Category Archives: Research Paper

Loneliness.

When the whole world is locked within their rooms due to this covid 19 pandemic many of us are feeling lonely, sad and depressed.So I would like to tell each individual who is reading this that you are not alone. We are all together in this. We are not alone.Lets fight our fears and be happy. Talk to your inner self.. Believe that you are capable of fighting and we shall overcome this situation very soon..

Loneliness is something that we all suffer in today’s world. There is no age boundary regarding this actually.Usually students shift to hostels or different state and countries for higher studies or job. There in the new environment they take time to adjust and reciprocate. Loneliness is the common thing thing that grasps them. They feel loneny, out of their comfort sone and miss their near ones terribly. Depression is another dangerous disease that attacts them in most cases. Despite of having friends they suffer from anxiety and depression. People develop different addictions like consuming drugs and alcohol which have adverse effect on their health and career.

Again in case of aged people whose children live far away from then also suffer from loneliness. What our near ones actually want from us is love and our gime. Sadly in today’s competitive word people hardly have time for anything.All are running in a rat race in order to survive. Aged people need more care love and affection.when they faail to get it they become lonely sad and depressed. It affects their mental and physical health to a great extend.

Now during the covid 19 pandemic we are getting various cases of suicides and the major reason behind them is depression, anxiety and the feel of being alone. Many are suffeing from identify crisis. Sudents are worried abou their uncertain future. The sense of being left alone is grabbing our young generation at a very alarming rate.

When such things are going on all over the world we all must talk to ourselves as I have already mentioned.It will give satisfaction.It will help us to fight better. Doing meditation and yoga helps in this context.

Loneliness – the demon

One fears loneliness and so do I,
One faces loneliness and so do I,
Amongst the thousands one tends to loose the very identity and so do I,
Its like the demon who grabs the arms in dark,
It engulfs the ability to think, to desire,to prosper
It conquers the power  to imagine ,to proceed and to succeed,
When one night it penitrated me to the fullest,
I tried to resist but all in vain
I waited for the atmosphere to change;
But it changed for the worst
And all of a sudden a voice interrupted and resumed my consciousness,
And now as i behold i find my reflection,
Subconsciously i realize the very fact that
Am not alone,.
for i am encompassed by my own self that resides deep inside me that saved me that night..
Everyone has an inner self just as i possess
Grant her your friendship just as i do
And u will notice loneliness closes its doors for you…

Bazil’s President Bolsonaro Threthens to quit WHO

Following the footstep of his counterpart Donald Trump, President of Brazil Jair Bolsonaro has warned to quit the World Health Organization (WHO) unless it ceases to be a “Partisan political organization.” 

The president said “I tell you here, the United States left WHO, we are considering it in the future (…). Either WHO works without ideological bias, or we are leaving it too.”

“We don’t need outsiders to give their feelings about health here,” he told reporters in Brasilia.

All over the world, around 4,02,428 people had died because of the coronavirus Pandemic since it emerged last year in China. This pandemic affects every nation among those nations European countries are affected very much.

 Brazil ranks third among the European countries with total deaths of around 36000, while this figure has crossed 1,00,000 in the USA.

Governments of all over the world are focused on resuscitating economies, which has declined due to the lockdown of several months. 

 Suspension of the clinical trial of the drug hydroxychloroquine –

Accusing WHO as the puppet of China, last month US President Donald Trump also announced to take back US membership from World health organization.

 Mr. Bolsonaro criticized WHO for suspending clinical trial of the malaria drug hydroxychloroquine and warned to pull out of World health organization like US President Donald Trump.

Earlier the study published in The Lancet, can not answer the question of whether hydroxychloroquine can help the patient fight Covid-19 or not, and with the use of this drug the death cases increase or not. But a recent study found that those patients of Covid-19, treated with hydroxychloroquine drug had a higher risk of death than those who didn’t take it.

The WHO has also changed the guidelines on the face mask and asks to loosen the social distancing.WHO spokeswoman Margaret Harris said that a key criterion for lifting lockdowns was slowing transmission and asks to loosen the social distancing.

