All posts by EduPedia Publications

EduPedia Publications s is an enterprise run by a team of dedicated publishers, editors and writers. We provide young and budding writers and poets a platform for scaling the ladder of success in the field of literature. We provide a wide ranging services to the authors and guide them in getting their books published and promoted through various online and offline channels under our EduPedia Publications. We publish original work of budding Writers, Research Scholars, PhD Scholars, Academicians and Poets and we have a large number of our esteemed readers and reviewers who give you the best feedback on your published works in the filed of Literature, Management Studies, Scientific Research etc.




The present paper attempts to analyze the conceptual aspects of Communicative language teaching approach , as also to figure out the radical elements in the contemporary  approaches carried out in Europe as well as in India. An attempt has been made to focus on the radical elements in various approaches like Grammar-translation Method , Audio-lingual method or Bi-lingual method and also to compare and contrast their specific preferences. The paper, thus, presents an overview of the speaking , writing & technical skills & how they must be employed having a specific tilt towards radical innovations .

communication, approaches , listening , technical drills , Noam Chomsky , language


Publish Your Book Now at affordable cost or no cost

Book Publication Offer
  • New Authors and Writers are invited for their works and ideas.
  • Authors and Writers are also invited for re-publication/reprint of their already published works.

  • Publishers from India and Abroad are also invited for Copyright for re-print of reputed published works.

Get published in 5-6 weeks with Edupedia Publications; India’s most popular & promising publishing company. Edupedia Publications is more beneficial than any other traditional publication. Because our marketing strategies are tremendously strong. We provide our readers with door to door service. Edupedia Publications provide personal service. Before Edupedia Publications offer to publish your work, we review your manuscript and listen to you to understand your publication goals. Then, Edupedia Publications provide a customized publishing solution.

Edupedia Publications believe that writing and publishing a book is an extraordinarily personal experience. We know that each author has unique and important needs during the production, promotion and sale of their book. Therefore, there is always a person here to talk to you before you agree to publish with us, during the production of your book and during the promotion and sale of your book.

Edupedia Publications are currently accepting submissions in all genres including Educational, fiction, Comedy, Autobiography, Religious, Self-help, True Story, Romance non-fiction, poetry, motivational and juvenile etc.

We also accepting academic submission in the field of science and engineering like ECE, ME, CSE, IT etc.

Visit our site for more info and to get published books

p- ISSN: 2348-795X What do X indicate in ISSN?

issn_logo_IJRAn ISSN is composed of eight digits: the arabic numerals 0 to 9, except that in the case of the last digit, which is a check digit, the upper case X can appear. The purpose of the check digit is to guard against errors caused by the incorrect transcription of the ISSN. The method of determining the check digit for the ISSN is the modulus 11 basis, using the weighting factors 8 to 2. In the case of the ISSN, the Roman numeral X is used where the check digit calculation results in a remainder of 10.

The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit.

You can check ISSN at this Link on Entering First Seven Digits

The ISSN Calculator

This website provides a facility for computing the eighth digit of an ISSN number, given the first seven numbers.
ISSN stands for ‘International Standard Serial Number’, and is a number that is assigned to a serial publication such as an online journal. The format for an ISSN is given by:


, where x is a number in the range 0-9, and y is either a number in the range 0-9 or the letter X. The value of the digit y is called the check digit. The sole function of the ISSN Calculator available in this site is to compute this value. On applying for an ISSN number, an applicant is issued with a unique sequence of seven numbers. It is then left to the applicant to compute the check digit.

Calculating the check digit

Excerpted from the ISSN Manual, a publication of the ISSN International Network

The purpose of a check digit is to guard against errors caused by the incorrect transcription of an ISSN. The modulus 11 basis using the weighting factors 8 to 2 for calculating the check digit is one of the most efficient systems for detecting transcription errors.

