Jammu and Kashmir, India .
Ubaid L. Hanfee
(Construction Engineering & Management, PRMCEAM, Badnera, Amravati)
Prof. S. Sabihuddin
(Head of Civil Engineering Department, PRMCEAM, Badnera, Amravati)
As the construction activities increase rapidly day by day, construction industries provides huge contribution to the global warming because the activities of construction involve the usage of fossil fuels which emits a lot of toxic gases which is very harmful to humans and the environment. Furthermore, the buildings and projects constructed also contribute greatly to the global warming because these buildings need power, and most of them are powered by conventional power plants which use also highly polluting fossil fuels such as coal and oil. This mix of environmental impact from the actual building construction itself and from the operation of these buildings after construction is one of many human activities that lead to the emission of greenhouse gases, especially the carbon dioxide (CO2).
The aim of this project is to minimize the environmental impact of construction process and maximize both economic viability and the social benefits of construction works, by providing proper management in construction projects. With the help of proper management in construction projects we can reduce the effect of global warming to humans and the environment.
In this project, we deal with the Application of green technology in the construction projects. Also it deals with the project management approaches required for delivering a successful green construction project with the concepts of a conventional constructional project. By performing the analysis of different management knowledge areas for managing green projects, we can deliver a cost-conscious successful green constructions. Our project also deals with the Environmental benefits of green technology in construction projects.
In today’s world of climate change and high energy prices, it is critical that buildings use as few fossil fuels (including coal generated electricity) as possible to “future proof” the home against unpredictable and rapidly rising prices.
Fossil fuels currently provide 95 percent of the world’s commercial energy supply, whereas renewable energy sources supply less than three percent. If we are going to approach our future with foresight, it would be wise to reduce our consumption of fossil fuels and invest in renewable energy at home as soon as possible. The green innovations embraced in infrastructural offices underline on the “three R’s” or RRR of natural preservation viz., lessen, reuse and reuse. At this stage it is critical to recognize what is implied by “Green Technology in Construction Projects”.
According to International Journal of Engineering Research & Management Technology global energy uses by different sectors are as follows:
The maximum amount of energy consumption is done by Building sector i.e. 45%. Thus, In order to reduce such consumption of energy, It become very essential for us to use Green Technology instead of Conventional Techniques.
FIG 1.1 Energy used by Different Sectors
1.2 Green Technology in Building Construction
The term green technology refers to technology that is considered environmentally friendly based on its production process or supply chain; a means of energy production that is less harmful to the environment than more traditional ways of generating energy, such as burning fossil fuels.
Green technology has become one of the hottest trends in construction. Green technology makes the structure more energy-efficient and sustainable, so they have a lower carbon footprint and a reduced impact on the environment. The advantages of a green innovation application in development are extensive and far reaching offering critical favorable position when utilized as a part of new facilities and additionally in existing facilities.
As we know that buildings also produce Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions, but this sector receives less attention compared to other pollution contributors such as the transportation and industry sectors. In addition to green technology measures in construction works would be an advantage to the building sector as it will reduce the carbon dioxide emissions.
The basic principles of sustainable design or ‘green design’ as it is popularly known, are to aim for maximum resource conservation, to enhance efficient utilization of non-renewable resources by adopting efficient systems and to maximize use of renewable forms of energy as well as to recycle and reuse resources. These principles need to be applied throughout the building life-cycle e.g. during the site planning and development stage, building planning and construction, and building operation and maintenance.
GREEN BUILDING is one that incorporates the use of clean and renewable energy, efficient use of water and use of recycled or recyclable materials, and provides for healthy indoor air quality. Buildings are responsible for 40 per cent of the world’s energy consumption. The green building concept helps to conserve energy. Today the world requires high performance, low energy buildings offering long-term sustainability.
TECHNOLOGY USED IN GREEN CONSTRUCTION
The different technologies used in green building construction are as follows:
22.214.171.124. Rain Water Harvesting in Building:
Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is one of the most efficient process of collecting and storing rainwater that falls on a catchment surface for use, independent from, or supplemental to the mains water supply. This reduces demand on the mains supply and offers some resilience from local supply problems and ultimately reduces the amount of energy used for water treatment and transportation.
Fig 126.96.36.199. Rain water harvesting
188.8.131.52 Green Insulation:
Green insulation is one of the best way to insulate a building and to have a well-defined thermal boundary. The thermal boundary produced in green insulation, separates the conditioned (heated or cooled) spaces from outdoor or unconditioned areas. A building ought to be protected ceaselessly around the warm limit, including corners and edges.
Fig 184.108.40.206. Cellulose Insulated Walls
The surface of ducts and furnace cabinets present outside the thermal boundary, generally in an unfinished basement, also get insulated. An extremely basic issue that by and large emerges while making a warm limit is warm connecting, which happens when conductive materials traverse over an obstruction and enable warmth to spill out of one side to the next. If an insulation is placed between wooden studs but not covering the studs, the wood will continue to conduct heat through the wall. To limit the warm crossing over for the most part conductive materials, for example, wood, steel, and aluminum is being utilized, or by including warm breaks so conductive materials are not in contact with each other.
In order to minimize such issue cellulose insulation is generally used. Cellulose insulation often consists of 75 to 85 percent recycled material, which is greater than fiberglass’ i.e. 30 to 40 percent, and cellulose is even better at preventing airflow than fiberglass. Cellulose and cotton are definitely better choices when it comes to green insulation.
220.127.116.11. Geothermal Heating:
Geothermal heating is an efficient renewable energy resource that’s far more environmentally friendly than coal-powered electricity or natural gas. In this technology, A water mixture is pumped through pipes lied underground to collect thermal energy and then this water is routed to a heat pump and takes that energy and puts it to use to heat or cool your house. To power the heat pump generally electricity is being used, the efficiency of the geothermal system means that we will get far more energy from the pump than we pour into it.
18.104.22.168. Solar power:
Solar energy is one of cleanest, renewable energy sources available which is the largest current energy source for earth surface. Solar energy is generally classified into two categories i.e. Passive solar power and Active solar power.
Passive solar home design simply uses the sun’s rays to heat a home by directly falling the rays through windows. In order to warm the home, large sets of windows let in solar energy, and a heat-absorbing surface such as dark wall retains this heat.