“The epidemic, the outbreak, in Latin America is deeply, deeply concerning,” she told a news conference in Geneva. 

The positive cases all over the world are increasing every day. Coronavirus infected almost 6.7 million people and 4 lac deaths globally.

Every Nation is trying to recover from this pandemic after risking its economy into the deepest recession since the great depression of the 1930s.

This impacted even the country with the largest economy. The US with 1.9 million the highest number of COVID-19 positive cases and 1 lac death Mr. Trump is trying to bring the economy on the track again.

Mr. Trump also said the economy was bouncing back. “We had the greatest economy in the history of the world. And that strength let us get through this horrible pandemic, largely through, I think we’re doing really well,” he told reporters.

A SHORT GUIDEBOOK TO DARJEELING

with women plucking tea leaves a breathtaking memory.The untouched beauty coupled with the picturesque view of mountains along with the availability of unique variety of tea exported everywhere makes it a go to place for people residing in the Eastern Part of the Country.

http://journeymart.com/de/CityImages/darjeeling-toy-train.jpg

How To Get Into Darjeeling?

Darjeeling being a small town , has tourist visiting from all over India. By Plane, the nearest airport is Bagdogra, near Siliguri. It’s a 96 km drive from Bagdogra to Darjeeing, which is approximately a 3 hour drive. By Train,  the nearest railway station is  New Jalpaiguri .The railway route is well connected to cities like Kolkata, Bhubaneshwar, Guwahati , etc. We took The Darjeeling Mail from Kolkata, which takes approximately 12 hours,  the next best alternative is the Paharia Express, which takes almost the same number of hours. From New Jalpaiguri , we ‘ve to take the famous “Toy Train” to the city of tea leaves. It’s difficult to get hold of the tickets of the toy train during the summer months, because of high rush  of tourist.

The   tracks running across the town surrounded by emarald  green plantations, is a popular subject of visit for tourists.  It’s the picturesque mountainous scenery  is the reason  why so many romantic movies  have been filmed ,and Darjeeling has been mentioned in articles of romantic  subject .The  toy train  stops at the Ghoom junction, running  360 degree around the Batasia Loop. What makes it all the more famous, is the fact that it was listed as World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Buses are a convenient option for the ones who ’re backpacking, and  for people who’ve money constraint. Private taxis  are a convenient  option  for family people. Back when I visited Darjeeling in the year of 2016, shared jeeps would charge  Rs. 150-200 (depending the number of riders sharing the ride).

Best time of the year to take a  break?

Darjeeling is a backpacker’s delight and honeymooner’s dream.The best time to visit Darjeeling is between the  months April-June, when the temperature is around 25 degree Celsius. While there are some honeymoon couples who wishes to go at the time of winter i.e.,October-January when the temperature drops down to below 10 degree Celsius.

Best places to Pose for a Camera

The first to top the list, is everyone’s  favourite The Tiger Hills .Before the dawn cracks, witnessing the first rays of sun, hitting the Kanchenjunga peaks , it  makes the Perfect Sunrise. Panoramic view of the toy train  around  Batasia Loops  is a sight to die for. Animal lovers cannot miss paying visit to the Padmaja Naidu Zoological Park, where Red Pandas, Tibetan Wolves, Himalayan bears could be spotted. Tourists in huge numbers are found around  the Ghoom Monastery , one of the oldest monastery in the region. The Peace Pagoda  is the best place for relaxation , and for mental peace.

http://www.natgeotraveller.in/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/NGTJU14_DA_1new.jpg

What To Grab A Bite In Darjeeling?

Darjeeling is the Hub to multi-cuisines , since it  caters to the needs of tourists from all over the world. The most famous  street food are Momos  and Thukpa, available in all the forms for food lovers. When  in Darjeeling, you just cannot  leave without   tasting the authentic tea leaves. Chaang, a local  brew, similar to beer  served in bamboo sticks catched eyeballs. For tea addicts like me, Darjeeling seemed to be next to heaven. If you fancy spice, treat your taste buds with the Dalle. Dalle is a locally made pickle, which would  surely sent a burning sensation down your spills.

