being and Mental Health.In J. L. Barling, E.K. Kelloway, and M.R. Frone (Eds), Handbook of Work Stress.California: Sage Publications.

Wenzel SL. (1993).The relationship of psychological resources and social support to job procurement self-efficacy in the disadvantaged. J Applied Psychology; 23(18): 1471–1497.


 Mr. K. Thangavel                                         Mr. S. Yesu Suresh Raj 


This article explores traditional culture and social changes of scheduled caste people in Erode District. In Indian history, scheduled caste have been denied from basic rights and considered even out of caste system. Scheduled Caste people are discriminate in every day and every minutes of their life. They often lack adequate food, health care and houses, are shunned in public places such as hospitals and temples, roads and buses, and discriminate with regards education, employment and ownership of land. In this study main objective are to understand traditional culture of scheduled Castes, to find out reasons behind traditional culture to modern culture, to critically investigate social changes of Scheduled Caste for their development, and to suggest a suitable action plan for their development. Tools for Data Collation In the present study data were both ‘primary’ as well as ‘secondary’ sources. The dates were collected primary sources, Researcher collected 50 samples from the study area. The investigator used simple random techniques for selecting the sample size. Design of the Study – descriptive design will be used to describe the data. The collected data were analysed with the help of descriptive and simple percentage.  The collected data were analyzed to get a better understanding of the Traditional Culture and Social Change of SCs a case of Nagalur village in Erode District.


Throughout history, scheduled caste have been denied from basic rights and considered even outside of caste system. Ganthi coined the word ‘Harijian’ which means “children of god” even the word of Harijian has been considered derogatory and scheduled caste means an exploited person. Scheduled cast is the more socially acceptable term, adopted to express the systemic impression which people without caste have endured over thousands of years of Indian culture. Numerous organizations have lobbied to change the way that scheduled caste are treated in Indian society and a number of laws have been passed in attempts to outlaw discrimination

The Indian caste system is quite complex, and based in the Hindu religion although people of all religions are divided into castes in India, along with several other nations. For thousands of years, caste was a crucial determining factor in where someone fit into society, and the rigid system did not have room for social climbing or efforts against discrimination. There are four main castes in India, also known as Varna’s; people who do not fall into any caste are considered scheduled caste or out of caste.

Because a Scheduled Caste essentially, lacks divinity, he/she be assigned to menial labour which higher believe is polluting. Scheduled castes have traditionally participated in animal slaughter, garbage collection, sewage handling and dealing with cadavers. These polluting vocations only enforce the status of scheduled cast, with upper casts forcing them to use different facilities, and to avoid handling or touching people of caste. In some parts of India, scheduled caste was not even allowed to cast a shadow onto upper class members of Indian society.

Origin of scheduled caste

Scheduled caste is outcastes, which means that they do not belong to any of the four main castes of Hindu society, created several millennia ago when the Aryans Indo-Europeans invaded India about 1500 year BC from the Northwest, they found there an original dark-skinned people. The newcomers organized their society according to a hierarchical system of four caste or varnas colours that of the Brahmins or priests, the Kshatryas or warriors/rulers, the Vaisyas or farmers/artisans, and shudras who were to serve the other castes. This caste system was an intricate part of the Aryan religion, Hinduism, in that higher caste possessed a religious cleanliness which the lower caste lacked. In fact, contact with lower caste people would make a higher caste person unclean. Since the aboriginal people of India fell outside of this system, they became outcastes or untouchables and unwelcome carrier of pollution. They had to live outside the villages, could not use the common well, and were ordered to perform the duties no one else would do, such as removing excrement or washing clothes. And even in modern democratic. India scheduled Caste are discriminated in every area of life. They often lack adequate food, health care and housing, are shunned in public place such as hospitals and temples, roads and buses, and discriminated with regards to education, employment and ownership of land.

Culture of Scheduled Caste

It is one of hard-work and rest, honest and simplicity, achievements and celebrations. Scheduled Caste are always creative and productive, celebrations and enjoyments. Come with that freedom, frankness, open heartedness, songs, steps, beats, drums dance and drama; food, feasting, festivals, thanks giving, worship, prayer and sacrifices. It is agriculture based agrarian farm culture. Culture is of the workers and working classes. The something continues in the new-world of urbanized industrial area. Work workers celebrations and Rest. Adulterated with ulterior motives cunningly by the Brahmins, stealthily by the baniyas and extracted crudely by the Kshatriyas are liquor drugs and evil practices, particularly in the mode of celebrations, thanks giving and rest. Done only to cheat, swindle and rob the SC of their creation and produce still these DCHs claim themselves superior both culturally and intellectually frauds

Review of literature

Srinivas (1966) in social change in modern India has defined the process of Sanskritization: Sanskritization is the process by which a low Hindu caste, or tribal or other group, changes its customs, rituals, ideology and way of life in the direction of a high, and frequently twice born caste. The low caste takes to the conduct, customs and rituals of higher caste. By Sanskitization a caste or a tribal community ventures to gain higher status in society. In the process of Sanskritization a claim is made for higher status in the social structure and it is therefore a vertical movement. But in Sanskritization there is improvement of status only, there no structural change.

Mohar (1959); patwardhan (1968); Lynch (1969),No doubt certain amount of social mobility has occurred among the Scheduled Caste over a span of time. Such change and mobility in religious, educational, economic and political spheres has been regarded as channels utilized by the educated castes to raise caste status.




In this chapter, methodological framework has designed. Research methodology refers to how entire process of research has been designed and in what manner we are going to conduct it, following are the methodologies adopted for the study.

Statement of the problem

The study entitled “Traditional Culture and Social Change of SCs a case of Nagalur village in Erode District” is an attempt to understand the whether the change happened in the SC people’s traditional culture and their social status.


The main Objective of the study is to find out the changes in traditional culture and social changes of SC people. The specific objectives are given below:

  1. To understand traditional culture of scheduled Castes
  2. To find out reasons behind traditional culture to modern culture.
  3. To critically investigate social changes of Scheduled Caste for their development.



Researcher taken 50 respondents is the sample from the study area. The researcher used simple random techniques for selecting the sample size.

Following major findings have been observed.

  • 74%of the respondents in the participation in the Traditional Cultural in the village.
  • 72%of the respondents are in the health care system satisfy in the village.



The study reveals that, from the historical point of view Dalits are vulnerable and suppressed by the other community. Nowadays they are dominated by the dominant community. Every community people are having their own culture and tradition and they believe their own culture similarly Dalits are following this. But, in this modern word many of the community people are merged with other community by the inter cast or inter religious marriage. Same thing these people should move and mingle with others community people. Some numbers of scheduled caste are converting into other religion. It will bring traditional culture change among the scheduled caste. By the findings the research got some knowledge about the traditional culture of Dalit. They have a wide variety of culture, they are strictly believed in their culture. But only few of the people are came out with this traditions in the modern world. The parents should teach their children about their traditional culture. Local schools are joining with the local community to teach the student. The social changes among the Dalits should come only with the help of the more number of educations and employed. Most of the Dalits people are depending the government schemes to run their family. They must have to come forward to hope their self to work for their family. It is observed that old age person celebrate their traditional culture. But youth can like to celebrate modern functions. Traditional cultures cannot be affected by globalization. This study recommends by saying that government must care traditional culture and give training for youth.


