The concept of the Cold War, born in 1945 after the end of the Second World War, is a fact of international relations that exposes the mutual relations between the US and the Soviet Union. This is a new chapter in post-World War II international relations. It can also be named a new international political development.
The new chapter of friendship between the US and the Soviet Union began during the Second World War, which ended after the war, the mutual differences and feeling of disharmony between the two superpowers grew deeper and the two tried to humiliate each other. Started doing This effort led to a conflict situation rather than cooperation in the diplomatic, cultural, political and social fields in both countries. On the international stage, the two powers went on to accuse each other. In an attempt to prove their supremacy in the international world, both the superpowers started looking for new ways to bring most of the states of the world to their side. This created an atmosphere of unrest all over the world and eventually, the world was divided into two powerful factions – the capitalist bloc and the communist bloc, in which the first led the US and the second led the Soviet Union.
Meaning of cold war
As is clear from its name, it is not a war of arms and weapons but a war confined to threats. There was no real war in this war. It was limited to indirect war only. In this war, both the great powers were dominant in their ideological differences. It was a type of diplomatic war that was based on the efforts of the superpowers in narrow selfishness.
The Cold War was a type of speech war that was used in paper rounds, paper-magazines. Even radio and publicity tools were fought. In this war neither any bullet was fired nor anyone was injured. In this, both the superpowers fought indirect wars in most parts of the world to maintain their suzerainty. All measures to prevent the war from turning into an armistice were also used, it was only a war by diplomatic means in which the two superpowers continued to resort to all measures to degrade each other. The purpose of this war was to strengthen its position by involving the Allies in their respective factions so that in future each could easily cut off the moves of their opposing factions. This war was the final culmination of the mistrust and doubt that arose between the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II.
Jawaharlal Nehru defined the Cold War as saying that “this war was a war of suspended capital punishment atmosphere that was more terrible than a heated war.”
Thus it can be said that the Cold War was a speech war between two superpowers based on diplomatic measures. It was a direct expression of the tension created between the two superpowers after World War II. This was more terrible than the actual war, being an ideological war.
Origin of the Cold War
The symptoms of the Cold War started appearing during World War II itself. Both the superpowers were fighting the war keeping in mind their narrow interests and showing the spirit of mutual cooperation. The spirit of cooperation that was visible during the war was beginning to end after the war and the symptoms of the Cold War had begun to emerge, with the two factions becoming stronger complaining of each other. There were some strong grounds for these complaints. These mutual differences were the main causes of the Cold War.
The main reasons for the origin of the Cold War are-
The Soviet Union not following the Yalta Agreement.
The Soviet Union and America’s ideological differences.
Soviet Union’s emergence as a powerful nation.
Soviet Intervention in Iran.
Soviet intervention in Turkey.
Communist spread in Greece.
Second Front Dispute.
The Soviet Union ignores Balkan Agreement.
America’s nuclear program.
Termination of land-lease agreement.
American support to fascist forces.
Repeated use of veto power by the Soviet Union.
Narrow national interest based on narrow nationalism.
One-person on the frontline may have different names. When the entire universe bows down and love that person from the bottom of the heart, even if someone criticizes or tries to create rumors, still the word “mother” won’t fade away. The only person who loves without expecting anything in return, there’s nothing; comparatively, it’s priceless and cannot be quantified. She is the person who survives the aftermath of sequences of struggles in her entire life, beginning from discarded as a female child from birth itself.
Let us talk about the reality of a patriarchal society. Where the voices get suppressed, but now it’s reflected in the reports. According to the World Population 2020 Report released by UNPFA (United Nations Population Fund) conveys that in India, almost one-third of the total missing females in the world accounts for an estimated figure of 45.8 million people. The children below the age of 5 years, where one out of nine females foresees death due to early gender detection.
This pandemic may heal nature, but not the people surviving in the nation, an increase in violence and discrimination is likely to be seen as a consequence of no income source. The practice of child marriage may have vanished, but there are still traces of such incidents where they tried to flout the laws. The technology may have been a boon, but when undauntedly used by the culprits to gender bias by ultrasound, it has crashed their compassion and dreams before it ignites.
