All posts by sreenath2001

Engineering student and agriculturist. From kurnool. Interested in agro farming


A Human continuous process


Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding,behaviour, knowledge,skills,values,attitudes, and preferences.Some learning is immediate, induced by a single event, but much skill and knowledge accumulates from repeated experiences.

Learning is not a education word. Human learning starts at birth and continues until death as a consequence of ongoing interactions between people and their environment. learning may occur as a result of habituation, operational conditions,classic conditions or as a result of more complex activities.Real learning is the ability to adopt what you know and know-how to do and adapt it under an everchanging variety of circumstances.

A direction of life
  • There are 3 types of learning.
  • Non-associative learning: It refers to “a relatively permanent change in the strength of response to a single stimulus.
  • It includes habituation and senisization.
  • Active learning: It occurs when a person takes control of their learning experience. Since understanding information is the key.Active learning is a key characteristic of student-centerd learning.
  • Associate learning:Associative learning is the process by which a person or animal learns an association between two stimuli or events.
  • It includes classic and operant conditioning.

Multimedia learning or e learning is the modern learning techniques. Multimedia learning is where a person can use both audible and visual stimuli to learn information.Electronic learning or e-learning is computer-enhanced learning. A specific and always more diffused e-learning is Mobile learning.When a learner interacts with the e-learning environment, it’s called Augmented learning. Augmented digital content may include text, images, video, audio.Nonformal learning is organized learning outside the formal learning system.

Domains of learning
  • The DOMAINS of learning is
  • Cognitive: To recall, calculate, discuss, analyze, problem solve, etc.
  • Psychomotor: To dance, swim, ski, dive, drive a car, ride a bike, etc.
  • Affective: To like something or someone, love, appreciate, fear, hate, worship, etc.
  • Transfer of learning is the application of skill, knowledge or understanding to resolve a novel problem or situation.
  • Machine learning, a branch of AI, concerns the construction and study of systems that can learn from data

Factors of affecting learning: Status of students: Physical and home conditions also matter.hereditary: learners are rich in hereditary endowment while others are poor. Each student is unique and has different abilities.Physical environment: The design, quality, and setting of a learning space such as a school or classroom.Goals or purposes,Motivational behavior,Guidance,Interest, Learning activities,Attention are some influences of learning.


Loss of land


Desertification is a type of land degradation in drylands which biological productivity is lost due to natural processes or induced by human activities whereby fertile areas become increasingly more arid. It is caused by a variety of factors, such as through climatic changes and through the over exploitation of lands through human activity.Desertification is a significant global ecological and environmental with far-reaching socio-economic and political consequences.

Serious and extensive land deterioration is the causes for desertification.SAHARA DESERT is the most effected area. The impact of global warming and human activities are presented in the Sahel. In this area the level of desertification is very high compared to other areas.Another major area that is being impacted by desertification is the GOBI Desert.South America is another area affected by desertification, as 25% of the land is classified as drylands. In Mangolia, around 90% of grassland is considered vulnerable to desertification by the UN.  In India, The THAR affected most of lands.


The immediate cause is the loss of most vegetation.. This is driven by a number of factors, alone or in combination, such as drought, climatic shifts, tillage for agriculture, overgrazing and deforestation for fuel or construction of the most common causes is overgrazing.Overpopulation is one of the most dangerous factors contributing to desertification.climatic changes is likely a major contributing factor in the desertification process. . The continuous use of the land rapidly depletes the nutrients of the soil causing desertification and pesticide smay deplects its ph value.

The Effects of desertification is Sand and dust storms.There has been a 25% increase in global annual dust emissions between the late nineteenth century to present day. Food security: Global food security is being threatened by desertification and o er population.Vegetation patterning:landscape may progress through different stages and continuously transform in appearance.Desertification is decreasing the amount of sustainable land for agricultural uses but demands are continuously growing.

Lossing nature lives.