Best Stop For Bargain Hunting?

Never thought my mother’s obsession over collecting unique jewellery items, would lead us to the Mall Road, a place worth visiting. The  atmosphere there  had vibes  which would remind anyone of the ancient Buddhist culture depicted in their art,  paintings ,etc. For those who admire arts and culture, must pay a visit to the Nehru Road which is famous for Buddha statues, knives, handbags, exotic Tibetan items used as souvenir. The Tibetan Self help  centre is one of the few best places known for unique carpets.

Snow capped Himalayan Peaks, the cute Himalayan train , beautiful tea garden amidst the rolling hills ,along with the Tibetan influence of arts, culture and cuisine the town has a lot to offer.

✨EDUCATION✨

“Education gives a perfect face to life,
Education gives holy power to fight,
Education destroyes darkness with the help of light,
Education gives man broad sight”
Education is one of the most vital part of our life. India today is the second largest higher education network in the world. Universities in India are set up by the Central or the State Governments by the means of legislation, while colleges are established by either State Governments or private bodies / trusts. All colleges are affiliated to some university. The structure of higher education consists of three years of education after 12 years of school education leading to arts and science and four-five years in professional fields like engineering and medical. But the system of education in India isnot up to the mark. 25% of the Indian population is illiterate. Only 7% of the population that goes to school managed to graduate and only 15% of those who enrol manage to make it to high school and achieve a place in the higher education system. Many of our parents forced their childrens to take fied out of their intrest. After completing 12th the student is like a machine. Parents expect that my child should learn all the things in very short period of time and earn more than them. But noone is accepting truths. If the student don’t have intrest about field that parents selected then what is bad in it??? So I request all the students like me. Please accept field according your intrest. And don’t get bothered by anyone else. Live happy and lern more and more things according u r intrest.

The Changing Spaces of Reading and Writing

Innovations in technology have changed the way in which society acts. As classical scholar and university librarian James O’Donnell points out in the 1999 radio broadcast “From Papyrus to Cyberspace,” one generation’s frontier becomes the next generation’s reality. One can assume that with each new frontier there are gains and losses. For example, the invention of the automobile sparked a transportation revolution, but with this improved accessibility we also implicitly accept thousands of car-related deaths each year. Advancements in writing technologies have unpredictable changes in human roles and geography. Printing presses led to the spread of unorthodox ideas across the world and new forms of democratization, while the shift from a primarily oral to literate society brought with it new lines of exclusion between those who could read and those who could not.

James Engell, Professor of English and Comparative Literature at Harvard, highlights the point that such revolutions of technology do not occur suddenly but are instead a gradual shift within societies. Just as manuscripts continued to be produced well after the invention of the printing press, it is common for information from the internet to be written down on paper. Thus the challenge with emerging digital technologies is not that such societal shifts are occurring, but finding the most effective way new technologies can be integrated with the way things are currently functioning. Learn more about the impact of the typewriter on literacy in my short documentary The Shift from Handwriting to Typewriting:

