Tag Archives: Education


The Do’s and DONT’s To become an “IAS OFFICER”

Union public service commission India’s central agency , abbreviated as UPSC ,conducts civil services examination annually and recruits selected candidates for as much as 24 posts .Getting into the Indian civil services is a major hallucination for lakhs of aspirants .Those already on the expedition along with them who choose to be an IAS officer some day are all in the same boat .

Upsc preparation is a well structured combination of hard work in the right direction and a tackling strategy contemporaneously. However, great deal of doubts along with girdled exaggerating myths can leave you enervated and astray.

Strategy Is Figuring out what not to do

The right kind of strategy is all you need to witness your aspirations .Let’s have a look into the do’s and don’t you need to follow if you are a serious aspiration. By the end of the article you will be able to take an analysis on your overall preparation additional to the road map directed !


1) Syllabus , Question paper and mock test is must

Your syllabus is the basis of your entire preparation make sure to by heart it .Start by simply jotting down the entire syllabus into points and divide them into sections according to your strengths and weaknesses, and then proceed with designing a study plan.Stop looking at the IAS curriculum as a whole – Divide and Conquer.Adding to this go through previous year question paper to get an idea about the kind and pattern of questions asked in the examination.Make sure you solve enough number of mock papers for both Prelims and Mains; this is a must before you step into the UPSC exam for your first attempt. Regular evaluations will help you keep a track of your weakness and progress at the same time .Indulge in quality discussions.
In an exam like the civil service mains, studying the syllabus is not the only important thing to do, How you write the exam is what counts the most. No matter how much you study prior to the exam, how skilfully you are writing the answers within three hours is what makes one topper and another failure. Hence having regular practice of essay/answer writing is highly necessary. Evaluate yourself before UPSC evaluates.


2) Prepare A Schedule / effective plan

Draw out a timetable for yourself, and the time table should be a realistic one.Do not make a timetable which needs more than 8 -10 hours of your day to dedicate to your IAS preparations depending on your capacity. Once you have decided on the amount of time you will put in everyday and what topics you will cover when, make sure you follow it everyday.

3) Consistency is the key

No matter how much talented you are, how much hard working you are, how much smart you are – if there is no consistency in your preparation for this exam (UPSC civil services), you will either fail or unnecessarily prolong this journey making it stressful, burdensome and frustrating.
Being consistent i.e. being regular and steadfast in what you are doing – either making notes from newspapers or from books, writing answers daily, writing essays weekly, solving test papers from test series once in a week or ten days – is the ONLY solution to all your problems.

4) Revise more than you learn

Be wise ! Revise

When you plan your studies, make sure you have enough time on your agenda for a minimum of two revisions. Both general studies, as well as CSAT syllabus, should be reviewed twice – a week before the examination.Without revision,you cannot succeed in this exam.


1) Limit your Resources

Aspirants must not deviate from the UPSC syllabus as questions asked in the exam are on based on the given syllabus.
They should not ignore the basics and NCERT books, as some questions are based on fundamentals too.
One must avoid buying too many books or collecting too much material to study for the UPSC exam as it would be a waste of time.
One of the common mistakes UPSC aspirants make is ignoring the basics and NCERT books, which are important for IAS preparation as questions based on NCERT books and fundamentals may be asked in the exam.
Not solving sufficient practice papers and previous papers could affect their performance, too.Also, lack of consistent preparation, regular practice, and revision may impact their preparation process adversely.Spending time reading too many books may lead to confusionThough UPSC aspirants tend to consult various study material and books to prepare for different topics, going through too many books may create confusion and should be avoided.
UPSC syllabus is vast and candidates may need to refer multiple sources to cover it.
However, consulting too many books could be a waste of time. Instead, they should choose the right material/books and revise well.


2) Don’t make lengthy notes

Avoid making lengthy notes as it will consume your time as well as distract you at the time of examination .
Too much of content in notes is unnecessary .Notes should be kept precise and intact .
Do multiple readings and then make notes of the most important topic out of the whole just to get to know the whole idea at the time of need.

3) Do Not Ever Skip Newspapers

If there’s a bible that can guide you towards success, it’s the ;Newspaper Readings’ that acts as an integral whole in your entire preparation process. Many questions that are asked in the examinations come directly from the newspapers. Therefore, it becomes prudent on your part to know ‘How to read a newspaper’, ‘what to read and what not to read’.


Hard work + strategy = Success !

” Rowing harder doesn’t help if the boat is headed in the wrong direction .”-kenichi

#International Journal Of Research(Follow Eduindex news for more )


What Is It to Be a Student?

The period of studying in university is rightly considered one of the most important in our life. No matter which educational institution you attend, it can be a college or university. We must appreciate this time. Spend these years usefully. It’s a new experience, helping you to become an individual. Most of the students need to shift their location and adjust to living in new conditions. It’s a great way to create life from scratch. New city and new people who don’t know you. What can be better?

The first thing you do is to put the groups of close people. Further, they’ll become your friends. Experience has shown that university friends stay with you for life. You spend the time together, help each other, and learn how to deal with various life situations. One of the main purposes of education is to make you a part of society. Don’t stay all day long in your residence. Attend clubs, activities, and surround yourself with people. Find someone who shares your worldviews, passions, and hobbies. Diversify your grey weekdays.

Moreover, in most of the universities, participation in clubs and sports gives benefits in studying. And as we know, obtaining a new profession is that’s you’ve come for. The student’s life is the golden time. You don’t need to work; you have no serious responsibilities and duties. Your only worry is to pass exams and become the pride of your parents. However, many people successfully combine work with studying. But it requires a lot of effort. Sooner or later, you’ll need to sacrifice something.

University gives you the possibility to try something you wanted. The people don’t know you and your previous experience in any activity. The students’ initiative is always encouraged. Don’t be shy; maybe your new friends will appreciate and recognize your talents. There’s also the thing you should value at the university. It’s time. You won’t have such amount of time anymore as you have in university, even taking into account the workload and time for rest. Make good use of it.
The Hardships of Being a Student

Anything in our life has a flip side of the coin. This pattern is true for studying time. Each student has to experience numerous challenges to become a member of society. If something in our life would be full only of positive moments, the people won’t be ready to face the real world.

