Category Archives: Business and Management

Skill India : The need for demographic dividend advantage.

“The future belongs to those who learn more skills and combine them in creative ways.”

— Robert Greene

Success of any venture in the modern world is dependent on capital and infrastructure, rules and regulations, and most significantly on technological know-how or Skills. India has been a developing nation for a long time now because it has always faced issues in imparting skills to its labour force. 

India is the second most populous country in the world after China but why does it still lag behind some of the major nations in terms of economy? The work force in India is humongous and it even has the advantage of Demographic dividend to their main competitor China. India’s median age  is 28 in 2020 against the 37 in China and the US, 45 in Europe and 49 in Japan. India has 62.5% of its population between the ages 19 to 55. Still according to the UNDP Human development report – 2020 only 21.1 % of the workforce is skilled in the period of 2010-2019. 

So where is the impediment to growth of the nation’s economy? We can safely say that the approach to impart professional skills has some hindrances that need to be mend. India has taken many steps in the skill sector in the last few years. But the result is still dismal due to lack of wholesome approach towards the skill india. 

Obstacles 

This year’s budget has allocated 3000 crore to the national apprenticeship training scheme but has restricted it to only engineering and not to other streams which needs to be addressed. 

The authorities are overburdened with the responsibility to impart skills to the public beyond their capacities.

The policies have been discontinued and irregular thus making it far from possible to skill India at the required rate. 

According to a 2019 study by NSDC almost 70 million people in the working age 15-59 years are estimated to enter the labour force by the end of 2022. The current policies are not sufficient to skill these sheer numbers. 

Way Ahead

People in India have always focused on academic results and always been dependent on theoretical knowledge instead of practical skills. But a change in this approach has come in the form of the new education policy 2020 that has emphasised on skills and practical knowledge with theoretical knowledge. Matching the skills requirement in the industry that are dynamic in modern world with the training programs are also needed so that the skills acquired by the youth are not obsolete in near future. Spending on education and training needs to be hiked. 

It has been estblished that the skilling the youth has given fruitful results for a nation. Japan was such first nation to recognize it and made the most of it. Today Japan is a colossal name in terms of economy in the world. India can also make the most of it. The dream of Atmanirbhar Bharat can be secured by taking the advantage of the demographic dividend which in turn can be truly utilised by skilling India. 

~ By: Deepak Rajora

journal for studies in Management and planning

Journal for Studies in Management and Planning (JSMaP) peer-reviewed and published monthly, is committed to publishing scholarly empirical and theoretical research articles that have a high impact on the management field as a whole. JSMaP covers domains such as business strategy and policy, entrepreneurship, human resource management, organizational behaviour, organizational theory, and research methods. This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

The Journal of MJournal for Studies in Management and Planning (JSMaP) is committed to publishing scholarly empirical and theoretical research articles, that have a high impact on the management field as a whole. The journal encourages new ideas or new perspectives on existing research. The journal covers such areas as: 

  • Business strategy & policy
  • Organizational behavior
  • Human resource management 
  • Organizational theory
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Research Methods

Review Issues are published on monthly basis. These issues include widely read and widely cited collections of articles in the field of management and have become a major resource for management scholars. The Review Issues cover a broad range of topics from a wide range of academic disciplines, methodologies, and theoretical paradigms.

The mission of JSMaP is to publish empirical research that tests, extends, or builds management theory and contributes to management practice. All empirical methods including, but not limited to, qualitative, quantitative, field, laboratory, meta-analytic, and mixed methods are welcome. To be published in JSMaP, the research must make strong empirical and theoretical contributions and the manuscript should highlight the relevance of those contributions to management practice. Authors should strive to produce original, insightful, interesting, important, and theoretically bold research that demonstrates a significant “value-added” contribution to the field’s understanding of an issue or topic. 

The European ManJournal for Studies in Management and Planning (JSMaP) ) is a flagship scholarly journal, publishing internationally leading research across all areas of management. JSMaP articles challenge the status quo through critically informed empirical and theoretical investigations, and present the latest thinking and innovative research on major management topics, while still being accessible and interesting to non-specialists.

JSMaP articles are characterized by their intellectual curiosity and diverse methodological approaches, which lead to contributions that impact profoundly on management theory and practice. We welcome interdisciplinary research that synthesizes distinct research traditions to shed new light on contemporary challenges in the broad domain of European business and management. Cross-cultural investigations addressing the challenges for European management scholarship and practice in dealing with global issues and contexts are strongly encouraged.