Due to Desertification, The world losses its habitat.They also suffer from poor economic and social conditions.This situation is exacerbated by land degradation because of the reduction in productivity.Agriculture is a main source of income for many desert communities. The increase in desertification in these regions has degraded the land.This has negatively impacted the economy and increased poverty rates.Planting more trees – the roots of trees hold the soil together and help to reduce soil erosion from wind and rain.

  1. Planting more trees – the roots of trees hold the soil together and help to reduce soil erosion from wind and rain.
  2. Improving the quality of the soil – this can be managed by encouraging people to reduce the number of grazing animals they have and grow crops instead.
  3. Control of population and overgrazing. These are reduction factors of Desertification.


Lossing our own lives


Deforestationclearance,clearing  is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land which is then converted to a non-forest use.Deforestation can involve conversion of forest land to farms,ranches or urban use. The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforest.About 31% of Earth’s land surface is covered by forests. The primary cause of deforestation is agriculture. Trees are cut down for use as building material or sold as fuel.

The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in habitat damage, biodiversity loss and arudity. Deforestation causes extinction, changes to climatic conditions, desertification, and displacement of populations. It also effects on environment. It rises global warming, carbondioxide, biosequestration, soil erosion, fossil fuels.Deforestation is more extreme in tropical and subtropical forests in emerging economies.subsistence farming is responsible for 48% of deforestation; commercial Agricultural is responsible for 32%; logging is responsible for 14%, and fuel wood removals make up 5%.

Effects and hazards

Another cause of deforestation is climate change. 23% of tree cover losses result from wildfires and climate change increase their frequency and power.The rising temperatures cause massive wildfires especially in the Boreal forests.majority of deforestation was caused by industrial factors, including extractive industries, large-scale cattle ranching, and extensive agriculture.The water cycle is also affected by deforestation. Trees extract groundwater through their roots and release it into the atmosphere. 

Deforestation eliminates a great number of species of plants and animals which also often results in an increase in diseases.The diseases that passed to humans in this way in the latest decades include HIVEbolaAvian fluSwine Flu, and likely the COVID-19 pandemic are source from degradation of air and trees . The forest products industry is a large part of the economy in both developed and developing countries. Rapidly growing economies also have an effect on deforestation. The Europian union is one of the largest importer of products made from illegal deforestation.Damage to forests and other aspects of nature could halve living standardsfor the world’s poor and reduce global GDP.

Rainforests once covered 14% of the earth’s land surface; now they cover a mere 6% and experts estimate that the last remaining.The massive use of charcoal on an industrial scale in europewas a new type of consumption of western forests. The mangolians resulted in the reduction of 700 million tons of carbon from the atmosphere by enabling the re-growth of carbon-absorbing forests.Amazon rain forests are the another example for effects of deforestation and climatical change.

Save trees save lives

The wholescale clearance of woodland to create agricultural land can be seen in many parts of the world. In 2019, the world lost nearly 12 million hectares of tree cover. Nearly a third of that loss, 3.8 million hectares. Controls: Transferring rights over land from public domain to its inhabitants is argued to be a cost-effective strategy. Reforestation or planting trees are methods of control for deforestation.


A key role in society


Dairy farming is a class of agriculture for long-term production of milk, which is processedfor eventual sale of a fairy product.Dairy production has come a long way since the days of milking by hand. These days, machines are used to help the farmer milk several cows at once.The plant which processes milk and produces milk products are called dairy plant or dairy.

Commercial dairy farms are typically one-species enterprises. Dairy farms typically consist of high producing dairy cows. But some species used in commercial dairy farming include goats,sheeps and camels. In  Italy, donkey dairies are also used. The dairy farmers would fill barrels with milk bring it to market on a wagon and sell it for money.

Dairy farming has been part of agriculture for thousands of years.Large scale dairy farming is only viable where either a large amount of milk is required for production of more durable dairy products such as cheese, butter, etc. milk preservation methods: Cool temperature has been the main method.Ice banks were the first type of bulk milk cooler. plate heat exchanger (PHE),This device utilizes a number of specially designed stainless steel plates with small spaces between them.