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  • Sukhadeo Thora. T., Katherine S. Newman., (2007)., “Caste and Economic Discrimination: Causes, Consequences and Remedies”, Economic and Political Weekly, pp.4121 – 4124



Joyjit Sanyal

Dr. Sujit Sikidar,

Ajit Timung,



This present study entitled ‘A study on the Socio-Economic condition of Rubber Plantation workers of Diphu, Karbi Anglong district of Assam’ is undertaken with the objective to throw light on the lives of the plantation workers. Rubber Plantation is a highly lucrative and profitable business and is mostly privately owned. This research work intends to study the condition i.e. the socio-economic condition of the plantation workers in Diphu where the rubber plantation business is flourishing over the last two decades due to its nature. It is a matter of great concern to study the fact whether the workers are able to gain a part of the fruits of the business or not. This knowledge can only be gained by studying the socio-economic of the workers.

The present study is undertaken with the following objectives:

  • To Collect Socio-economic data of workers in the rubber plantation with a view to study the problem faced by them in their working, living and social condition and the extent of the welfare amenities available to them.

Key words: Plantation, unskilled labour, labour welfare, etc.



Socio-generally means society, social and it refers to any number of demographic and social conditions such as the age structure, racial composition, sex ratio, marriages and so on.

Economic refers to the economic conditions such as income, unemployment, rates and so on.

Socio-economic condition refers to an individual level of income, wealth, education and prestige. It consists of the cultivated behaviors of their daily life activities like how they live and earns education, hospitality, wages and salaries, role of family, ethical issue, social responsibility of business.

The  basic objectives of this research on the socio-economic condition of rubber plantation worker is to gather idea and their problem faced by them and to improve their standard of living, education, provide adequate amount of salary and wages, rent and accommodation.


The term ‘Plantation’ has been defined under the Plantation Labour Act 1951 to include any plantation to which the Act, whether wholly or in parts applies and includes offices, hospital dispensaries, school or other premises used for any other purpose connected with such plantation. Section 1(14) of the Act applies to any land  or intends to be used for growing tea, coffee, rubber, cinchona and cardamom which measure 5hectare or more and in which fifteen or more persons are employed or were employed on any  draft of the   proceeding 12 month.


Workers mean a person (including any member of the medical staff) employed in a plantation for hired or reward, whether directly or through any agency, to do any work skilled, unskilled, manual or clerical but does not include:

  • A Medical officer employed in the plantation
  • Any person employed in the plantation primarily in a managerial capacity or
  • Any person temporarily employed in the plantation in any work relating to the construction, development or maintenance of building, road, bridge or canals.

When use in relationship to plantation, it means the person who has the ultimate control over the  affairs of the plantation and where the affairs of any plantation are entrusted to any person (whether called a managing agent, manager, superintendent or by any other name) such person shall be deemed to be the employer in relation to that plantation.


Rubber plays an important role in the industrial and economic development of a country. Rubber plantation provide the principal raw material required for manufacturing of around 35,000 rubber product ranging from toy balloons to tyres of giant moving equipment.

India ranks third in production fourth in the consumption of natural rubber in the world. Rubber Plantations are spread over 5.9 lakh hectares in 16 states. Rubber is primarily grown in Kerela and adjoining Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu, the traditional growing areas of the country. Besides these, rubber is also grown in the North-Eastern state like Tripura, Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Manipur.


In any research project it is essential to understand what has already been done in the specific topic that the researcher chooses and what has been done in the wider subject area of that topic. A Literature review is a text written by someone to consider the critical point of current knowledge including substantive finding as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews are secondary sources, and as such, do not report any new or original experimental work. Also, a review of literature can be interpreted as a review of an abstract accomplishment.

  1. Mahalakhsmi, Assistant professor, Bharthiar University Art and Science College, Dec 2012 (IJSETR) volume 1, in her study on the Socio-economic status of women employees in tea plantation industries found out that no. of women workers are facing many problem in the tea plantation. Since women workers are engaged more than the male workers. The study is basically focus on their living condition, wages earning and socio-security benefit. The important factor for their development and the problem faced by the employees are also identified.
  2. V USHADEVI and V.N JAYACHANDRAN (2001) A Project of Kerela Research Programme on Local Level Development (KRPLLD) Centre for Research Studies Thiruvanthapuram. SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE OF RUBBER TAPPERS IN THE SMALL HOLDING SECTOR. The study basically focused on the tapper’s workers. The study found that tapper work is not an easy work as it requires skill and is labour intensive for the good health of the rubber tree and maintaining the longetivity of its production period.
  3. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE INFORMAL CONDITIONS OF THE PLANTATION LABOURERS OF INDIA LABOUREROF INDIA AND SRI LANKA. By Neelam Choudhary and Deeksha Tayal. The study focuses on the section of plantation labourers,who are directly employed by the employer are and contract workers. The study also suggest the effectiveness of any formalization strategy would require collective involvement and social dialogue among all the key players in the plantation sector.
  4. Government of India (1980) Labour Bureau Ministry of Labour   Socio-economic condition of women workers in plantation action. In this study the Government of India focused on the plantation sectors of the labour economical life.

 From the above literatures it is known that many researchers have been done regarding socio-economic condition of plantation workers in different geographical areas. The research gap in this study is that no such study has been done in the geographical area where this study has been undertaken. So the survey has conducted among the rubber plantation firm of Diphu, Karbi Anglong of Assam.


The present research enquiry is undertaken with the following objectives with the hope that a new stock of knowledge may be created with the study undertaken:

  • To Collect Socio-economic data of workers in the rubber plantation with a view to study the problem faced by them in their working, living and social condition and the extent of the welfare amenities available to them.

Plantation crops like rubbers are high value crops of great economic importance and provide huge employment opportunity. Suitable land and also agro climatic condition provide favorable environment for rubber plantation.

Expansion of cultivation, which is one of the reasons for stepping up rubber production on a sustainable basis taking place mainly in non-traditional areas. Diphu is one of such non-traditional areas identified by Rubber Board of India. There is a growing popularity of rubber cultivation in the area. Rubber plantation offer ways for generating additional revenue for the growers.

The beneficiaries under the various scheme of rubber board may also avail of long term financial bank loans in order to supplement the financial and other assistance granted by the Board as well as to acquire financial liquidity for undertaking the plantation operation. The Board will in such instance provide the required technical support to the bank concerned extending finance.

It is gathered from the concerned people that rubber cultivation is highly income generating if managed properly. The small scale cultivators or a grower of rubber is emerging in the district. The implication of this development on firm will be significant. There are of course, several inherent problems of small scale cultivation of rubber like capital lock up due to long gestation period, capital intensive, nature of production systems, processing and marketing problems.

In Diphu, Rubber plantations are very popular and the growers are very much interested in cultivating such crops. The land is climatic in nature which is suitable for rubber plantation. The study reveals three unit level of plantation firm. Out of 15 plantations firm, three unit level of plantation firm has been selected for the study. The firms are privately owned in Diphu.

Out of that unit level is M/S Rongmili Rubber which is located near Matipung 5km distance away from Diphu town. It was established in the year 1990 by Harold Engti a resident of Rongmili, Diphu. At present there are 311 numbers of workers.

