Tag Archives: international relations

COLD WAR: Meaning and Its Origin

The concept of the Cold War, born in 1945 after the end of the Second World War, is a fact of international relations that exposes the mutual relations between the US and the Soviet Union. This is a new chapter in post-World War II international relations. It can also be named a new international political development.

The new chapter of friendship between the US and the Soviet Union began during the Second World War, which ended after the war, the mutual differences and feeling of disharmony between the two superpowers grew deeper and the two tried to humiliate each other. Started doing This effort led to a conflict situation rather than cooperation in the diplomatic, cultural, political and social fields in both countries. On the international stage, the two powers went on to accuse each other. In an attempt to prove their supremacy in the international world, both the superpowers started looking for new ways to bring most of the states of the world to their side. This created an atmosphere of unrest all over the world and eventually, the world was divided into two powerful factions – the capitalist bloc and the communist bloc, in which the first led the US and the second led the Soviet Union.

Meaning of cold war

As is clear from its name, it is not a war of arms and weapons but a war confined to threats. There was no real war in this war. It was limited to indirect war only. In this war, both the great powers were dominant in their ideological differences. It was a type of diplomatic war that was based on the efforts of the superpowers in narrow selfishness.

The Cold War was a type of speech war that was used in paper rounds, paper-magazines. Even radio and publicity tools were fought. In this war neither any bullet was fired nor anyone was injured. In this, both the superpowers fought indirect wars in most parts of the world to maintain their suzerainty. All measures to prevent the war from turning into an armistice were also used, it was only a war by diplomatic means in which the two superpowers continued to resort to all measures to degrade each other. The purpose of this war was to strengthen its position by involving the Allies in their respective factions so that in future each could easily cut off the moves of their opposing factions. This war was the final culmination of the mistrust and doubt that arose between the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II.

Jawaharlal Nehru defined the Cold War as saying that “this war was a war of suspended capital punishment atmosphere that was more terrible than a heated war.”

Thus it can be said that the Cold War was a speech war between two superpowers based on diplomatic measures. It was a direct expression of the tension created between the two superpowers after World War II. This was more terrible than the actual war, being an ideological war.

Origin of the Cold War

The symptoms of the Cold War started appearing during World War II itself. Both the superpowers were fighting the war keeping in mind their narrow interests and showing the spirit of mutual cooperation. The spirit of cooperation that was visible during the war was beginning to end after the war and the symptoms of the Cold War had begun to emerge, with the two factions becoming stronger complaining of each other. There were some strong grounds for these complaints. These mutual differences were the main causes of the Cold War.

The main reasons for the origin of the Cold War are-

  1. The Soviet Union not following the Yalta Agreement.
  2. The Soviet Union and America’s ideological differences.
  3. Soviet Union’s emergence as a powerful nation.
  4. Soviet Intervention in Iran.
  5. Soviet intervention in Turkey.
  6. Communist spread in Greece.
  7. Second Front Dispute.
  8. Appeasement policy.
  9. The Soviet Union ignores Balkan Agreement.
  10.  America’s nuclear program.
  11. Conflicting publicity.
  12. Termination of land-lease agreement.
  13. American support to fascist forces.
  14. Berlin controversy.
  15. Repeated use of veto power by the Soviet Union.
  16. Narrow national interest based on narrow nationalism.

India-Nepal Relation in Deep Maelstrom

Current Scenario 

The Lower House of Nepal’s Parliament passes amendment on a new map. Nepal’s Parliament on Saturday unanimously voted for the second Constitutional Amendment Bill, which guarantees legal status for new political map of the country that includes part of Indian territory in Uttarakhand. Their new map shows places such as Limipiyadhura, Kalapani and Lipulekh, including strategically important Lipulekh pass, which are in Uttarakhand’s Pithoragarh district as part of that country’s territory.

Historical Relation: Treaty of Sugauli

It is a treaty that established the relation about the boundary line of Nepal, was signed on 2 December 1815 and ratified by 4 March 1816 between the East India Company and Raj Guru Gajaraj Mishra with Chandra Shekhar Upadhaya for Nepal following the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814-16. The treaty represented a Nepali surrender to the British and contained the concession of Nepal’s western territory to the British East India Company. The result of this treaty was that Nepal lost almost one-third of its territories on the east, south and west.

Why are Nepalese not accepting this treaty ?

Nepal is not accepting this treaty because they thought that aim of any treaty is to provide both the sides more or less equal o equitable benefits even of one side get a little more benefits and the other a little less. But Nepal suffered only losses because of the treaty while British India gained a huge territorial advantage. The British got the facilities of the corridor in the concession was made for Nepal.

They also claim that this treaty was not signed by both parties. The draft was prepared by the only East India Company with the signature of Lieutenant Colonel Paris Bradshaw on December 2, 1815. Nepali Majesty signed over the treaty because he threatened by the East India Company.

At present Nepal renounced “all claims to or connection (as in original text with the countries lying to the west of river Kali.” (Art. V.) The land east of the Kali thus remained with Nepal. This claim is reinforced by some old revenue records and gazette notifications.

India’s Stand Over this Issue 

India accepts this position, but its claims arise from the ambiguity in the treaty on the identification of the Kali river and its origin. According to India, the river originates from Lipu Lekh and then merges into other streams and tributaries to become the Mahakali. Nepal contends that Kali originates from Limpyadhura and the stream originating from Lipu Lekh is called Lipu Khola. India commented that we can solve this issue by bilateral talks but Nepal does not seem taking interest in this matter. There may be some doubt, opacity or obscurity but it can be solved through the bilateral discussion. Nepal should come over the table and discuss this issue. 

The British Government

British government ruled over India for almost 200 years. They took many decisions but all the decisions are in controversy in today’s scenario. Either we talk about the decision over Indo-Pak border or Indo-Nepal border. Everywhere, we will get unsatisfied decision or disputed matter where the British government was involved. The main aim of the British government was to rule over the countries for a long time. And they follow the “divide and rule” principle. First Pakistan raised concern over the Kashmir and now Nepal is behaving in the same way. 

Epilogue

The maps issued by the British between 1816 and 1860 may favour the Nepali position. But, the maps issued afterwards endorse India’s position. It is possible that the British administration changes this position through proper surveys or subsequently decided to manipulate this position, to serve its larger strategic and commercial interests in using the Lipu Lekh pass for access to Tibet. Independent India was handed over access to Kalapani and Lipu Lekh by the British.

Blaming India for any encroachment is baseless. It must be borne in mind that much before the British came, not the Gurkha kings annexed Kumanon and Garhwal regions-then surrender under the Sugauli Treaty-Indians were using this route for the pilgrimage to Kailash Mansarovar. The route has deep spiritual and civilisational significance for India. China accepted Lipu Lekh as one of the cultural and commercial transit points with India under its 1954 Peaceful Co-Existence Agreement. This was reiterated in 2015 in a joint statement during the Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s visit to China.