Modern technologies of milking

MILKING MACHINE: It is also known as milking pipeline,This uses a permanent milk-return pipe and a second vacuum pipe that encircles the barn. The milking device shrank in size and weight to the point where it could hang under the cow, held up only by the sucking force on the cow’s udder.The pipelines allowed barn length to keep increasing and expanding.

There is a great deal of variation in the pattern of dairy production worldwide. but, The milking of cows was traditionally a labor-intensive operation and still is in less developed countries.Worldwide, the largest cow milk producer is the United States, the largest cow milk exported in New zealand ,and the largest importer is china. India become largest milk producer and dairy farming in world by sharing 17% of total.

Dairy products
  • The products of dairy is
  • Butter. Butter and butter blends.
  • Cheese. Natural and processed cheese products.
  • Cultured Dairy. Yogurt, cottage cheese, sour cream, dips and other cultured dairy foods.
  • Frozen Desserts. …
  • Ice Cream/Novelties. …
  • Milk. …
  • Non-Dairy Beverages. …
  • Whey, Milk Powder.


India’s largest cash crop


Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gyopssisum in the mallow family Malvacae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will increase the dispersal of the seeds. The plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa, Egypt and India.

The fiber is most often spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, textile.Current estimates for world production are about 25 million tonnes or 110 million bales annually, accounting for 2.5% of the world’s arable land. India is the world’s largest producer of cotton. it is the most widely use natural fiber cloth in clothing today.The United States has been the largest exporter for many years.

  • There are 4 types of cotton:
  • Gossypium hirsutum – upland cotton, native to america
  • Gossypium barbadense– known as extra-long staple cotton, native to tropical South America
  • Gossypium arboreum– tree cotton, native to India
  • Gossypium Herbecea – Levant cotton
Can live at low rainfall

Planting time in spring in the Northern hemisphere varies from the beginning of February to the beginning of June.Cotton is naturally a perennial but is grown as an annual to help control pests.cotton grown today is cultivated in areas with less rainfall that obtain the water from irrigation.Cotton can also be cultivated to have colors other than the yellowish off-white typical of modern commercial cotton fibers. 

The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) naturally produces a chemical harmful only to a small fraction of insects, most notably the larvae of moths,insects,butterflies and flies, and harmless to other forms of life.The gene coding for Bt toxin has been inserted into cotton, causing cotton, called Bt cotton, to produce this natural insecticide in its tissues.Cotton has gossypol, a toxin that makes it inedible. Bt cotton is ineffective against many cotton pests, and however, such as plant bugs,aphids and stink plants.

Cotton is used to make a number of textile products. These include terrycloth for highly absorbent bath towels,denims,robes,cambric, popularly used in the manufacture of blue work shirts and cotton twill. Socks ,clothes and most T shirts are made from cotton. Bed sheets often are made from cotton. Cotton also is used to make yarn used in crocheted and knitting. In the Textile industry, cotton is used in Fishing nets,coffee filters,Tentsexplosives manufacture  cotton paper, and in book binding. Fire hoseswere once made of cotton.

A pillar for textile industry


An Ancient of herding and farming


Nomadic pastoralism is a form of pastrolism when livestock are her ded in order to find fresh pastures on which to graze. True nomads follow an irregular pattern of movement.The herded livestock include oxen,cows,buffalos yaks,goats, sheeps, reindeers, horses, donkeys or camels, or mixtures of species. Nomads produce valuable products like meat, hides, wool, and milk. Traditional pastoralism turns grasslands to economic advantage.

NOMADIC pastoralism is commonly practised in regions with little arable land, typically in the developed area, especially in the steppe lands north of the agricultural zone.In the dry season, the people move their herds to southern villages with a more temporary character. In the rainy season, the groups live in a village intended for a comfortable stay.Often traditional nomadic groups settle into a regular seasonal pattern of transhumance.

Some issues by Nomadic farming which include overgrazing, mining, agricultural reclamation, pests and rodents, soil properties, tectonic activity, and climate change. Desertification is another main issues for Nomadic farming. The effects can cause climatical changes and ecological imbalance.