The most common problem is that the students begin to miss their home and family. It becomes a cornerstone for arising negative effects. The students lose the motivation to study, became unhappy, and acquire health problems. Worst of all, weak personalities get addicted to alcohol and drugs.

Many others don’t feel the part of the studentship. The expectations don’t coincide with reality. Anxiety becomes the satellite of each student, especially prior to the exams. The constant anxiety and stress lead to depressions. The statistics show that the instances of psychological problems among the students are growing. All these challenges aren’t random. Any student needs to overcome them. It’s a kind of school of life.

The immense workload is hateful to many students. Time management skill is a matter of time. The numerous assignments, labs, and essays can put you into despair. But there’s a way out. The team of professionals provides cheap essay writing for such students. Besides, many working students use similar services to be successful in university or college. You don’t need to search and choose the best among the numerous list of companies.

Cheapessay.net is your chance to enjoy the joys of student life. The team of writers is ready to help you with the most complicated tasks. All papers are written by professionals with long experience and scientific degrees. We hire only those who are able to perform top-notch essays and assignments. The company was launched in 2008 as a small agency. Now we’re a famous service with a huge client base.

Our customers live in different parts of the world. It relates to our team also. The occupying the same space doesn’t guarantee the quality of work. The pricing policy is one of our advantages. The average price for the page is one of the lowest among competitors. So, collaborating with us helps you to save both money and time. To write perfect essays is a talent. Some people can’t do it at all. As a result, the increasing stress level and nervousness, which negatively affect health. Our service aims at saving your mental health and helping you to be a straight-A student.

Despite all hardships and challenges, student time is one of the best periods. Learn how to deal with them. Live it to the fullest. Write your own story, and Cheapessay.net will write high-quality papers for you.

Reasons Why You Should Attend College

Getting a college degree is one of the most fundamental steps in a person’s life and it has become a central part of the dream of many nations. Going to college, getting a job, buying a house, and raising a family. This may not be that simple. Nonetheless, it always begins with your college education and essay writing. college

Getting a college degree incorporates opening up opportunities in life in a primary manner. Not only does it prepare you in an intellectual manner but also in a social manner for both your career and adult lifespan. The benefits of a college education incorporate career opportunities such as well-paying and skillful jobs. However, studies reveal that college education also leads to stability and overall happiness. Many people wish they would get to attend college. But, the majority often ask, “Why is college important?” This is because they do not know why and how it would enrich or impact their lives in a positive manner. If you are one of these people, you need not worry about anything. According to CustomEssayOrder, below are some of the advantages of going to college.

An acquisition in your future

One of the benefits of going to college is that it is an investment in your future. A college degree is a guarantee of a fruitful future. Going to college is a primary obligation of time and money. Nevertheless, it is a down payment of success. Getting your degree helps you identify and recognize your objectives in your career and life. Receiving a college degree needs a lot of hard work. Nonetheless, that work prepares you for a perplexing or stimulating and recompensing career. Additionally, it guarantees you a more fruitful life. “If you served in the military, you can even find and enroll in online college for military veterans.”

Better job opportunities

Getting a college degree is an ideal pathway to a better career. When joining college, not everyone knows the career paths they wish to pursue. However, most people know they want to have successful jobs – one that not only pays well but also guarantees them security and satisfaction. This combination of benefits of higher education is the reason why most people invest time and money to go to college.

In most cases, what you study is not that important, but the fact that you get to study something. In addition to becoming an expert in a particular field, attending college helps train you to think in an analytical manner, comprehend difficult subjects, and convey your critical thoughts and ideas about them. Additionally, it instills, vital skills such as self-discipline, ability to finish tasks and organization.

And since college equips you with an array of skills, many graduates do not pursue careers which relate to their fields of study. The benefits of attending college are that it paves the way for unexpected opportunities which are not often available for those who have no engagement with a higher level of education.

Personal progress

One of the other benefits of a college degree is that it helps in your personal development. A college degree is advantageous for various practical reasons which range from your high competitiveness to your likelihood of landing a promotion. However, many people underrate the degree of personal development that they will experience while working through their degrees. College education necessitates you to overcome adversity and it prepares you for the workplace as well as dealing with day-to-day challenges.

Some of the skills you can pick up while in college include organization and time management. These are necessary when navigating through the courses you will take as well as tackling your tasks in a successful manner. Quizzes, homework dates, and tests can be confusing more so when you are handling numerous tasks. But, with good organization skills not only will you manage your responsibilities, but also be able to use these skills after you earn your degree.

Generate more income

Generating more income, for many people, is the driving force behind attending college. Post-secondary degrees are the most typical routes to careers which demand higher skills and offer better pay. Studies reveal that college graduates generate more income throughout their lifetime than students who receive high school education. What you earn depends on your field of work. Some professions pay well than others, for instance, medicine and education. A doctor or nurse earns more money than a teacher or tutor. So, it is crucial that you join college and enjoy the college education benefits which come along with it.

Reimbursements for you and your family

It is without a doubt that making more money is a core benefit of getting your college degree. However, many jobs will need professional, doctoral, bachelor’s or master’s degree to grant you more benefits. For instance, travel, retirement investment, and health care among other perks. Such perks are not on offer for high-school level jobs.

One of the major benefits of a bachelor’s degree is that it promises you employment in the future whose merits are fundamental in that they provide stability to your family, more so in relation to health care.

The merits of college education go beyond generations. Families with college graduates have better economic and social statuses. So, you should not wonder about the positive impacts of college education in your life but instead, consider looking at it as an investment in your family’s future.

Higher feasibility or practicability of high-quality remunerations

When the economy improves, firms and organizations find it hard to attract top talent. This is because companies need to hire more which puts highly-qualified personnel in high demand. In return, these workers are apt to reject working for another company to favor another. Attending college equips you with numerous skills which make you more qualified. It is easy for employers to lure such people with incentives than good pay. These incentives include beneficial packages which incorporate better healthcare options and vacation time among others.