While Active solar systems obviously provide very large amount of heat than passive solar design. In this technique, solar panels absorb the sun’s radiation and use the heat to warm air or water, cutting down on gas or electricity consumption. The efficiency of solar panels depend upon the size of the system and the surrounding climate. In any case, given the correct conditions, a solar system will compensate for the in advance expenses of establishment over the long haul with long periods of free vitality.
Fig 22.214.171.124. Solar Power in Green Building
126.96.36.199. Electro chromic glass:
Smart glass, or electro chromic glass is one of the efficient green technique in which the glass uses a tiny burst of electricity to charge ions on a window layer and change the amount of light it reflects. While low-emittance windows that stops a portion of the sun’s radiation as of now exist, savvy glass enables you to pick how much light you need to square. Integrated with savvy building control systems, skyscrapers could have a huge number of windows tint consequently amid crest hours and come back to finish straightforwardness in the nighttimes. Brilliant glass designers expect a 25 percent diminishment in HVAC costs because of the dynamic windows. Electro chromic glass is as yet being idealized for business utilize, yet hope to see a greater amount of the glass in the coming a very long time as contending engineers convey this keen vitality sparing innovation to the market.
Fig.188.8.131.52. Electro chromic glass
2.1. Process of Methodology
The process of methodology consist of seven steps is given in figure 3.1,
|Estimation and comparison between Green building and Conventional Building.|
Fig.4.1 Methodology Process
2.2. Design Approach
The idea goes for creating plan type of a working to incorporate the three fundamental components of atmosphere i.e. light, air and water into the manufactured condition. This three components of nature, upon their incorporation into the constructed shape have their useful and in addition tasteful effect. Their useful part is much critical in current circumstance as a cutting edge building isn’t just among the most exceedingly awful polluter of atmosphere yet additionally the biggest purchaser of vitality.
Instinctive approach – Intuitions are the considerations and inclinations that ring a bell rapidly, in light of a specific winning condition, absent much reflection upon the scientific information or systematic estimations. When outlining a building, a creator does not begins with all the diagnostic information that is accessible, however the fashioner takes after a few instincts to build up a frame, most appropriate to the nearby climatic conditions, required spatial association, practical appropriateness, advancement of shape and stylish interest.
Madhya Pradesh is a landlocked state at the core of India, having “hot dry and composite” climatic conditions. The difficulties in planning for sweltering dry and composite atmosphere are: warm is welcome in winter yet avoidable in summer; wind is welcome amid sticky months however avoidable amid winters and sweltering summers. The central point that influence an atmosphere responsive outline could be recognized as-
State of any building creates from a base frame one essential rule for choosing the base shape is surface territory to volume proportion. It depends on the idea that diverse geometric shapes with same volume have distinctive surface territories. This proportion is especially critical in the situations where the climatic mediation is significant factors in planning. The last building structure develops from this reasonable base-shape. A building structure having low S/V proportion picks up warms amid summers and daytime and correspondingly loses lesser warmth amid winters and night. Low s/v proportion is viewed as ideal for hot dry and composite atmospheres as it lessens the warmth pick up and warm misfortune, which thus decreases the cooling and warming heap of building. The s/v proportion shows warm execution of fundamental shapes as opposed to complex ones. The most reduced symmetrical building would be a solid shape. In any case, for day lighting and ventilation, extensive zones presented to outside surfaces are viewed as great. Subsequently 3D shape is extended to expand its surface region and frame cuboids, which is a square shape in design. The bargain made with the thermal performance of the external envelop can be compensated by using insulating material in outside texture. The effectiveness accomplished through legitimate day lighting and ventilation by expanded surface region is an extra preferred standpoint. The warm execution could be balanced by appropriate introduction of building square.
In the wake of choosing the base shape, the subsequent stage is to situate the square. In northern side of the equator, north exterior of the building does not get any immediate sun oriented radiation, though southern façade gets immediate radiation in winter however next to no in summer. Additionally sunlight got from north is viewed as best as light from north is diffused light which needs glare. Henceforth longer façade ought to be situated towards north-south. East and west dividers get most extreme solar radiation, particularly when the sun is low in height. Sun based pick up on west and south-west part can be especially troublesome as its greatest force harmonizes with most sizzling piece of the day. Along these lines, shorter veneer of the building shall face east west course.
To acclimatize the atmosphere into the constructed condition, it is basic to bring the light, air and water into the building so occupants get the chance to feel these components from outer veneers as well as from inside the building. Patio brings the indigenous habitat inside as well as controls the inner condition and serves the need of the occupants. It works as a convective indoor regulator and gives insurance from extraordinary impacts of sweltering summers and chilly winters. It additionally makes inclinations with shifting level of lights and shades and with them the feel of abode. Now, there is a rectangular block facing north-south, with central opening i.e. courtyard. To join light, air and water, it is required to additionally build up the arrangement frame. Right off the bat, separating the current square into four littler squares and adjusting each square in such away so as the altered type of each square fills a particular need.
Destinations for advance alteration of each square are-
1) To limit sun based radiation.
2) To bring air into building and enable it to go through the texture, ideally after humidification.
3) To put a water body in windward side, with the goal that it serves practically and helps in convective cooling of the building.
4) To acquire most extreme north light into work zones.
Sun oriented radiations from west and south-west bearing are most awkward and troublesome as the radiation power from these headings is greatest when the day is generally warmed. To limit these radiations, north western square is evacuated and south-western square is slanted with shorter façade confronting south west. Subsequently, just little surface gets immediate radiation and remaining appearances gets lesser radiation. This further diminishes the warmth pick up into the building. Littler face that gets immediate radiation can be protected utilizing empty squares or cavity dividers with extra screen dividers. In addition, these spaces can be utilized for non-adapted uses as toilets, stairs, stores and so forth that demonstration as buffer between habitable territories and appalling regions.
Air development is a pivotal factor for human solace. To carry the air into the structure, the most vital thing is to know the overarching wind course for the neighborhood, in the event of Raipur, is from south-west. To utilize this breeze, giving an opening in the southern veneer isn’t sufficient. Alongside the south western square, that redirects the air towards the building, a distension of south-eastern square is required to trap this air. This makes a channel with wide mouth welcoming immense volume of air and tight back end pressurizing the air caught, consequently making a high weight zone. The courtyard, being under low pressure, attracts the pressurized air, which ventilates the premises byVenturi-impact.