Full List of References and Media Content Sources

The shift from handwriting to digital text and their associated issues continue to plague educators as one-to-one devices become the norm in schools. My English Department meetings often consist of heated debates concerning whether students should complete their coursework on paper or digitally. The topic seems to polarise the teachers within the department and we cannot collectively decide on the “correct” answer.
“students who write out their notes on paper may actually learn more” (Mueller & Oppenheiner, 2014).
In 2012, scientists find that the brains of preliterate kids respond like a reader’s brain when they write their ABCs, but not when they type or trace the letters (Pauly, 2016). Another research team reports that college students who transcribed lectures on their laptops recalled more information than those who took notes by hand because the use of laptops results in shallower processing (Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014). Across three experiments, researchers had students take notes in a classroom setting and then tested students on their memory for factual detail, their conceptual understanding of the material, and their ability to synthesize and generalize the information. The two types of note-takers performed equally well on questions that involved recalling facts, laptop note-takers performed significantly worse on the conceptual questions (Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014). This research suggests that perhaps completing tasks on paper may be more beneficial for students.
However, sometimes the purpose of note taking is simply to collect information. During novel studies I often have my students take notes to record key quotations or details from the book we are reading under the categories of the elements of fiction (e.g. setting, characters, style, theme). When forced to write on paper, I find students’ notes quickly become disorganised and chaotic. Factor in that a novel study last several weeks – sometimes months – I find students’ paper notes become more of a hassle than helpful.
Instead of making the paper-or-digital choice for my high school students, I share research findings and we collaboratively discuss the benefits and advantages of each format. I then prompt them to make the choice for themselves and give them the opportunity to change formats if they feel they made the wrong choice. In Benedict Carey’s book “How We Learn: The Surprising Truth About When, Where and Why It Happens” he refocusses attention away from a mono-solution to the learning conundrum, by prompting learners to consider the task at hand:
“It’s not that there is a right and wrong way to learn. It’s that there are different strategies, each uniquely suited to capturing a particular type of information. A good hunter tailors the trap to the prey” (Carey, 2014, p. 44).
My vision for my students is for them to discover for themselves how they work best in a time where they are living and learning during this technological revolution. The following is a lesson to prompt a discussion surrounding the ambiguity of the paper of digital argument:
While reading and writing remains at the heart of education, emerging technologies will continue to alter the concept of literacy itself. As we continue to move from written text to digitized information, educators must adapt their didactic methods to coincide with modern technologies. The technologies of handwriting and typewriting need not exist in a binary relationship in our postmodernist culture. They can co-exist, offering us a multiplicity of ways to communicate where each is geared for its own different purpose.
References
Mueller, P. A. & Oppenheimer, D. M. (2014). The Pen Is Mightier Than the Keyboard: Advantages of Longhand Over Laptop Note Taking. Psychological Science, 25(6).
O’Donnell, J. & Engell, J. (1999). “From papyrus to cyberspace” [radio broadcasts]. Cambridge Forum.
Ong, W. J. (1982). Orality and literacy: The technologizing of the word. London: Methuen.
Pauly, M. (2016). A Brief History of Handwriting. Mother Jones, 41(5), 60.

Information Processing Theory and Impact on Learning

The Information Processing Theory is an approach to cognitive development that suggests a way in which humans process the information they receive. This theory contrasts a behaviourist that humans simply respond to stimuli. This theory suggests that information is processed in stages, much like the way in which a computer processes data (Orey 2002). Information enters the brain (or computer) through our senses (mouse/keyboard). Next, the information is processed in our working memory (processor/ram), where it is stored and recalled from specific areas of our long-term memory (hard drive). This recalled information can lead to an output response to the stimuli (monitor).
Turple, C. (2016).
Our sensory memory intakes information through seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting and touching. If we decide to pay attention to certain stimuli, it moves into our short-term memory, also known as our working memory as it is the place where we process information. In order for information to be stored in our long-term memory and formally learned, the information must be elaborated on through rehearsal to consolidate the new data.