Job safety and satisfaction

A college degree leads to better job safety. Persons who do not have degrees are not valuable to their employers. When push comes to shove, it will be very easy for your employer to replace you with somebody else, more so someone with high school education level. Thus, attending college is essential if you want to secure your future.

Make contacts

It is easy to think of the benefits of a college degree in relation to promotion opportunities and future earnings. However, people do not talk about the benefits of networking as often as they should. Networking plays a significant role in opening up job opportunities. Many people often get jobs on the basis of recommendations from friends. In other cases, a professional network enables you to learn more about upcoming job opportunities before other people. So, it is fundamental you create a professional network while in college. This will help make it easy for you to find a job or get a promotion.

In conclusion, earning a college degree is fundamental in the lifetime of an individual. This is because it opens up many opportunities which can help secure your future. So, you should not wonder how joining college would enrich your life but rather consider enjoying the college benefits which come along with it such as the ones above.

The Benefits of Online Tutoring

Requiring additional tutoring is something that can help all students, no matter their skill level and knowledge. However, rather than enrolling your child in group class tuition centres, a more effective way of attaining academic assistance is through private online tutoring with an NTP tutor. The online element gives access to various benefits and opportunities that can be used to boost productivity and enhance the learning process for your child. Here are some benefits of online tutoring for students.

online education

  1. Flexible hours

Online tutoring allows you to schedule private lessons that suit both your child’s and the available tutors’ availabilities. As a student, your child will need to prioritise time for school as well as other extracurricular efforts such as leadership meetings, sports or even part-time work. Online tutoring makes it convenient as your child can attend tutoring sessions outside of school hours and still gain the learning experience that is needed to reach their learning goals. Platforms such as Cluey Learning offer online resources even outside of tutoring sessions where students can access their work to complete during their spare time.

  1. Adaptable location

As the tutoring lessons are held online, your child will have the flexibility of studying in the comfort of their own home, library or any other environment that they believe is a productive studying environment. Selecting your own locations means that you are eliminating transportation hindrances that are both time and cost ineffective. Studying in the comfort of your home allows you to maximise concentration and effort into learning, without having to focus on wearing adequate school uniform. A relaxing and less intimidating environment can give your child confidence to express their thoughts and ask questions. As your tutor isn’t required to be physically present, this gives opportunities for tutors to be located from overseas. Geographical distance is no longer a limitation to accessing the best tutors that will be able to teach you to work to the best of your ability.

  1. Experts in their area

The online tutors are experts in teaching the school content but also specific to your school’s curriculum. This way, the content that will be assessed in your child’s exams will specifically be focused on during the online tutoring lessons. They will have a thorough knowledge of academic content on an even a higher skill and knowledge level where tutors will be able to meet the demand of the students. Tutors can increase their teaching and knowledge qualifications through taking online courses such Upskilled, Lynda and EdX which stands as one of the many flexible and contemporary ways that tutors can quickly be up to date with school content and the needs of students.

  1. Focus on technology

Since the classes are conducted on an online platform, they will have greater experience with technology and interaction and engagement through interesting learning techniques that can be taught via technology. Video tutorial clips, virtual interactive whiteboards, sticky notes and digital drawing pens are technological tools that assist the learning process or students. Smart tablet applications are easily accessible programs and resources that students can learn from without having to be physically present with the tutor but can be guided by guided by the online tutor to maximise the learning experience. Students can also save and access resources directly through file-sharing services such as Dropbox and Google Drive.

  1. Options

Since the tutoring sessions are online with a large array of tutors available, this means you will also have a wide range of subjects that you can choose for your child to enrol in. With this, you can research the background of the potential tutors and their teaching style to match the suitability for your child. The online tutors are credited and certified in various ways, so you should check which qualifications you think will be the most suitable for your child’s learning. Some online tutoring centres will assist you to allocate the appropriate tutor for your child.

  1. One-on-one tracking progress

Rather than simply stopping at assessing student’s class work to produce grades or outcome, online tutoring will also be focused on assessing your child’s progress. Tutors will ensure that the progression is positively advancing towards the results that you and your child desire. Online tutors can examine your child’s grades to ensure that they are reaching the academic targets. You will be provided with progress updates of your child’s performance and analyse ways that they will be able to improve in certain areas.

Taking advantage of technology and its associated products is an effective way of improving learning methods and techniques. Which benefits are your reason to hire an online tutor to boost your academic results?

Since the classes are conducted on an online platform, they will have greater experience with technology and interaction and engagement through interesting learning techniques that can be taught via technology. Video tutorial clips, virtual interactive whiteboards, sticky notes and digital drawing pens are technological tools that assist the learning process or students. Smart tablet applications are easily accessible programs and resources that students can learn from without having to be physically present with the tutor but can be guided by guided by the online tutor to maximise the learning experience. Students can also save and access resources directly through file-sharing services stored on the cloud such as Dropbox and Google Drive.

Tips on making a Successful Career switch

A lot of millennials are known for hopping jobs in their quest for job fulfilment. Their idea of a dream job frequently changes and they aren’t really shying away from taking that important decision of switching their career. If you too are sailing the same boat, then there are a few things you can keep in mind to successfully switch your career:change your career

Prepare yourself mentally: Career change is also like any other important life change where a career move should start with a self reflection. Ask yourself what is the first thing that you want from your job, what can’t you negotiate on, and which factors you can compromise upon? Ask yourself if it is ok to take advice from your mentor or peers. You are likely to get a positive response from this in-depth analysis and be ready to face the truth.

Prepare Yourself Financially: Career change requires savings. Imagine leaving your job without a single penny in your pocket. Oh, you can’t imagine it for sure. Thus, it’s suggested that you save up for the days that you will be jobless, or you can also opt for an emergency loan. Check this link: https://letmebank.com/emergency-loans-for-bad-credit/.

Assess your dream career/job: In order to avoid any disappointments in the future, talk to those who work in your favourite job. Follow them on social media, try to interact with them and ask them their opinion about your choice. Since they are already working in that field, they will be able to give you a real picture of what the new job holds for you. This can also help you with your job hunting process.

