Category Archives: Public Administration

Let us get to know some more about the families/partners of some of our favourite cricketers.

1) ROHIT SHARMA
The Telugu-Brahmin born and brought up in Mumbai married his manager and long-time girlfriend Ritika Sajdeh on 13th Dec 2015. Ritika is the cousin sister of Bunty Sajdeh, Virat Kohli’s sports manager. She is also the rakhi-sister of Yuvraj Singh. Rohit and Ritika have a 1.5 year old daughter Samaira Sharma born, too in December. Ritika lives with her mom, dad (Tina & Bobby Sajdeh) and brother Kunal Sajdeh in their flat in Mumbai whenever Rohit is out on tours. Rohit is often seen vacationing with Ritika and his in-laws in Maldives, the couple’s favourite holiday destination. Rohit’s parents too live in Mumbai with his brother and sister-in-law. Rohika are often seen campaigning for the ocean and marine animals. Ritika often accompanies Rohit on tours infact, she even took 3 months old Samaira to IPL matches in 2019 and guess what, Mumbai Indians claimed their 3rd IPL title that year.

2) SHIKHAR DHAWAN
Shikhar married Aesha Dhawan whom he met through Facebook in 2012. Aesha was a single mother of two lovely daughters Aliyah & Rhea and lived in Australia back then.
The couple gave birth to their boy Zoravar Dhawan in 2014.
Aesha used to live with her kids in Australia during Shikhar’s overseas tours. Presently, her daughters are staying with her parents in Australia while she is with Zoravar & Shikhar in Delhi. Shikhar is a very kind and modest family man who loves everything about being Punjabi, quite evident from his choice of music,food etc
  Aesha is an active spokesperson as far as feminist movements and parental counselling are concerned. She is friends with many WAGs. She has her own YouTube channel and also a platform for advising about being the right parents on Instagram.

3) BHUVANESHVAR KUMAR
Bhuvi married his childhood sweetheart Nupur Nagar in late 2017. Bhuvi and Nupur were neighbours in Meerut. They were very good friends. At that time and even during their teenage years, Nupur never actually knew or understood the seriousness of the sport as a career, as she felt that he was just playing. Though Bhuvi used to like her. Years later, they found each other on Facebook (another instance of social media uniting hearts). They met, went on several dates and made it official though not public. Months before their wedding, Bhuvi took to Instagram to introduce his lady love to the world. Nupur is also seen at many matches and is friends with other WAGs. She has an impeccable love for dogs but is always irked at Bhuvi’s cleanliness-related habits.
They shared these inside details on Spicy Pitch Episode 6 by Cricbuzz. Checkout- https://youtu.be/1PqFy8OrfZE

4) HARDIK PANDYA
Hardik lives with his Mom, Dad, Brother (Krunal Pandya), sister-in-law (Pankhuri Sharma Pandya) and now also his fiancée (Natasa Stankovic). The couple recently announced their pregnancy and took internet by the storm. Before committing, Hardik had been linked with several other anonymous women from the industry. He himself spilled the beans, maybe a lot of them, in a Koffee with Karan episode. Anyway, he’s a gem of a person at heart who has truly worked hard to reach here. There was a time when he could just afford to eat a 10 Rs Maggi packet each day. Wishing Hardik all the very best for embarking upon this parental journey.

Our kids are hungry

Malnutrition ravages India's children

According to Global Nutrition Report 2018, India has one third of the world’s population of underfed or malnourished kids. World Health Organization defines malnutrition as deficiencies, excesses or imbalances in a person’s intake of energy and/or nutrients. It can cause stunting (low height for age), wasting (low weight for height), underweight (low weight for age) and micronutrient deficiencies or insufficiencies (a lack of important vitamins and minerals).

Findings by UNICEF’s The State of the World’s Children 2019 report reveal that malnutrition was the cause of 69% children dying before the age of five. Every second child in India is suffering from malnutrition. This is shocking as India is ironically the world’s 2nd largest growing economy. After the economic reforms of 1991, India has seen GDP growth of above 6% every year. India also has the world’s largest program of combating malnourishment. There are many central and state run schemes that provide ration to the extremely vulnerable section. India also has one of the largest public distribution system for grains. Yet, national and international reports and studies regularly highlight child deaths due to malnutrition in India. In this domain, India has fallen behind the poorest countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia like Nigeria, Pakistan, Indonesia and others despite having a higher GDP rate and per capita income.

Malnutrition is further complicated in India where social inequality plays a very important role. A girl child is more likely to be malnourished than a boy child in a family. Similarly, a lower cast child is more likely to be undernourished than an upper cast child. The situation is grimmer in poorer states like Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Bihar and Odisha. The effect of child malnutrition has directly resulted in neonatal disorders, severe respiratory infections and diarrheal diseases in children.