Turple, C. (2016). Adapted from: Lutz, S. & Huitt, W. (2003).
We can then organize new information into existing knowledge sets (if information is similar to prior information) or create a completely new knowledge structure if the new information is unlike anything we have experienced before. Once information is stored in our long-term memory, we can later recall this knowledge back into our working memory to compare to incoming information or help elaborate on our knowledge experiences.
Many of these operations involve executive function to pay attention to new information, attend to rehearsal practices in the working memory and help consolidate information into our long-term memory. Unfortunately, new information can be lost at all stages of information processing.  If incoming stimulus is not paid attention to in our sensory memory, our brain does not notice the information. In our short-term memory, only a maximum of five stimulus can be used at once – if this information is not encoded within 15-30 seconds it will be lost altogether. In long-term memory retrieval, there are also chances of encoding failure during information consolidation if elaboration does not occur or the information cannot be properly organized in existing knowledge structures. Finally, information in long-term memory could be lost through a retrieval failure or “overridden” if new information contradicts something previously learned.
Watch my visual breakdown of the stages of the theory and applications to classroom practice:
When considering the stages of the Information Processing Theory, there are 5 easy steps teachers can take to support students in the acquisition of new information.
RECEPTION to ensure teachers gain students’ attention using an abrupt stimulus change to focus students’ sensory memory on the lesson. 
I like to use music or short video clips to gain students’ attention. Catchy songs such as this Information Literacy Song or the Literary Devices Rap work well.
RETRIEVAL educators should stimulate recall of prior learning and skills from students’ long-term memory into their working memory.
I like to use kinesthetic warmups that gets the students moving around and talking to peers other than their elbow partner. Simple activities work great such as having the students move around the room and when the music stops (often I use the songs above), I yell out a number. Students must form a group with that many people and answer a question about the content from the previous lesson. Scholastics’s Mind Up Curriculum books are full of such activities.
RECEIVE information transmitted by the teacher that should have distinctive features and suggest a meaningful organization of ideas for students. 
I started “branding” my lessons by using the same template and colour scheme for all lesson within a unit. For other skills such as the MYP Approaches to Learning, I always use the same cover slide. I have also started using less unconnected slides and utilising animations to put together the “pieces” of a slide. Finally, acronyms and step-by-step procedures have become the focus of my lessons. For example, when I was teaching my students about how to find reliable online sources, I began the lesson by playing the research song, played the kinesthetics warmup game, then introduce an acronym to help them remember the criteria for reliable websites:
RESPOND or experience the information for themselves to absorb knowledge into their preexisting knowledge sets by eliciting performance from students. 
Arguably the most important step in student learning! Students need to immediately do something with their new knowledge. When introducing the CRAP acronym for determining reliable resources, I had students decide whether example websites are reliable or not. One issue I often run into for this stage is running out of time when I have 30 minute class time blocks. What I have come to learn is it is better to break up the learning into smaller pieces where students have the opportunity to immediately respond to new knowledge, rather than using a whole block to introduce content and the following block as a work period.
REINFORCE by providing ongoing feedback to students and especially give them additional performance opportunities to apply the feedback. 
Encouraging students to make mistakes and learn from those “failures” is key. I try to give as many opportunities for students to experiment with new ideas by offering several chances to practice new skills. I aim to give my students individual verbal feedback once a week and written feedback every other week. Since I utilise Google for Education Apps Suite in my teaching, this is often done through the comments function. I have learned to create one ongoing template my students work in throughout a unit so all of my comments and their work is in one place. This way, it is easy for both myself and students to see their ongoing progress.
Turple, C. (2016).

More than anything, learning about the Information Processing Theory reminded me of the importance of lesson warm-ups and “hooking” students into a learning activity. The theory also offers a simple explanation of how memory may work and is something I have even taught my students to make them more away of their own learning behaviours.

References
Lutz, S., & Huitt, W. (2003). Information processing and memory: Theory and applications. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/papers/infoproc.pdf
Orey, M. (2002). Information Processing. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved from http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Information_processing

Science and God

“Science” and “God”, the two words which are often seen as separate entities. These words seem conflicting to most of us and are often a topic of debate. Science seems to question the existence of God and believers of God often question why we are unable to explain the entire universe completely by science till date, a question on the success of science. We can often come across debates on televisions, radio, magazines, etc where people try to prove one as superior over the other. But, are they really two different things? Are they conflicting terms? Or are they same?

A deeper thought over it can clear our confusion. If we deep dig, we find that indeed both are connected. We really don’t need to choose between them. Science and God, are superior powers. The differences arise when we start associating God with some particular religion and Science with the only education. In reality, science is the process of thinking God’s thought after him. “An equation is really nothing unless it expresses a thought of God”, according to Ramanujan. They both actually merge at the spiritual level.

When we talk of science, it is the theories, the fundamental laws that very well explains the nature around us. It offers an explanation of all the natural phenomena in a very beautiful way and at a very basic level. It helped us understand how to converse in the language of nature, i.e in mathematics. It gives human power. The more we as humans understand science, the more powerful we become. Visit the days when humans started to understand science to get to know about the secrets of nature, the things they imagined then are now a reality. The gadgets they considered as their dreams are now in our hands. The technology we imagine today will also become a reality pretty soon. Science gave a power to humans to achieve the impossible.

