Tag Archives: #agricultureindustry

SOIL REGENERATION

New method for old culture.

PATTIKONDA:18/07/2020

Soil regeneration, as a particular form of ecological regeneration within the field of restoration ecology, is creating new soil and rejuvenating soil health by: minimizing the loss of topsoil, retaining more carbon than is depleted, boosting biodiversity, and maintaining proper water and nutrient cycling.

This has many benefits, such as: soil sequence of  carbon in response to a growing threat of climate change a reduced risk of soil erosion and increased overall soil resilience.Soil is integral to a variety of ecosystem services. These services include food, animal feed, and fiber production, climate moderation, waste disposal, water filtration, elemental cycling

Certain agricultural practices can deplete soil of carbon, such as monoculture where only one type of crop is harvested in a field season after season.Agroecology is an overarching category of approaches to creating a more sustainable agricultural system and increasing the health of soil. These conservation agricultural practices utilize many techniques and resources to maintain healthy soil. It helps inregenerative process.

A scientific process of regenerative process

Permaculture is a type of conservation agriculture which is a system thinking approach that seeks to increase the carbon content of soil by utilizing natural patterns and processes.Utilization of the interconnections of various plants, animals, and processes is a key practice in permacultur. Permaculture and holistic management are two different methods that focus on regenerating biomass, nutrient content, and biodiversity to the soil

Biochar is an amendment that is full of carbon and is created by pyrolysis, a high temperature decomposition process. Wastes from animals are common soil amendments, usually their manure. The way of regenerative soil is by apply 5-10 cm layer of compost, rotted manure or mushroom compost. cover with a 5 cm layer of cane mulch or hay. wet all ingredients with a soak of water or apply diluted worm liquid or organic liquid fertiliser with a watering can. The soil makes more important at farming.

The key for agriculture, our land our hapiness

CROP SYSTEM

Way to crop technology

PATTIKONDA:17/07/2020.

The term cropping system refers to the crops, crop sequences and management techniques used on a particular agricultural field over a period of years. It includes all spatial and temporal aspects of managing an agricultural system.modern agriculture is increasingly concerned with promoting environmental sustainability in cropping systems.

Crop choice is the main aspect in crop system.Farmer must consider its profitability, adaptability to changing conditions, resistance to disease, and requirement for specific technologies during growth or harvesting.Managing crop residues is important in most systems. Some of the nutrients contained in these dead tissues are made available to crops during decomposition, reducing the need for fertiliser inputs. 

Tillage is the primary method by which farmers manage crop residues.Leaving residues on the soil surface results in a mulching effect which helps control erosion,prevents excessive evaporation, and suppresses weeds. Burning are next step for crop In some systems residues are burned. This is a fast and cheap way to clear a field in preparation for the next planting, and can assist with pest control

Modern way to crop choice.

Nutrients are depleted during crop growth, and must be renewed or replaced. A large component of the organic farming movement is a preference for organic-source fertilisers.Soil moisture content is an important factor in plant development. Irrigation and fine-textured amendments can be used to increase soil moisture

The most important factor of crop system is Removal of crop residues.  crop residues may be removed and used for human or animal consumption, or other purposes. This provides a secondary source of sustenance or income, but precludes the benefits associated with leaving residues within the system.

NO TILL FARMING

Alternative modern farming

PATTIKONDA:16/07/2020.

No-till farming ,also known as zero tillage or direct drilling is an agricultural technique for growing crops or pasture without disturbing the soil through tillage.No-till farming decreases the amount of soil erosion. tillage causes in certain soils, especially in sandy and dry soils on sloping terrain

The effects of tillage can include soil compaction loss of organic matters; degradation of soil aggregates; death or disruption of soil microbes and other organisms including mychorrazea, arthopods, and earth worms; and soil erosionwhere top soil is washed or blown away. Tillage is the Agricultural preparation of soil by mechanical agitation

Crop culture and tradition

The uses of tillages are In some cases it may reduce labour, fuel, irrigation and machinery costs.No-till can increase yield because of higher water infiltration and storage capacity, and less erosion.it reduces costs like A combination of technique, equipment, pesticides, crop rotation, fertilization, and irrigation have to be used for local conditions.

It used for One of the purposes of tilling is to remove weeds. No-till farming changes weed composition: faster growing weeds may be reduced as increased competitions with eventual growth of perninals, shrubs and trees. No-till occasionally uses  cover crops to help control weeds and increase organic residue in the soil 

No-till farming reduces nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions by 40-70%, depending on rotation.Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas, 300 times stronger than CO2, and stays in the atmosphere for 120 years.No-till farming improves aggregates and reduces erosion Soil erosion might be reduced almost to soil production rates.