Assess your skills: If you are going for a career change, make sure you carry some transferable skills with you. You don’t necessary have to go back to skill to learn skills to make that career switch. Transferable skills such as project management, communication, collaboration, etc. are something that you can carry and use in your next job as well.

Give it a try: Before you take that final call, give it a try and assess yourself properly. You could take a few weeks off and work in your new job as an intern just to get the hang of things. This will help you understand the positives and the pitfalls of the new career and you will not be thrown away by any surprises later on.

Making a successful career switch is all about taking that final call and staying committed to it. There are plenty of jobs in Pune for you to target if you are in the nearby area. Explore everything you can before making that final call.




school climate

             The National School Climate Center (NSCC) (1996) defines school climate as the quality and character of school life. School climate constitutes patterns of students’, parents ‘and school personnel’s experience of school life and reflects norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and organizational structures. Schools differ in their climate and this climate has definite role in determining the well-being and happiness of students. When we notice considerable difference in the educational stress levels of students studying in government, aided and public schools there is enough reason to trace for its causes in the school climate of those schools.

     A survey was made in two Aided, two Government and two Private schools of Thrissur district in Kerala state. 261 higher secondary school students participated in the survey.

Aided Aleemul islam higher Secondary school, 43
Chaldean Syrian Higher secondary School, 56
Private Nirmalamatha Central School CBSE, 41
Sandeepany Vidhya Niketan ICSE, 21
Government Anchery Govt Higher Secondary School, 48
Government Model Boy’s School, 52

            Contrary to the usual norm prevailing among parents and teachers, private school students exhibited comparatively lower levels of stress than their counterparts in Aided and Government Schools. Aided school students had highest level of stress.

            The survey which conducted during September-October 2017 probed five dimensions of educational stress namely   pressure from study, workload factor, worry about grades, self-expectation and despondency. The standardized tool used for the study was a five point Likert scale developed by a group of educational researchers presided by Jiandong Sun in 2011. Before the survey it was translated into Malayalam and all statistical procedures for asserting validity and reliability were duly performed.

The mean value of stress level was “above average” for the entire sample of students participated in the study. Graphical representation of school wise comparison are given below


Why this difference?

             School climate or culture will have a serious role in the educational stress of adolescents. Research findings back this perspective. At the same time socio-economic status of parents is another major factor affecting the educational stress of students. For example, there are studies showing academic anxiety is significantly low among students whose parents have higher educational qualification. Also academic stress and examination anxiety of students usually exhibit an inverse relationship with educational and income levels of their parents. Findings of researches going on in many parts of India keep on reiterating this claim.

Socio-economic status of parents is more or less same

             In Kerala, private schools are where students from high socio economic status flock. In search of better avenues for excellence both in life and education the creamy layer of society opt for CBSE or ICSE syllabus for their wards. At the same time, lately, there is a trend for this group to shift into Kerala syllabus thanks to the differences in the criteria with which the grades scored by students following two syllabuses—Kerala and Central— are estimated at the time of admission for various courses for higher studies. Due to this, affluent parents too are willing to send their wards to aided schools provided; these schools maintain a reputation for their pass percentage. For this reason, one may consider that the socio economic back ground of students studying in aided and private schools are more or less same.

            So there is enough reason to assume that increased stress levels noticed in the students of aided educational institutions is not exclusively due to socio-economic status and related individual differences. It might be due to some peculiarities constituting the very culture or clime of those schools.

School climate can be the reason


            School climate has the potential to permeate into overall well-being of the students. For a student, school climate enters into his psychological makeup through teacher-student interactions, peer interactions, class room experiences, parent-teacher communications etc. All these interactions will be laden with the ethos for which school stands for. Educational vision/mission of the institution determines the very texture of all experiences students meet within the school. So difference in educational stress can be a difference in the educational attitude schools foster.

            An in-depth enquiry into the matter will uncover the facts. Educational ministry of Kerala which is hell-bent on raising the standard of educational institutions cannot avoid this angle of exploration. Educational stress among students can jeopardize any well crafted educational policy.

            In all the five indicators of educational stress, aided school scored highest which included pressure from study and worry of grades. The competition among schools to secure 100% pass in board exams and teachers pressurizing the students to meet this end is one of the salient features of working culture of teaching professionals of schools of Kerala. So whenever dealing with student educational stress the role of school climate in it must be probed into.

Relevance of ESP in the Present Educational Scenario


Assistant Professor in English

T.R.P.G.  Girls College, Sonipat


           English Language Teaching (ELT) can be broadly divided into English for General Purpose (EGP) and English for Specific Purposes (ESP).  The teaching of English language at schools, colleges and Universities comes under English for General Purposes.  ESP is meant for Occupational Purpose (EOP), English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and English for Science and technology (EST). In the rapidly changing present world when teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP) has grown to become one of the most prominent areas of teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL), ESP practitioners face new opportunities and challenges.  For non-English speakers the ability to speak more than one language (English along with the Mother Tongue) become imperative to assess the language abilities of second language learners.  In the classroom, assessment can be seen as an ongoing process, in which the teacher uses various tools to measure the progress of the learners. Among those tools are portfolios, self-assessment, and, of course, tests. If assessment can be seen as a movie, since it is a continuous process, then a test is a still photographs; it gives a picture of the learner’s language at a particular point in time.  If used properly, these tools can help the teacher develop a full picture of the learner’s progress.  It is important to note that all type of testing and assessment are important in gathering information about student’s abilities.


Rhetorical, pedagogically, methodology, disseminate, restricted, and sophisticated.


            Tom Hutchinson and Alan Waters (1987: 53) have pointed out the differences between English for Specific Purposes (ESP) and English for General Purposes (EGP) in their book, English for Specific Purposes: A Learning Centred Approach.

