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Directing is a very important function of management and its subordinates may not perceive the organizational goals in the absence of directing and the subordinates must be communicated what the organizational goals are, what the employees should do to achieve them, how they should do their jobs etc. Moreover, directing is directly concerned with human beings, so it should be executed carefully to achieve the desired goals. The part played by the manager is rather important as the CEO of the company from the point of managing the workers and the management and Getting things down is in the very nature of Directing.


1. The benefit of unity of command

 Due to scientific supervision, effective communication, and proper motivation, there is no problem with conflicting orders or priorities and because of a complete reporting relationship with a single superior, personal responsibility for results becomes greater. Directing involves the management of human behavior and it creates cooperation and harmony among the members of a group and increasing people’s awareness has made managing human beings very difficult.

2. Increases potential

For reasons of physical nature’s productivity of managerial resources is limited, but the productivity and effectiveness of human resources have unlimited potential, and directing helps the enterprise in making use of this potential output of the human resources. Since humans evolve as the time goes by and stating together is an important aspect of keeping going together so everyone needs to understand the aspirations and expectations of their subordinates or their colleagues in order to manage them effectively.

3. Initiates action

All organizational activities are initiated through directing and along with planning, organizing, and staffing, managers must stimulate action by issuing instructions to subordinates and by supervising their work and the aim of directing is to activate employees to work towards the realization of predetermined goals of the organization and thus, without directing, other managerial activities like planning, organizing and staffing remain ineffective.

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4.Optimization of individual efforts

 The ultimate success of an enterprise depends on the optimum efforts put in by all individuals with willing cooperation and through effective supervision, motivation, leadership, and communication directing makes it possible.

5.Means of motivation

The organizational objectives cannot be realized unless people working in an organization are motivated to work willingly and perform well to the best of their abilities and directing is motivating employees to contribute their maximum efforts towards the achievement of organizational goals.

6.Provision of a stable and balanced organization

Directing provides effective supervision, motivation, correct leadership, and a well-understood communications, and therefore the organization as a whole work in a balanced way and it lasts for a long time.

7. Integrates employees efforts

At all levels of management, there are subordinates under the managers and the work entrusted to these individuals is interrelated and the performance of each individual affects the performance of others and thus individual efforts need to be integrated so that the organization achieves its goals and the directing functions integrate the activities of the subordinates by supervision, guidance, and counseling.


Directing, in simple words, is instructing the subordinates to follow a certain process to attain a given objective and it is getting the work done through instructions and orders and directing is an important element of management without which success cannot be achieved in the managerial process and it is very essence of management and in fact, it is the sum total of all managerial efforts and it helps in the organization marching towards its defined goal. After planning, determination of objectives, organization, and forecasting, the working force needs briefing about the stated goals which have to be accomplished following the policies, programmes and schedules. Directing is the managerial function of guiding, motivating, leading and supervising the subordinates to accomplish desired objectives. It is an important managerial function that initiates organiser’s action and it is a connecting and activating link with various functions of management and it is a process around which all performance revolves and directing bits of help in mobilising and synthesizing human resources and efforts to accomplish the goals of the organization and directing is the heart of management-in-action and essence of operations. According to Ernest Dale directing is “Directing is telling people what to do and seeing that they do it to the best of their ability and it includes making the assignment, corresponding procedures, seeing that mistakes are corrected, providing on-the-job instructions and of course, issuing orders” and according to another author Newman directing is “ The process of directing is concerned with the way an executive issues instructions to his instructions to his subordinates or otherwise indicates what is to be done”. As a continuous process, directing comprises of:

  1. Issuing orders that are clear, complete, and within the capabilities of subordinates to accomplish.
  2. Training and instructing subordinates to carry out their assignments in the existing situations.
  3. Motivating subordinates to try to meet the expectations of the manager; and
  4. Maintaining discipline and rewarding those who perform properly.


1. Directing Initiates Actions

Directing is a key managerial function and a manager has to perform this function along with planning, organizing, staffing, and controlling while discharging his duties in the organization and while other functions prepare a setting for action, directing initiates action in the organization.

2. Directing takes place at every level of management

Directing is a pervasive function of management and it exists at every level, location and operates throughout an enterprise and every manager, regardless of the number of subordinates, performs this function and he has to give instructions to the instructions, guide them and motivate them for the achievement of certain goals.