But it have some draw backs like using morr herbicides and again and again tillage,risks to control weeds,take more time to yields and less crop yield.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF AGRICULTURE

Why we loss our practices

PATTIKONDA:16/07/2020.

Environmental impact of Agriculture is the effect that different farming practices have on the ecosystems around them. The environmental impact of Agriculture varies based on wide variety. It also depend on other climatic changes such as rainfall and temperature. The environmental impact depends on production practices of system used by farmers

There are two types of indicators of environmental impact: “means-based”, which is based on the farmer’s production methods, and “effect-based”, which is the impact that farming methods have on the farming system or on emissions to the environment. Some of the environmental issues that are related to agriculture are climate changedeforestationdead zonesgenetic engineeringirrigation problems, pollutantssoil degradation, and waste.

Pollution plays key role.

Climatic changes and Agriculture are interrelated process, Global warming is projected impacts like temperature, precipitation,glacial runoff. Rising carbondioxide effects both detrimental, beneficial on crop yields. The radioactive forcing, Land use, deforestation, desertification change global warming which is reduce rains.

  • Deforestation causes loss of habit for millions of species. It isalso known as climatic changer. It reduces water cycle,which water vapour back to the environment. The removal of trees also causes extreme fluctuations on temperature
  • Irrigation can led to number of problems. If we over irrigated,it leads to water pollution ,soil degradation,chemical pollution and salinity increases.
  • Pollutants like fertilizers,pesticides,herbicides can control pests but degrade soil nutrients and fertility. It residue in foods,air pollutants spray,bio remedies.
  • Wastes like Agricultural,animals,plastic reduces soil nature.

By using organic materials and primitive farming we can reduce environmental impacts on farming.Major current environmental issues may include climate change, pollution, environmental degradation, and resource depletion.  If we resolve we can sustain more farming.

Weed and its control

Weeds

PATTIKONDA:14/07/2020.

Weeds reduce farm and forest productivity, they invade crops, smother pastures and in some cases can harm livestock. They aggressively compete for water, nutrients and sunlight, resulting in reduced crop yield and poor crop quality.

Certain classes of weeds share adaptations to ruderal environments.soil or natural vegetative cover has been damaged or frequently gets damaged, disturbances that give the weeds advantages over desirable crops, pastures, or ornamental plants.

  • competing with the desired plants for the resources that a plant typically needs, namely, direct sunlight, soil nutrients, water, and space for growth.
  • providing hosts and vectors for plant pathogens, giving them greater opportunity to infect and degrade the quality of the desired plants.
  • providing food or shelter for animal pests such as seed-eating birds and Tephritid fruit flies that otherwise could hardly survive seasonal shortages.
  • causing root damage to engineering works such as drains, road surfaces, and foundations,blocking streams and rivulets.
Dangerous weed which reduce and drain soil nutrients.

Weed control is important in agriculture. Methods include hand cultivation with hoes, powered cultivation with cultivators, smothering with mulch or soil solarization, lethal wilting with high heat, burning, or chemical attack with herbicides.

Weed control methods vary according to the growth habit of the weeds.Perennial weeds regrow from previously established roots, dormant stolons, tubers, rhizomes, as well as the seed.important for non-chemical methods of weed control, such as plowing, surface scuffling, promotion of more beneficial cover crops, and prevention of seed accumulation in fields

Weeds unwanted plant for all.

SUBSISTENCE FARMING

A way of farming

Subsistence agriculture occurs when farmers grow food crops to meet the needs of themselves and their families. In subsistence agriculture, farm output is targeted to survival and is mostly for local requirements with little or no surplus. 

Subsistence agriculture was predominant in parts of Asia, especially India, and later emerged in various areas including Mexico.In Central and Eastern Europe subsistence and semi-subsistence agriculture reappeared within the transition economy since about 1990.

Subsistence farming continues today in large parts of rural Africa, and parts of Asia and Latin America. In 2015, about 2 billion people (slightly more than 25% of the world’s population) in 500 million households living in rural areas of developing nations survive as “smallholder” farmers, working less than 2 hectares(5 acres) of land.

A way to livestock of Agriculture

There are four types of subsistence farming They are shifting farming that is used for fodder crops and leave after yield. Nomadic farming is changing one place to one along with animals and tools. Primitive farming is like slash and burn of field to cultivate. Intensive subsistence farming is using simple tools and more labour at small area.

Subsistence agriculture can be used as a poverty alleviation strategy, specifically as a safety net for food-price shocks and for food security. Subsistence agriculture can be used in low-income countries as a part of policy responses to a food crisis in the short and medium term, and provide a safety net for the poor in these countries.