            On the face of it, ESP differs from EGP in the sense that the vocabulary, structures and the subject matter relate to a particular field or discipline in the former.  For example, a lawyer writing a brief, or a diplomat preparing a policy paper needs his jargon, ESP courses make use of vocabulary and tasks related to the specific field that one belongs to.  So a course in ESP is designed to meet the specific professional or academic needs of the learner, creating a balance between educational theory and practical considerations. English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course, however, has instruction that builds on EGP and is designed to prepare the students for the English used in specific disciplines, vocations or professions to accomplish some specific purposes.   ESP makes use of the methodology and activities of the discipline it serves, and is centered on the language appropriate to these activities. As Tom Hutchinson and Alan Waters rightly put it. “ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as to content and method are based on the learner’s reason for learning “(1987:19).

            In this connection, it is interesting to note Tony Dudley-Evans (1987: 1-9) explanation that ESP may not always focus on the language of one specific discipline or occupation, such as English for Law or English for Physics.  University instruction that introduces students to common features of academic discourse in Sciences or Humanities, is frequently called English for Academic Purposes. (EAP) is also ESP.


            Peter Strevens (1988-1-13) definition makes a distinction between four absolute and two variables characteristics.

  1. Absolute Characteristic

ESP consists of English language teaching which is:

  • Designed to meet specified needs of the learner:
  • Related in content (i.e. in its themes and topics) to particular disciplines, occupation and activities.
  • Centered on the language appropriate to those activities in syntax, lexis , discourse semantics, etc and analysis of this discourse;
  • In contrast with General English.
  1. Variable Characteristics:

ESP may be, but is not necessarily.

  • Restricted as to the language skills to be learned )e.g. reading only);
  • Not taught according to any pre-ordained methodology.



            The word “specific” in ESP refers to “specific in language” and “specific in aim”.   A simple clarification that can be made here is “specific in language” and “specific in aim” are viewed as similar concepts although they are two entirely different notions. George Perren (1974) noted that confusion arises over these two notions. Ronald Mackay, and Alan Mountford (1978: 4) have stated that the only practical way in which we can understand the notion of specific language is as a restricted repertoire of words and expressions selected from the whole language because that restricted repertoire covers every requirement within a well defined context, task or vocation. On the other hand “specific in aim” refers to the purpose for which the learners learn a language, not the nature of the language they learn.  Consequently, the focus of the word “specific” is ESP is on the purpose for which the learners learn and not on the specific jargon or registers they learn.  As such, all instances of language learning might be considered ESP.


            Tom Hutchinson and Alan Waters (1987: 6-8) succinctly identified three key reasons that are common , to the emergence of all ESP; the demands of a Brave New World,  a revolution in linguistics and the focus on the learner.  They noted that two key historical periods breathed life into ESP.  First, the end of the Second World War brought with it an age of enormous and unprecedented expansion in scientific, technical and economic activity on an international scale.  For various reasons, most notably the economic power and technological advancement of the United States in the Post-War World Scenario, English has become an important language for global affairs.   Secondly, the oil crisis of the early 1970s resulted in Western money and knowledge flowing into the oil-rich countries.  The medium of this knowledge has been English.  The general effect of all this development is to exert pressure on the language teaching profession to deliver the required goods.


            David Carver (1983:  131-137) identified three types of ESP, English as a Restricted Language (ERL). English for Academic and Occupational Purpose (EAOP), and English with Specific Topics (EST).  The language used by air traffic controllers or waiters are example of English as a restricted language.

            Ronal Mackay and Alan Mountford clearly illustrate the difference between the restricted language and the language with this statement (1978:   4-5).

The language of international air-traffic control could be regarded as ‘special’ in the sense  that the repertoire required by the controller is strictly limited and can be accurately determined situationally, as might be the linguistic needs of a Dining-room waiter or air-hostess.  However, such restricted repertoires are not language just as tourist phrase book is not grammar.  Knowing a restricted ‘language’ would not allow the speaker to communicate effectively in a novel situation, or in contexts outside the vocational environment (1978: 4-5).

            The second type of ESP is English for Academic and Occupational Purposes. David Carver 1983: 131-137) indicates that this English should be at the heart of ESP although he refrains from developing it any further. Tom Hutchinson and Alan Waters (1987: 16-18) on the other hand have developed a “Tree of ELT” in which the subdivisions of ESP are clearly illustrated.  ESP is broken down into three branches.  English for Science and Technology (EST), English for Business and Economics (EBE), and English for Social Studies (ESS).  Each of these subject areas is further divided into two branches.  English for Academic Purpose (EAP) and English for Occupational Purpose (EOP). An Example of EOP for the EST branch is “English for Technicians” whereas an example of EAP for the EST branch is “English for Engineering Studies.”


            The characteristics of ESP courses identified by David G. Carter (1981: 167) and discussed here.  He states that there are three features common to ESP courses.

(a)        Authentic Materials;

(b)        Purpose-Related Orientation; and

(c)        Self-Direction.

These features of ESP courses are indeed useful in attempting to formulate one’s own understanding of ESP. If one revisits Tony Dudley-Evams (1998: 8-29) ) claim that ESP should be offered at an intermediate or advanced level, the use of Authentic Learning Materials is entirely feasible.  The use of authentic content materials, modified or unmodified inform, is indeed a feature of ESP, particularly in self-directed study and research task. For Language Preparation, For Employment in Science and Technology, a large component of the student evaluation is based on an independent study of assignment in which the learners are required to investigate and present an area of interest. The students are encouraged to conduct research using a variety of different resources, including the Internet.