Such findings raise questions about the efficiency of various schemes like Child Development Scheme(1975), National Nutrition Policy(1993), Mid-Day Meal Scheme(1995) and National Food Security Act(2013)  launched by the government to combat malnutrition. A country that produces three billionaires every month should be ashamed that 3000 of its kids die of hunger every day.

Amazon to stop use of it’s facial recognition software by cops

In a major policy shift for the company, Amazon is placing a one-year moratorium on use of it’s facial recognition software by the police . For years the company has been a fierce defender of the controversial software.

The company would suspend the use of this program for law enforcement to allow policymakers some room to establish system for regulation  that has been sparking controversy for years and shining an uncomfortable spotlight on Amazon’s cloud computing department. This step was taken in the wake of police violence and racism riots, after an cop killed George Floyd, an unarmed black man. In research, facial recognition technology has been found to often have trouble recognizing individuals with darker skin, recalling previous policy overreaching that infringed civil liberties for advocacy groups.

Amazon Web Services, the cloud computing group of the company, released Rekognition in 2016, a software service designed to identify objects in images and videos, including the ability to match a face with images in a database without taking the time to compare images manually.

Recognition isn’t the only software of this sort. Rivals from Amazon like Microsoft Corp., and Google have similar capabilities. But Amazon ‘s software became the focus of an intense debate about the potential for powerful, new software to undermine human rights after the American Civil Liberties Union called out the risks of misidentifying people with such software. The group highlighted the relationships between Amazon and a sheriff’s office in Oregon and Orlando City, two commitments that Amazon had made in marketing materials.

“We’ve advocated that governments should put in place stronger regulations to govern the ethical use of facial recognition technology, and in recent days, Congress appears ready to take on this challenge,” the company said. “We hope this one-year moratorium might give Congress enough time to implement appropriate rules, and we stand ready to help if requested.”said,Nina Lindsey, an Amazon spokeswoman.

The House and Senate Democrats included a provision in a sweeping police-reform bill introduced Monday that would block real-time facial recognition analysis of federal police body camera footage. Amazon said other organizations will continue to use the software, including those using facial recognition to fight human trafficking. Rekognition runs on Amazon servers, and is delivered as an internet service to customers, making it theoretically relatively easy for Amazon to suspend access for police users. How many law enforcement departments did use Rekognition remains unknown.In an interview for a PBS Frontline investigation that aired earlier this year, AWS chief Andy Jassy said he didn’t know the total number of police departments using Rekognition.

“It’s sort of the first, real, meaningful concession we’ve seen from Amazon allowing that use of facial recognition by police might not be good for communities” harmed by biased policing, said Shankar Narayan, who expressed concerns about Rekognition to Amazon officials while at the ACLU of Washington, which he left earlier this year. “The move shows that Amazon is vulnerable to public pressure and optics,” said Narayan, a co-founder MIRA, an organization working to give civil society groups a greater say in how new technologies are used.

Amazon, who has long been reluctant to bow to external pressure on public policy issues, claimed those studies did not accurately reflect its software capabilities. The corporation has said there have been no documented incidents of Rekognition’s harassment by law enforcement, but the ability by Amazon to monitor the use of the app is restricted by the security of AWS and regulations against consumer data analysis.

Following a January 2019 study by two AI researchers, pressure on Amazon stepped up , showing the software made more mistakes when used on people with darker skin, especially women. Amazon argued with the paper’s conclusions and methodology, authored by Inioluwa Deborah Raji and Joy Buolamwini, leading some of the top AI scientists, including Yoshua Bengio, the Turing Award winner, to criticize both Amazon’s sale of the product to police and its treatment of Raji and Buolamwini. The ACLU tested the software separately on Congress members and found it falsely matched 28 of them with mugshots, selecting minority lawmakers disproportionately.

“We believe it is the wrong approach to impose a ban on promising new technologies because they might be used by bad actors for nefarious purposes in the future,” Matt Wood, an executive in Amazon’s machine learning group, said in a 2018 blog post. “The world would be a very different place if we had restricted people from buying computers because it was possible to use that computer to do harm.”

Source:https://tech.hindustantimes.com/tech/news/amazon-to-pause-use-of-facial-recognition-software-by-cops-71591848562092.html

EXECUTING SUCCESSFUL BUDGET-FRIENDLY COLLABORATIONS WITH CELEBRITIES.‎ How to do and Why is it required?