Another firm is taken from M/S Tungjang Rubber Estate established in the year 1987 by Mr. Gajendra Timung. The firm is located at Diphu-Lumding road 5km distance from the Diphu town. There are 52 nos of workers.

And the third firm is M/S Babu Teron Rubber firm established in the year 1996 located at Diphu Lumding road 5km from the main town. No. of worker are only 12.

The information collected on the no. of unit allowing all the data are collected in the table all the three unit of firm together.


The research design for this study is descriptive in nature. Descriptive researches are those studies which are concerned with describing the characteristic of a particular individual, or of a group. A descriptive research design can be either quantitative or qualitative. Descriptive research involves gathering data that describes events and then organizing, tabulation, depiction and describing the data collection (Glass and Hopkin, 1984). It includes survey and fact finding.

 Here the detailed study of the Socio- Economic Condition of Rubber Plantation workers of Diphu, Karbi Anglong district is done. The information is collected with the help of an unbiased non disguised and structured questionnaire consisting of close-ended question and field survey.



Simple random sampling is the process of drawing a sample from a population in such a way that each and every unit or item of the population has the equal chance of being included in the sample.

 Two stages of sampling design were adopted for the survey. In the first stage of sampling, the sample size of the unit level or employer level schedule has been determined.

In the second stages, sample worker level schedule have been canvassed.


The Universe of the study contains of the 15 registered rubber plantation firms in Diphu where an approximately 1500 numbers of worker are engaged in the plantation work.


Out of the 15 numbers of plantation firms, three of the units had permitted the researcher to interact with their employees and as such these three numbers of firms forms the sample units for the study.


The sample size includes all the workers belonging from the three unit level of the plantation


 (i) Two specially designed schedules were canvassed for the purpose of this survey. The unit level questionnaire was canvassed to capture the working condition of workers. A unit level questionnaire was designed to collect data for the unit as a whole on important parameters ,like  year of establishment, types of ownership, mode of payment wages and earning of the manual workers, leave and holidays, daily hour of work, sex-wise employment of workers in the plantation, trade union, welfare amenities available to workers, social security and benefit.

 (ii) The worker level schedule is designed to collect the data on living condition of women workers employed in the plantation. The schedule was designed to capture the important aspects like migration, status caste, demographic particular (age profile, marital status, education qualification etc.), Wages and earning total income and saving indebtness, medical expenditure etc.


Data has collected both by Primary and Secondary sources.

Primary data: Primary data has been collected through a structured, unbiased and non disguised questionnaire which consisted of field survey all the workers from different firm gave their relevant information during the survey.

Secondary data: Secondary data has been collected through books, websites and journals based on the relevant topics of the research work.


In course of conducting the survey the researcher faced difficulty in establishing communication linkage with the workers because most of the tribal workers in interior areas are not fluent in any language other than their mother tongue. As a result, the researcher has taken the help of university students belonging to Karbi Community and they were engaged by the researcher for facilitating collection of information.





 The results of the field survey lend us to the following finding:

  • In course of field survey, it is noticed that the worker chosen in 3 sample plantations have absorbed 100% tribal workers from the same locality, who all belong to ST population in the study area.
  • Around 63.3% of the workers belonged to the age group of 25-35 years whereas 20% of the workers belonged to the age group of 15-25 years.
  • Around 36.67% of the workers have never had the opportunity for any formal education whereas about 58.33% of the workers had attended school but couldn’t pass out.
  • It has also been found out that mostly the males are engaged in the plantation works here in Diphu which constitutes about 68.33% of the total population. Whereas the rest constitutes the female workers.
  • 72% of the workers were found to be married and the rest 28% were unmarried. Further, it was also found out that around 30% of the workers interrogated had 4-6 dependent family members, 33% had 2-4 dependents and 30% of them had 1-2 dependents.
  • Around 63.33% of the workers were found to be permanent employees of the rubber plantations whereas 36.7% of the workers were employed casually.
  • With regards to the annual earning of the workers, it was discovered that 40% of them have an annual earnings in between Rs.20,000-Rs.40,000 per annum and 33.33% of the workers earned Rs.40,000-Rs.60,000 per annum, which constituted mostly the permanent workers. On the other hand 21.7% of the workers were found to earn below Rs. 20,0000 per annum. This group mostly belonged to the casual workers. Furthermore, this group may be getting engaged as hired wage workers for contract jobs or seasonal jobs, etc.
  • The Researcher also made his best attempt to get hold of the information with regards to the total household income of the plantation workers. However, in this regards, most of the workers were found to be suspicious over declaring the total household income. The Researcher in this regards could roughly gather the fact that around 66.7% of the worker’s household had an annual income below Rs.50,000 whereas 33.33% disclosed that they had an annual income in between Rs.50,000- Rs.1,00,000.
  • Only 16.75% of the workers were found to have a savings bank account in Diphu, the rest 83.35% were indifferent towards the idea of having any bank account at all.
  • Most of the workers revealed that they had an annual savings ranging from Rs.10,000 to Rs.20,000 at their respective bank accounts.
  • Our study also reveals that banking habits, banking services flourished & multiplied in the tribal society with the growth of plantation activities. It appears that there is a positive correlation between banking services & plantation activities. It does ensures that major plantation activities on the other hand promote financial inclusion in Karbi Anglong district comparatively much better than the other districts of the state.
  • 33% of the workers reported that they were paid their wages on a monthly basis, this section of workers constituted the permanent workers of the plantation. Whereas another 13.33% and 18.34% reported that they were paid their remunerations on daily and weekly basis respectively.
  • However, almost 51.75% of the workers were dissatisfied with the amount of wages structure being paid to them. 41.7% were found to be satisfied with their wages from the plantation. But another 6.6% were unable to undecided on the satisfaction level.
  • It was quite evident from the field study that the workers were highly satisfied with the working hours since 87% of the workers responded in positive when enquired about their satisfaction with regards to the time they have to spend on the plantation.
  • Again 71.7% of the workers were also in favour of the recess that they are provided in the working hours by the plantation management but another 25% shared that they were not happy with rest intervals that they are provided with.
  • Only 65% of the workers responded that they were provided with sick pay leaves whereas the rest 35% shared that they were not provided any kind of sick leaves with pay.
  • Around 66.7% of the workers responded that they were provided medical benefits by the employer but within certain ceilings on monetary benefits. Usually there family members were not considered in the scheme. Further, the amount provided is usually very meager. Another 33.33% were not provided any such facility at all. It may be because of the fact that they were casual in nature. The casual workers constituting 33.33% of the workforce are excluded under the scheme.
  • Usually the workers are required to perform their duties in the open and as such the requirement of Rest Shelter facilities is necessitated. However, the Researcher found out that around 8.3% of the sample respondents said they were not provided with any such facilities. The plantation workers are generally exposed to heat, sun rays, rain and gifts of Mother Nature because of the nature of works involved in open fields. As a result, work facilities under a shed or a thatch is not possible accounting to such worker’s grievances.
  • Only 26.7% of the workers responded that they were provided with the canteen facilities of which only a few were found to be satisfied with the food items served in the canteens. However, the majority of the workers responded that they were not provided with any such facilities.
  • Around 65% of the workers shared that they were provided with housing facilities. The workers are usually provided shelters within the plantation in temporary dwellings. The conditions of the kutccha houses are dilapidated with no electricity facility.
  • From the study it was found out that around 61.7% of the workers responded that their employers provided educational facilities to their children. On enquiring further, it was found out that the employers usually provides a lump sum amount on yearly basis to the workers for getting their children admitted to the schools and for the purchase of books and other materials.
  • None of the employers are found to be providing their workers with insurance benefits.
  • Though the chances of accidents are quite rare in the rubber plantations but all the sample populations responded that their employers bestowed them with accident benefits.
  • Around 60% of the women workers responded that their employers were providing them with the maternity benefits which included 6 months period with half the pay rates. Most of the other responded in negative mainly because of the fact that they fall in the category of casual workers.
  • Finally the workers were asked to provide their overall viewpoints with regards to the welfare facilities they were receiving from their employers. It was found out that 40% of the workers were very highly satisfied with all the facilities provided by their employers. On the other hand, 48.3% of the employees were found to be moderately satisfied. However no workers were found to be highly dissatisfied. Only a mere 3.3% of the workers were found to be dissatisfied.