            The approaches in ESP are formulated on the basis of five conceptions in ESP, John Malcolm Swakes (1990) uses the term “enduring conceptions” to refer to the following:

  1. Authenticity
  2. Research –Base
  3. Text
  4. Need
  5. Learning Methodology

            The main consideration in ESP according to Bernard Coffey (1984) is that of authenticity. It includes authentic texts and authentic tasks. Swales, in explaining what is meant by the research-base of ESP , reviews the ESP literature and observes a trends towards papers that they rely on some kind of data-based (textual or otherwise). In addition, Peter Strevens () 1980: 105-121) alludes to the importance of the “specific language” of ESP in Functional English’s’.  That is, only those items of vocabulary, pattern of grammar, and functions of language which are required by the learner’s purposes are included in ESP. Peter Strevens also alludes to the importance of learner in discussions of ESP.  Finally, ESP draws on the methodology or learning theories which are appropriate to the learning teaching situation.   In other words, Specific Purpose Language Teaching (SPLT) is not in itself a methodology.  According to Peter Strevens (1988: 39-44) this characteristic of  ESP makes the materials both more relevant and  more interesting to the student due to the varied and ingenious exploitation of opportunities provided by ESP Settings.  These five conceptions have dual and potentially origins in both the real world (the “target situation” of the ESP pedagogy. It is therefore crucial to discuss each of them in an attempt to survey the development and directions of ESP as it has evolved. Such a survey will identify five major approaches to ESP, each of which has focused on one of the major conceptions and thus contributed to the growth of ESP itself.  However, it is also evident that as each approach to ESP has evolved:  its particular enduring conception has also evolved, bring ESP practitioners towards their current thinking in each of the five areas.

The five major approaches to ESP are:

  1. Skills-Based Approach
  2. Register Analysis Approach
  3. Discourse Analysis Approach.
  4. Learning – Centered Approach
  5. Communicative Approach

            Sill-Based Approach to ESP has enlarged the conception of authority in two principal ways.  First, authenticity of text is both broadened to include texts other than written texts and narrowed to differentiate between different types of texts generated by each skill.

            The second conception is that of the Register Analysis Approach. It has developed out of the need for a research based for ESP, Michael A.K. Halliday, Amos McIntosh and Peter Strevens (1964: 266) are the first scholars who have pointed out the importance of, and the need for, a research base for ESP, set out in one of the earliest discussion of ESP.

            The reaction against Register Analysis is the early 1970s concentrated on the concept of text rather than thus the lexical and grammatical properties of register.  The approach is clearly set out by two of its principal advocates. Allen and Widdowson as follows:

            One might usefully distinguish two kinds of ability which an English course of ESP level should aim at developing.  The first is the ability to recognize how sentences are used in the performance of acts of communication, or the ability to understand the rhetorical functioning of language in use.  The second is the ability to recognize and manipulate the formal devices which are used to combine sentences to create continuous passage of prose.  One might say that the first has to do with rhetorical coherence of discourse, the second with the grammatical cohesion of text (1974.

The attention to strategy analysis give rise to new generation of ESP materials which is founded as much on conceptions of learning as one conceptions of language or conceptions of need. As Tom Hutchinson and Alan Waters (1987: 14) have rightly put it.

            Our concern in ESP was no longer with language use although this would help to define the course of objectives.  The concern was rather with language learning. We cannot simply assume that describing and exemplifying what people do with language would enable someone to learn it…… A truly valid approach to ESP would be based on an understanding of the processes of language learning (1987: 14).

            Tom Hutchinson and Alan Waters called this approach the Learning-Centered Approach and stressed the importance of a lively, interesting and relevant learning teach style in ESP materials.  The first ESP materials to adopt a conscious model of learning were probably those of the Malaysian UMEPP Project in the late 1970s.  The approach has received its widest publicity in the papers and materials of Hutchinson and Waters, and more recently, Mary Waters and Alan Waters (1992: 264-273)

            The recent approach that emerges from the concept of authenticity in the development of ESP is that of Communicative Approach. The first generation of ESP materials that appeared in the mid-1960s took skills as their principal means of selection, arguing that ESP teaching materials.  The definition of skill is somewhat broad, establishing little more than the ranking of the four usual language skills of Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking (LSRW). Almost all materials course of collection of specialist texts with accompanying comprehension and language exercises. As R.A. Close (1972) rightly argues that the conception of authenticity is central to the approach taken to develop language skills.

In the rapidly changing present world when teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP) has grown to become one of most prominent areas of teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL), ESP practitioners face new opportunities and new challenges. For non-English speakers the ability to speak more than one language (English along with the Mother tongue) become imperative to assess the language abilities of second language learners. In the classroom, assessment can be seen as an ongoing process, in which the teacher uses various tools to measure the progress of the learners.  Among those tools are portfolios, self-assessment, and, of course tests. If assessment can be seen as a movie, since it is a continuous process, then a test is a still photographs; it gives a picture of learner’s language at a particular point in time.  If used properly, these tools can help the teacher develop a full picture of the learner’s progress.  It is important to note that all types of testing and assessment are important in gathering information about student’s abilities.


            The rapid expansion in ESP teaching is not accompanied by a similar increase in EST testing.  Perhaps, the earliest attempts at testing ESP date back to the time when the ELTS were launched.  At that time, in 1980, there had been little or no research into the validity of giving academic English proficiency tests based on different subject areas.  John Charles Alderson (1981) in a discussion on ESP testing questioned many of the principles behind this approach.  He agreed that since different University Departments placed different demands on their students, there are some good arguments for including ESP tests in an ESP test battery.  He felt that a comparison between performance on academically specific tests and the communicative needs of the relevant area might provide useful diagnostic information.  He also accepted that ESP tests would have really high face validity for both content-area students and University Lecturers.  However, he questioned whether it was possible to produce a test which would be equally suitable for students in all branches of a discipline.  For example, he wondered whether it would be possible to have a test for Engineers and whether they would have the same level of appropriacy for all Engineers, regardless of their specialization.  This highlights one of the main difficulties with English for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP) testing.

Another difficulty with ESP tests is delineated in Alderson’s question “How specific is specific?” (1981). Since at that time it is usually impossible to give each student a test which is tailor-made for  unique set of circumstances,  any ESP test has to be a compromise; and, in case of EAP , where many disciplines would be considered less than one broad subject area.  These areas would cover so wide a field that some students would not fit into any of the groupings.  John Charles Alderson (1981: 133) cited the example of a student in urban studies who would not know whether to choose a test in science or in social studies.