Send papers for publication to editor@ijrmpad.org

Link to Journal is https://ijrmpad.org/index.php/jsmap

5 Productive Brainstorming Techniques for Collaboration

The unrivaled process for exploring ideas and developing new strategies is only made possible through brainstorming. Knowing how to reach your creative energy’s potential is a lot more extensive than the conventional idea of sitting in front of a whiteboard with an expo marker in hand while scratching off ideas. There are tons of revitalized and new brainstorming methods to meet your needs for whatever project or idea you have in mind. Listed below are some of the most effective strategies when it comes to finding new ideas. Through these, it can help change your perspective and help you or a group come to a solid conclusion. It is important to note that these ideas are not linear and can be adapted to fit every individual. 

            Brainwriting

            This is a nonverbal method of brainstorming where everyone sits down and writes their first three ideas that come to mind. This process will take around seven minutes or so, because it is suggested that everyone really digs deep. After the group has finished, they will then pass their list to the person on their right. Each person will then build off the ideas on their group mates’ card, adding bullet points or new strategies. Once about three or so minutes, the group passing along their cards once again. This process will continue until everyone’s list has made it around the table. Afterwards the members in the group discuss and decide which ideas were the most solid. The brainwriting method technique prevents some of the biggest pitfalls in the brainstorming process. Brainwriting ensures that all members of the group have been heard and understood, eliminating any bias towards the beginning ideas. 

            Brain Netting 

            For this group technique, all you will be required to do is write down your ideas with your peers. This open discussion usually has a Google doc where everyone can put ideas in as it comes whenever the creativity hits. By doing this, it gives all parties involved the freedom to come and go depending on their schedules. Once everyone has contributed, it is highly important to follow up so that a particular idea can be decided upon. After jotting down some thoughts, you can host a real-time meeting with everyone involved. If your team happens to be spread apart, you can unite everyone over a video chatting service. This idea puts everyone in the same ball field by participating as they please. The online brainstorming and outlining tool Braincat provides an excellent method to use the brain netting, by offering a wide variety of thought provoking questions. 

            Rapid Ideation

            In this technique, everyone takes a few minutes to write down as many ideas as possible before the time is up. This is incredibly helpful for the groups that tend to shoot each other’s ideas down before they have time to develop, evolve, and transform into something fruitful. Everyone will have the space to truly capture the essence of their ideas before they are critiqued. Rapid ideation avoids premature deconstruction of potentially great ideas. If a time constraint is imposed it prevents individuals from talking themselves down before ever sharing their idea, which is a common brainstorming mistake. 

            Figure Storming

            With figure storming, the group will select a prominent figure who is not currently in the working space. It could be the company CEO, a superhero, or a well-known person among your peers. After selecting the figure, the group will try and put themselves in their shoes by discussing the problem or idea form their point of view. By seeing things from this person’s perspective, it can offer a new way to approach the problem or project at hand. This method can be embarrassing for some teammates because they would be attaching their idea to someone other than themselves.  Make sure to be open and honest during this discussion so everyone is unaffected from the shame of dissociation their idea. This method also dissolves barriers that limit the creative thinking process like time or budget. 

            Star Charting 

            This is a brainstorming technique that comes in the later stages of the process. Once the group has already decided on the idea, they will elaborate and then potentially decide on how it is executed. After the decision is made, the team will put the idea at the center of a whiteboard (chalkboard, posterboard etc.) and then make a six-point star around it. Each point on the star represents the key questions: who, what, when, where, why, and how. Other questions which may be of fruitful discussion; What is our target audience? When will it be a good time or timeframefor this project? What is motivating us? Proposing an ideain this way allows the person who created it to be freed from defending their point of view or trying to figure it out on their own. 

            Once you have finally decided on the technique, it is time to get to work. Some say the most important part of brainstorming is quantity over quality. The best way to guide your team to new approaches is by being as encouraging as possible, which can often lead to powerful insights. 

Rafael aircraft coming to India from France

The Dassault Rafale is a French twin-engine, canard delta wing, multirole fighter aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation. Equipped with a wide range of weapons, the Rafale is intended to perform air supremacy, interdiction, aerial reconnaissance, ground support, in-depth strike, anti-ship strike, and nuclear deterrence missions. Many of the aircraft’s avionics and features, such as direct voice input, the RBE2 AA active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, were domestically developed and produced for the Rafale program. Originally scheduled to enter service in 1996, the Rafale suffered significant delays due to post-Cold War budget cuts and changes in priorities. The aircraft is available in three main variants: Rafale C single-seat land-based version, Rafale B twin-seat land-based version, and Rafale M single-seat carrier-based version.