The developing countries are already trying to fight problems like reducing poverty, boosting literacy rate, abandoning illegal trade. Additionally, other matter of concern arises like child trafficking and drug abuse are acting as barriers to the roadmap to success. An abundant investment in terms of money as well as time from renowned leaders, influencers can save the lives of the hapless fate of being such a victim of unfortunate events.
One inspirational story I can share is about a small family where a baby girl enters their life. This incident may sound as a non-fictitious story, but in Mumbai, India, where after three years of marriage, god showers happiness as a unique member enters their life. A 32-year old father was happy to see his baby after ten days free of the contamination. The mother was a patient in the COVID ward in Nowrosjee Wadia Maternity Hospital. They are safe now and returned thanking the efforts taken by the hospital. These doctors and parents who abide by the guidelines do deserve appreciation rather than criticizing uselessly on the health system. The slow curve can take steady growth any day when we won’t be able to see each other, and the day isn’t too far.
Even a mother can fall into depression; after all, she is a person like all of us. On a positive note, motherhood is seen over drugs while parenting their children. After testing it on rats, contributes the information in the research related to the infralimbic cortex, which is responsible for emotions, preferred the acceptance towards maternal behavior over other addictions. This action shows immense love for their offspring. We as a part of the nourishing society, we can pledge that we will never let their name die, and forever keeping her head upraised in pride.
Did you ever plan out for a vacation? If you’re in India, the first thought in your mind appears with yourself enjoying the beaches of Goa. But now, the lockdown restrictions are removed as of 2nd July 2020. If you can’t visit, don’t worry, being a Goan, I’ll take you on a virtual tour to the paradises in the state of Goa. Are you ready for the journey? Let’s go.
Imagine you are on the Hop On Hop Off Bus, a tourist double-decker bus initiative taken up by the Tourism Department of the state. I tell you the story about what is so unique here. Situated on the South-West of India with a beautiful coastline and people around 1.8 million are present in the area of 3702 sq.km. Being the smallest state of India, don’t go by numbers, it has surprises for you to fascinate with the flora, fauna and its natural biodiversity. Well, with two districts, Panaji is the capital where you will find the paintings of Mario Miranda on the walls of the Municipal Market.
Okay, moving on further, don’t consider language as a barrier to communicate because English is also well-spoken with the national language Hindi. Still, the local languages most widely spoken are Konkani and Marathi. You may also find Portuguese influence in the monuments as well as in the cuisine. I’m sure you’ll be tasting out the mouth-watering food virtually too. The first thing in my mind is rice with fish curry made with love out of the Goan fishes freshly cooked, which are caught during the dawn.
Along with this, the famous Ross Omelet, which you will find at every street outlet and restaurant which is somewhat similar to Xacuti, but it’s a pork dish. Still, here it’s usually replaced with chicken or other vegetarian alternatives with local bread known as Pao. Other famous dishes here in Goa are Sorpotel, Vindaloo, along with some Feni, made from cashews or coconut, which may make you feel dizzy. After all, everyone usually comes here to enjoy the alcoholic drinks, but may put you in trouble if you drink them on the beaches. No problem if you’re a teetotaler; there are other alternatives.
We’re also flourished with one of the famous world heritage sites declared by UNESCO, Basilica of Bom Jesus. Also, there are other famous places like Fort Aguada, Se Catherdral, and even ancient temples like Sri Mahadeva Temple in Tambdi Surla and other religions like Jain do have their establishments. Nonetheless, to mention, the beaches of Calangute, Baga, Anjuna are some of them. Also, you can go trekking at Dudhsagar Falls. The nightlife, casinos, and cruises are to be enjoyed if you fall into that category. The lavished exotic hotels are ready to welcome you always; even the people of Goa are amicable.
Let me give you an example, Dr. Edwin Gomes, the head of the medicine department of the famous Goa Medical College (GMC). He has done an incredible job recently by showing his gratitude by hugging more than 190 patients in the hospital after they were treated and found negative for COVID-19. The tour has come to an end, and I hope you visit the state and enjoy the moments.