For a large-scale promotion of the campaign, say a physical activity driven campaign which would emphasise  the benefits of regular exercising & staying fit and is less about preaching the nutritional value of particular foods. I reckon that we should use TV and Social Media preferably Instagram or Facebook. Nextly, we need to lookout for affordable and successful collaborations with a trending or in-buzz celebrity. The contact details including the email id and phone numbers of their managers are rightly mentioned in their Instagram bios and Facebook official pages. We can shortlist a few celebrities and then finalize one or two of them as per the budget. We can create illustrative posters, banners and post it on our social media handle under the brand name “play to slay the calories”,  “stay fit to be hit” etc.
Once we have officially communicated our needs to the celebrity, we can ask the him to repost our posters on his account and encourage his audience to engage in physical activities. We need to hand over short scripts enlisting the agenda of our mission to him and ask him to make videos to be uploaded on Instagram story campaigning for our brand and helping it grow eventually. I am sure the active followers upon his advice would record the videos of them exercising or playing an indoor/outdoor sport along with all the members of the family which includes both the young and the older generation and when they would put up those videos on the social media then the the celebrities should be asked to repost the best entries on his page. We are well aware of the fact that whatever a celebrity does tends to attract a lot of media attention so automatically the videos would reach other platforms like TV news and articles by leading media portals i.e Pinkvilla. When people would see others gaining overnight fame and becoming a sensation just because a celebrity posted their exercising or playing video on their page then people would get enticed and also motivated to be promoted on the official page of celebrities like Asim Riaz of Bigg Boss 13 who was trending almost everyday on Twitter. I witnessed people going mad for him. They even overcrowded a mall in Mumbai because of a rumour that he was going to visit as a part of a big boss task.
‎As per the budget we can also go for a young sporting athlete preferably from the Indian cricket team or any IPL franchise because if sportspersons promote fitness then the whole idea is accepted more widely and they have a larger fan base, not confined to any particular age group. Meanwhile on our social media handle, We will keep posting stats like 1 out of 3 people haven’t done any physical activity in the last year to appeal to their emotional conscience. And you never know, people might actually feel motivated to step out. We can use catchy captions like being active on social media isn’t being truly active. We will also keep posting regular videos i.e yoga tutorials or in other ways that would tempt them to make videos by going out and playing so as to get featured on a celebrity page. This way without the expenditure of much money or resources our job would also be done, people would exercise as well, our campaign would also get promoted and our brand name would also grow by utilising the fame of a particular celebrity.
‎The reason this idea popped up in my head was because I checkout Alia Bhatt’s Instagram stories of June 5 where she asked people to upload a selfie with plants on the occasion of World Environment Day and within 4 hours social media flooded with so many of them because 7-8 lucky peoples’ stories got mentioned in Alia Bhatt’s stories. Liked the idea?

“Corruption The Cancer for Nation’s Health”

The major hurdle which is stopping INDIA from being superpower in the world is ‘corruption’ which had corrode the strength and aspirations of the nation to be a super power. corruption had became a serious challenge for the progress of an individual up-to national level. and how it is degrading us ? is a serious concern to know about, there are many facts and figures supporting the Arguements above made deeply effecting us in many aspects from day to day life to long run, when there will be corruption the country foundation of development will be served with substandard goods for example lets look at nearby surroundings Even the best and developed cities of our country did not have good Roads People dyed because of falling in Pottols. Roads are considered to be the life lines of country provide channels for the transportation and considered to be the backbone for Buisness and hence emblematic for economic prosperity of the Nation. But we are unable to laid down even the basic requirement of building roads, and it is not that we can not built good roads just go to Malesia Nigeria Even Iraq we had built the best roads means Indian contractors had done beautiful work abroad but here in India roads are laid and with the passage of one monsoon roads are washed away and soon the next tender come and it is the repeating pattern country is witnessing . Corruption had effected us even on personal level Adulteration of food stuffs, The children the youths and every individual consumes adulterated foodstuffs liquors etc. deteriorating the healths and health expectancy of People. Apart From it One of the biggest Impact What Indian Economy Witness Is our Investment Priorities, corruption had completely distorted our investment priorities there is a significant percentage of people are under poverty line but instead of producing chief goods and basics goods for them we have most of our investment priorities for luxury items like we produced steel but it goes for building of Air Conditioners and these investment priorities are totally unsuitable for country like India. And Because of corruption there is a serious impact on what it is capital output ratio because when there will be corruption the transaction cost of country goes up and more insignificant will be the capital output ratio, (it is like if it is 3 it Means today if 3 rupees are spent than you will get 1 rupee as income perpetually it means more higher the number is more insignificant your production). why this number is so important to note down ? Take the total rate of investment divided it by GDP result will be the capital output ratio, the rate of investment in percentage divided by Capital Output ratio you will get your GDP a sign of production Rate, Which shows how much country is progressing a sign of progress. Hence Progress of the country is Inversely proportional to Corruption.