LIVING MULCH

A alternative way to control weed

PATTIKONDA:11/07/2020

Living Mulch is a cover crop inter planted or undersown with a main crop, intended to serve the purpose of a mulch, such as a weed supression and regulates of soil temperature. Mulches are sowing the growth of weeds and protect soil from water and wind erosion.

Legumes used as living Mulches also provide Nitrogen Fixation,Reducing the need for fertilizer. When cover crops are turned over into soil,They contributes Nutrients to main crops so that less fertilizer is required. By using this we can fix soil structure.

Legume.

Mulches are used to control soil erosion, nutrients losses and offsite movement of pesticides.weeds cannot survive in this mulches. It control by two ways, Some are allelopathic and some are kill weeds.

Legumes have Plant Nutrients that effects on nutrients cycling of main crops. Mulches works in Legumes by 3 ways

  • By Fixing the atmospheric N2 that is for main crop
  • Recycling soil Nutrients and
  • Enhancing soil nutrients availabilty for crops
  • Less consumption of harmful and toxic fertilizers

But it has main Drawbacks like it competes with main crop for water and nutrients. This can reduce yield. It covers largely biomass production and turnover,They are not likely to increase soil organic matter. By this the main crop loss its yielding capacity of 5 to 10%.

EFFECT OF COVID-19 ON RURAL INDIA


COVID-19 took the entire world by tremors. Countries are put under lockdown, economic activities are abandoned, measures are taken as if it’s a war of worlds. People were completely alien to such a health hazard. Every industry faced its consequences. Seventy percent of the Indian population lives in Rural backgrounds, lockdown had a severe impact on this 70% population. People in Rural Areas have completely thrived for Amenities and services and this caused a major disruption in the common working of Agricultural as well as Non-Agricultural livelihoods.
IMPACT ON PEOPLE DEPENDENT ON AGRICULTURE
India is a Nation with a big chunk of its GDP (Gross Domestic Product) belonging to the Agricultural Sector. Rural areas especially are mostly dependent on Agricultural or related activities.
A complete lockdown was announced by Central Government on 25 March which is the end of the Rabi crop season. The season when farmers expect to get gains for their hard toil of one complete cropping season. The timings of lockdown disallowed many to sell their crops at profitable prices, lack of cold storage facilities and transportation resulted in crop failure impacting many. The other major sources of income for people based in the Agriculture sector are dairy and horticulture they were hit the hardest.
Dairy-based livelihoods:-
People who were employed in Dairy product-based services we’re majorly affected by lack of transportation and a big dip in product demand. Dairy products except Ghee do not last long, the need immediate dispersal of products to consumers but lockdown made large voids in the transportation chains resulting in losses to Dairies.
Horticulture-based livelihood:-
India is the second-largest fruit producer in the world, Horticulture output in total is about 313.9 million metric tons. Not every fruit and vegetable grow everywhere, these are extremely area-specific. The closure of the wholesale markets resulted in differences between demand and supply chain. The horticulture sector is majorly dependent on intermediaries, the closing of their shutters lead to a devastating outcome.
Fisheries & Poultries
The same reasons cited above affected fisheries and poultries too. A narrative due to rumored speculation of virus transfer from these products too caused a dent on this sector.
Agricultural based livelihood certainly got disturbed by Lockdown but the points that most of these were placed under essential services, and favoring government policies proved out to be a breather.
• IMPACT ON PEOPLE DEPENDENT ON NON-AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES
Non- Agricultural Sector got more severely affected. I need not remind you that most of the Indian population resides in Rural surroundings and majorly contributes to Nations Growth. The non-Agricultural sector comprises about 47% of the Indian Economy. The big portion of Indian workforce hails from Rural backgrounds .We need not look at all of it as number but as real-life individuals and groups who face massive losses. Non-Agricultural Sector majorly comprises of two types.

I. Manufacturing Sector:- This sector faced impacts of closure of international borders as all the imports-exports got affected, closure of domestic markets deepened this wound, all employees were made to rest at home. A high number of individuals we’re terminated from their jobs and it all impacted regular rural and urban households.
II. Services Sector:- All Services except essential, emergency and healthcare services were put to close. This too impacted a humongous number of households. Gyms, Schools, Restaurants, Hotels, Entertainment parks, Theatres, Transportation all these are yet to get the green signal from authorities. Like every other sector, this sector too will take lots of effort to recover.
Logically speaking it is impossible to talk about India excluding rural India. Indian economy took a deep dig, GDP slipped to straight 9% and it will take time and great efforts to recover, and we as Indians are ready to get it back on track.
Among other negatives of this pandemic, one positive for India that shone brightly is self-sufficiency and each capability of each unit to function by itself. Rural India hence sets an example to the world of Indian potential.
By:- Shubham Yadav