An in depth analysis and study is conducted to find the Socio-Economic Condition of Rubber Plantation worker in Diphu. Among the three selected units, the questions were framed to understand about living condition, employment status earning wages and benefits from the workers view, the researcher gathered in depth status of both the men and women employees in the rubber plantation. The nature of work is very hard. They are engaged in 8-10 hours of work. Most of the employees have no other tasks leaving apart the plantation work. The region surrounding still remains underdeveloped so the employees have no other sources of employment to improve their lifestyle. The present wage structure is not adequate to run their family. They are leading life in poor condition and also not able to provide proper education facilities to their children.   Only things they appreciates is that they have free water facilities, accidental benefit, maternity benefit, rest shelter facilities, education facilities with which overall they are moderately satisfied as a whole.

 Women tappers represent only a small percent of total sample tapper. Generally, they are forced to enter the field of tapping because of financial crisis of concerned families. They do not have any job satisfaction, because it is difficult to manage in tapping, collecting latex as well as left with household chores. Therefore they hardly have life.


  1. Kothari,CR (2004), Research Methodology, Methods and Techniques, 2nd Edition, New Age International(P)Ltd, New Delhi.
  2. A. Mahalakshmi, Asst.Prof., Bharitiar University of Arts and Science College,Nalparai-642127: International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (IJSETR) Volume 1 issue 6,Dec 2012 :A Study on the socio-economic status of women employees in Tea Plantation Industries( ISSN:2278-7798).
  3. T.V USHADEVI and V.N JAYACHANDRAN (2001): A Project of Kerela Research Programe on Local Level Development (KRPLLD) Centre for Research Studies Thiruvananthapuram SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE OF RUBBER TAPPERS IN THE SMALL HOLDING SECTOR. Final Report .
  4. Government of India Ministry of Labour and Employment .Labour Bureau Chandigarh (2008-2009) Socio-Economic Condition of Women Women workers in plantation Industry.
  5. D. Rajasen (Sept 2010) NRPPD Discussion paper Livelihood and Employment of Workers in Rubber and Spices Plantation.
  7. Glass ,GV and Hopkins, K.D(1984) Statistical methods in education and psycholology, 2nd Editio Boston Allyn and Bacon .



.C. E. Okorie


A Markov chain probability model is found to fit personnel data of recruitment and promotion pattern in El-Amin International School, Minna. Manpower planning is a useful tool for human resource management in large organizations. Classical Manpower Planning models are analytical time –discrete push and pull models. A mixed push-pull model is developed for in this study. This model allows taking into account push and pull transitions of employees through an organization at the same time. In fact, in any organization, the present number of staff in each level is known and at any particular time each member of staff is in a particular grade either by promotion or recruitment into that grade, We consider a Markov model formulated to assist in making promotion, recruitment policies for the next time period given that existing staff structure is known.  Data from El-Amin International School, Minna is used on the formulated model. The data is collected for a period of ten years,from 2000-2010 The result shows that the probability of those on promotion is  of the entire personnel and that of the teachers retained but no promotion is  while new recruitment is .

Keywords: Stochastic, Transition, Markov chain, recruitment, promotion, pull, push.


Manpower systems are hierarchical in nature and consists of a finite number ordered grades for which internal movement or promotion of staff is possible from one grade to another though there is no promotion beyond the highest grade. Members of staff in the same grade have certain common characteristics and attributes (such as rank, trade, age, or experience) and the grades are mutually exclusive and exhaustive so that any staff must belong to one but only one grade at any time (Georgiou and Tsantas, 2002)

Markov chain theory is one of the Mathematical tools used to investigate dynamic behaviours of a system (e.g. workforce system, financial system, health service system) in a special type of discrete-time stochastic process in which the time evolution of the system is described by a set of random variables. It is worth mentioning that variables are called random if their values cannot be predicted with certain and discrete-time means that the state of the system can be viewed only at discrete instant rather than at any time (Howard, 1971).

Stochastic model are influential and have been used widely in health care management. Markov chain models have been applied to many areas of health related problems (Parker and Caine, 1996). Some mathematical models of diseases in populations (Epidemometric models) have also been employed to study leprosy disease. McClean (1991) has studied, the incidences of new cases as a result of prevalence of overt cases, using different equation and McClean and Montgomery (2000) have adopted the kinship coefficient to determine correlation between leprosy rates in village of different distances apart. The mixed push –pull model is capable of incorporating this additional constraint. This model is based on the assumption of the classical pull models, in which vacancies arise in case that the number of employees in a specific group is less than the desired one. It allows the organization to choose a policy to fulfil those vacancies. According to the pull strategy, the vacancies are filled by promotions or by external recruitment. Besides, in the mixed push-pull model, push promotions are possible in case not enough people had the opportunity to promote after all vacancies at higher levels were filled.

Homogeneous Markov chain models having time independent (or stationary) transition probability have been applied to manpower planning in Winston (1994), Bartholomew et al (1991) and Ekoko (2006).  Alem (1985) and krishnamurty (1988) asserted manpower mobility from one organization  to another results in policies of promotion and recruitment that are within a systematic and qualitative framework in some sectors of the economy. The bivariate model in Raghavendra (1991) is a non –homogeneous Markov model by which promotion and recruitment policies are derived given the required future structure.  The model in Raghavendra (1991) uses two fundamental equations: one is the probability equation and the other is for determining the number of staff in each grade in the next time period.

Aim and Objectives

The ultimate aim of this study is to apply Markov model for recruitment and promotion systems and the objectives include the following:

  • Develop analytical time-discrete push and pull models.
  • Consider constant promotion probabilities over time.
  • Estimate transition and the future number of employees in an organization using push and pull models.


Mixed push and pull mode is developed for this study. The model uses the assumptions that push as well as pull promotions are possible to occur in the same system at the same time. An example of a personnel system requiring a model in which both push and pull transitions occur, is an organization in which vacancies are filled by promotions from groups of employees that succeeded in an examination. A transition between the group of people that not yet passed an examination and the group of people that succeeded in the examination happens with a certain probability. This is a typical push movement. Meanwhile, the actual promotion (only if there is a vacancy at another level) has to be considered as a pull transition. A mixed push-pull model has an advantage from the practitioner’s point of view. Often, organizations promote employees because of several reasons: Obviously, vacancies at higher levels can be filled by promotions from lower levels. The mixed push-pull model allows considering several reasons for promotion at the same time. Under Markovian assumptions, the equation for determining the number of staff in each grade in the next time period is


Where  is the current time period and (  is the next time period.