Cattle herding

There are three types if Nomads: Nomadic hunters and gatherers, pastoral nomads, and tinker or trader nomads. The nomadic herders are dependent on sheep, cattle, goats, camels, horses and reindeers for their livelihood. There are several benefits to be gained by gathering into groups with others of the same species, including safety from predators, access to mates, and help in finding food. The advantages discussed here for animals that herd are true in large part.

 Central Asia, nomadic populations are associated with the earliest transmissions of millets,jowar and wheat grains. The regions that Nomads are including the proto-indo-eurasians and later Proto india angolas, Yuzehi ,Wusun, xianbei, khitan Pannonian,Mongols,Dzungars and various Turkics.


A disaster management.


dam failure or dam burst is a catastrophic type of failure characterized by the sudden, rapid, and uncontrolled release of impounded water. Between the years 2000 and 2009 more than 200 notable dam failures happened worldwide. A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, that directs or slows down the flow, often creating a reservoir,lake or impoundments.

Dam failures are comparatively rare, but can cause immense damage and loss of life when they occur.Other cases include the Chinese bombing of multiple dams during typhoon NINA in 1975 in an attempt to drain them before their reservoirs overflowed.

  • Sub-standard construction materials/techniques
  • Spillway design error (near failure of 
  • Lowering of dam crest height, which reduces spillway flow
  • Geological instability caused by changes to water levels during filling or poor surveying
  • Sliding of a mountain into the reservoir  – not exactly a dam failure, but caused nearly the entire volume of the reservoir to be displaced and overtop the dam)
  • Poor maintenance, especially of outlet pipes
  • Extreme inflows.
  • Human, computer or design error or piping, especially in earthen dams
  • Earthquakes.
Over flow gives more damage.

The main causes of dam is overtopping: The crest dam is too high than capacity level.Foundation defects: error in constructions and failures of dam.Piping and seepage failures:These failures occur as a result of internal erosion caused by seepage and erosion.Conduit and valve failure: These failures occur as a result of problems with values and conduits.

Dam failures can be extremely harmful, especially because dams are considered “installations containing dangerous forces”.Many dam failures are also secondary results of other natural disasters such as earthquakes, land slides,heavy stroms, or heavy snow-melt. Other causes include equipment malfunction, structural damage, and sabotage.

In INDIA, The major failure is Machchhu dam failure or Morbi disaster was a dam-related flood disaster which occurred on 11 August 1979. The Machchu-2 dam, situated on the Machhu river, burst, sending a wall of water through the town of Morbi of Gujarat, India. The another dam failure is ratnagiri dam failure in 2019 in maharastra.

Machchu dam in india


A source food to world.


Wheat is a grass widely cultivation for its seed, a cereal gram which is a worldwide staple food.The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum.Global demand for wheat is increasing due to the unique viscoelastic and adhesive properties of gluten proteins, which facilitate the production of processed foods.

Wheat is an important source of carbohydrates. it is the leading source of vegetable protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13%, which is relatively high compared to other major cereals. Major breeding objectives include high grain yield, good quality, disease and insect resistance and tolerance to abiotic stresses, including mineral, moisture and heat tolerance.

HISTORY: The cultivation of emmer reached Greece, Cyprus and Indian subcontinent by 6500 BCE, Egypt shortly after 6000 BCE, and Germany and Spain by 5000 BCE. From Asia, wheat continued to spread across Europe. In the British Isles, wheat straw (thatch) was used for roofing. The oldest evidence for hexaploid wheat has been confirmed through DNA analysis of wheat seeds, dating to around 6400-6200 BCE, 

More farmers in india cultivates wheat

Yields of pure wheat per unit area increased as methods of crop rotation were applied to long cultivated land, and the use of fertilizers. There are around 30,000 wheat varieties of 14 species grown throughout the world. Of these about 1,000 are commercially significant. In the United States over 500 varieties are available. In Canada different varieties are blended prior to sale.Hexaploid wheats evolved in farmers’ fields. Either domesticated emmer or durum wheat hybridized with yet another wild diploid grass to make the hexaploid wheats, spelt wheat and bread wheat.