The concept of Coke Studio begun in Brazil in 2007 with a one-time promotional project called ‘Coca Cola Zero Studio’. This was organized by the company Coca Cola and it was accompanied with the launch of a new music phone by Nokia. A year later, this format was adopted in Pakistan as ‘Coke Studio’, a live music television reality show which showcased live versions of songs performed by artists of various music genres. Highlighting fusion music as its USP, Coke Studio became one of the most successful television programmes in Pakistan. The credit for this is often given to the show’s producer, Rohail Hyatt. This concept was then adopted in India, the Middle East and later, in Africa. In India, Coke Studio@MTV, a collaboration of Coca Cola India and MTV India started in 2011. Leslie Lewis was the producer of the first season. While Coke Studio Pakistan has completed 12 seasons, Coke Studio@MTV has done 4 seasons until now.
The cultural music of India not only includes the two main traditions of Indian classical music called Hindustani and Karnatic classical but also involves the huge diversity of folk music. Various modifications of Hindustani classical music called the semi-classical consists of forms like thumri, dadra, qawwali, ghazal, bhajan, tappa, hori and so on. The classical music of Pakistan is also based on the Hindustani classical music which has patronized by various empires that historically ruled the south asian region. It’s semi classical forms include ghazal, qawwali etc. Religious music like hamd, naat and nasheeds as well as its folk music are extremely popular throughout the nation.
India and Pakistan are countries that are blessed with highly diverse forms of music as well as musical instruments. Coke Studio not only takes up traditional music genres but it also incorporates several local musical instruments in each of their sessions. Fusion of different musical forms, instruments, lyrics and styles is what defines the essence of the show. This show provides a stage to both the mainstream popular singers and also to the folk or ghazal singers with no power hierarchy. This has brought the ‘not so popular’, marginalized and even unconventional music forms in a studio setting and fused it with the much successful and popular music types. It provides visibility, success and exposure to the local artists that perform in it. A survey conducted on people of age 17-30 years found that a majority of them thought that Coke Studio not only promotes culture but also, believed that it has opened a platform for folk/regional music.
The Indian Navy grew rapidly After Independence . As of now It is undergoing modernization with new ships Being added to fleet.
Aircraft Carrier is a warship with a full length flight deck and facilities for carrying arming, deploying and recovering , acting as a seagoing airbase
Destroyer is a fast, heavily, armed, maneuverable yet long Endurance warship.It is designed to escort longer vessels in a fleet like an aircraft carrier, troop, supply ships forming part of a convoy or battle group.
Frigate is a warship smaller in size than a destroyer , It is armed with guided missiles and used as an escort for aircraft carrier.
Corvette is a fast, lightly armed warship which is smaller than a frigate and larger than a coastal patrol craft often armed for antisubmarine operation.
Mine countermeasure vessel: also known as Minesweeper is a small naval warship designed to counter the threat posed by naval mines
Landing ship is a naval vessel which is used to transport large number of vehicles, cargo and troops directly to the shore no part facilities .
Submarines: A submarine (or sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability.
Patrol Vessel for patrolling costal area, Auxilary ship, Research Vessel, Tranning ship.
Today India is one of the most powerful nations in the world. Our progress in education, science-technology, business, economy, the defense system is really noticeable. India is always a unique country but India also passed many tough situations, this achievement comes after so many hardships, struggles, and fights.before 1991 the political situation in India is unstable, after 1991 certain changes in the Indian economy, science-technology held to be very important In the history of India.
Indian Economy: we wanted to establish an Economy based on social justice through planning for a National planning commission was established that would coordinate development through the policy of the Five Year Plan. The government started Economic Reforms are called as Economic Liberalisation. The foreign Invest In India increased, the field of information technology opened several avenues of employment in the country . Liberalization, Privatizati, and Globalization, India under its New Economic Policy approached International Banks for development of the country. These agencies asked Indian Government to open its restrictions on trade done by the private sector and between India and other countries.
