According to George R. Terry, “Functions are the main entities around which a manager builds an effective organization structure”. The study of functions of management is an important topic in the field of management, the basic characteristics of efficient management are common whether the unit to be managed is as small as a family or large enough as a business, social, political or religious organization.
The main functions of management are:
Planning is decided in advance and it is an important and vital function of management. Planning is done to chalk out the future course of action and according to M.E. Hurle, “Planning is deciding in advance, what is done and it involves the objectives, policies, procedures programming for attaining enterprise goals”. Planning is a critical evaluation of relative merits and demerits of alternate policies and actions and in choosing the best program for achieving the predetermined objectives and targets.
To organize means to put into working order and arrange on a system and organizing can be defined as arranging several complex tasks to manageable units and defining the formal relationship among the people who are assigned the various units of tasks and the process of organizing is very essential for accomplishing the objectives of the organization set by the administration and planned by management.
The staffing of an organization is as important as the structure itself since successful performance by individuals determines whether the structure can produce its results successfully or not and staffing is a process of matching the jobs with the individuals. Staffing requires and involves the recruitment, selection, training, placement, compensating, promotion and demotion, and finally, the retirement of an employee and the sole aim of staffing is to take the right man for the right job and it needs man power-planning, job analysis, and such other staff functions. Psychology and sociology have added a considerable and important of knowledge and practice in this area of the managerial function.
Directing means telling people what to do and seeing that they do it to the best of their ability. As a process of management, directing is concerned with getting work done through, and with people, they require continuous and encouragement to work effectively. According to Terry, “Directing means moving to action and supplying stimulating power to a group of persons”. Good planning and the best organization may fail to deliver goods if the direction is faulty and is not up to the mark. The direction is concerned with the execution of plans and it initiates organized action and breathes life into the organization and speaking, the direction is Management in action and it includes:
Control is an important function of management and it is an essential feature of scientific management and control ensure the qualitative and quantitative performance of work in the organization for the achievement of objectives and completion of plans and it is the binding force that orderly links all components of an enterprise. Controlling includes an evaluation to determine whether planned objectives or results have been achieved.