Members of staff could stay in the same grade, move to another grade or leave the system. There is therefore a probability equation that governs the way promotion is carried out in each level. The probability equation is given as;


For all

 The promotion and new recruitment to any grade in an organization follows a prescribed policy as expressed in Krishnamurthy, (1988). These proportion and recruitment are specified in the policy to be translated into estimates of the probability   of moving from state  to state  in a time period . Let  represent the proportion of staff to be promoted from grade level  .The  represent the proportion of newly recruited staff to grade level .

As stated earlier  are the probabilities of double promotion respectively.

From period  and starting from the highest grade level


But , from


Where in the highest grade  is the probability of double promotion into grade  in period  i.e. .

And substituting for  in (1.3) and simplifying we obtain:


 can be easily determined  since  is assumed known and given.

Since the number of promotions and recruitments to grade  should follow the ratio

 respectively, it follows that


And                                   (1.7)

Equations (1.6) and (1.7) would give the number of promotions from grade (k-1) to k and the number of new recruitments to grade k respectively. From (1.6),


Equation (1.6) and (1.7) would give the number of promotions from grade  to  and the number of new recruitments to grade  respectively.


For example, at  we have;


Using equations (1.7) and (1.8) and (1.9), the number of promotions, the number of recruitments and the transition probabilities can be estimated successfully for all other state of the organization.

Development of the model and model assumptions-The Mixed Push-pull Model

We consider an organization in which the total population of employees is divided into  homogeneous groups. The homogeneous groups form a partition of the total population. The number of people in group  at time  is denoted by  We use a discrete time scale.  The length of one time interval is chosen in such a way that it can be assumed that one employee can make at most one transition during the time interval. This implicates the assumption that vacancies are not filled instantaneous. This is a realistic hypothesis since it takes time to perform a promotion or recruitment decision. This assumption also implicates that a vacancy does not disappear in the company when it is filled by a promotion. When an employee is promoted from group  to group , the initial vacancy in group  created a new vacancy in group .

In fact, the initial vacancy moves in the opposite direction of the employee. This means that  is possibly smaller than the desired number of employees  at time .

Classical pull models most often assume that vacancies which need to be filled in the next time interval are determined at the end of the period in which they turned up.

This way, the model is given by;



 being a row vector formed by the vacancies in every group to be filled in time interval

 matrix with elements

 diagonal matrix formed by the voluntary wastage probabilities

 is the probability that an employee in group  will leave the organization in time period

 denoting the row vector  and  denoting the  row stock vector .



 becomes the identity matrix because there will be no push promotions. The push recruitments  also becomes zero. The model (1.12) becomes:

                                                                (1.14) For computational reasons, we put


(1.12) becomes:


We use the Jordan normal form theorem (Gantmacher,1964), which allows us to rewrite  as;


With  non-singular matrix and  a block diagonal matrix with m the number of eigenvalues of  and


With  a  matrix with eigenvalue

 To incorporate the vacancies arising out of all pull promotions in the coming time period, (1.11) in the mixed push-pull model needs to be replaced by:


Since the vacancies within one time period evolve as a chain satisfying the Markov properties with  acting as a transition matrix, the initial vacancies as estimated by (1.11) need to be multiplied by the fundamental matrix. Indeed, it is very well known that the fundamental matrix gives the expected number of visits to each state before absorption occurs (Bartholomew et al, 1991).

Results and  Discussion

The implication of models in this study on a common data for the purpose of comparison is the concern in this chapter. A teacher is seen to be recruited and also promoted when the conditions specified are met. The states considered are promotion, retained and recruited status of the teacher available over the period.

Discrete State time Markov model. A follow-up summary statistics for 2009/2010 academic session on 130 teachers in El-Amin International school, Minna provides the following transition matrices for the second term. The transition count matrix for the number of teachers in first term

Is given as:

The transition count matrix for those who returned back to the school in second tern and those who were recruited to make up the required  teachers needed is ;

The following estimates of transition probabilities are obtained

In this study of Attitudinal  changes of teachers moving from this school and coming into this school based on the grade/ rank, it is now pertinent to ask whether these three sets of transition probabilities reflect the same behaviour on the part of teachers from one term to another. If so, the data can be pooled to give a single transition count matrix and hence a single set of estimates.

The pooled transition count matrix obtained is;

The pooled estimates of elements of the transition probability matrix obtained are;

The model can be represented by a single transition count matrix.

Thus, the maximum likelihood estimate of the transition probability matrix is given by;

Calculating we have,

Corrected to 2 decimal places and for , we find that gets closer to exactly  that is as  increases,

The limit state probability vector is given by

This shows that  of the teachers get promoted,  are retained in the school but without promotion and  of the teachers are recruited in the school at the beginning of the term.

Based on the plan of this school the desired personnel distribution  is fixed over time and it is given by

The current personnel size in every group is smaller than the desired ones. Consequently, both aspects of the mixed push and pull model have an influence on the changes or transition.

Under this recruitment policy

This school never reaches the desired personnel structure  The decision maker might consider changing its policy. So the optimal recruitment policy is

It is clear that there exist a structural problems in this school. The promotion system is not compatible with the desired personnel structure. So the school should consider trying to influence and change its promotion system.


According to the optimal recruitment policy, it is clear that there exists a structural problem in the organization studies (El-Amin International school, Minna). The promotion system is not compatible with the desired personnel structure. The school should reconsider its (push) promotion and or recruitment policy to increase its personnel size to the desired personnel size.Also, the organization should consider trying to influence and change its promotion system.

Aknowledgement and References

[1] Abubakar,U.Y.(2004) ’’A Three-State-Semi Markov Model in Continuous Time to study the Relapse Cases of Leprosy Disease After the Treatment Using Dapsone and Multi-Drug Therapy (M D T)’’; Proceeding of the 41st Annual National Conference of Mathematical Association  Nigeria. Page 15-23

[2] Alam, M.A.(1985), Steady State Career Structure Model

For Indian Army Officers, Defence Mgmt. Vol.12, 34-42

[3] Bartholomew, D. J., Forbes A. F.,&McClean, S. I. (1991). Statistical techniques for manpower planning, Chichester; Wiley.

[4] De Feyter, T. (2006),Modelling heterogeneity in Manpoer Planning; dividing the

personnel system in more homogeneous subgroups. Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry, 22(4), 321-334.

[5] Georgious, A. C. &Tsantas, N. (2002). Modelling recruitment training in

mathematical human resource planning. Applied Stocastic Models in Business and Industry,18,53-74.

[6] Ekoro,P.O., (2006).’’Analyzing Academic Staff Ptomotion Criteria in Nigeria Universities Using a Nonergordic Markov chain Model, The Nigerian Academic Forum, Vol. 11,No. 3 130-137.

[7] Krishnamurthy,G.S.(1988),’’Out of Turn Promotions: Government in a Fix,’’Deccan Herald

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[12] Staff Condition of Service of El-Amin International School, Minna. Revised Edition (2008), page 3and 7.