God, on the other hand, is another superiority. There has been no proper evidence of someone seeing a God. We have not seen God, but we all believe in a “power” that is superior to all of us and many refer to this superior power as “God”. God gives humans the strength and power by making us understand the language of love and humanity. Spirituality is the heart of a human being and through God, we reach here. God helps us understand our potential and make us believe in our strengths. It changes our perception and makes the world a very beautiful and peaceful place for us. The world is incomplete without God.

We can thus conclude,  that both Science and God are a source of immense power to human beings and both are tied together. Both speak the same language. The more faith we develop in God, the more we get close to science, the more we understand science, our belief in the existence of God becomes stronger. Louis Pasteur rightly said that “a bit of science can distance us from God, but more of it nears one to him”, and that is for sure. Diving deep into them will give us immense power and peace.

Anuran vocal communications

In the scientific book, sounds of frogs and toads is often said to be ‘croaking’. Whatever their musical qualities, vocalizations are conspicuous features of behavior of most frogs and toads. Acoustic signalling has a great importance in the breeding ecology of most frogs. Acoustic data are used in taxonomic studies of frogs. Thus, researchers today are very interested in studying sounds produced by anurans to know about their behavior, study their evolution, monitoring population, comparison of species and find ways for their conservation.

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In anurans, generally males are involved in bioacoustic signalling. Only a very few female and at very few times are found producing signals. Anuran vocal repertoires can be into various calls namely advertisement calls( mate calls), courtship calls( responsive calls), aggressive calls, release calls, defensive calls. These are useful in male-male and male- female communications. These sounds are also used by them to protect them from predators too. They can estimate distance between opponent and get warned.  Further, the produced sound defines the species, it’s size, it’s habitat , it’s dominance, etc in some way or other.

Advertisement calls are often referred to as mating calls and are principal signals given by males during breading season. Experiments have shown that females approach conspecific calls. Advertisement calls are often found to stimulate hormone production in females. It also expertises male’s position to other males.

The vocal behavior of male frogs often changes when females are nearby or are approaching. Courtship call are a sort of continuous trill( unlike two-note advertisement calls). These are simply increased call rates. Female courtship calls also exists. These are given in response to the calls of male, which tends to be at low intensity and therefore, are hard to hear. It enhances the ability of males and females to find each other.

Aggressive calls are produced as a sign of defence for their calling sites against conspecifics. These are often called territorial calls. Then there are release calls given when male anurans are clasped by other males. Further exists distress calls, which are generally loud screams to describe vocalisations given by frogs being attacked by predators. Alarm calls and defensive calls are to warn neighbours of danger or startle the predator, to allow victim to escape.

The pitch(determined by frequency) of sound is an indicator of anuran’s body size. The frogs with higher pitch are found to be small in size while the frogs having low-pitched calls are large and heavy. Call structure is an indicator of habitat of frogs( whether near waterfall or near stream or in forest or in open habitat). For ex: frogs living in dense forest are large in size and produce low pitched calls and vice versa. Thus, there also exists preference in calling site for different species. If male and female, both are at the same level, then high frequency components will suffer greater attenuation than low frequency components. But, if either caller or receiver is elevated, then differential loss of higher frequencies is reduced.

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Comparison of frogs living in Amazonian forests with those in floating meadow habitats revealed that forest species have significantly lower-pitched calls. The forest species generally are larger than those in open areas, and call frequency decreases with increasing body size. Calls of many species probably are not adapted for long range propagation, but for ease of localization at short distances. Phylogenetic differences probably are important as well. Forest frogs have very different call structure than open-habitat frogs. They tend to have more narrowly tuned calls with lower pulse repetition rates than open habitat frogs. Call intensity is related to factors other than habitat structure. For ex: frogs that call in open habitats tend to call in much denser choruses than those in forested habitats, and competition among males should favor the evolution of very loud calls.

