Training is the process of helping employees to acquire more knowledge of the job and to learn or sharpen the needed skills, attitudes and values associated with the efficient performance of their job and new employees, as also existing employees, often need training as a means of their progress in their jobs and careers and it is an important element of the staffing function and many organizations make formal or informal arrangements for providing training to their managerial and non-managerial personnel. Training is practical education and it is a technique that brings out the hidden abilities in a person and teaches him to use his skills effectively. Training is an art and the trainer selects the best methods for training, keeping because of the requirements of the job and the ability of the concerned persons. Training is an activity which changes the outlook and behavior of persons and training may be understood as the practice of theoretical knowledge and the importance of training is well-recognized all over the world but the methods of training may vary from job to job and from industry to industry and typically, a separate training department under the charge of an expert in training techniques is established for the purpose. As Dale Yoder said, “Training is the process by which manpower is filled for the particular jobs it is to perform”.
METHODS OD TRAINING
1. On-the-job Method
On-the-jib methods are the methods that are applied, while the employee is working and it means Learning while doing and training is provided by superiors to subordinates and it is economical and less time consuming and it is used where jobs are simple, as in case of plumbers and motor mechanics.
a. Apprenticeship Programme
Under this method, trainees are apprentices and they work under the direct supervision of the experts, who guide and help them in learning the job.
b. Internship Training
In this method, professional institutes enter into arrangements with big business enterprises and send their students to these industrial enterprises to gain practical work experience.
c. Job Rotations
It is shifting the trainees from one department to another department or from one job position to another job position.
d. Induction Training
It is training to help a new employee to settle down quickly into the job by becoming familiar with fellow workers the job and its environment including other people and machines in the business.
2. Off-the-Job Methods
Off-the-road jobs methods are used away from the place of work and it means Learning before doing and it is provided by experts either from within or from outside the organization and it is more expensive and more time consuming than on-the-job and it is used where jobs are complex involving the use of sophisticated machinery.
a. Vestibule training
Under this method, training is given in a classroom and where the actual work environment is stimulated, a supplicate model of the workshop is prepared and instead of using original equipment, employees are trained on the dummy models.
b. Programming Instruction
The total information amount the job is broken into meaningful small units and are arranged in a logical sequence from simple to complex and the trainee goes through these units one by one by answering questions or by filling the blanks.