Fraudulent Banking Operation and ICT: A Survey of Criminality in the Nigerian Banking Sector

Olakunle Michael Folami


The rate at which computer and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are mobilized to perpetrate crime in Nigeria is becoming worrisome. The amounts of money lose to the activities of fraudsters adopting sophisticated methods of defrauding banks and people surpass that of traditional ways of fraudulent activities. With the introduction of ATM in Nigeria, banks have set another pace for unprecedented fraudulent activities. This study is anchored on Edwin Sutherland’s Social Differentiation Theory. Those who engage in fraudulent acts learn the techniques and methods from those they associate and interact with. The study employed the use of secondary data and in-depth interview methods. The secondary data were obtained from Nigerian Deposit Insurance Corporation annual reports for the period of five years and in-depth interviews were conducted with ten (10 ) bank chief inspectors. It was found out that amount of money lose to fraudsters through the ICT is far above the amount associated with traditional methods of committing fraud in the banking industry. Different methods of defrauding banks were revealed in this study. This paper therefore, recommended good centralized networking of computer systems, employment of professional police officers who specialized in fraud detection in banks, and regular rotation of staff and duties were also recommended in this study.



Technology is invented for the positive manipulation of social, economic, political and physical environments by man. Technological inventions came with both manifest and latent functions (Brown and Duguid, 2006; Baase 2003; and Erlbuam 1997). The manifest function of ICT is to provide support for human activities. Baase (2003) says computers have made unprecedented impacts on society. It is essential for the smooth running of day-to-day activities. Most of the things we do at work and at home as a matter of routine could not run without the use of computers, whether it is for accessing major databases, online shopping or playing a simple game of Solitaire.

The manipulation of bank activities through computer, and information and communication technology (ICT) to defraud the public made examination into the latent function of technological revolution (Mobbs, 2003). According to Ojimba (2006), when computer was invented, the intention of its inventors is to hasten data processing with effortless ease. That it has been doing efficiently by giving timely and accurate information. But like other mechanical and/ or electrical electronics devices, it has equally lent itself to manipulation. What is meant to assist in daily data operations has turned out to be an undoing. While basking in the euphoria of its efficiency, banks in Nigeria are now grappling with the fraudulent manipulations of computer and ICT. It is like a mixed blessing combining the bright and dark sides. Over the times, it has turned to a servile tool of fraud when banks and other organizations began to be computerized over two decades ago in Nigeria.  The inability of bank management to control manipulations, frauds, and forgeries in bank through computer and ICT gives constitute a major challenge to the banking operation in Nigeria. Since computer fraud is carried out over a period of time, a minor one at the initial stage snowballs into a sizeable one over a period of time (The Nation, 2008).

The emergence of ‘Yahoo boys’, the hackers in the anal of the nation economic and financial crimes make banking operations through computer and ICT more problematic. Computer and ICTs enhance the ability of the scammers with effortless ease to defraud banks.  Yahoo boys surf and hack the Internet to perpetrate scam in banks. They work hand-in-hand with bank staff to get access to bank data. In the last ten years, cases of computer-aided frauds in the banks have been on the increase with each year recording staggering figures (Baase, 2003). This paper therefore, aims to examine method by which computer and ICT is used to manipulate banks activities in Nigeria. It also examines the impacts of computer and ICT crime on the banks in Nigeria. The paper identifies what could be done to stem the phenomenon of bank frauds in Nigeria. The manipulation of banking operation by using computer and ICT is learned through association with other bank staff that exposed to illegal operations. There is a significant difference between the amount involved with the traditional method of defrauding banks and the use of computer and ICTs in Nigeria. Computer, and ICTs usage without proper security backup and checks in banks in Nigeria enhance fraudulent practices. This paper argues that banking fraud through computer and ICT can be reduced through association with banking staff that are exposed to a strong work ethics. The paper is divided into four sections: first, leaning the technique of banking fraud; second, fraudulent operations in banks; methods of examining computer and ICT frauds in banking sector; and finally, findings and conclusion.


Learning the Technique of Banking Fraud

This study is situated in Differential Association Theory by Edwin Sunderland (1947) to explain the experience as bank staffers that work with computer and ICT on daily basis. Sutherland’s theory departs from the pathological and biological perspectives that attributing crime to the social context of individuals only. The theory rejected biological determinism, the extreme individualism of psychiatry, as well as economic explanations of computer and ICT related crime in the banking sector. The theory provides for an alternative understanding of computer and ICT related crime that through the development of association paradigm. In contrast to both classical and biological theories, Differential Association Theory poses no obvious threats to the humane treatment of those identified as criminals. (Gaylord, 1988)

The Sutherland’s theory of differential association has nine principles:

  1. Criminal behavior is learned.
  2. Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communication.
  3. The principal part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups.
  4. When criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes techniques of committing the crime (which are sometimes very complicated, sometimes simple) and the specific direction of motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes.
  5. The specific direction of motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as favorable or unfavorable.
  6. A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of the law.
  7. Differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity.
  8. The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anti-criminal patterns involves all of the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning.
  9. While criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values, it is not explained by those needs and values, since non-criminal behavior is an expression of the same needs and values.

An important aspect of differential association theory is the frequency and intensity of interaction. The amount of time that a person is exposed to a particular definition and at what point the interaction began are both crucial for explaining criminal activity (Boundless Sociology, n.d). The process of learning criminal behavior is really not any different from the process involved in learning any other type of behavior. Sutherland maintains that there is no unique learning process associated with acquiring non-normative ways of behaving (Boundless Sociology, n.d).  The principle of differential association states that a person becomes delinquent because of an “excess” of definitions favourable to violation of law over definitions unfavourable to violation of law. In other word, criminal behaviour emerges when one is exposed to more social message favouring conduct than pro-social messages (Sutherland, 1947). Sutherland argues that the concept of differential association and differential social organization could be applied to the individual and to aggregation (or group) levels. While differential association theory explains why any individual gravitates toward criminal behaviour Differential social organization explains why crime rates of different social period in the history of banking sector in the Nigeria different from each other. Edwin Sutherland’s Differential Association Theory opens a thoughtful provoking argument on the manipulation of computer and ICT to perpetrate crime in the banking sector. Sutherland suggests that the distinction between law breakers and the law abiding lies not in their personal make-up but in the content of what they learned. Computer and ICT crime, just as other white-collar criminality is learned; computer and ICT manipulation to defraud bank is learned through direct or indirect association with those who are practicing the act; those who learn this criminal behaviour are in frequent and close contact with perpetrators. ‘If you are not verse in computer usage, you cannot use it to defraud bank and manipulate money (Folami, 2000)





Fraudulent Operations in the Banking Sector


Mega Bank came with the introduction of Automate Teller Machine (ATM)  to banking operations in Nigeria in 2005. Jalingo (2004) says most computer frauds are usually done with the aid of insiders. A particular instance was a case in which the account of a customer in a commercial bank was credited with a large amount that fell short of his actual balance. The fraudulent account credited was done by a computer operator in the bank. Onoh (2000) said that computer crime in the banking system is very much with us and it now comes in its most sophisticate forms than ever before. Thus, the computer has the two sides of the coin and can prove to be a double edge sword. Computer fraud are in different types and forms. An example is defrauding a bank using a genuine account of an employee who is a defrauder. Another one is through the use of fictitious account; also, fraud is carried out with the aid of an employee’s friend. Similarly this act is sometimes done using an account of a third party that depends on an employee-insider to perpetrate the crime. Computer crime can and almost certainly will render obsolete the traditional type of physical large-scale robbery involving banks, bank managers and security vans (see Parker, 1997)