The Rafale is being produced for both the French Air Force and for carrier-based operations in the French Navy. The Rafale has been marketed for export to several countries and was selected for purchase by the Indian Air Force, the Egyptian Air Force, and the Qatar Air Force.  Due to its great capabilities, the first batch of 5 raflaes arrives in India in two days.

On the one hand, when there are neighbors like China and on the other hand, when there are neighboring countries like Pakistan, India needs to work on both its army and the Indian Air Force. In such a situation, 5 Rafale aircraft was given to the Indian Army yesterday. These Rafale aircraft flew from France yesterday and reached the UAE airbase Al Dhafra today. Here their maintenance and refueling work will be done. After this, these fighter aircraft will fly and arrive at Ambala Air Force Base tomorrow. With this aircraft joining the Indian Air Force, the morale of the Indian Army will be greatly elevated. However, the condition of the Airforce is not good right now because there is a shortage of squadron. This thing has been told in many reports. But with Rafael joining the Indian Army, it can play a decisive role in winning a war.

“You can call them (Rafale) both beauty and the beast,” said Indian Ambassador to France Jawed Ashraf after interacting with the IAF pilots at the airbase before they set off for India. “Delivery of 10 aircraft has been completed on schedule. Five will stay back in France for a training mission. The delivery of all 36 aircraft will be completed on schedule by the end of 2021,” the Indian embassy in Paris said in a statement. India and France signed a Euro 7.87-billion ( ₹59,000 crores approximately) deal on September 23, 2016, for 36 Rafale jets. The IAF official said the air-to-air refueling of the aircraft will be undertaken with dedicated tanker support from the French Air Force. “Our air force pilots tell us that these are extremely swift, nimble, versatile, and very deadly aircraft,” said Ashraf while congratulating the IAF pilots on becoming the first ones to fly one of the world’s most advanced fighter aircraft. The envoy thanked Dassault Aviation, the manufacturer of the aircraft, for delivering the fleet on time, the French government and the French Air Force for extending all required support.

✨Benefits of SEO ✨

  1. SEO Leads to Better User Experience
    There are many ways you can improve your website and maximize user experience. This includes providing your audience with relevant information, related photos or videos to support text, easy to navigate web pages or a mobile-friendly website configuration.

SEO Leads to Better User Experience

All of this leads to a better user experience. This results in more clicks, more leads, better brand recall and higher conversion rates. This is what search engine sites are looking for, thus improving your search ranking.

  1. SEO Is a Primary Source of Leads
    Inbound strategies are the most effective and successful source of leads among Business to Business (B2B), Business to Customer (B2C) and non-profit organizations. Inbound includes search engine optimization, social media, content marketing, referrals and others.

If you are not getting leads from your SEO tactics, then you must revisit your activities. Another player in the market might be getting your share of the pie.

Primary Lead Source By Company Type Infographic

  1. SEO Brings Higher Close Rates
    Statistics showed that an average of 14.6% close rate is achieved from SEO leads, compared to 1.7% close leads from outbound leads. Reaching out to customers (outbound or cold leads) often results in lower conversion rates.

Whereas SEO leads, where a customer makes the actual research of your product or service, results in higher conversion. These individuals making their research online already have a specific requirement and purpose in mind.

  1. SEO Results to Higher Conversion Rate
    The good ranking of your site on any search engine websites can guarantee you high conversion rates. Your target market will become more aware of you as long as you maintain your top position.

As customers are becoming more familiar with your brand and as their knowledge about products/services increase, there is a great possibility for customers to close the deal with you.

  1. SEO Promotes Better Cost Management
    The Search Engine Journal reported that inbound leads can actually lower the cost of lead generation by 61% versus outbound leads.

SEO lowers advertising costs. When you already have a top ranking, there is no need for you to pay per click or advertise your page. You will continue to stay above the rest of the search results as long as Internet users click your search links.

To add to that, activities pertaining to inbound lead generation include search engine optimization, social media management, blogging, referrals, etc. All of these have little or no cost at all.

Outbound lead generation activities include making cold colds, visiting clients, or direct selling. Better cost management is just a few of the benefits of SEO to your business.