Science and Technology: The experiment in the co-operative dairy movement By Dr.Verghese Kurien led to increase in milk production in India. This is called asWhite Revolution. Dr.Homi J.bhaba laid the foundation of the Indian atomic Power Programme. India insisted on using atomic energy for peaceful purposes like generation of electricity, pharmaceuticals and defense.
Change In Social Field: changes related to the women empowerment movement and other related to the policies regarding the uplift of deprived sections of the society
The Indian army is the oldest among the three armed forces.It has very and ancient heritage of more than 2000 year from the Times of Chandragupta Maurya . The foundation of the present army was inherited from the British Indian Army . Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose lead the Indian National Army (INA) during the world war 2 to fight for India’s Independence from British Rule . Women also formed part of the INA. Captain Laxmi Swaminathan headed the women’s wing.
Role of Indian Army
Go to war to defeat an External Aggression
Strengthen the internal security Management to defeat Internal threats.
Project force wherever and whenever called upon to safeguard the nation’s interest.
To support the peace keeping operations or Military Assistance to friendly foreign countries
Render Humanitarian, Disaster relief and Aid to civil authorities
The Indian Army spread over six operational commands based on geography and the preceived security threats.
Areas of responsibility of geographical commands
Northern command: Northern command is head quater in Udhampur .It is responsible for operations in Jammu and Kashmir against china in the east and Pakistan In the west.
Western Command :Western Command in Chandigarh. It is responsible for operation in Punjab,and Himachal Pradesh against China in the east and Pakistan in the west.
South WesternCommand:South Western Command is headquarter in Jaipur .It is responsible for operations in North and central Rajasthan and Haryana.
Southern Command: headquater Pune, responsible for operation in south Rajasthan and Gujarat, Maharashtra, karnataka, Kerala, Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh
Central Command : headquater in Lucknow. It is responsible for operations in Uttarakhand, Uttar pradesh, Bihar, Orrisa, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh against China in the North as also security along the Indo-Nepal border with UP and Bihar
Eastern Command: headquarter in kolkata . It is responsible for operations in Sikkim, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram and also Against China and security Indo – Nepal, Mayanmar, Bangladesh Border
After the passing of the 1882 Madras Forest Act, its restrictions on the free movement of tribal people in the forest prevented them from engaging in their traditional podu agricultural system, It’s a curse for tribal of agency area
Podu is a traditional system of cultivation used by tribes in India, whereby different areas of jungle forest are cleared by burning each year to provide land for crops. The word comes from the Telugu language.Podu is a form of shifting cultivation using slash-and-burn methods. Traditionally used on the hill-slopes of Andhra Pradesh.
Alluri Sitarama Raju (1897 or 1898 – 7 May 1924) was an Indian revolutionary involved in the Indian independence movement. Raju led the Rampa Rebellion of 1922, during which a band of tribal people and other sympathizers fought in the border areas of the East Godavari and Visakhapatnam regions of Madras Presidency, in present-day Andhra Pradesh, against the British Raj, which had passed the law. He was referred to as “Manyam Veerudu” (“Hero of the Jungle”) by the local people. He spearheaded a two-year-long tribal uprising against the British Raj. He inspired, motivated people, to fight for theirrights, He often raided police Station to steal guns and ammunition and killed several British police officers.He lost his life in the battlefield, fighting for rights until his last breath.
The word Bollywood is a play on Hollywood, with the B coming from Bombay (now known as Mumbai), which is the center of the Indian film world.The word was coined in the 1970 As their popularity grow, movies created in the Mumbay’s reached the number of 200 annual movies, West continued to ignore cinema efforts of Indian filmmakers, but they acknowledged them when India managed to overtook America as the biggest producer of movies in the world.
In 1913 and the silent film “Raja Harishchandra”the first-ever Indian feature film and First full-length Bollywood silent movie.Its producer, Dadasaheb Phalke, was Indian cinema’s first mogul, and he oversaw the production of 23 films between 1913 and 1918 Dadasaheb Phalke is considered the father of Indian cinema.