Thus, understanding sounds of anurans is a very interesting part of study and researchers are working on it, striving to discover more, finding ways to conserve some endangered species( like N. sahyadrensis).

Shoot High-Quality Videos with more efficiency

Have you ever run out of space that captures some of your cherished moments? Isn’t it annoying? No more hassles, after long research, now you’ll be able to record high-quality 8K videos and 360 degrees videos too. It’s estimated that 90 minutes equivalent to your favorite football match in 4K quality video takes up around ten gigs of space, but with the new technology, you can half it down to 5 gigs only.

A boy watching his photos and videos captured on a camera.

Suppose you know that Netflix and YouTube have restrictions over streaming videos, not more than 480p resolution. It has been more than three months now in India; still, the capping exists, although some internet providers did remove it slowly. The social isolation has made people binge more than regular days, seeing an increase of 20 to 30 percent in subscription and user base. More people are now connected, increasing the bandwidth. Hence you may observe slow speeds in this period. Netflix is switching to AV1 codec to save data while watching the show when it delivers its content over the internet. This new research may be able to save more data.

A man binges for on-demand streaming shows.

Initially, the digital video started with H.120 encoding but wasn’t practical until H.261 came up based on the DCT (discrete cosine transform) compression. In 1991, MPEG-1 revolutionized the video sector with higher resolutions, which reached us in the form of VCDs and DVDs. In the late 90s and onset of the 21st century, we saw the currently used MPEG-4 or the most widely used H.264 video encoding. You may know this if you’re familiar with video editing.

After the H.265/HEVC encoding, now steps in H.266/MPEG-I Part 3/VVC (Versatile Video Codec) presented by Fraunhofer HHI with other partners including the significant-tech leading brands like Apple, Microsoft, Qualcomm, Sony, and Intel, with vivid HDR and better support for 360 degrees video. As earlier mentioned, AV1 codec, 30 percent better than H.265, which is adopted by Netflix, is royalty-free. Now, to support H.266 major hardware updates may be required to handle such heavy compressions and will take time for its actual implementation. Like for example, when H.265 was finalized at the beginning of 2013, Apple lately adopted it in the year 2017 as a part of the iOS 11 mobile operating system.

The VVC logo

The 500 pages specification document finalized this month on 6th July 2020, but actual usage in the video industry might take about an estimated 7-8 years. Why do we need such compression? By 2022, more than 80 percent will be part of video streaming, which may increase on more content based on 4K video quality as well as growing numbers of 360 degrees videos. The existing widely used browsers support AV1 codec, but H.266 to properly patent may lately delay web surfing too. Twitch and YouTube may become one of the first firms to implement as they’ve already implanted VP9, again a royalty-free codec by Google itself.

Along with this, MPEG-5 Part 1 or EVC (Essential Video Coding), and MPEG-5 Part 2 or LCEVC (Low Complexity Enhancement VC) is set to launch out. For us, a non-geeky person may visualize it after watching the following graph below.

Average bit rate savings graph. Courtesy: BBC Research

I hope you could know some of the new ways to encode a video. You can read more about it from their official website: https://www.hhi.fraunhofer.de/en/departments/vca/technologies-and-solutions/h266-vvc.html

Physics Revisited: A powerful laser in the making

You may have tried to burn the paper by concentrating the light focused at a single point using a magnifying glass. Now technology has advanced up that within a few seconds as the data given to a machine can design and cut your metal piece with the help of a unique device. This device is none other than LASER itself. The laser has many uses in day to day life like bar-code reading, laser cutting, laser welding, and whatnot. Usage also includes surgeries, and even the data to read this post is sent through a fiber optic cable using laser technology.

A laser metal cutting machine on a piece of metal to shape according to a design.

A laser is a device that can focus by emitting a beam of a consistent source of light using the amplification process. Various types of lasers found include gas lasers, fiber lasers, diode laser, and much more. A laser requires three prime factors, generally consisting of a pump or the vital source of energy along with the medium to travel and a resonator using two or more mirrors. We even observe the phenomenon known as the total internal reflection or TIR.