Stylishly, water anyplace around the building or all around the building looks outwardly satisfying. Be that as it may, from useful perspective in hot-dry and composite atmosphere, its arrangement ends up critical. If there should be an occurrence of Indore, the breeze originating from south-west is generally hot and dry and south west segment is additionally most warmed piece of the building. In this manner, south-west corner is right area for putting any water body. This water continues dissipating, cools and humidifies the in-streaming hot dry breeze, before it enters
the imprisonments of the structure. South western square could be stilted to extend water body into the courtyard and also allow air to pass through from under the stilted block.
Most positive normal light for better working condition in insides is diffused north light giving longer north veneer and patio at Center permits abundant sunlight from both, outside façade and additionally inside yard confronting exteriors. For most extreme north light, northern and eastern squares are given with opening child north face. These squares can be the most possessed work region as these are slightest heated blocks with maximum north exposure. Northern facade is further modified form being straight to U-formed, bringing about expanded accessible window region.
The numbers of plans of building are collected as per requirements, suitable in plan, design, analysis and execution. Among those plans sorting was done which fit into our requirements and are suitable in our climatic conditions. The sorted plans were observed, studied and also obtained new other ideas that can be adopted. The study of different plans gave the base of the plan. From the sorted plans the feasible parts of building is got selected and practiced to get a new creative plan. For this creation, lot many parts of plans are examined and clubbed all plans together creating a better plan. For planning the Institutional building the different shapes were considered which used before or can be adopted newly like orthodox, curves, and studied their features, effect, advantages and disadvantages. The effects of shapes also studied and analyzed are follows:
- Effect of shapes
The shape of a building has a significant effect on cost Seeley. The complex the state of a building the more costly its unit cost will be. In addition, structures with entangled or sporadic blueprints prompt an expanded border/floor region proportion which thusly results to a higher unit cost. A Building with complex outline will also result to an increased cost due to the fact that setting-out, ground work, and drainage work may be more complicated and uneconomical. The Block work and rooftop work will likewise be costly because of the mind boggling nature of the building delineated. Square molded structures are said to be the easiest arrangement shape which is more affordable to construct, despite the fact that it isn’t generally a reasonable recommendation as there might be a trouble in arranging the inside design of huge square building. Border to-floor proportion, unit development cost and general task cost are influenced by variety fit as a fiddle many-sided quality or abnormality. The less difficult (or more muddled) the arrangement shape, the lower (or higher) the unit development cost will be. This is because of the way that the state of the building impacts essentially by number of building components, for example, establishments, dividers, roofs, floors or the rooftop.
- Regular and irregular Shapes
The simplest plan shape, that is a square building will be the most economical to construct. Square shaped structures would not generally be a practicable suggestion, since in abodes, littler workplaces, schools and healing centers structures an incredible significance is joined to the attractive quality of anchoring sufficient normal day lighting to most piece of the building. A perplexing (sporadic) structure would contain territories in the focal point of the building which would need sufficient common lighting. Additionally there might be a trouble in the arranging and inner design of the building.On account of circular structures, the encasing floor territory for the smallest edge is uneconomical and brings about major interior arranging issues. Comparing two buildings of rectangular and irregular shape, each of which has same floor area. Irregular shaped building where there is 6% more external walls to enclose the same floor area, setting out are increased by about 50% excavation cost about 20% and drainage cost by approximately 25%. The additional cost do not finish there as brick work and roofing will also be more costly due to the work being more complicated.
- Effects of Plan Shapes on Total Cost of a Building.
The shape of a building has an important effect on construction cost of a building. Variation in plan shapes have a direct effect on the horizontal and vertical components of the building, example, walls portions, beams and columns with their associated finishing and decorations. Irregular shapes will also have effect on the construction cost in the aspect of services, therefore the number of subsidiary items which could be affected by a change in the shape of the building includes;
Longer services and waste pipes to supply sanitary appliances depending on the plan shape.
Possibility of high roof cost due to increased number of corners which causes material wastage.
The Possibility of additional cost in applying finishing and decoration. The running cost of the completed building may also be affected by such factors as higher heat losses (windows and walls), window cleaning and painting. A junior organization of Royal institute of Chartered surveyors (RICS) in (1970) set up a research team to consider the effect of height and shape on building construction costs. This team studied a number of buildings with different shapes and height but the buildings all had a gross floor area of 95m2. The conclusions of the study of the research team were two in fold;
- The total construction cost increases with increase in the perimeter wall length in relation to the floor area.
- The expanded cost turns out to be very much articulated when the stature of the building is being expanded with extra floors without modifying the total floor area.
- Effect of Plan Shape on Cost of Substructure
The nature of the soil determines the strength of the soil. The strength of soil-lime mixture is dependent on many variables such as soil types, lime content, curing time, water content, method of compaction and cost. It is discovered that increase in temperature on curing lime soil lead to increase strength. If the soil is swampy there will be increase in cost because of the type of foundation will be changed from strip foundation to deep strip foundation which will increase the cost of substructure. If the soil is a rocky area, it depends on the depth to which the rock is located, if the rock is located at the surface, that calls for little explosion before construction commence. If otherwise then there will not be increase in cost of explosion. In 1970, Building research establishment has reported that foundation as a proportion of total building cost can vary from 8 to 18% and tend to decrease with increases in the number of storey. Adequate information on subsoil condition is vital before a decision can be made as to the most economical type of foundation.
- Effect of Plan Shape on Cost of Superstructure
The costs of superstructure vary considerably depending on block designs, and this element result to an additional construction cost of multi-storey projects over a traditional housing. The need for fire protecting walls, ceiling, floors and staircases in multi-storey buildings also leads to an increased construction costs. As described earlier, increased circulation ratios with multi-storey blocks will also produce higher unit usable floor space costs. In general three storey flats were about 30% more expensive that two-storey buildings, with costs related to a specific unit of floor area such as the square meter. Increasing the heights of blocks of flats from 3-5 storey raised cost by about 12% (6% per storey). This trend continued when the total height was further increased to 6-8 stories, with a further rise in costs of about 17%. The rate of increase in costs appeared surprisingly to flatten above eight stories in height to about a 2% addition per floor.