The procedure for calculating the check digit, which may be carried out automatically in a computer, is as follows:

  1. Take the first seven digits of the ISSN (the check digit is the eighth and last digit): 0 3 1 7 8 4 7
  2. Take the weighting factors associated with each digit : 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
  3. Multiply each digit in turn by its weighting factor: 0 21 6 35 32 12 14
  4. Add these numbers together: 0+21+6+35+32+12+14 = 120
  5. Divide this sum by the modulus 11: 120:11 =10 remainder 10
  6. Substract the remainder from 11: 11-10 = 1
  7. Add the remainder, which is the check digit, to the extreme right (low order) position of the base number of the ISSN: 0317-8471

If the remainder is 10, substitute an upper case X in the check digit position. If there is no remainder, put a zero in the check digit position.

It should be noted that the check digit is an essential and inseparable part of the ISSN.

Effect of NPK Fertilizer and Integration on Growth and Yield of Maize

Bello WB, Adejuyigbe CO, Adbisi AA

Correspondence Email:


            The study examined the economic analysis of plantain based production system in Oyo State, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted in the selection of Eighty three farmers from the chosen local governments. Well structured questionnaire was used to elicit information on socio-economic characteristics and other relevant variables. The study data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, budgetary and stochastic frontier production function. The result showed that 84.34% of plantain farmers in the study area are male and 84.34 of them were married. Plantain was predominantly grown as sole crop by 54.22% while 45.78% of farmers engaged in intercropping. Budgetary analysis revealed that plantain intercropping with yam had higher gross margin (N528,400/ha) than sole plantain (N449,940/ha). Yield level was positive and significantly influenced by labour input. The level of education was significant and found to contribute positively to technical efficiency while farming experience was found to reduce technical efficiency. Inadequate credit (96.39), Pest and disease (65.06%), labour shortage (60.24%), inadequate fertilizer (57.83) and sucker procurement (54.21%), were the prominent constraints to plantain production in the study area.

Keyword: Plantain based farm, budgetary analysis, stochastic production function.

Definition of Handmade Carpets/Rugs

Ms. Mamta Lall

(Associate Professor), H.O.D.

Dept. of Design, School of Art Design Media Studies,

Sharda University, Greater Noida. (New Delhi).

Abstract: The papers fixate on paramount of handmade carpets/Rugs also attempts to discuss about the hand-tufted carpets, knotted oriental carpets, which could strengthen the design development activity of the weaving sector, see different wide variety of Design in Hand Knotted Carpets. We also see the wide variety of design in tribal rugs.


Key words: Contoured pattern, inexpensive, smoothed, appearance, asymmetric, hangings, saddlebags, tent hangings, ground covers, animal trappings, and storage sacks, loop structure




The hand-tufted carpets production differs significantly from all other production methods. The carpet is not woven or knotted row by row, but rather the pile yarn is incorporated by hand into a backing fabric using a tufting gun. There are two kinds of tufting guns: electric and purely manual ones. If the pile is cut open in the process, a velour surface emerges. In order to retain a loop structure, the pile yarn is not cut.

As soon as the pile is completed, the pile threads have to be fixed because they are only loosely incorporated into the backing fabric and can be pulled out easily. The entire back of the rug is thus bonded, generally with Contoured pattern the back of the rug is then covered using a cotton duck fabric for a clean look. Contoured pattern details are often subsequently carved out.

Unlike knotted rugs, whose patterns must be created row by row from the bottom to the top, all pattern details in one colour or type of yarn can be produced before moving on to the next. Curves can also be created easily using this technique. After the design is stamped into a film by hand, applied colour particles are used to make it visible on a primary backing made of poly acrylic or polyamide.

The rug is sheared to ensure an equal pile height. A velour surface results if the pile was cut open during application. In order to preserve the loop structure, the pile yarn is not cut open. During finishing, overlaying pile threads are cut off, edges are smoothed out and stitched down if necessary, and the rug cleaned.

In order to better reveal the contours of the rug design, and to ensure that the pattern is clearly visible, the rug is sheared again by hand.

The pile is usually made from poly acrylic fiber, polyester, viscose or wool.