The laser invention won the most prestigious science honor, the Nobel prize in 1964, and again in 2018 for the optical tweezers. These tweezers can be so sturdy that it can make changes in a single atom too. Okay, you may have been a fan of Star Wars movie if you like, they demonstrate the use of lasers, especially the blasters. But, they’re not lasers; indeed, they’re plasma light in the movie.

Fiber optic cables used in networking.

One of the Nobel laureates along with the researchers from the Russian Academy of Sciences have built up a new technology to produce even more powerful laser. The power output from the more modern methodology can give up to 10 ^ 23 Watts by decreasing the duration of the pulse just to some femtoseconds. This method can cut down the operating costs; this study has grabbed attention and gained financial support from various institutions in Canada and Russia.

To generate a pulse for a short span, the researchers need a deep dive into the effects of non-linear optics. Still even at the limits of 10 femtoseconds pulse, with the energy of 3 joules, the intensity peaked up to 300 terawatts. Now with a further intention with 13 joules, a target of 3 petawatts is planned within five femtoseconds.

Laser treatment done on a lady as a procedure for a therapy.

The lasers have been so widespread that we see it for hair removal, too, where the hair follicles get treated. The laser is also found in your laptop or your computer if it has an optical disc drive. The data on the disc read by using a laser when it falls on the lands and pits present on the surface to convert them into electrical signal sequences. The laser has been extensively used in the field of defense too. There are handheld laser pointers available, but make sure that it is legal in your country to own one or may land up into jail. Be careful with laser pointers and use them effectively if you own one of them.

“NEVER STOP LEARNING BECAUSE LIFE WILL NEVER STOP TEACHING”

“Life is like riding a bicycle. To keep your balance you must keep moving” – Albert Einstein

It is rightly said never stop learning….because life is the teacher which gives you the opportunity to learn new things each and every day. It motivates you to learn and defeat the challenges which we come across. The greatest teacher you could ever have is your life. Knowledge can come from anywhere and everywhere.

Life gives you the best lessons from sacrifice to compromise, and a wise man will always take each of them seriously.
All we need is to grab it and inculcate that in our day-to-day lives. Many times, you may feel down but remember that it’s not the ending. Failures will force you to loosen down but Losers are the ones who refuse to stand up, not the ones who fall down repeatedly.

No matter how many times you find yourself lost or broken; all that matters is the time when you didn’t feel like starting things all over again. One must always hold an attitude to continue learning new things.
Learning is a never-ending journey. From birth till death , we are in continuous cycle of learning new things. It is a necessary part of our life.By observing new things and experiencing it in our lives, our sight of perspective broadens and changes the way we see the world. It improves our behavior and the way we think by expanding and challenging our understanding. We get to know a lot of things and these things become our memories which are lessons to the life. These memories could be good or bad, that doesn’t mean bad memories are to neglected. Each and every memory gives you a lesson to learn something new experiences. Our education system teaches a lot, but that is relevant fir bookish knowledge. Life teaches you the lesson to live .

“The past can hurt. But the way I see it, you can either run from it, or learn from it” – Walt Disney

Never think that you know so much that doesn’t mean the end of your learning procedure. No one is prefect in knowledge Each one of us learn step by step through life. It is a continuous and when life teaches you something, be an optimist to learn it as quickly as possible. Life will keep on teaching you every moment of the day, and a real hero is the one who remains open to changes or take lessons from every incident that takes place in his or her life.
Learning is about enriching our minds. Learning new things represents the growth mindset. To be good learner you should be able practice focused hinking modes of brain. Focused thinking is when you concentrating on something that you try to learn.
There is no age or limit to which we can learn, whenever you want to know new things explore it. It only depends on the will to learn. Try to innovate new things in your life. Stay Positive Stay Learning…..!!!!!!

“The world is a university and everyone in it is a teacher. Make sure when you wake up in the morning, you go to school.” ―T. D. Jakes

Never stop dreaming,
never stop believing,
never give up,
never stop trying, and
never stop learning – Roy T. Bennett