And in our country we had witness so many Corruption cases a big stigma on the identity of nation , From National Herald to Commonwealth coal mining Up-to Fodder Scam case, 2G spectrum etc. and even the culture of short and small bribes is also a part of it, we all are guilty of fostering a culture of taking , giving bribes and therefore definition of corruption varied from person to person it had deep rooted its foots among us like culture. these all series of corruption under a democratic government which accounts for transparent and good governance puts its liability under question mark ?it all had brings luxury Some Households who had committed it and committing it. But it brings many sufferings to the poor of country it makes hands of youths devoid of employment, skills keeps many children away even from basic education and making the pillars of the nation upon which country stands faltering. Now a big Question which arise before us Can’t we cure it ? How long it Will be the part of Our Culture ?

HOW TO CRACK THE CIVIL SERVICES EXAMINATION WITH RIGHT STRATEGY !

The Do’s and DONT’s To become an “IAS OFFICER”

Union public service commission India’s central agency , abbreviated as UPSC ,conducts civil services examination annually and recruits selected candidates for as much as 24 posts .Getting into the Indian civil services is a major hallucination for lakhs of aspirants .Those already on the expedition along with them who choose to be an IAS officer some day are all in the same boat .

Upsc preparation is a well structured combination of hard work in the right direction and a tackling strategy contemporaneously. However, great deal of doubts along with girdled exaggerating myths can leave you enervated and astray.

Strategy Is Figuring out what not to do

The right kind of strategy is all you need to witness your aspirations .Let’s have a look into the do’s and don’t you need to follow if you are a serious aspiration. By the end of the article you will be able to take an analysis on your overall preparation additional to the road map directed !

SAY YES TO THESE DO’S TODAY

1) Syllabus , Question paper and mock test is must

Your syllabus is the basis of your entire preparation make sure to by heart it .Start by simply jotting down the entire syllabus into points and divide them into sections according to your strengths and weaknesses, and then proceed with designing a study plan.Stop looking at the IAS curriculum as a whole – Divide and Conquer.Adding to this go through previous year question paper to get an idea about the kind and pattern of questions asked in the examination.Make sure you solve enough number of mock papers for both Prelims and Mains; this is a must before you step into the UPSC exam for your first attempt. Regular evaluations will help you keep a track of your weakness and progress at the same time .Indulge in quality discussions.
In an exam like the civil service mains, studying the syllabus is not the only important thing to do, How you write the exam is what counts the most. No matter how much you study prior to the exam, how skilfully you are writing the answers within three hours is what makes one topper and another failure. Hence having regular practice of essay/answer writing is highly necessary. Evaluate yourself before UPSC evaluates.

https://www.upsc.gov.in/examinations/previous-question-papers

2) Prepare A Schedule / effective plan

Draw out a timetable for yourself, and the time table should be a realistic one.Do not make a timetable which needs more than 8 -10 hours of your day to dedicate to your IAS preparations depending on your capacity. Once you have decided on the amount of time you will put in everyday and what topics you will cover when, make sure you follow it everyday.

3) Consistency is the key

No matter how much talented you are, how much hard working you are, how much smart you are – if there is no consistency in your preparation for this exam (UPSC civil services), you will either fail or unnecessarily prolong this journey making it stressful, burdensome and frustrating.
Being consistent i.e. being regular and steadfast in what you are doing – either making notes from newspapers or from books, writing answers daily, writing essays weekly, solving test papers from test series once in a week or ten days – is the ONLY solution to all your problems.

4) Revise more than you learn

Be wise ! Revise

When you plan your studies, make sure you have enough time on your agenda for a minimum of two revisions. Both general studies, as well as CSAT syllabus, should be reviewed twice – a week before the examination.Without revision,you cannot succeed in this exam.

DONT’ S ARE MORE IMPORTANT

1) Limit your Resources

Aspirants must not deviate from the UPSC syllabus as questions asked in the exam are on based on the given syllabus.
They should not ignore the basics and NCERT books, as some questions are based on fundamentals too.
One must avoid buying too many books or collecting too much material to study for the UPSC exam as it would be a waste of time.
One of the common mistakes UPSC aspirants make is ignoring the basics and NCERT books, which are important for IAS preparation as questions based on NCERT books and fundamentals may be asked in the exam.
Not solving sufficient practice papers and previous papers could affect their performance, too.Also, lack of consistent preparation, regular practice, and revision may impact their preparation process adversely.Spending time reading too many books may lead to confusionThough UPSC aspirants tend to consult various study material and books to prepare for different topics, going through too many books may create confusion and should be avoided.
UPSC syllabus is vast and candidates may need to refer multiple sources to cover it.
However, consulting too many books could be a waste of time. Instead, they should choose the right material/books and revise well.

https://www.google.com/amp/s/m.jagranjosh.com/articles/amp/upsc-iasprelims-subjectwise-study-material-important-resources-for-complete-preparation-1585745500-1

2) Don’t make lengthy notes

Avoid making lengthy notes as it will consume your time as well as distract you at the time of examination .
Too much of content in notes is unnecessary .Notes should be kept precise and intact .
Do multiple readings and then make notes of the most important topic out of the whole just to get to know the whole idea at the time of need.

