Deforestation, clearance,clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land which is then converted to a non-forest use.Deforestation can involve conversion of forest land to farms,ranches or urban use. The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforest.About 31% of Earth’s land surface is covered by forests. The primary cause of deforestation is agriculture. Trees are cut down for use as building material or sold as fuel.
The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in habitat damage, biodiversity loss and arudity. Deforestation causes extinction, changes to climatic conditions, desertification, and displacement of populations. It also effects on environment. It rises global warming, carbondioxide, biosequestration, soil erosion, fossil fuels.Deforestation is more extreme in tropical and subtropical forests in emerging economies.subsistence farming is responsible for 48% of deforestation; commercial Agricultural is responsible for 32%; logging is responsible for 14%, and fuel wood removals make up 5%.
Another cause of deforestation is climate change. 23% of tree cover losses result from wildfires and climate change increase their frequency and power.The rising temperatures cause massive wildfires especially in the Boreal forests.majority of deforestation was caused by industrial factors, including extractive industries, large-scale cattle ranching, and extensive agriculture.The water cycle is also affected by deforestation. Trees extract groundwater through their roots and release it into the atmosphere.
Deforestation eliminates a great number of species of plants and animals which also often results in an increase in diseases.The diseases that passed to humans in this way in the latest decades include HIV, Ebola, Avian flu, Swine Flu, and likely the COVID-19 pandemic are source from degradation of air and trees . The forest products industry is a large part of the economy in both developed and developing countries. Rapidly growing economies also have an effect on deforestation. The Europian union is one of the largest importer of products made from illegal deforestation.Damage to forests and other aspects of nature could halve living standardsfor the world’s poor and reduce global GDP.
Rainforests once covered 14% of the earth’s land surface; now they cover a mere 6% and experts estimate that the last remaining.The massive use of charcoal on an industrial scale in europewas a new type of consumption of western forests. The mangolians resulted in the reduction of 700 million tons of carbon from the atmosphere by enabling the re-growth of carbon-absorbing forests.Amazon rain forests are the another example for effects of deforestation and climatical change.
The wholescale clearance of woodland to create agricultural land can be seen in many parts of the world. In 2019, the world lost nearly 12 million hectares of tree cover. Nearly a third of that loss, 3.8 million hectares. Controls: Transferring rights over land from public domain to its inhabitants is argued to be a cost-effective strategy. Reforestation or planting trees are methods of control for deforestation.