- Effects of Plan Shape on Cost of Block work
The significance of blocks in housing and construction in general cannot be over emphasized, as it is the most accepted walling unit by the public because of its peculiar resistance to fluctuating weather condition. As reported by that apart from availability and cheapness of building materials, quality of such materials are measured in line with durability, size, shape and strength. Walls and partition with associated windows and doors constitute a major item of expenditure of a building. For low rise buildings, cavity walls are generally, the lowest long term cost solution, provided satisfactory detailing and workmanship are secured. Stone facings are very expensive and care is needed to select a stone which is suitable for the particular environment.
- Effect of Plan Shape on Cost of Frame Structure
A frame may not be necessary in low-rise building, but generally costs tend to rise rapidly over the first few storey as the frame takes the loads imposed by a succession of upper floors. As for the foundation, the total frame cost will change at rates determined by two separate factors, that is, the vertical and horizontal loading. 1. The addition of upper floors requiring supporting beams will vary at the rate of change in the ratio of upper floor area to total floor area: The additional loading on the columns will require strengthening of columns or reducing bay sizes as the number of floors carried increase. If the total floor area remains constant, then the smaller building on plan will create more perimeter frame conditions and this will add a further cost factor. Moreover, on an irregularly shaped design, it may be easier to design a frame using steel in order to accept the disadvantages of irregularly sized columns and beam casings. Such design would also be possible in concrete, but the irregularity may also result in high costs for the framework.
- Effect of Plan Shape on Cost of Roof work
A cost investigation of low pads found that level rooftops were reliably higher than similar pitched rooftops, the additional cost summing all things considered to around 30%. With pitched rooftops sporadic formed squares brought about impressively expanded cost. For a multi-story building outline (where the aggregate rooftop cost is shared by a bigger number of abodes), a diminishment in rooftop development cost per staying unit is not out of the ordinary. On account of 3-4 story fabricating, the rooftop is frequently of comparative development to that utilized for 2-story structures. Material expenses of conventional block two-story structures ran from fourteen to eighteen percent of aggregate cost ( the base being for a low pitched rooftop with low quality covering, and the most extreme for a piercing rooftop with superb covering).
- Effect of Plan Shape on Cost of Services
The main considerations that regularly have impact on human solace incorporate; rain, wind, temperature, mugginess, radiation, air volume and development, air virtue and ionization. Shittu et al. (2013) portrayed how structures and their natural administrations have turned out to be more mind boggling and the scope of decisions keeps on expanding. Specifically, ecological prerequisites are frequently viewed as excessively late in the plan procedure for them to make a positive commitment to the last outline. This is uneconomical when seen against the staggering expense of administrations establishments which may add up to as much as 25% of the aggregate expenses on a cutting edge lodging plan and half on a doctor’s facility venture. Along these lines, there is a crucial requirement for incorporated plan arrangement with all masters contributing at each phase of the outline procedure. Also, take note of that administration expenses will increment with a seize three or four story when it ends up important to introduce a lift, despite the fact that the impact will diminish as extra story are included given the zone per floor is financially served. Likewise, structures with more mind boggling shapes require an extra course of action for acoustics, lightning and ventilation, most particularly a multi-story building.
- Effect of Plan Shape on Cost of Finishes
The impact of completing on the cost of structures in customary block two story structures, floors, stair and completions represent around 8-11% of the aggregate cost. With pads and maisonettes, floor completes by and large record for around 6% of aggregate expenses. Floor completes likewise shift impressively in unit cost and the thickness of ground surface can impact basic cost as a thick wrap up. The Economic particular of building arranged by Construction Section of Nigerian building and Road Research Institute (NABRRI, 1989) uncovered that 10%-15% cost is spared by putting with enhanced strategy utilizing triangular trowel and corner completing contraptions, concrete, paint, or distemper on dividers, steel and timber with indigenously made paint. After studying the effect of shapes on various criteria, the different shapes of building are analyzed. The different shapes taken into considerations are as follows:
Previously, round structures were considerably more typical. Conventional roundabout safe houses incorporate igloos, tipis, African mud block cottages, yurts and British and European round structures. They were the state of decision since they were solid, vitality productive, useful for ventilation and air flow, less defenseless in solid breezes and they utilized minimal measure of materials with respect to floor territory.
Round structures accompany numerous advantages:
Less epitomized vitality
With regards to building outline, the principal decide is that a basic shape is significantly more supportable than an intricate shape. Of any shape, the circle has the most limited limit in respect to its zone. This implies for any given floor zone a round building has less divider length and along these lines less materials. The following most effective space is a square took after by a square shape.
Since round structures have less surface zone, in respect to floor space, there is less surface coming into contact with the climate outside. Accordingly, it takes less vitality to keep up their insides to agreeable temperatures. Round structures are additionally more streamlined and in this way, concede less drafts which likewise makes them more vitality productive.
Seismic tremor and wind obstruction
In a round working there are many interconnected focuses which give the building an interesting mix of adaptability and quality – characteristics which make them fundamentally more secure in quakes.
The streamlined properties additionally make round structures more impervious to typhoon level breezes (and torrents so far as that is concerned). These same breezes, however, beat emphatically against the substance of conventional homes, in the end devastating these habitations if the breezes are sufficiently solid. Round structures are a decent option in zones inclined to powerful breezes and sea tempests. A rounded roof is less affected by wind planning which is when a strong wind lifts the roof structure up – and sometimes off the building.
Round structures can cost fundamentally less to develop. Conventional structures, with their different surfaces, are confused structures. Round structures, however, are moderately basic, they utilize less materials and set aside less opportunity to manufacture. They utilize 15 to 20% less materials for every square meter (or square foot) than a rectangular plan! Less surface zone implies they are additionally less exorbitant to keep up after some time.
Sounds are gentler inside the building making it perfect for rest and reflection, yet in addition for mingling and playing music. The shape additionally opposes commotion infiltrating all things considered. Sound waves disseminate as they fold over the building, protecting the inside from boisterous clamor outside.
For the most part, most structures embraced rectangular shape as there is ease in arranging, specifying, plan and furthermore for development. Prior quicker and more prudent to construct spaces inside rectangular shape are additionally more advantageous to determine. Absolutely, filling plot productively is the most evident reason, alongside making it less demanding to fit standard furniture and fitting. Anything non-symmetrical dangers winding up more costly to outfit or fit out. Taking in perspective of bending, plumbing line in the dividers.