Using a right rank tracking tool like Linkio could help you improve your rankings and organic traffic pointing to your website. This is what search engine sites are looking for, thus improving your search ranking.

  1. SEO Encourages Local Users to Visit the Physical Store After the Search
    After conducting a local research, there is a high tendency for customers to visit the local store or shop. For example, an internet user keys in “Best Seafood Restaurant in Singapore”. This will then show a variety of options. The internet user will then visit his or her top choice and becomes a customer of that restaurant.

A particular study backs this up, stating that 81% of shoppers conduct their research online before going to the store and making the local purchase.

  1. SEO Builds Brand Credibility
    Ranking first, second or third may give your customers the idea that you are one of the top players in the industry. It shows that you are popular and many users have researched you, too.

On the other hand, customers may think that you are not yet well-known or even a new player in the industry if you are at the bottom of the search engine results. This may also lead some customers to think that you have no budget to boost your website for better search results.

  1. SEO Helps Establish Brand Awareness
    Brand Awareness is the extent to which the target market recognizes a brand. This refers to how familiar your customers are with your product or service. According to Investopedia,

“Creating brand awareness is one of the key steps in promoting a product.”

Search Engine Optimization ensures that your product is easily found by search engine sites through regular and organic search. Once you remain at the top of the ranking, Internet users will be able to see you more.

This leads to a higher tendency for your link to be clicked, which leads the users to your website. One of the benefits of SEO for your business is establishing your brand’s awareness even further.

  1. SEO Ensures Mobile-Friendliness of Your Website
    SEO improves user experience because Google Search has included another parameter as a ranking signal and this refers to the friendliness of websites to mobile devices.

Man browsing on mobile phone

Back in April 2015, Google Search stated that mobile-friendliness has a significant impact on websites’ rankings on Google Search. This change will result in better user experience and easier navigation of websites.

If you want to make your website mobile-friendly, Google will help you in getting it started.

  1. SEO Can Be a Long-Term Marketing Strategy
    Just as how long it took you to reach those top ranks, pulling you down the list also takes time. SEO is a long-term marketing strategy. Six (6) months is the minimum duration for a website to maintain optimal ranking.

Unless Google algorithm is changed or other competitors have fueled their SEO strategies, it is not easy to pull you down the search rankings

LEADERSHIP IN MANAGEMENT


As you know, management involves getting work done through the people and by virtue of their positions, managers can issue orders and instructions to their subordinates to get the work done, but it is also necessary to ensure that subordinates put in their maximum effort in performing their tasks and hence managers have to regulate and influence the subordinates behaviour and conduct at work and it is through the leadership role of managers that employees may be induced to perform their duties properly and maintain harmony in group activities. A manager, having formal authority, can direct and guide his subordinates and command their obedience by virtue of his positional power but as a leader, a manager can influence work behaviour by means of his leadership ability to get the cooperation of all members of the group. Leadership may be defined as a process of influencing group activities towards the achievement of certain goals. Thus, the leader is a person in a group who is capable of influencing the group to work willingly and he guides and directs other people and provides purpose and direction to their efforts and according to eminent writers Hodge and Johnson Leadership is “ Leadership is the ability to shape the attitude and behaviour of others whether in formal or informal situations” and According to Livingston Leadership is “ Leadership is the ability to awaken in others the desires to follow a common objective”.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERSHIP

Managerial leadership mainly possess the following characteristics:

  1. Leadership is needed in all walks of life, such as economical, social, political and industrial spheres.
  2. It is the duty of the leader to maintain proper discipline among his subordinates.
  3. It is a continuous process whereby the manager influences, guides and directs the behaviour of subordinates.
  4. A true leader is responsible for including encouragement and confidence among employees of any organization.
  5. The success of a manager as a leader depends on the acceptance of his leadership by the subordinates.
  6. The manager-leader is able to influence his subordinate’s behaviour at work due to the quality of his own behaviour as a leader.
  7. The leader leads his group with authority and confidence.
  8. The leader establishes the relationship between an individual and a group around some common interest.
  9.  A true creates a bond of friendship between organization and subordinates.
  10. Leadership helps others in choosing and attaining specified goals to the maximum satisfaction of both the leader and the follower.
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SOME IMPORTANT QUALITIES OF LEADERSHIP

1. Knowledge and intelligence

 A leader, to be effective, must have knowledge of group behaviour, human nature and activities involving technical and professional competence. He must have an intelligent perception of human psychology and the ability to think clearly and argue cogently on points of dispute.