Wheat is grown on more than 218,000,000 hectares.Harvested wheat grain that enters trade is classified according to grain properties for the purposes of the commodity markets. Wheat is widely cultivated as a cash crop because it produces a good yield per unit area, grows well in a low rainfall.


A life to agriculture goods.


The textile industry(cotton originated) in India traditionally, after agriculture, is the only industry that has generated huge employment for both skilled and unskilled labour in textiles, continues to be the second-largest employment generating sector in India. It offers direct employment to over 35 million in the country. India was ranked as the fourth most promising market for apparel retailers in 2019.

The Textile industry was the major component of economic income in India before the English colonies. India is the second largest producer of fibre in the world and the major fibre produced is cotton.In 2000, the Government of India passed the National Textile Policy. The major functions of the Ministry of Textiles are formulating policy and coordination of man-made fiber, cotton, jute, silk, wool industries.

Cotton industry

COTTON TEXTILE: The cotton textile industry was concentrated in the cotton growing belt of Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Gujarat. There are 1,900 cotton textile mills in India,of which about 18% are in the private sector and the rest in the public and cooperative sector.India exports yarn to Japan, United States, United Kingdom, Russia, France, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka and other countries. India has the second-largest installed capacity of spindles.

Jute Mills

Jute: India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods and the third largest exporter after Bangladesh. There were about 80 jute mills in India in 2016-17. The jute industry was supporting 0.37 million workers directly and another 400,000 small and marginal farmers who were engaged in the cultivation of jute

Silk looms in india

Silk in the Indian subcontinent is a luxury good. In India, about 97% of the raw mulberry silk is produced in the five Indian states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Jammu and Kashmir. India is the largest producer of silk in the world and has long tradition of manufacturing silk textile. (ii) It also make four distinct variety of silk namely mulberry, eri, tasar and munga. India also has its control over yellow munga silk produced from Assam


With 44% production of wool, Rajasthan leads all states in India. Rajasthan is followed by Jammu & Kashmir(13 percent), Karnataka (12 percent) Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana (23 percent). This is mainly collected from sheep and more labour involved in this textile


Rice from rhizomes


Perennial rice are varieties of long-lived rice that are capable of regrowing season after season without reseeding; they are being developed by plant genetics at several institutions. These are adapted for different climates and cropping systems, their lifespan is so different from other kinds of rice that they are collectively called perennial rice

perennial crops is an excellent way to stabilize and improve the soil, and provide wildlife habitat.Domesticated Asian rice, Oryza sativa is a short-lived plant. Most cultivars die after producing seeds, though some can regrow and produce a second crop under favorable conditions,that seeds can be developed under perennial.

A way to new technology

The Benefits if this rice is Perennial plants regrow quickly after being harvested, re-establishing a protective cover. The fields do not need to be plowed after the initial planting. Improve the sustainability of food production in the hilly uplands and downstream. It reduced the Environmental impacts of this cropping system include loss if biodiversity, carbon dioxide emissions, increased runoff and decreased rainfall. Due to this Deforestation is reduced quickly.

But it has some drawbacks like Improved habitat for pests, Makes crop rotation more difficult, Builds soil organic matter at the expense of plant productivity, Hydrological impacts like Perennial plants may intercept and utilize more of the incoming rainfall, Reduced nutrient delivery to downstream farms. 

WHY PERENNIAL RICE TO BE PRODUCED: Perennial rice could produce critically needed food year after year on the same plot of land without degrading the soil. This is a potent recipe for soil degradation. Its continuously living roots and thick cover of vegetation would prevent such erosion.Rice with deeper roots, as would be predicted with perennial rice, could exploit the moisture and nutrients in a greater soil volume than short-rooted types.

Reduce the need for transplanting, weeding, and other backbreaking labor. Because of migration to cities, many rural parts of Asia actually suffer from severe labor shortages. In India this plantation grows rapidly.