With arrive restricted and significant, fitting a building effectively in a plot isn’t just a characteristic tasteful choice however spare cash also. More noteworthy plot of building plots are rectangular or fit as fiddle, so developing in that kind of plot will give near model building. These are the most traditionalist and powerful ways to deal with collect a building; odd shape will be more confounded to create and cost more. This is considered down to business strategy for fitting in furniture and other inside things, which by chance seek most part in rectangular or square shape too. Adjusted game plans used more material, more resource and are costly to keep up; so rectangular or square shapes are better. Keeping in the perspective, the rectangular or square can be joined to make fascinating shapes like ‘L, H, or T.’
Advantages of E-molded Building are as per the following:
It is watched that present development extends in the city were not giving great measure of ventilation in homes. A tad of research told that how helpful a very much ventilated building can be for the general population who live in it. In standard building outlines, it can give the same. Taking a gander at the plan, E molded structures give a great deal of degree to make vertical houses more ventilated, having a consistent stream of regular air.
In consistent structures, not all structures get the advantage of having the garden see. Some of them confront the opposite side, which in the long run makes them troubled about the place they are remaining in. There is require an outline that satisfies everybody’s longing to have a working with an excellent garden see. The E shape configuration was an ideal fit in that necessity also. Alongside ventilation, it likewise offers extension to give everybody an excellent garden see.
The advantages of daylight are not escaped anybody. At the point when there is a working with enough daylight, it brings inspiration, as well as other medical advantages also. Amid daytime, it’s a wonderful sight to see the rooms loaded with characteristic light. It diminishes the general utilization of power and its bills. With E shape outline, there’s sufficient measure of space for each home to have satisfactory measure of daylight, bringing about more Vitamin D and better invulnerable arrangement of the general population.
Returning to the roots
Investigating the idea of E-molded building, it looks like intensely with the structures that used to be in before times. Obviously the look and execution style is present day, however the center takes after to the structures our ancestors more likely than not lived in. In prior circumstances, building had a yard at the focal point of it with every one of the rooms looking towards it. This idea was one major motivation behind why individuals of prior circumstances has better wellbeing, and lived longer. We trust an E molded building is an advanced type of those old structures that gave a solid living.
More Interior Space
One preferred standpoint of an octagonal plan is that it gives around 20 percent more indoor space than a square building that has a similar border, on the grounds that an octagon encases more space than a square. The inside space likewise has less space-squandering corners. Early octagonal homes were regularly worked without corridors, depending rather on a focal hall for access to inside rooms. This expanded the usable space inside the octagon.
Construction and Energy
An octagon building was cheaper to build. Its shape consumed less exterior space and therefore required fewer construction materials. The space was more affordable to warm in winter since rooms opened into each other around focal anterooms. The building was less demanding to cool on the grounds that the windows gave cross ventilation.
After critically studying the sorted data, the data collected for the project study was analyzed for our residential building. The plan of I-shaped building is observed and thought for the shape adoption which is suitable for our residential building.
As a senior student, you will have to take and pass dozens of tests on your last year of high school or secondary school. But one of the most important exams you need to take and pass is the SAT. This is because your SAT score will have a direct impact on all your plans after high school including your choice of college or university, course, and scholarship eligibility.
Attending regular SAT test prep classes and reviewing well for the exam are great ways to ensure you will get a high score. However, following other relatively unknown tips and tricks will also help you prepare better and boost your confidence that will allow you to perform better on your test.
Below are some of the most important additional tips and tricks you need to keep in mind when preparing for the SAT:
1. Start reading more nonfiction materials
SAT has several sections designed to test your reading skills. You will have to read and understand long and dense paragraphs in an hour.
However, you don’t have to worry too much about the questions at the end of each text. Experts say they are relatively straightforward and easy to answer. But if there’s one thing you should worry about the reading part, it should be about your brain running out of energy when you get to this section.
To prepare well for this part of the SAT, read lots of nonfiction books and other forms of literature as part of your test preparation routine. This is because there is a high chance that majority of the passages you will read will be nonfiction.
A typical high school reading curriculum tends to lean mostly towards fiction. To prepare your brain for reading nonfiction passages, read newspapers, magazines, or the biography of a popular politician or important historical figures.
By reading a lot of nonfiction before exam day, your brain will be primed for reading fact-based text in the test and won’t get exhausted or bored easily.
2. Practice using the calculator you will bring to the actual exam
To maximize your efficiency on the actual SAT test day, make sure you bring a calculator you are familiar with. This means using only one calculator during your review classes, practice tests, and on the exam day.
When you follow this tip, you will know how to use the functions you will most likely to encounter on the SAT test. You won’t have to waste time pressing different functions to solve certain equations.
In addition, practice jotting down the steps or functions you used on your calculator on paper. This way, if you get an answer that is not among the options, you can follow the same steps, know quickly where you went wrong, and try to get the right answer on your second try.
Lastly, replace the batteries of your calculator a day before the exam and check if it is working properly and if it is ready for use.
3. Be an expert in mental math
There is a math section on the SAT wherein you won’t be allowed to use a calculator. You will save a lot of time doing equations with your pencil by knowing the basic mental math skills.
These include knowing the multiplication tables from 1 x 1 to 9 x 9 by heart. You also have to know the most used tricks for dividing and adding large numbers and finding the percentage of numbers.
In case you won’t be taught these tricks in school or in your review classes, go online to learn them.
4. Know and practice the most useful test-taking strategies
When reviewing for the SAT, make sure you know the best, most effective test-taking strategies which you should apply on the actual exam day.
- Using the process of elimination to choose the best answer if you are stuck on a question
- Not leaving any questions blank
- Answering the easy questions first before proceeding to the harder ones on the math test
- Answering questions as you take the writing and language test
5. Don’t overstudy
Lastly, although you really want to get a high score on your SAT, you shouldn’t spend more than three hours studying per day. This can lead to a brain overload. In addition, you will end up overworking your brain which will leave you feeling mentally exhausted.
As such, don’t forget to take frequent breaks whenever you study on your own. This will allow you to let the information sink in and give your brain the rest it needs. Aside from eating a snack during these breaks, consider playing your favorite sport for 15 to 30 minutes since this will help you focus and retain information better when you resume studying.