2. Integrity and Honesty

A leader should possess a high level of integrity and honesty and he should be a role model regarding ethics and values.

3. Motivation Skills

A leader should be an effective motivator and he should understand the needs of the people and motivate them through satisfying their needs.

4. Self-confidence

Confidence about one’s leadership ability makes it possible for a leader to analyse and face different situations and adopt a suitable style and Lack of self-confidence often prevents managers to adopt a participative style and repose trust in their subordinates.

MASLOW’S NEED FOR HIERARCHY THEORY


Abraham Maslow
an eminent US psychologist, offered a theory of motivation called the ‘Need Hierarchy theory’ and he felt that wide range of needs which motivate them to strive for their fulfilment and human can be categorised into five types as- Physiology needs, security needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualisation needs.

HIERARCHY OF NEEDS

Motivation is concerned with the behaviour of a person or group of persons and nay behaviour is need-based, what is this need? A need is  a feeling that something is required and this feeling creates mental tensions and this tension in mind is transformed into want and to satisfy this want the person who feels the need (he or she who is  deprived of something), acts in one or another way to satisfy this want and satisfaction of a particular want releases the tension and then the behaviour to satisfy that want ceases, but in the meantime, some other need may be felt and thus need causing tension, tension causing the behaviour, satisfying the felt-need is a continuous process and needs are of different kinds and these have varying influences on motivation, for example:

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Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, a scalable vector illustration on white background

1. Basic Physiological Needs:

  Basic needs such as food, water, clothing, shelter, sleep and sexual satisfaction are included in this set of needs and these are the primary needs for sustaining human life itself and according to Maslow until these needs are satisfied to the extent necessary to sustain life these needs remain the motivating force.

2. Security or safety Needs:

Security is means “the feeling which involves being able to hold on to that one has. Being sure that one will be able to fare as well in future as in the past”. Thus these needs include being free from physical danger and the fear of losing a job, proper food, clothing or shelter.

3. Affiliation or Belonging Needs:

These include the need for love i.e. the need for affection and desire for association with others and the need for affiliation or acceptance becomes more prominent and becomes a motivating force.

4.Esteem Needs:

These needs include the desire to enjoy social approval, self-assertion and self-esteem and such a knowledge (Gratification of need for esteem) contributes to a feeling of self-confidence, worth or capability and it generates satisfaction such as power, prestige and status and status is the relative ranking that a person holds in a group or organization.

5. Self-Actualization Needs:

This refers to the desire for self-fulfilment and achievement and it is the desire to become what one believes to be capable of becoming and he wants to maximise his potential and to accomplish something and this need is regarded by Maslow as the highest in his hierarchy of needs.

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ASSUMPTIONS OF MASOW’S THEORY

Maslow’s theory is based on the following assumptions:

  1. People’s behaviour is based on their needs. The satisfaction of such needs influences their behaviour.
  2. People’s needs are in hierarchical order, starting from basic needs to other higher-level needs;
  3. A person moves to the next higher level of the hierarchy only when the lower needs is satisfied; and
  4. A satisfied need can no longer motivate a person; only next higher need can motivate him.

MOTIVATION IN MANAGEMENT


The term motivation is derived from the word motive and motives are expressions of a person’s needs and hence they are personal and internal and in this context, the term need should not be associated with urgency or nay pressing desire for something and it simply means something within an individual that prompts him to action and motives or needs are ‘whys’ of behaviour and they start and maintain activity and determine the general direction of the person and motives give direction to human behaviour because they are directed towards certain goals which may be conscious or sub-conscious. Motives are directed towards the achievement of certain goals which in turn determine the behaviour of individuals and this behaviour ultimately leads to goal-directed activities such as preparing food and a goal activity such as eating food and in other words, unsatisfying needs result in tension with an individual and engage him in search of the way to relieve this tension.

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INTERRELATED TERMS

While discussing motivation, we need to understand three interrelated terms- Motive, Motivation, and Motivators.

1. Motive- A motive is an inner state or desire which energies an individual to move o to behave towards the achievement of goal and motive arises out of needs of an individual and it causes restlessness as he wants to fulfil his motive.

2. Motivation- It is a process of inducing people to perform to their best ability to accomplish a goal and it is a psychological phenomenon which arises from the feeling of needs and wants of individuals and it causes a goal-directed behaviour.