Over the past two decades, there have been several studies on the testing approval to be employed to test English proficiency.  Three articles by John Charles Alderson and Alexander Hugh Urquhart (1983) aroused considerable interest and led to several follow-up studies.  These articles described three studies carried out with students attending English classes in Britain in preparation for British Universities.

In each. John Charles Alderson and Alexander Hugh Urquhart (1982: 192-204) compared students scores on reading texts related to their own field of study with those on texts in other subject areas.  The student’s scores on the modules were found to be somewhat contradictory.  On one hand, for example, science and Engineering students taking the technology module of IELTS were found to be facing better than the Business and Economics students as well as the Humanities students, who took the same test.  On the other hand, the Business and Economics Students fared no better than the Science and Engineering group on the Social Studies module. Alderson and Urquhart conclude that background knowledge has some effect on test scores, but that is not always consistent, and that their future studies should take into account linguistic proficiency and other factors as well.


T          he present study is an attempt at answering a few question that pertain to the student’s performance on LSRW skills in ESP (English Language for Specific Purpose) contexts.  The objective of the investigation can be expressed in the following research question:

  1. What are the student’s needs to learn Technical English keeping inn view the global context.
  2. Is there a correlation existing between the learner’s need and the syllabus which is being used to teach Technical English?
  3. What is the significance of the existing syllabus and is there is there a need for significant change?
  4. What is the role of ESP course designer and materials producer in this context?

All these questions can be answered in terms of the following hypotheses.

H1        Majority of the students will have stronger needs for learning Technical English given to the global context.

H2        There has been a negative correlation between the syllabus and the learner’s needs.

H3        The change required in the existing syllabus are hence utmost significance.

H4        The role of the curriculum developer in an age of enormous and unprecedented expansion in scientific and technical knowledge is crucial to language – learning.

            Education at present has recognized the need for making use of the latest technology for better results. This could be seen for making use of the latest technology for better results.  This could be seen in the introduction of the language labs in the Engineering Colleges to impart various language and allied skills to the prospective profession also.  Still, it is the textbook which is supposed to carry on the aims and objectives of the syllabi.  Hence a critical appraisal of the textbooks used in different Universities becomes imperative.


            English language instruction has many important components but the essential constituents in many English classrooms and programmers are the textbooks and instruction materials that are often used by language instructors.

            As Tom Hutchinson and Ennice Torrers suggest;

            The textbook is an almost universal element of (English Language) teaching.  Millions of copies are sold every year, and numerous aids projects have been set up to produce them in various countries.  No teaching-learning situation, it seems, is complete until it has its relevant textbook (1994: 315)


            Although handling the text in the classroom is time-consuming, text responses complement the data, providing more varied and detailed information about what respondents think, feel, and do.  Text analysis for Surveys is that it gives the ability to analyses respondent’s attitude and opinions.  As a result, one gains a clearer understanding of what the pupils likes or doesn’t like and why. When one understands what people think and feel in their own words, one can draw more reliable conclusions about their future behavior and use that predictive insight to meet needs more successfully.

            Text analysis is an interactive process enabling the teacher to know the major themes grasped by respondents, and also know how many respondents could mention at least one theme, whereby an insight into respondent’s belief, attitudes, or behaviors can be obtained.  When one works with the survey responses, one is likely to re-extract concepts and re-categorize responses using different category definitions or coding schemes, different terms or synonym definitions or different grouping of responses.  One may repeat this process several times before one is satisfied with the results


            A textbook is defined as a book used as a standard work for the students of a particular subject.  It is usually written specifically for a particular purpose, as a manual of instruction in any branch of study, especially as a work organized by scholars who usually have taught courses on the subject/s dealt with in a particular textbook.


            Researcher usually use two types of investigation processes. First is quantitative research, which employs numerical indicators to ascertain the relative size of a particular communication phenomenon. The second type of investigation process is qualitative research, which employs symbols and words to indicate the presence or absence of phenomena or top categorize them into different types.  Quantitative and qualitative observations provide researchers with different ways of operationalizing and measuring theoretical constructs and practical concepts.  While quantitative methods can provide a high level of measurement precision and statistical power, qualitative methods can supply a greater depth of information about the nature of communication processes in a particular research setting.


            As Gareth Margon and Linda Simircich (1994: 315) state, the functional or positivist paradigm that guides the quantitative mode of inquiry is based on the assumption that social reality has an objective ontological structure and that individuals are responding agents to this objective environment.  As Catherine Cassell and Gillian Symon (1988: 237) have rightly put it in their article, the assumption behind the positivist paradigm is that there is an objective truth existing in the world that can be measured and explained scientifically.  The main concern of the quantitative paradigm are that measurement is reliable, valid and generalizable in its clear prediction of cause and effect.  In this connection, Mary John Smith (1998) in his book Contemporary Communication Research Method mentions quantitative research involves counting and measuring of events and performing the statistical analysis of a body of numerical data.

            The strengths of the quantitative method can be enumerates as follows:

  • According to Chava Frankfort-Nachmais and David Nachimias, the main strength of the quantitative method is stating the research problem is very specific and set terms;
  • Clear and precise specification of both the independent and the dependent variables under investigation;
  • Can follow firmly the original set of research goals, arrive at more objective conclusions,  test hypothesis and determine the issues of causality:
  • In the words of Howard Llord Balsley, achieving high levels of reliability of gathered data through controlled observations, laboratory experiments,  mass surveys,  or other form of research manipulations are possible in this method;
  • Eliminating or minimizing subjectivity of judgment is another important strength, as mentioned by Daniel Kealey and David Protheroe;
  • Allow for longitudinal measures of subsequent performance of research subjects.


            The weaknesses of the quantitative method are also noteworthy:

  • Fails to provide the researcher with in depth information on the context of the situation where the studied phenomenon occurs;
  • Lack of much control the environment where the respondents provide the answers to the questions in the survey;
  • Outcomes are limited to only those outlined in the original research proposal due to closed type questions and the structured format;
  • Does not encourage the evolving and continuous investigation of a research phenomenon.

The present research, however, has employed both the methods; hence it has benefitted from the strength both these methods and tried to overcome for limitations.