Its great success paved the way for the countless movies that followed him and the expansion of the indian cinema industry to incredible heights. One of the largest successes of that time was “Alam Ara” from 1931, sound movie that became basis of the joyful modern Bollywood musical. First Indian Colour movie “Kisan Kanya” was created in 1937, but such movies found popularity only in late 1950s and early 1960s.
Gaining independence from the British Raj was tough and spanned from 1857 to 1947 – lasting a gruelling 900 years. However, the struggles in gaining India’s independence enthused the film industry. Some of the most critically acclaimed films in Indian cinema were created during this time and explored the difficult working-class life in India and the reality of urban life.
It was around 1947 that the industry went through significant changes. The historical and mythological stories of the past were now being replaced by social-reformist films, The 1950s saw filmmakers such as Bimal Roy and Satyajit Ray focusing on the lives of the lower classes, who until then were mostly ignored as subjects.
Golden Age of Indian cinema took place between 1940s and 1960s. During that time countless influential Bollywood movies were released, exploring new storytelling techniues, social themes (mostly struggles and wonders of urban life), epic productions such as Mother India (1957). This period also popularized many Indian actors (Dev Anand, Dilip Kumar, Raj Kapoor, Guru Dutt) and actresses such as (Nargis, Vyjayanthimala, Meena Kumari, Nutan, Madhubala, and others).
1950 – The decade of extreme close-up The black and white era of 1950s was marked by songs shot in static frames with all the action happening through the eyes and eyebrows of our lead actors. So from extreme close-ups of the face to some relevant cut-ins of the moon, the flowers and the rustling of leaves, Bollywood songs welcomed more elements of dynamics of romance. Leading from the 1960s to the early 1970s came the birth of Modern Bollywood Cinema. This included the domination of two distinct genres: boy-meets-girl romance films and gritty action productions.
1960 – The decade of pure dance and enchnating eyes Actors like Vyjayanthimala, Waheeda Rehman and Mala Sinha slowly brought dance in the 1960s. Songs like “Honton Mein Aisi Baat” and “Piya Tose Naina Laage Re” resonate not just the beauty of these divas but also the sanctity of songs of this era. Even in their guest appearances Helen, Bindu and Aruna Irani became the perfect face of RD Burman’s tracks in the 1970s. They either happened inside the villain’s den or were meant to add thrill to the climax. From “Piya Tu Ab To Aaja” to “Mera Naam Hai Shabnam” and “Chadti Jawani Meri Chaal Mastani”, the songs of this phase still hold a place in our party playlist.In the 1970’s the name “Bollywood” was officially coined as conventions of commercial Bollywood films truly became defined.
1980 – The decade of growing romance. Come 1980s and the royal reign of RD Burman continued Parveen Babi and Zeenat Aman lead the epic playlist of this era. “Pyar Mein Dil Pe Maar De Goli” had as much stuff happening in the song as in “Pyaar Karne Wale”. Music and songs in this period were intimately connected to the storyline. They were written and woven as per the requirements of the film and in the respective situations.While Lata Mangeshkar, Mohammad Rafi, Asha Bhonsle, Kishore Kumar and Hemant Kumar were the mainstay of the playback singing scene, big actors like Amitabh Bachchan, Shashi Kapoor and Rishi Kapoor gave them the apt face value. This perfect combination reciprocated well onscreen too. Bachchan’s songs were either playful or had intense action happening (not literal fighting but the thrill of the climax). Towards the second half of 1980s and early 1990s, we had films like Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak, Ram Lakhan, Saajan and Dil Hai Ke Manta Nahin – all musical blockbusters. On the other side of the camera, it introduced us with the voices of Udit Narayan, Alka Yagnik and Kumar Sanu, on the front these songs majorly had a dreamy set-up, making anyone fall in love. There was romance, longing, betrayal and confessions and every aspect was shot with a proper screenplay of its own. Each song, be it “Pehla Nasha”, “Ae Mere Humsafar”, “Dil Hai Ke Manta Nahin” or “Bahut Pyar Karte Hain”, made us believe in love.