3) Do Not Ever Skip Newspapers

If there’s a bible that can guide you towards success, it’s the ;Newspaper Readings’ that acts as an integral whole in your entire preparation process. Many questions that are asked in the examinations come directly from the newspapers. Therefore, it becomes prudent on your part to know ‘How to read a newspaper’, ‘what to read and what not to read’.

https://www.insightsonindia.com/the-hindu-news-analysis-videos/

Hard work + strategy = Success !

” Rowing harder doesn’t help if the boat is headed in the wrong direction .”-kenichi

#International Journal Of Research(Follow Eduindex news for more )

Internal and External Threats to the National Security of Pakistan

Professor Han Zhongyi 1 Zain ul Abiden Malik2

  1. School of World History, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi, an China
  2. School of World History, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi, an China

Abstract:

 Pakistan individual a helpful supporter of the US has to look more pessimistic security implications than optimistic. Day by day the security condition of Pakistan is going worse. In this dangerous situation, it was complicated to describe the social protection of Pakistan. Here is a require to get rid of the fear of terrorism and extremism. Pakistan can enhance its security through adopting different way.

Keywords: Terrorism, Security, Instability

 

 

Introduction:

 

 

After 9/11 incident the terrorism become big challenge for whole world security. In new era these terrorist attacks cleared the picture of USA and whole the globe. The US blamed Osama bin Landan was involved in this terrorist activities. The Taliban had given shelter to Osama bin Landan. The USA demanded to Taliban to give him Osama bin landan if they not hand over Osama bin Landan mentally they are ready for war (Yusafzai, 2011).The Taliban refused to hand over Osama bin Landan to USA they accepted their challenge for war. USA received negative reply from Taliban so US did attack on Afghanistan on October 7, 2001. The main objective of this attack on Afghanistan was to arrest Osama bin Landan after few months of this attack, the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) occupied big cities of Afghanistan (Farooq, 2005).The US efforts to conquer Taliban and Al –Qaeda with help of Alliance force, but they are not hundred percent successful. The Taliban did proper guerilla war against Allied forces. They conducted surprise attacks on Allied forces number of forces died in these attacks. The US did  not get great victory in afghan it was hug shocked for US leadership (Moonis,2005).The Global War on Terror (GWOT) belongings to  Pakistan’s defense atmosphere more than any additional situation in the globe. The Incident of 9/11 had brought noticeable changing in Pakistan foreign policy but also relate to Pakistan security situation. General Musharraf was supported to USA war against terrorism. This favor created by friendly relationship between two nations. Pakistan was played  major role in war against terrorism. Pakistan has worn this condition to better dealings toward follow a large sequence of issues.

 

 

 

Literature Review:

 

The attacks on World Trade Center and Pentagon separated the globe into two parts’ supportive and non-supportive follower of USA. Pakistan individual a accommodating helper of the USA has to look other pessimistic security implications than optimistic. The defense condition of Pakistan is warped as well as is still declined day by day. it was difficult to define the national defense of Pakistan. There is a require to get rid of threats of terrorism and extremism. By adopting various way from side to side, Pakistan can get better its security (Samia et al… 2012). The country security plan is a multi-faced job to provide safety and security to our cities and continue its development. The fundamental principles of the corporation, convenience, distribution network, transparency and summarize. Pakistan is in a bad need to select such strategies of safety and security to maintain its economic development and its citizens’ security (Khalid & Kamal, 2015). The state of internal security in Pakistan emerged as a confront to the state due to the community disintegration and increase in extremism and terrorism. Incidents of terrorism connected to TTP developed as the main internal security threat in Pakistan. The collapse of PML – (N)’s government in bringing the TTP to the dialogue table tied with a frightening rise in some terror attacks on security personnel. Furthermore, soft targets led to the hard posture culminating in a complete joint military operation ‘Zarb-e-Azb’ in North Waziristan (FATA) next to TTP’s hideouts and their foreign supporters(Javaid,2016). In 2010 more than 100 drone strikes were conducted in Pakistan unaccompanied and are predictable to kill one-third to ninety-five percent civilians (Jone et al…2011).

METHODOLOGY OF STUDY:

 

The data has collected from various articles and books. This study consists of a qualitative type of research.