            As Gareth Morgan (1980 491-500) states, qualitative research shares the theoretical assumption of the interpretative paradigm, which is based on the notion that social reality is created and sustained through the subjective experience of people involved in communication.  In this connection David Fryer throws more light on qualitative research.  They are concerned in their research with attempting to accurately describe, decode and interpret the meaning of phenomena occurring in their normal social contexts.  Further he extends his statement to say that the researchers operating within the frame work of the interpretative paradigm are focused in investigating the complexity, authenticity, contextualization, shared subjectively of the researcher and the researched, and minimization of assumption (1991: 3-6)


The strengths of the qualitative method are as follows:

  • Obtain a more realistic feel of the world that cannot be experienced in the numerical data and statistical analysis used in quantitative research;
  • Possess flexible ways to perform data collection, subsequent analysis and interpretation of collected information.
  • Robert Bogdan and Steven J Taylor provide a holistic view of the phenomena under investigation in their book Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods (1975);
  • Able to interact with the research subjects in their own language and on their own terms as stated by Jerome Kirk and Mare Miller;
  • Has descriptive capability based on primary and unstructured data.


  • Departs from the original objectives of the research in response to the changing nature of the context, as stated by Catherine Cassal and Gillian symon;
  • Arrives at different conclusions based on the same information depending on the personal characteristics of the researcher;
  • Not up to the work in investing causality between different  research phenomena;
  • Has difficulty in explaining the difference in the quality and quantity of information obtained from different respondents and arrives at different , non consistent conclusions;
  • Requires a high level of experience from the researcher to obtain the targeted information from the respondents;
  • Lacks consistency and reliability because the researcher can employ different probing techniques and the respondent can choose to answer only a few queries and ignore others.


                        As William Paul Vogt (1993: 1993 183-184) has opined there are two ways in which the social scientists distinguish quantitative from qualitative analyses.  On the one hand, qualitative analyses can be differentiated from quantitative analyses according to the level of measurement of the variables being analyzed.  Gilbert Shapiro and John Mark off (1977)argue, for example ,  that indiscriminate use of this quantitative – qualitative distinction has often resulted in the label,  qualitative content analysis ,  being not only aptly applied to rigorous analyses of categorical data but also inappropriately applied to haphazard   ( and thus unscientific) analyses of such data.  On the other hand, social scientist also distinguish their methods of quantitative or qualitative.  In this connection, it is interesting to note Berg’s explanation on quantitative methods, which is more deductive, statistical, and confirmatory, qualitative methods are more inductive, non statistical and exploratory.  It i9s only according to this latter distinction that quantitative text analysis has been applied to this study (1995: 2-4)


            The present study has employed both quantitative and qualitative methods, endeavoring to use the strengths of each method.  While the quantitative method helped the research to involve a good number of subjects and the various aspects of English Teaching in the Universities selected for study, the qualitative method has allowed the researcher to make an in-depth analysis of the responses of the subjects.  I has also been observed that the targets group turned out to be a suitable subject for qualitative analysis as they hail from professional colleges. They displayed a keen perception on the strengths and weaknesses of their system and provided the researcher a sharp analysis of various aspects of the teaching of English in their colleges.

            Keeping in view, the strengths and weaknesses of the quantitative and qualitative methods, a questionnaire was prepared, and the opinion of the students was obtained. The questionnaire contains questions related to their parental background, the Board of Examination through which they had taken their school leaving certificates, etc.  Students were asked to express their views on textbooks prescribed for study in terms of content, form, presentation and other aspects such as grammar and the four skills important they need.

Therefore, any thesis does not stop at the point of being mere critique of the status quo; in addition to critiquing the existing scenario of teaching Technical English at Professional level, the thesis also makes a modest attempt at suggesting measures in the last chapter to better the status quo.  The suggested measures are based not on the theoretical speculation but on practical experience and the prolonged experiments and evaluation conducted for the technical students at Acharya Nagarjuna University College of Engineering and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru  Technological University (Kakinada), Koneru Lakshmaiah University and Vignan University, Guntur.


  1. Carson , J.E 1994. Reading –Writing connections: Towards a Description for Second Language Learners in ‘Second Language Writing’. Edited by Barbara Kroll.cup.pp. 88-107.
  2. Stotsky .S.1983. Research on Reading –Writing Relationships: A synthesis and suggested directions. In ‘Language Arts’, 60, 627-642.
  3. Anthony, Laurence, 1997. ESP. What does it mean? Retrieved from http://interserver.miyazaki-med ac.JP/-cue/PC/anthony.htm on April 6, 2000.
  4. ‘The sociolinguistic context of English language teaching in India’ in Shirin, Kudchedkar (Ed.) reading in English language teaching in India, Chennai: Orient Longman, PP. 37-66.
  5. Foreigners and Foreign languages in India: A sociolinguistic history. New Delhi : Foundation Books (Cambridge University, press, )
  6. Daniel, S.P.2012, An Indian Experiment of English for specific Purposes (ESP), English language teaching in India: the shifting Paradigm. New Delhi Tata MC-Grow Hills, PP. 119-125.
  7. Dudley Evans, T. and Jo St. John M.1998. Developments in English for specific purposes. Cup.
  8. Kavaliaus kiene, G. Role of Self-correction in learning ESP ‘English for Specific purposes world’, Web-based Journal, Issue 2(5), Volume 2, 2003, 8 Pages.

Dr. Savita, W/o Shakti Singh, Mobile No. 9416811500

 House No. 217/26,

West Ram Nagar, Sonipat.



I want to draw attention of our education ministry to solve the problem of poor student who study in the primary class, there is maximum changes in the textbooks every year so that it become very difficult to afford higher rate of textbook, so there should be a panel which regulate minimum cost of text book so that each one can afford the fee of their children education .Our current education system is becoming day by day costlier for poor family. This is creating a big problem in giving a best scholar from weaker section of our society, if problem will not be solved immediately it will create a great problem for country tomorrow. The day will not be far when this section of our society will produce antisocial elements instead of good scholars. The education system should lead to social justice and social equity.

Harish Kumar