According to Aluko-Olokun (2000) the majority of fraudulent act committed in the banking sector are usually committed through the use of cheque while few others are by cash theft and electronics transfer, and lately through computer manipulation. Negotiable securities will be stored magnetically and electronically as data inside computer and transmitted over communication circuits from one computer to another. Perpetrators of security theft will use the skills, knowledge, and access associated with computer and data communication technology. For example, the Inner London Crown court sentenced one Olaide Taiwo, to eight-and-a-half year imprisonment for stealing the identities of 350 people to claim £1.3million in bogus tax credits in the largest benefit scam of its kind. Olaide Taiwo, 35, hijacked the identities while working as a security guard for a number of large national companies. He then used the names to claim tens of thousands in working tax credits (Camber, 2011). Another example is a hacker that manipulated computer to perpetrate economic crimes. Abayomi Aje, a repentant scammer said that many people desperate for love and affection especially in Europe and North America have had their fingers badly burnt with Nigerian internet fraudsters having a great feast on them. He explained the ‘Modus Operandi’ thus: ‘Each person has as many as six women at a time. We would search through dating websites such as Yahoo personals, and and create an account, usually with stolen credit cards’. The women are in most cases, desperate to get a man in her life. For those who are being difficult, you send a gift on a weekend with some nicely worded card. Once the victim has fallen in love, the next thing is to tell her you are going on a short business trip to any part of the world. You call the victim and are romantic with her on the phone. Then, after some days, you ask her for money giving her some sob story, like you were robbed or forget your money. ‘She will either agree to send the money or, if she is ready gullible, she will clear the money or money order for you. She may also be asked to receive wire transfers into her bank account’. Do you think this is possible without the connivance of bankers? No, he retorted.


It is important to examine types of frauds in order to properly situate this study in the literature. Types of computer and ICT crime is any type of act distinctly associated with computer or data manipulation in which victim involuntarily suffer or could have suffer losses, injuries or damage or in which perpetrator receive or could have received gain is refer to as a  computer crime (Economic and Financial Crime Commission 2003). The types of computer and computer related crimes include first, computer-aided fraud and embezzlement. This is automated version of the good fashion manual fraud or embezzlement that has been going on for centuries by unscrupulous employees. Skilled data processing professionals usually perpetrate this type of computer fraud. However, if a user knows the system, a non- computer employee can pull off the fraud. Second, salami technique

This is consist of reducing either by a slight change in certain programme or by inserting extra instruction into programme interest bearing account by a couple of pennies or even fractions when calculating interest/dividends. Electronics data processing auditors are the ones who have sufficient skill and access to financial application to put off computer crime. Third, trojan horse. This type of computer aided crime which consists of covertly inserting unauthorized instruction into a production programme might be done to achieve material gain. System programmers/ analysts, computer operators and end users are possible perpetrators. Fourth, time (or Logic) Bomb (or Trap Door) involves in converting instruments are written and inserted into a production programs or files, or cause application software, such as payroll to or account receivable, or the whole system to crash. A time bomb is almost impossible to detect or prevent and it is almost impossible to catch the person who devise it because a clever programmer can write the instruments so that when the bomb erase the target program application or system, it destroy itself as well. Fifth, a computer virus or worm program has the capacity of instantaneously cloning a copy of it burying that copy inside other program just before it erases programs or an application, and just before it destroys itself. Perpetrators are outsiders, hackers as well as inside people such as data processing professional. Sixth, scavenging is a method of obtaining data or information by searching trash cans of banks, data processing departments, this is called physical scavenging. There are also electronics scavenging that involves searching for residual data left in a computer. Potential perpetrators are janitor, ground keepers, outsiders and DP professional or user. Seventh, data Manipulation

This is simply adding prior to or during the process of entering data into the computer system. The modus operandi of data manipulation is adding fictitious claims or account, and sending the claims clerks or clerks for the account payable amounts to the fictitious account. Potential perpetrators are anybody from programmer/analysts, computer operators, data entry operators, to end users. Eight, software piracy involves copying or theft of proprietary computer software and/or raw data or information. Moreover, if the criminal just copied the valuable software or sensitive data, it is almost impossible to detect the crime because the original software or data remains on the disk or tape, or in the computer. Experience programmers or EDP analysts, programmer/analysts, system programmers or EDP auditors are potential perpetrators.


Method of Examining Computer and ICT Fraud 

This study was carried out in Lagos State, Nigeria. Lagos State, the commercial nerve center of the nation housed the headquarters of the twenty-four major banks in Nigeria, excluding micro finance banks. The data used for the analyses in this study were collected immediately after the Obasanjo’s administrative bank reform agenda which ushered in a new era of bank system in Nigeria.

Before the advent of mega banks in Nigeria, there were two thousand, three hundred and seventy four (2,374) insured commercial and merchant banks with one hundred and fifteen (115) head offices nationwide. Lagos, accounts for five hundred and thirty seven (537) commercial and merchant banks branches, and ninety seven (97) head offices, the highest in the country. (NDIC, 2006). With the reform of the nation’s banking sector in 2005, Nigeria now has twenty five mega banks (see

Technique of Data Collection

Secondary data used in this study were collected from the cases of fraud reported to the Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC) by all the insured commercial and merchant banks in Nigeria between 2006 and 2008. The qualitative method was predominantly in-depth interviews. The interviews were carried out among ten (10) Bank Chief Inspectors, and six (06) Assistant Director/Director Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). The commercial and merchant banks chosen were the ones with the highest number of reported cases of fraud. The limitation of secondary data in this study is that methods and ways of perpetrating different forms of fraud were not highlighted. This however, necessitated the use of qualitative technique to address these shortcomings.

Analysis of Data

Descriptive analysis was employed to analyze data collected through the secondary source. The qualitative data were subjected to thematic analysis. Comprehensive inferences and conclusions were drawn from the analysis.


Results and Conclusion

The returns of insured banks on fraud and forgeries were analyzed. The periods span between 2007 and 2008. Each year is divided into quarters to provide basis for how intense phenomenon of bank frauds is in Nigeria.


An exorbitant amount of money, about 55billion lost to fraudsters within this period. As shown in the table, there was a total of 2,007 reported cases of attempted frauds and forgeries involving over 53.0 billion in 2008 compared with 1,553 reported cases of frauds and forgeries involving =N=10.01 billion in year 2007. The expected loss components of the reported cases of frauds and forgeries, that is, those whose probability of recovery was low as well as those not frauds and forgeries in insured banks in 2008. The chunk of this amount was processed through computer and ICTs.