1990 – The decade of Celebration. The 80s and 90s brought back spotlight romantic musicals and family-centric films, and in 1995, Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge was released. Becoming the highest grossing Bollywood film of the year and one of the most successful Indian films its soundtrack became one of the most popular of the 1990s. Even today, the film has been showing at a Mumbai cinema, Maratha Mandir, since its original release in 1995. A portion of the 1990s also introduced us to the three khans, madhuri dixit and others.
2000 – The decade of quick moves Bollywood finally managed to reach outside of India and land in the West. Many of their lavish productions received significant box office success all around the world, especially after the critical success of “Lagaan: Once Upon a Time in India” in 2001.
Fourteen days into the new millennium, Kaho Naa Pyaar Hai launched Hrithik Roshan overnight superstardom. Dil Chahta Hai (2001) was differentThe songs by Shankar Ehsaan Loy. One of its lines, appropriately, announced – Hum Hai Naye Andaz Kyun Ho Purana. penned by Javed Akhtar give Dil Chahta Hai a socio-cultural perspective. A lot was going on in the 2000s. Single screens started to make way for multiplexes. The Hindi film industry, leaving the days of dubious underworld fundings behind, was being corporatised.Stars reinvented themselves. Amitabh Bachchan started acting his age. Aamir Khan – enabler, collaborator, producer and not just actor – promised quality mainstream entertainment, and delivered on most counts Rang De Basanti,Taare Zameen Par,3 Idiots,Hera Pheri (2000) helped find Akshay Kumar, an action star in the 90s, his sublime comic side. Shah Rukh did some of his most loved films – Kal Ho Na Ho (2003), Swades (2004) and Chak De India (2007); Main Hoon Na and Om Shanti Om. Lage Raho Munnabhai – which established Raju Hirani as a major director . New faces like Hrithik Roshan and Aishwarya Rai added to the star value. Both being brilliant dancers with beautiful personalities shone onscreen. Aamir’s antics in tracks like “Aati Kya Khandala”, made each of their song a national favourite. And amid Kabhie Khushi Kabhi Gham to fix any loose ends. This phase saw the canvas of songs grow to exorbitant levels. Bollywood has inspired films overseas including Danny Boyle’s Slumdog Millionaire which won four Golden Globes and eight Academy Awards, and Moulin Rouge which director Baz Luhrmann says was influenced by Bollywood Musicals
2010 – The decade of New era As 2000s entered its second decade, the “item songs” were back and with more action. 2010 alone gave us two of the biggest recent tracks – “Munni Badnaam” and “Sheila Ki Jawani”.
This was the Ranbir Kapoor-Deepika Padukone-Anushka Sharma-Ranveer singh phase giving movies – Yeh Jawaani hai Deewani, Bajirao Mastani,Ramleela, Sui Dhaaga Their songs emphasised their beauty as the camera moved in and out of their face to their chiselled appearance.
In years to come, Abhishek Chaubey’s revisionist dacoit film, Sonchiriya, and two fine festival titles from 2018: historicals (Manikarnika, Panipat), war films (Uri: The Surgical Strike), action blockbusters (War),patriotic (Kesari) Also blockbuster Khan’s gave ,Bajrangi Bhaijaan,sultan , My name is khan,Raees, Dangal and PK, and he made a killing overseas and Secret Superstar. Shahid kapoor –Jab We Met,Kabir Singh ,Ayushmann khurrana – Dum laga ke haisha, Dream girl, bareilly ki barfi, Sushant Singh Rajput – Kai Po Che, Chhichhore, M. S.Dhoni, Rajkummar Rao – Stree and Pankaj Tripathi. This new Middle Cinema dovetailed with arthouse film Masaan. This decade, several actors joined Manoj Bajpayee and Irrfan Khan- Hindi Medium in the fertile middle ground between superstardom and niche acclaim. Nawazuddin Siddiqui broke through in 2012 with Kahaani and Gangs Of Wasseypur. A number of Indian films from different regions are often included among the greatest films of all times in various critics and directors polls.Indian Cinema will be eternal as decades move on….