DISCUSSIONS:

 

Historical perspective:

 Pakistan was open the control of extremism and terrorism and was restricted to chance and precise acts of religious and sectarian nature. Though, the Iranian revolution and its contradicting revolutionary forces, Afghan Jihad culture and the Taliban government have negatively exaggerated Pakistan society. In the late 1970s and 1980s, General Zia’s Islamization procedure gave Pakistan a new ideology (Saima et al. 2012). During his government, a lot of Madrassas were recognized which were later on used as centers for Afghan Jihad. Jihadi culture thus understood its roots in our society and gained an active support of politico-religious parties (Sultan, 2006). In the 1970s and 1980s, Islamization became an essential tool of Pakistan’s internal foreign policy. It became a supporter of the US against the Soviets in 1979 to boundary the rising power of communism (Malik 2009, 17). After the Soviet defeat in Afghanistan and along with a large effort between the Afghan Mujahidin, a new authority came to the front in Afghanistan in the form of Taliban. Pakistan was the principal source of Taliban to be in a call with the outside globe. Then the 9/11 event occurred, and Pakistan twisted her back on Taliban and appeared as a forefront state to support the US in its policy to war terrorism and to pursue the remnants of Taliban and Al-Qaeda network (Hamid 2011).

Factors to responsible for national security:

There are three factors primarily contributing to her customary domestic insecurities

  1. a narrow and weakly defined purpose of Pakistan regarding the concept of Islamic states; the

Ideological base of Pakistan is vulnerable by the ethnic, cultural and lingual dominance of the four provinces. The successful Islamic ideology following Pakistan movement cannot be continued among the various nature of people of Pakistan.

2.The absence of harmony on the development of national institutions, the breakdown of leadership and the political institutions in raising a common strategy to address all the security concerns.

 3) The different nature of the state that conquered its area with the weak federal connection.(Khalid& Kamal,2015)

But, today it can be possibly asserted that the critical threat to national security in Pakistan emanates additional from internal sources quite than external”(Javaid, n.d.: 1). General Ashfaq Pervez Kayani, Pakistan’s Chief of Army Staff, admitted in his policy speech in 2012 that internal threat is larger than that of an external threat (Ahmed, 2014). Fahmida Mirza, Speaker National Assembly is of the view that ‘terrorism and extremism are the major threats to the security, calm and solidity in the region and poverty, illiteracy and unemployment are the major causes’ (Mirza 2009).

Serious security issues in Pakistan:

 

Pakistan suffered a lot being an associate of US in the war against terrorism .9/11 was only single terrorist incident the US country but in Pakistan numbers of such incidents have been experimental, which deteriorated the law and order condition in the country. No part of the country is secure owing to bombing and suicide attacks of terrorism. Pakistan’s anxious economic situation, fluid political setting, and dangerous security situation here serious challenges to Pakistan’s security. Islamabad faces crises that wear down their options. Investors are scared of investing in Pakistan due to insecurity. Even Pakistan’s investors, traders, and industrialists are unwilling to spend here and prefer to make an investment in such countries where they get handful profit. This directly increases our public anger. Pakistan’s economic appearance does not come out to be clear in the wake of the real havoc, rising terrorist hostility, political suspicions and rising Talibanization of the society.

Weak governance and over-reliance on military solutions have contributed to political disorder and an increase of extremism. Al Qaeda forces and their associates stay active on Pakistani region (Hathway 2010). This connectivity between Al Qaeda and Pakistani Taliban is one of the principal sources of insecurity in Pakistan. This connectivity leads to suicide attacks and bomb blasts all over in Pakistan. Pakistan witnessed extra than dozen attacks next to its military, security forces, government officials and civilians. On September 3, 2008, for the first time in 60 years of freedom, Pakistan faced a direct military attack by outside armed forces, other than India (Malik,2009). It was a shocking condition for Pakistan’s security and independence.

The Lahore attack on the Sri Lankan cricket team on March 3, 2009, in which six police guards were killed and seven Sri Lankan players wounded highlighted extremism and terrorism in Punjab (Firdous, 2009). The Islamabad Marriott Hotel bombing occurred on September 20, 2008, when an abandoned truck filled with explosives detonated in front of the Hotel inside which at least 54 people killed and at least 266 got wounded ( Masood 2008). On October 28, 2010, two suicide bombers under fire the new campus of the International Islamic University Islamabad (IIUI) murder at least six students and staff members and additional than 29 got wounded (Dawn 2010, 1). On January 4, 2011, Punjab Governor Salmaan Taseer was assassinated by his guard in Islamabad (Daily Times 2011).

Pak –Afghan border operations:

 

The beginning of transactions on the Pak-Afghan border for eliminating supposed terrorists has enlarged suicide bombing in Pakistan, and no leave had leftovers safe from these attacks and made Pakistan anxious and weak. While the first decade of war on terrorism has completed, it made Pakistan more unbalanced than eternally before. Five hundred bomb blasts have been witnessed in which more than 35,000 people have died, and it has cleaned out the security of Pakistan (Rehman, 2011). In the present circumstances, it is essential to resolve the growing security threats that had engrossed the national security of Pakistan. These are declining the roots of Pakistan and also vanishing away from the image of Pakistan both at home and internationally as well.