The slight reduction in the amount of returns on fraud by both the insured commercial and merchant banks in 2007 might due to the fact that most of the affected banks preferred not to report the incidences to the Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC). Vanguard, (2008) reported that the incidence of 72 million computer fraud which was perpetrated in the United  Bank of Africa (UBA) in 2008 was not reported by the authority of the bank to the NDIC. A participant in in-depth interviews when commenting on the incidence of fraud in the banks said:

The introduction of electronics device like computer to process activities in banks has increased the level of crime in the banking sector. According to him, computer as we know is ‘Garbage in Garbage out’. Many bank staff have used computer to manipulate accounts. Of recent, computer related frauds have been on the increase. Though, it has its own advantages but it has contributed in no small measure to huge rate of bank fraud. An example was a fraud detected recently in one of our branches was there was a fraud of about #80 million. The fraud was perpetrated through the means of computer which involved a group of staff.


Manipulation of banks through computer and ICT has heavy burden on banks. It involves large amount of money. The reported cases of bank fraud increases yearly as bank staffers were exposed to ICT. Immediate anti-fraud mechanism should have been introduced to stem the trend.

The secondary data shows the distribution of banks’ members of staff that involved in fraudulent practices between 2003 and 2008. Table 3 above shows the status and number of banks’ staff involved in frauds and forgeries in the past three years. A total of 313 members of staff of banks were reported to be involved in frauds and forgeries in 2008, an increase of about 14.65% when compared with the previous year’s figure of 273. Of the total, core operations staff such as supervisors, officers, accountants, managers, executive assistants, clerks and cashiers totalled 223, thus accounting for about 71.25 percent. That represented a decrease of 4.57 percentage points relative to the 2007 position.  Bank frauds increased among the staff that have access to computer and involved in electronics money transfer. Other categories are messengers, cleaners/security guards 7(21.11 percent) that were involved in fraud in various banks between 2006 and 2008. Frauds and forgeries were also common among temporary staff 165 (53.95) between 2006 and 2008.

The above findings are corroborated by the in-depth interviews conducted with some bankers in the selected banks:

The introduction of electronics devices like computer to process activities     in the banks has some negative effects. The idea of information technology is a very challenging one. What is designed to serve human beings has become the enemy of human beings’ (Emokpae, an Assistant Director (Examination).

However, electronics machine such as computer has helped tremendously to quicken bank operations and made crime detection in banks very easy.


Electronics machine in banks has assisted operations in banks a lot. No matter its shortcomings, computer functions in the bank are indispensable. It has helped a lot in speedy international money transfer.

Detection and Prevention of Computer and ICT Related Crimes

The influence of sophisticated machines like electronic fund transfer, computer etcetera on bank fraud is very significant. Aluko-Olokun (2000) said that majority of fraud committed in the banking sector are usually committed through electronics transfer and computer manipulation. Computer technology is an imported sophisticated and complex way of defrauding banks in Nigeria today. Computer crime takes the form of computer aided fraud and embezzlement, Salami technique, Trojan horse, Time bomb, Virus and Worm, Scavenging, Data manipulation and Software privacy. To prevent computer and ICT fraud, better networking and routine check of money transfer and transactions would frustrate the fraudsters. A bank chief Inspector explained:


The best weapon to fight ICT fraud is better information collection, exchange and use of intelligence. Prevention can range from in-house remedies such as greater supervision; the inscription of the information traveling between computer to prevent computer fraud; to tighten control on financial markets; and of course, the exchange of information about new developments.

A participant said that human supervision of ICT high waves can bring incidence of ICT manipulation to the barest minimum.


Effective control is the most potent antidote against fraud. He stressed that, you must to have effective control measure in place; you must have effective inspectorate team in your bank, so that whenever there are things going wrong, the Chief Inspector will be able to detect the flaws and ensures the control measures are effective.

Another participant added to ways by which computer and ICT fraud can be reduced in the Nigerian Banking sector.


ICT should be subjected to a high level of security consciousness to guard against improper use, that is posting and diversion. He said the more computerization the banking system, the easier it will be for inspection. It will be possible to stay in Lagos and monitor accounts throughout the country, if all branches are hooked up on high waves.

The idea that human elements in the incidence of banking fraud through computer and ICT can be minimized provided there are effective control measures in place. However, no one is immune to bank fraud. As earlier mentioned in the literature, whatever you garbage into computer, you get garbage as a result.



Computer and other information and communication technology have now become major instruments to defraud banks in Nigeria. Fraud is a fast growing menace in the nation’s banking system. Fraud in the banking industry has been deteriorating as hardly a day passed without the public being informed about some form of fraud in one bank or the other which involved staff, non-staff and the collusion of both staff and non-staff to defraud banks. This study however, revealed that the use of ICT to defraud banks has now found its way into banking operations. Computer crime in the banks is a sophisticated and complex way of defrauding banks in Nigeria. It takes the form of computer aided fraud and embezzlement, salami technique, Trojan horse, time bomb, virus, and software piracy. The secondary data also revealed that the influence of electronics on bank has a significant relationship with high incidence of fraud in the Nigerian banking sector. The interview conducted with a participant corroborated this finding. For example, in one of their bank branches it was discovered recently that there was a fraud of about #800 million through the means of computer manipulation.

There are also a strong correlation between high incidence of fraud in the banking sector and the phenomenon of information and communication technology. It was discovered in this paper that fraud which involved a large amount of money has affected the financial position of many banks thus led to total collapse. The incidence of frauds in the banking sector has also had band wagon effects on the nation’s economy. Public confidence in the banking sector has been significantly eroded. In-depth interview conducted with a participant revealed that ICT fraud has dented the image of the nation on the international scene. People around the globe treat Nigerians with disdain. They have problem of credibility with this country as a result of discovery from time to time one form of electronics fraud or the other.

The incidence of electronics fraud in the banking sector is taking unprecedented tolls on the bank stakeholders, customers and the nation’s economy.  This paper suggested that a legislation that will allow for the training of a special squad in the Federal Investigation and Intelligent Bureau (FIIB) of the Nigerian Police which could have access to the computer network of the banks to enable them to detect and expose any form of computer related crimes with a great dispatch. According to NDIC reports (2009), the causes of frauds and forgeries can be classified under two generic factors namely: the institutional or internal factors and environmental or societal factors. Institutional causes of frauds and forgeries in insured banks include poor accounting and weak internal control systems, ineffective supervision of subordinates, uncompetitive remuneration and perceived sense of inequity in reward, disregard of Know Your Customers (KYC) rules, et cetera. Environmental causes of fraud include undue societal demands, low moral values, slow and tortuous legal process, lack of effective deterrent or punishment and at times reluctance on the part of individual banks to report fraud cases due to the negative publicity it could attract for their image. Given the substantial growth in the quantum of frauds and forgeries in 2008 compared to 2007 as highlighted in this section, it is important that insured banks should strengthen their internal control and security systems to reduce the incidence of computer related frauds and forgeries. Insured banks should also thoroughly screen prospective employees by obtaining status reports from previous employers and relevant agencies and to desist from deploying casual staff to sensitive positions. Insured banks should also endeavour to educate their customers on the use of the Automatic Teller Machines (ATM) and other e-banking services on the need to safeguard their Personal Identification Numbers (PINs).

Banks must ensure regular rotation of duties and staff to prevent an individual from staying too long on a computer system or in a department. There should be inter -branch and intra-bank regular rotation of bank staff.

In conclusion, the menace of computer related fraud has to be addressed by those who are connected with the wellbeing of the nation’s financial institution with sincerity and diligence. This decadence in the banking sector has resulted into financial incapacity, economic failure, vicious circle of poverty and international disrepute.



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