Although these tips and tricks are easy to follow, don’t make the mistake of ignoring them. They will go a long way in helping you ace your SAT exam.
Maloy Burman is the Chief Executive Officer and Managing Director of Premier Genie FZ LLC. He is responsible for driving Premier Genie into a leadership position in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) Education space in Asia, Middle East and Africa and building a solid brand value. Premier Genie is currently running 5 centers in Dubai and 5 centers in India with a goal to multiply that over the next 5 years.
Requiring additional tutoring is something that can help all students, no matter their skill level and knowledge. However, rather than enrolling your child in group class tuition centres, a more effective way of attaining academic assistance is through private online tutoring. The online element gives access to various benefits and opportunities that can be used to boost productivity and enhance the learning process for your child. Here are some benefits of online tutoring for students.
- Flexible hours
Online tutoring allows you to schedule private lessons that suit both your child’s and the available tutors’ availabilities. As a student, your child will need to prioritise time for school as well as other extracurricular efforts such as leadership meetings, sports or even part-time work. Online tutoring makes it convenient as your child can attend tutoring sessions outside of school hours and still gain the learning experience that is needed to reach their learning goals. Platforms such as Cluey Learning offer online resources even outside of tutoring sessions where students can access their work to complete during their spare time.
- Adaptable location
As the tutoring lessons are held online, your child will have the flexibility of studying in the comfort of their own home, library or any other environment that they believe is a productive studying environment. Selecting your own locations means that you are eliminating transportation hindrances that are both time and cost ineffective. Studying in the comfort of your home allows you to maximise concentration and effort into learning, without having to focus on wearing adequate school uniform. A relaxing and less intimidating environment can give your child confidence to express their thoughts and ask questions. As your tutor isn’t required to be physically present, this gives opportunities for tutors to be located from overseas. Geographical distance is no longer a limitation to accessing the best tutors that will be able to teach you to work to the best of your ability.
- Experts in their area
The online tutors are experts in teaching the school content but also specific to your school’s curriculum. This way, the content that will be assessed in your child’s exams will specifically be focused on during the online tutoring lessons. They will have a thorough knowledge of academic content on an even a higher skill and knowledge level where tutors will be able to meet the demand of the students. Tutors can increase their teaching and knowledge qualifications through taking online courses such Upskilled, Lynda and EdX which stands as one of the many flexible and contemporary ways that tutors can quickly be up to date with school content and the needs of students.
- Focus on technology
Since the classes are conducted on an online platform, they will have greater experience with technology and interaction and engagement through interesting learning techniques that can be taught via technology. Video tutorial clips, virtual interactive whiteboards, sticky notes and digital drawing pens are technological tools that assist the learning process or students. Smart tablet applications are easily accessible programs and resources that students can learn from without having to be physically present with the tutor but can be guided by guided by the online tutor to maximise the learning experience. Students can also save and access resources directly through file-sharing services such as Dropbox and Google Drive.
Since the tutoring sessions are online with a large array of tutors available, this means you will also have a wide range of subjects that you can choose for your child to enrol in. With this, you can research the background of the potential tutors and their teaching style to match the suitability for your child. The online tutors are credited and certified in various ways, so you should check which qualifications you think will be the most suitable for your child’s learning. Some online tutoring centres will assist you to allocate the appropriate tutor for your child.
- One-on-one tracking progress
Rather than simply stopping at assessing student’s class work to produce grades or outcome, online tutoring will also be focused on assessing your child’s progress. Tutors will ensure that the progression is positively advancing towards the results that you and your child desire. Online tutors can examine your child’s grades to ensure that they are reaching the academic targets. You will be provided with progress updates of your child’s performance and analyse ways that they will be able to improve in certain areas.
Taking advantage of technology and its associated products is an effective way of improving learning methods and techniques. Which benefits are your reason to hire an online tutor to boost your academic results?
Since the classes are conducted on an online platform, they will have greater experience with technology and interaction and engagement through interesting learning techniques that can be taught via technology. Video tutorial clips, virtual interactive whiteboards, sticky notes and digital drawing pens are technological tools that assist the learning process or students. Smart tablet applications are easily accessible programs and resources that students can learn from without having to be physically present with the tutor but can be guided by guided by the online tutor to maximise the learning experience. Students can also save and access resources directly through file-sharing services stored on the cloud such as Dropbox and Google Drive.
The world is changing and getting more competitive each passing day. Things around you are all changing for the good. However, there will always be certain things that remain the same through ages. One of them being stress management just before exams.
A small amount of stress is obvious just before a big exam. It can give you the push to try harder and be more effective. It brings in the urgency in such moments when you can’t spare to lose a minute. But at the same time, extreme amounts of stress can lead to serious fatigue and inefficiency. It’s easy to lose your rationale when your brain is stressed. It releases a chemical called Cortisol which hampers the way you think. Chances are high you would end up doing something completely irrational. Additionally, the cloudiness in your brain will make you skip things you already know. This can be a major disaster while you are in the exam hall.
There are very few things more disheartening for a student than realizing that they can’t recall something they know. Personally, I have had spent in numerous tearful nights because of the same. There’s a good reason you should be sparing some time understanding how not to stress up before exams. Believe me, this small investment in time will help you focus better and be more productive later.
Here are 5 great tips on surviving the exam stress:
1. Decide upon a realistic routine and stick to it-
There’s a good reason your parents and your teachers ask you to follow your routine. It’s pretty understandable to be curious and try to be different and unique. However, exam times are not ideal for you to be experimenting probably. Having a routine that is in accordance with your habits, like sleeping patterns and food habits etc., will help you stick to it. This trains your brain to function accordingly without any confusion.
Be organized and de-cluttered to be more calm and peaceful. This will make you feel more sorted. Take help of dairy, journals and visual aids to plan your day and to-do lists.
2. Do not get bothered by how your approach is different from others-
Each student is different from the other. Something that works for your friend doesn’t necessarily have to work for you. A simple example is, waking up early in the morning to study is a great habit but is not everyone’s cup of tea. Instead of trying desperately to wake up every morning stick to what works for you. Remember, it’s important to have a routine and structure, irrespective of how it is. Usually, students get disheartened when unable to follow a certain thing that works for most. It wise to understand that it is the consistency and the sincerity that helps in scoring well and not how a certain student decides to revise.