Conclusion:

The external insecurity covered the way for Pakistan’s participation in Afghanistan-Soviet War and the War on Terror, which laid down grave suggestion on Pakistan’s internal security construction. It introduced terrorism, Kalashank of culture; it destroyed the economic sector and raised the hopes of the separates’ actions. But, Pakistan’s security initiatives paperwork is significant, but the real standoff is the political insecurity, and the conflict between the civil-military leadership that has no national consonance led the substance of internal security. Secondly, the other destructive factor is short of the implant, in spite of being advised, and no real information distribution occurs, no management is set up among the Law Enforcement Agencies.

Reference:

Afzal, S., Iqbal, H., & Inayay, M. (2012). Terrorism and extremism as a non-traditional security threat post 9/11: implications for Pakistan’s security. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(24).

Khalid, I., & Kamal, M. (2015). The Homeland Security Initiatives for Pakistan: A Grand Strategy. South Asian Studies, 30(1), 15.

Javaid, U. Zarb-e-Azb and the State of Security in Pakistan.

Jones, T., Sheets, P., & Rowling, C. (2011). Differential news framing of unmanned aerial drones: efficient and effective or illegal and inhumane?.

Yusafzai, Hamid Iqbal. 2011. The US Factor in Pak-Afghan Relation post 9/11 Lambert Academic Publishing (LAP) gMB &Co.KG Germany (June).

Moonis, A. (2005). The Challenge of Rebuilding Afghanistan.

Ahmed, N. (2014). Pakistan’s Counter-terrorism Strategy and its Implications for domestic, regional and international security.

Javaid, U. Terrorism: Major Threat to Pakistan’s National Security. Lahore: pu. edu. pk/images/journal/pols/current issue-pdf/umbreen. pdf.

Hasnat, S. F. (2005). Afghan Crisis; a Dilemma for Pakistan’s Security and International Response. Perceptions (Spring 2005)45.

 

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Socio-Economic Issues of Women in Contemporary India

Deepak Kumar

Deptt. of Public Administration

women issues

ABSTRACT: Women, in India, in general have never been allowed to fully blossom and putting their just part in the socio economic development.  Their potential has always been undermined, disvalued and neglected. So making women more progressive, this is the time to unleash the ‘hidden entrepreneurial capabilities’ of women. Economically secure women will no less than a fountain of resource to the nation which will bring more employment opportunities, more gross domestic product and more financial inclusion to the system. Women entrepreneurship can certainly strike some core issues of social indignity like the ‘patriarchal mindset’, it can lessen the ‘domestic violence’ against women, it can also improve ‘maternal -infant healthcare’ system, as presence of such issues in 21st century is really a misfortune to live with. Plus an economic status of women leads to the betterment of her social status also. An empowered woman can improve the environment of awareness, as today most of the women’s rights are not in vogue because the awareness level is way below .why society is giving a secondary stance to women in labor and business activities? Why they have been taught to follow rather than lead? A nation can be called a developed one only when the women is getting equal opportunities in financial matters, is getting proper social representation and her dignity is duly taken care of.

KEYWORDS: Empowered Women, Financial Inclusion, Dignity, Women Entrepreneurship

INTRODUCTION:

“We cannot all succeed when half of us are held back.” Malala Yousafzai

Indian society, being a male dominated society heavily lacks women participation in workforce and gross domestic product. Currently startups are totally male dominated. Only 6% of all startups are run by women. Many reasons contribute to this deficiency like Patriarchal society, extra attachment to traditional values, Lack of education ,lack of vocational skills, Lack of funding, difficulty in availing loans, poor institutional support to build and guide in business expansion. This whole poor picture can also be justified by structural factors. Early marriage culture deviate women from getting higher education and force them to leave their home. now women again is deprived of  her choice where in-laws pressurize them not to work and she is left limited to only household activities. The informal face of Indian economy is also a factor of women exploitation which makes women afraid of active participation. Regular sexual crimes against women also restrict women participation. Unjust Wage parity, outdoor working ethics and social Discrimination also obstructs their participation. Somehow Choice of work is not offered to Women. Maternal issues are also there, which hinders women’s initiative. Plethora of reason is there still, these reasons must not overshadow the real potential of women in total because if opportunities are there women are always eager to grab them. Just to understand the current scenario it is very important to flash a light over the economic reforms of 1991. Indian economy was reassembled in 1991, but hardly any structural reform was witnessed in women’s side .growth was there, no doubt but we have seen a jobless growth. To increase more opportunities economic growth was needed. Our growth was not sufficient to create more opportunities for women, whatever opportunities are there were grabbed by men.

Some insightful Measures we need to suffocate this gender asymmetry in entrepreneurship.

-We have to install customized window services for supporting startup procedures especially suiting the women needs. More Conducive awareness programs with the help of civil society and NGOs to kill stereotyped mindsets in the society should be channelized.  Ensuring more and more safety and security to women at all organizational levels is needed which can  strengthen the voice of women to take strong stand in adversities.