Hand-tufting is a fast process, thus making the rugs produced inexpensive. The main countries of production are China, India and Thailand. Especially high-quality pieces are also produced in Europe.

We can see wide variety of Design in Han Tufted Carpet look:

  • Abbusan Rug
  • Contemporary Design
  • Abstract Design
  • Shaped Carpet


A carpet is said to be knotted when the pile yarn is incorporated into its basic weave by means of a knot. The basic weave, that is warp and weft, is usually made from wool or cotton, the knotted pile is usually made from wool.

A knot has to fully enclose at least one warp yarn. Today the symmetric knot, the asymmetric knot, the Tibetan (Nepalese) knot and the very rare Berber knot are used.

The manufacturing process of a knotted rug starts with stretching the warp across the loom, also called beaming. The tension of the warp is important for the quality of the rug. Rows of weft yarn are then woven in at right angles into the stretched warp. The resulting so-called initial weave (also known as Kilim band) provides stability.

Now, row by row, the pile is knotted around the warp. Each knot runs over a pair of warp threads. Each knot is incorporated individually, which allows for different colours and patterns to emerge. The knotting is done either from memory or according to a patter, so-called vaghires, point paper designs or talims.

The knots are always pulled downwards, which produces the pile bias, or the grain. It always leans towards where the carpet was started to be knotted. After each completed row of knots, the knotter then puts in one or several wefts. Finally, he beats the wefts and knots down using a heavy, comb-like tool called beater. It is important that the impact always has the same force to ensure that the final appearance is uniform. If the impact is lower in one part, for instance in order to save time, the carpet will be looser and the patterns will no longer be in proportion.

As soon as the knotting is completed, the carpet is washed, which makes the pile shiny and removes excess dirt and wool. The pile is thentrimmed to its final length. The finer the knotting, the lower the pile, or the pattern blurs.

Two types of knots are generally used for the production of classic oriental carpets: the symmetric (Turkish) and the asymmetric (Persian) knot. Despite their names, these types of knot are not bound to a particular region, since both types are used in Turkey and in Iran.

The asymmetric knot is knotted asymmetrically over a pair of adjacent warp threads; the pile yarn fully enclosed one pile yarn, and halfof the other. Other names for this type of knot are: Persian knot, Sennehknot and Farsi baff.

The symmetric knot is knotted symmetrically over an adjacent pair of warp threads; both threads are fully enclosed by the pile yarn. Other names for this type of knot are: Turkish knot, Ghiordes knot and Turk Baff.So-called looped carpets represent a special category. Here, the pile is incorporated into the basic weave using W or V loops. But there is no knot that truly enclosed the warp thread. Nevertheless, these carpets are considered to be knotted carpets. The pile of such looped carpets is less durable.

In Nepalese carpets, Indian imitations and Chinese Tibetan rugs, the Tibetan knot is used. This knot is endlessly wound around rod. Once one row of knot loops in one colour is completed the loops around the rod are cut to fan out the pile. This produces the typical striped knot appearance. The knot that is cut open resembles the asymmetric knot.

We can see wide variety of Design in Hand Knotted Carpets.

  • Tabriz
  • Mir
  • Abusson
  • Herati
  • Bidjar
  • Heriz
  • Kirman
  • Prayer Rugs
  • Kazak
  • Keshan
  • Sarouk
  • Isfahan etc.


Oriental Rugs are floor coverings that are done by nomads and villagers. Such rugs are available from almost all over the world. . Such expressions of tribal culture are very popular and treasured in homes worldwide. Product likerugs, wall hangings, saddlebags, tent hangings, ground covers, animal trappings, and storage sacks etc., where these are used as every day usage articles.

Oriental rugs with a plush pile are woven in small sections of dyed yarn attached tightly to pairs of warps. Weavers use this weaving style where they work with free end of a continuous yarn. The yarn covers each knot separately and clipping the yarn before the subsequent knot. Following after each knotted row, single or a number of wefts are inserted and stressed down taut. Tribal rugs are ornamental geometric motifs woven on the loom. There are traditional designs such as totemic, religious, talismanic ones that give a peerless look to an exclusive tribal rug. Sometimes the weaver depicts important aspect of their daily life.