3. Practice meditations and exercise and eat healthy-
Yes, health is the last thing in your mind when exams are around. This is a mistake most students do. How you perform depends greatly on your physical and mental health. Meditating slows down your mind from all the hundred things running simultaneously. It gives you the break to organize your thoughts and plan well. Exercising give u an adrenaline rush as it pumps blood faster. This gives a boost to you and a rush that is helpful during stressful times. It also shifts your thoughts for you to focus better later. It also fills your mind with endorphins which make your more content and satisfied.
You can’t focus on your studies properly when you are suffering from the flu or are having acidity issues. The best studying happens when both mind and body are at peace and ease. This is why you should keep yourself full yet light. Try to avoid heavy and greasy food during such times. This inner stress can otherwise pump your stress levels further. Also including the right foods can help you concentrate and memorize better.
4. Avoid social media-
This is the era of digital media. It’s extremely important to be aware of what’s happening around you in this age. This makes it obvious to be alive on social media at all times. It’s hard to fight the urge of looking at your mobiles even during the deadliest of hours. And once you are at it, it’s hard to notice how fast time passes. You know the drill, don’t you? It’s common for most students to keep extending their social media usage time and then regret it later. The same thing is repeated the next day. It an addiction which is hard to give away.
Question yourself each time you have the urge to check social media, what is at stake? You might end up flunking a paper and realizing it’s only you to be blamed at the end of the day. Do not let social media control you. This can be more frustrating. Allocate a certain time between your breaks for social media. This is a trick that allows you to perform without its interference. Make sure you only check social media during those allocated times only, while keeping it away rest of the time. Reward yourself with a treat when you successfully manage to do it.
5. Remember to be confident and take the break you deserve-
Confidence comes from within and can drive miracles. Once you have revised your lessons well and are already halfway through, you know you can ace your exams. This is the feeling of confidence and clarity. This allows you to plan better and smartly. It’s a good feeling to contemplate how far you have come from where you had begun. Believing you can do a certain thing makes it easier to do the thing.
Give yourself a break when you feel confident and remember not to overdo it. Do something of your liking, like grab a cup of warm tea, watch Netflix or write to relieve stress.
All the very best for your exams. I don’t see any reason for you to be stressed, its well within your control. There’s no point crying over spilled milk, meaning stress hasn’t ever helped anyone score well. Start afresh and be confident about your new innings. Remember, there’s a fun world waiting for students, outside as a reward.
Mary Jones is the co-founder & editor-in-chief at TopMyGrades and focused on Content Marketing Strategy for many clients from Education industry in US, Canada & UK. Mary has conducted a series of webinars for Assignment Essay Help on how to use their Essay Writing Services. She has intensive content editing experience and, also has worked with MSNBC, NewsCred & Scripted. She has also authored blogs on Lifehack.org, Wn.com, Medium.com, Minds.com and many more digital publications.
The easiest time to learn new skills and even languages is when you’re young; In fact scientists have shown that children under 6 have brains like sponges; they literally absorb information.
This emphasizes why it is so important to find a good early childcare centre, such as child care belfield and give your child the best possible start in life.
Of course learning hard facts and statistics is only part of the battle. This is also the best time to start teaching your child emotional intelligence.
What Is Emotional Intelligence?
In short this is simply the recognition of emotions and when they should be used. Although an early education center will help your child to learn emotionally intelligence there are several things you can do to help them develop this valuable skill.
Lead By Example
If you fly off the handle at a moment’s notice and lose control then your children are going to think this is acceptable emotional behavior.
As you have matured you have probably devised ways of dealing with difficult situations. Now you need to be aware that you’re be watched closely. It’s time to use your breathing techniques, count to ten and anything else you need to do.
Pausing for at least 5 seconds before you react teaches your children emotional control and helps you to deal with any situation properly.
It’s essential that you recognize your children’s emotions. Children may struggle to understand the difference between emotions and their right to do what they want.
You can allow them to express their emotion and their opinion. This will help them to feel acknowledged and worthwhile; even if they ultimately need to do what you’ve said.
Recognize The Ambience
It is common that a child reacts completely out of proportion to a specific incident. This is generally because they have been storing up their emotions and have just found an outlet.
To help them overcome this you need to encourage them to express all their emotions and that they should all be accepted; even if the resulting action must be limited.
The best way to do this is to simply talk to your child. Show that you understand.
No one is perfect, emotions are part of being human and expressing them is healthy. But rage turning into violence is an issue. You need to encourage your child to share how they feel. You don’t need to judge the feelings or tell them they are right or wrong.
Simply allowing them to express their feelings will give them a safe outlet; this will help the emotions to pass; especially when you’re dealing with rage.
There are times when your emotions threaten to encompass you. That’s when you need to step away or take a deep breath; perhaps even meditate.
Teaching your child to use the same techniques will help them to pause and to realize that not all emotions need to be acted on.
This will also encourage the opportunity for children to communicate with each other and explain their feelings; allowing them to come to an understanding of each other and the situation they are in.
It’s not easy teaching emotional intelligence but it is important to deal with your child’s emotions and not choose to ignore them or override them.
Athens has a different thing and lots of historical places are also included there. We all love traveling and also we discover Athens from open top hop on hop off double Decker sightseeing bus. With the taking option to get visit Piraeus too exactly. As much as we will learn about Athens so much will come to know attractions and desires are to visit more and more. tripindicator.com is comparing top Hop on Hop Off Bus Tours in Athens.
How much benefits we can have hop on hop off buss traveling in Athens
Tracing the history and then culture of Athens from ancient times to the good way like the present day on this tour of central Athens is great. Hop on and off at 15 top sights and also attractions like top sights and attraction times like in one complete day.
It is the way will enjoy the company of whole live guide experience and will also tips about each of the time and historical place.
Classified timing is absolutely available and then can also enjoy the whole city of Berlin properly.
Will also have enjoyment and then the audio commentary and will be in different languages.
Complimentary and also the cruise tours and attractions are available.
Best hop on hop off bust tours have in Athens
As going to complete the guide and about top ticket supplier we have in Athens. It is also available briefly and to give the guidance along with it. It is the thing necessary to have to do is to compare the price of each ticket and move for the cheaper one. Now it is the extra saving and then to get here best of options and can also get benefits.