-Giving some special attraction to women in skill development to foster the present day commercial benefits through skill India mission.

– Bigger incentives should be given to women in establishing MSMEs, and providing cheap and liberal term loans.

– Some Tax breaks should be arranged for women enterprises.

– Least capital gains tax should be imposed on VC and ACs who invest in women startups.

– Creation of some special fund by government to promote women entrepreneurship.

What should be done in long run? 

1) Programs to increase the number of women who take up higher education and technical education (schemes like Pragati and Udaan are steps in the right direction)

 2) Vocational training to women.

3) Creation of an environment which enable them to pursue entrepreneurship (safety, encouragement, rewards)

4) Educating the society to change their mindset and value the organizational skills of women and provide them freedom to contribute towards economic growth of the country.

What is women empowerment?

Women empowerment means freedom of women from the vicious grips of social, economical, political, caste and gender-based discrimination. It means granting women the power and freedom to make life choices. It means replacing patriarchy with parity.  Empowering women to participate fully in economic life across all sectors is essential to building stronger economies; achieve internationally agreed goals for development and sustainability. In this regard, there are various facets of women empowerment, such as given here under:—

  1. Individual empowerment – A woman is a being with senses, imagination and thoughts; she should be given a proper environment to express them freely.

  1. Social Empowerment–society as a whole , belongs to women same as to any privileged  men .there should be no  place  for concepts like ‘gender’ and the onus comes on state to promote gender equality. Gender equality is something in which women and men enjoy the same opportunities, outcomes, rights and obligations in all spheres of life.
  2. Educational Empowerment –empowering women with the knowledge, skills, and self-confidence is the need of hour. This will help women to get aware of their rights and will cultivate a healthy morale to claim them.
  3. Economic empowerment – In India it literally means to get rid of financial dependence from their male counterparts. This economic subjugation leads to social subjugation.
  4. Legal Empowerment–it speaks of a comprehensive legal structure which is sensitive of women rights. It should be based on rule of law, not the rule of land.
  5. Political Empowerment – a participative political system should be there, which is inclusive in all means of social representations. Women can lead only when the decision making opportunities are given to them in government and legislative branch.

Position of Women in India now and then:

A much prestigious position was enjoyed by women in the Rig- Vedic period which was further deteriorated in the later civilizations. Women were denied almost every freedom, they were denied of property ownership and inheritance, they were denied of education, remarriage, spouse selection, social movement etc. these all discriminations further evolved into much grave biased rituals like child marriage, dowry system and Sati Pratha .British period witnessed many changes in women’s empowerment. Educated Indians started advocating their cause. social reformers such as Mahatma Gandhi ,Raja Rammohun Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, and Jyotirao Phule started pan India agitations for the upliftment of women. Their agitations led to the abolition of Sati and formulation of the Widow Remarriage Act .This way the status of women in social, economic and political life began to elevate.

Current Scenario on Women Empowerment: 

After independence, constitution of India provided many liberal ideas for women empowerment; many social, economic and political provisions were incorporated. Women nowadays can participate in almost every sector like education, politics, sports, media, art and culture, science and technology. But still there are some remnants of patriarchal mentality like victimization, humiliation, torture and exploitation. These seven decades after Independence, could not bring such a phenomenal change which can be proud of .however there is no denial that an era of multifarious opportunities has started and any ambitious woman can take a leap on.

Spiritual leader Swami Vivekananda quoted that, “There is no chance for the welfare of the world unless the condition of women is improved, and it is not possible for a bird to fly on only one wing.” Thus, in order to achieve the status of a developed country, India needs to transform its colossal women force into an effective human resource and this is possible only through the role enhancement of women in financial structure of our social system. South Korea has encouraged women participation at higher positions which in turn automatically improved their status at lower levels. This country also provided incentives to companies which are gender friendly. India must read such lessons. Plus we need to shatter some myths like if more women come to workforce they will fail both sides, their domestic as well as entrepreneurial. This is grossly under estimated notion as if a woman can manage her home very well; she is naturally having good management skills and can certainly manage an organization as well.

CONCLUSION:

                   ‘’Development will be endangered if it’s not engendered’’

Unfortunately, women in India have always seen as a gender which is best suitable for domestic work and not as a mainstream economic contributor. Thanks to the deep seated patriarchal ideology. This unholy trend is still continuing and is visible in the startup ecosystem where the number of woman entrepreneurs is abysmally low. To balance this Economic development of women is needed, only this is the most effective way to empower and emancipate women, and this In turn will further the economic development of the country by their active participation in labor force. Only the economic empowerment of women can have far reaching effects. It can change the gender equations both inside and outside the house, helping them to overcome the fear of helplessness and powerlessness. Therefore, it is the high time we need to remove this gender asymmetry from our economic system.

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