Fibers of organic origin are used in weaving tribal rugs. Generally, with a wool, cotton and natural fibers such as mohair, camel hair, goat hair and silk are also used to form the pile. Symmetrical knots also known as Ghiordes and asymmetrical known as Senneh actually bring out the splendor in the rug. The special feature of tribal pieces is that often the weft threads are tied with a different colored yarn that does not matches with the color of the rug,mainly brighter colour,which makes them unique among themselves. Other creation of tribal origin consists of flat weaves like Kilim that also looks exceptionally fine.

Tribal weavers in the rugs also use motifs of noble animals and birds. However, they are woven in a secondary, stylized and geometric manner,there could be a battle scene depicted against a geometric background with a simple pattern border. These Versatile rugs creates a fashionable look to the ambience.

We can see wide variety of Design in Tribal Rugs.

  • kilims
  • Tribal Rugs



With growing market potential for textile products there is a wide range of career options in this field. Textile design comprises both surface design and structural design. Textile designers usually hadle embroidery designers, print, weave and texture. Textile designers need to have details information about textile fibres and different methods of textile design. Thus, there of lots of opportunities existing in the carpet industry, which may be cashed.

Designers takes the idea of colour from nature and fills it, sometime the natural colours added by the designer may not be in trend with the market.


  1. Cover:Carpets & Textiles for modern interiors, winter,2014.
  2. Ikoku, Ngozi, The Victoria & Albert Museum’s Textile Collections: British Textile Design from 1940 to the present.
  3. Home accent Today, Vol.30, No.1, and January, 2015.
  4. Home Furnishing News, January, 2015.
  5. HFN, August, 2015.
  6. Gantzhorn, Volkmar:Oriental Carpets, Taschen, London.
  7. Sakhai,Essie: The story of Carpets,Studio Editions, London.

Self Publishing Service of EduPedia Publications

Self Publishing Service of EduPedia Publications

The myth of publishing industry is now disappearing due to the advent of the self publishing features launched by some well known companies like Amazon and EduPedia Publications . Now the author has full control over the entire gamut of the work related to writing, editing, copy-writing, proof-reading, cover design etc. Now the easy to use tools and kits provided by these  companies are becoming boon for the young and flourishing poets and writers who want their book to get published in a shoe string budget.

How to Publicize Books

The easily available publicity and promotion tools and widgets like bookify, twiter, facebook, edupedia publications etc are very handy and easy to use. The author has freedom of getting promotion without paying a penny through these channels. The network of friends and family has made it possible to assist in the book promotion easy online. The conventional mode of book promotion are still in vogue but it is now giving way to online publishing and promotion channels which have wide access to the readers who prefer to read online or on their tablets, kindle and android phones. Keeping in view the changing need and taste of readers the online publishing and promotion channels pay a key role meeting  those new emerging demands of the readers.

Print on Demand Publication Offer

The print on demand service make it possible to test the quality of the printed book and print it for niche readers and then revise it to meet the global standard. The online feedback mechanism also help a lot in revising and updating the book content in limited time which was a rare thing in past due to the volume of publication and backlogs of the publishing who has little time to attend the need and demand of a particular author.

The time is now for the new poets and writers to publish their book without any upfront cost and enjoy the most awaited name and fame that you deserve most. Here is the link to get your book published on Amazon and Kindle through Create Space. Sign up now and avail  this free of charge opportunity.

by Shashikant Nishant Sharma

(Publishing Guide and Author)

How to Get Book Published

There are many ways and channels through which you can get your book or artwork published and earn the due royalty that you deserve. We will discuss here how to get book published at a shoe string budget and still reach out to the widest possible readers. Let’s make it simple by writing each steps in a point-wise manner.