Athens, Piraeus, Riviera hop on hop of city sightseeing tour
Exactly no matter what cruise ship and to arrive on it is the way to perfect and to do it like yourself shore excursion and Athens and then attraction in city sightseeing Athens offer with the specific rates. There is no hard rate for traveling and enjoying and available in just $23.75.
Athens Piraeus and Glyfada Hop on hop off tours
Exactly discoing Athens Piraeus and Glyfada is with Athens open tour and then the first Greek hop in hop out Bus Company which is great. It is very amazing having as like enjoying and traveling more and more anywhere we want. No having so much price and too higher extra rates but available in but $17.81.
Hop on hop off classic tour of Athens
Traveling is great so then it will be the amazing choice if we can solve issues while traveling. So as that to complete tour of Athens and to include various key sights of Athens like is just amazing. Actually like the acropolis and then Parthenon and anathematic stadium with the two interchanging lines and crosses. Not too costly package for this travelling but amazingly upon the way of just $15.44 and it is fantastic.
Superb reviews of consumers about Athens tours and trips
There is nothing critical to hear about and people who consumed and to get reviews about Athens bus tour which is to have and to complete simply type trip advisor into the browser and will get the details and information clearly. Now you can also read up to 3.5 reviews and then Athens attractions and sightseeing and visit tripindicator.com for more Bus tours.
Tips for Free attractions in Athens
Like the way exploring Athens with the 24 hour ticket and marvel at the Acropolis and with the Parthenon extremely valuable. Actually visiting the national gardens and then city has lots of many museums. So as that shop at the different stops and along with the bus route and then to get see the amazing sailing boats for traveling.
Parliament change of guards
Actually the ceremony takes place every hour in front of Parliament in Athens is wonderful free attraction and will see the guards called Evzones and wearing traditional customs and standing guards in front of the tomb of Unknown Soldier.
National Gardens picnic point
Exact location is right behind of the Parliament building and national gardens are an oasis into the heart of the city and then were actually designed by Queen Amalia. It is home to lots of plants and animals so be careful and also inside the garden will see a small lake with the ducks including in it.
The factor that makes most undergraduates refuse to order a custom-written college term paper online is that such a service is never cheap. ‘Does that price for my order suit me?’ – you always ask yourself this question, don’t you? However, before saying ‘no’ you need to know what influences the price when you buy dissertation and thesis on BuyDissertations.com or any other resource you may search on the web.
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No matter you are running a SME or a multi-national company, it is always good to have some passionate, skilled, effective and certified employees in your workforce. Once you have the right employees working for you, you can make the most of your business. After all, it is all about what you do and how you do it all.
Why companies look for certified employees?
Since the competition is on rise and the businessmen are after capabilities and results; they have started giving much importance to certification. It has been seen that much importance is given to candidates who have done certified things. It is good to have proper certification software so as to get a good place in the working space. Your business would grow when there are employees who are certified and have good knowledge about the specific areas or respective zones.
What is this certification all about?
Software Certifications has turned out to be recognized worldwide as the standard for information technology quality declaration professionals. Certification is a huge step; a great decision. Certification classifies an individual as a quality assurance leader. Certification fetches the candidate the respect of workers and managers. One or more of such types of certifications is often a prerequisite for promotion or getting a fresh position. Certainly, if you have your employees certified in different software, you can be ensured that they are qualified. After all, certification is formal and professional recognition of a degree of proficiency in the information technology quality assurance industry. The receiver is considered to be having an overall understanding of the disciplines and skills signified in a comprehensive body of knowledge for a particular software discipline.
Why should a person become certified?
As the IT industry and world gets more competitive, the capability for management to differentiate professional and skilled individuals in the profession gets mandatory. Certification showcases a great level of understanding in performing quality assurance principles and practices. If you take the candidates for different roles in your business, you can proudly state that they are capable and efficient. Certification is always helpful for the employees and the employers. There are certifications like:
- Certified Software Quality Analyst (CSQA)
- Certified Software Tester (CSTE)
- Certified Associate in Software Testing (CAST)
- Certified Software Business Analyst (CSBA)
- Certified Associate in Software Quality (CASQ)
- Certified Manager of Software Testing (CMST)
- Certified Associate Business Analyst (CABA)
- Certified Manager of Software Quality (CMSQ)
To acquire the designation for any of the above given certifications showcases a professional level of competence in the practices and principles of quality assurance in the IT world as well as get recognition as software quality profession, attain potentially more fast career advancement, and attain better acceptance in the role as the advisor to the management. Certainly if you are an employer and you recruit the candidates who have certification in different areas, it would be effective for your overall growth. The growth of the employees would directly impact the overall development of the business.
Types of Certification programs
Though certification programs fall under the training canopy, there are a few relatively unique differences between these types of programs and specific training programs. Certification programs usually encompass an assessment of knowledge, abilities and skills while training programs might include this kind of evaluation, and it is surely not a need. Similarly certification programs end in the bestowment of a credential that shows and underlines that the holder has met a particular standard in terms of possession of an ability to demonstrate the learned skills. Training programs do not characteristically encompass such type of signifier. And for some of the certification programs, training is not at all needed at all. Employees have the option to relinquish preparatory training and skip directly to the assessment of their ability so as to attain certification.
As the purpose and processes included in certifications programs are entirely different from typical training programs, their development and design also incline to differ. The finest practices dictate that both should begin with an analysis of the kind of work being performed and the Knowledge, Skills and Abilities. It is required to perform that work, as well as a requirements analysis to find out gaps between the needed KSAs and present workforce capabilities. It is absolutely vital to keep both purpose and process in your mind when you develop a certification program. Though there are resemblances between these programs and conventional training, differences across the two are likely to be produce divergent work and needs analyses results.
Many of the companies do give promotion to the employees on the basis of their work and certifications. There are different levels of certifications and these become criteria of promotion. You can be sure that your employees are capable of getting the next designation in the company on the basis of these certifications. These certifications ensure quality in your employees and you can be sure where they stand in terms of their calibre and capabilities. It is a good practice to have or conduct a software certification program. You can come across different types of certifications for different types of business roles. It would be your take to decide what you need and how things would be.
Thus, the moral of the story is that you can come across the best talent and professionals working beneath you in the presence of software certification. It would help your business grow and enhance.