3. Directing is a continuous process

Directing is a dynamic and continuing function and it is the essence of management practice and the techniques and methods of directing have to be changed with t eh changing organizational conditions and a manager are expected to guide his subordinates in all the changing environments. Directing’s objectives are to get the work done and to see that the management works ore responsibly and the manager has to make sure that the problem faced by his mens are solved quickly.


The organisation provides a framework where duties are identified, define tasks are allotted to suitable persons, and interrelationships of personal are made certain and the joint efforts made by different persons become more productive, effective and economical if a well-knit organization is provided by the management and the purpose of establishing an organization, this is to enable its personnel to work more effectively as a unit and no wonder organisation serves as the backbone of management and it is very foundation of most of the steps of operating management.

Organising can be defined as “Organisation is a harmonious adjustment of specialised parts or the accomplishment of common purpose or purposes” by Haney. The organisation is the process of identifying and grouping the work performed, defining and delegating responsibility and authority and establishing a relationship to enable people to work together in accomplishing common objectives.


1. Division of work

The setting of an organisation involves division of the total work into various activities and functions and assigning the tasks to different persons according to their skill, ability and experience.

2. Chain of command

The superior-subordinate relationship established in an organisation is based on the authority which flows from the higher levels of management to the immediately lower of management and thereby forming a hierarchical chain and is known as the chain of command.

3. Plurality of Persons

The organisation is a group of many persons who assemble to fulfil a common purpose and a single individual cannot create an organisation.

4. Common Objectives

There are various parts of an organisation with different functions to perform but all move in the direction of achieving a general objective.

5. Group of people

An organisation comes into existence when a group of people combine their efforts for some common purpose and willingly contribute towards their common endeavour.

6. Common Purpose

Every organisation comes into existence based on goals of the enterprise which are separate from the personal goals of the people employed and it is the common purpose of the organisation which provides the basis of cooperation among its members.

7. Vertical and Horizontal Relationships

An Organisation creates cooperative relationships between different departments and divisions as well as between superiors and subordinates. The duties and responsibility of superiors and subordinates in each department or division are also unified to serve the purpose of their joint efforts.

8. Organising is a universal process

Organising is needed both in business and also in non-business organisations and nor only this, an organisation will be needed where two or more than two people work jointly. Therefore, an organisation has the quality of universality.

9. Dynamics of organisation

Besides the structural relationships among people which are based on their activities and functions, there exists an organising interaction based on sentiments, attitudes and behaviour of individuals and groups and they are subject to change from time to time.

According to Chester Bernard, Communication, Cooperation and Spirit of service and common objectives are the main elements of the organisation.


Management has become an important “Economic organ” of the present industrial society. Every person in the world from the family head to the prime minister of the country or from the worker to the Managing director of a Joint-stock company is busy in managing different types of affairs that he has to perform in discharging his/her entrusted duties. Management is the coordination of human and physical resources towards the attainment of objectives. By managing different activities, we can best utilize our available scarce resources. As the mind of a person controls his activities, similarly management controls the business organization, men, machines, and materials in getting the work accomplished.

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Management is related to the dynamic process of establishing objectives of the organization, harnessing and coordinating its human as well as other resources, and ultimately to the attainment of goals. It is a process of creating a creating conducive environment for humanitarian efforts, to reach the organization’s goals effectively and efficiently. According to  C.S George who describes management as “Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling, performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources” Traditional concept of management restricted management to getting things done.

According to the modern view, management covers a wide range of business-related activities. According to modern thinkers, “Management is a process of an activity a discipline and an effort to coordinate, control and direct individuals and group efforts towards attaining the cherished goal of the business”. Another aspect of management is presented by Harold Koontz and O’ Donnell, “Management is the art of getting things done through and with the help of a formally organized group”. To be more specific, to manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, and to control.

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Management is a set of functions directed at the efficient utilization of the resources in the pursuit of organizational goals. To be more specific, to manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate, and to control. To foresee means examining the future and drawing up the plan of action. To organize means building up the dual structure, material, and human of the undertaking. To command means maintaining activity among the personal. To coordinate means binding together, unifying, and harnessing all activities and efforts. To control means seeing that everything occurs in conformity with the established rules and expressed command. By efficient utilization of resources using resources wisely and in a cost-efficient manner. By effectiveness, we mean making the right decisions and successfully implementing them. Efficiency and Effectiveness are interrelated, for instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. The effect of good management is nothing short of remarkable. Take an under-performing-even chaotic-organization and install a skilled manager and him/she soon can have the enterprise humming like a well-tuned machine. Studies have shown that 90 percent of the business fail generally due to poor management.

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