  •  Write your book or create your artwork. If you have already written then you need to proof read and make it lovable by formatting in the suitable and print-friendly manner. You can use the free resources of the Create Space for this purpose.
  • The next step is to find a good publisher. There are a number of publisher who would be willing to publish your book or artwork but some of them might demand such a huge money that you will think that book publishing is a costly affair and you might drop the idea of getting published. Here we will suggest you to opt for Edupedia Publications.
  • Next step comes for choosing among the various available options and channels of book promotions and distribution. We recommend you to consider this step very wisely as this can make or mar the success of your book and most probably your profitability from the book publication. We have found that Amazon provide free of cost a wide range of distribution channels which very few companies can afford. So don’t wait for cheaper option to come just avail this opportunity from here.
  • Now that your book is published and is now available on various distribution channels you can either wait for the royalty to pour in or you can apply your efforts through the various social networking sites to spread the message of the the publication of your book or artwork. Facebook, Twitter and Google+ are very good social networking channels use them to multiply your earning.

By Shashikant Nishant Sharma

Publishing eBook Online

There are many advantages of e-books over every other type of product being sold online today. Here are some of the

Main advantages of publishing eBook online.

  • Virtually 100% profit margin — your e-book is delivered as an electronic PDF file over the Internet, so the payment you collect for its purchase is nearly pure profit.
  • No printing costs, no big cash outlay – compare that with self-published books where you can easily spend $9,000 or more on a first print run of 3,000 copies.
  • No inventory to store … it’s just a PDF file you keep on your server. By comparison, the inventory of just one or two self-published print books can take up your whole garage or spare bedroom!
  • Quick and easy to update – you can correct errors or add new information at any time – without spending a dime.
  • No shipping costs or delays – the buyer gets it within minutes of placing his order online.
  • Higher perceived value than regular books – e-books are typically less than HALF the length of regular books … yet they sell for 2 or 3 times more!
  • Simple, and inexpensive to produce – your total out-of-pocket costs are only a few hundred dollars – even less if you do the work yourself.

Book Publication Offer from Edupedia

In this age of globalisation, everything is getting more simpler than ever before. Take the case of book publishing writers and poets had to wait for months to get the approval of the publishing companies to get the book published. But we at EduPedia Publications ensures that your book gets published in due time.

Why wait for months when you have opportunity of getting published and reaching out to millions of readers across the world. The time is now and you must act to avail this free opportunity of getting published. Bring your manuscript and get the print ready copy of your book and avail the free opportunity of free distribution on the amazon store well renowned for its quality and global reach.

by Shashikant Nishant Sharma

Simple Self Publishing for Authors

Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest !

Interact on all of the other major social networks.

I often post my blog posts on Facebook first. This helps me see which ones will get the most engagement. Create a fan page for your blog. If people like them and that draws them to one of my fan pages, then all the better.

Never buy Likes. But when you can get Likes organically by using your content, then that is value you grow forever.

With Twitter, it’s hard to non-stop engage in conversations. You would never have time for writing.

This entire strategy: Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, guest blogging, is about building your name to an audience that might be unfamiliar to you, as well as driving distribution to your posts while at the same time delivering real value to your readers. You have to do all of that: distribution, name-building, value, at the same time, to make these platforms work for you.


Note that publishers do zero marketing for you. This is not a knock on publishers. The great thing about publishers: they will write you a check and get you into bookstores. These are two really good things. But they will not do marketing.

If you don’t do your own marketing and promote yourself, then nobody else will. This should be your mantra. The one area where I will fault publishers is that they will claim to do marketing for you.


You can craft a Microsoft Word file of your book, upload it to Createspace, and they will format it for you, publish it to Kindle, and you are now a published author on Amazon. You will get 30-70% royalties depending on how you price (above $2.99 you get a 70% royalty) and you can do paperback and Kindle version.

This is not a bad choice. I did this with several of my self-published books. I’ve sold more copies of those books than my five books published with traditional publishers combined. Createspace even helps you design a cover, and you can pay for copyediting.

By Shashikant Nishant Sharma