3. Motivators- Motivators are the incentives or techniques used to motivate the people in an organization and common motivators used by the mangers are increment, bonus, promotion, recognition, respect etc. 

 Motivations may be defined as the complex of forces inspiring a person at work to intensify his willingness to use his maximum capability for the achievement of certain objectives. According to Koontz and O’Donnell “ Motivation is a general term applying to the entire class of drivers, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces and to say that managers motivate their subordinates is to say that they do those things which they hope will satisfy drives and desires and induce the subordinates to act in the desired manner”

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FEATURES OF MOTIVATION

1. Motivation is an internal Feeling/ instinct

Motivation is a psychological phenomenon which generates from within an individual and needs are the feelings arising in the mind of a person that he lacks certain things and such feelings affect the behaviour of that individual and causes him to do work and hence, motivation is the process of making an individual feel his needs.

2. Motivation produces goal-directed behaviour

Motivation is a power which leads the employees to the achievement of their goal and the behaviour of the motivated employees clearly shows that they are inclined towards the achievement of their goal.

3. Motivation can either be positive or negative

Positive motivation provides positive rewards like an increase in pay. Promotion, recognition etc. Negative motivation uses negative means like punishment, stopping increments, threatening etc., which also may induce a person to act in the desired way. 

CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT

OBJECT OF THE ACT According to the preamble, the Act is to provide for better protection of the interests of consumers and for that purpose to make provision to make provision for the establishment of consumer councils and other authorities for the settlement of consumer’s disputes and for connected therewith.

BASIC RIGHTS OF CONSUMERS [SECTION 6] The basic rights of consumers that are sought to be promoted and protected are;

a) The right to be protected against marketing of goods and services which are hazardous to life and property:

b) The right to be informed about the quality, quantity, purity, standard and price of goods, or services so as to protect the consumer against unfair trade practices;

c) The right to be assured, wherever possible, access to variety of goods and services at competitive prices;

d) The right to be heard and to be assured that consumers’ interest will receive due consideration at appropriate forums;

e) The right to seek redressal against unfair trade practices or restrictive trade practices or unscrupulous exploitation of consumers; and

f) The right to consumer education.

Complainant means

(a) a consumer

(b) any voluntary consumer association registered under any law;

(c) the Central or any State Government

(d) one or more consumers, where there are numerous consumers having the same interest; or

(e) in case of death of a consumer, his legal heir or representative, Who or which makes a complaint.
An association of persons to have locus standi as consumer, it is necessary that all the individuals forming the association must be the consumer having purchased the same goods or hired the same services from the party.
In case the affected consumer is unable to file the complaint due to ignorance, illiteracy or poverty, any recognized consumer association may file the complaint as per the above clause (b). Thus, rule of ‘privity of contract’ or ‘locus standi’ , which permits only the aggrieved party to take action, has very rightly been set aside in the spirit of public interest.


Complaint [Sec.2(1)(c)]
Complaint means any allegation in writing made by a complaint that – (i) an unfair trade practice or a restrictive trade practice has been adopted by any trader; (ii) the goods bought by him or agreed to be bought by him be suffer from one more defects; (iii) the services hired or availed of or agreed to be hired or availed of by him suffer from deficiency in any respect; (iv) the trader has charged a price in excess of the price;

(a) fixed under any law; (b) displayed on the goods or any package containing such goods; (c) displayed on the price list exhibited by him; or (d) agreed between the parties. (v) goods which will be hazardous to life and property when used are being offered for sale to the public; (vi) services which will be hazardous to life and safety of the public when used, are being offered by the service provider. With a view to obtain any relief provided by law under this Act.


The Changes After 1991 In India

Today India is one of the most powerful nations in the world. Our progress in education, science-technology, business, economy, the defense system is really noticeable. India is always a unique country but India also passed many tough situations, this achievement comes after so many hardships, struggles, and fights.before 1991 the political situation in India is unstable, after 1991 certain changes in the Indian economy, science-technology held to be very important In the history of India.

Indian Economy: we wanted to establish an Economy based on social justice through planning for a National planning commission was established that would coordinate development through the policy of the Five Year Plan. The government started Economic Reforms are called as Economic Liberalisation. The foreign Invest In India increased, the field of information technology opened several avenues of employment in the country . Liberalization, Privatizati, and Globalization, India under its New Economic Policy approached International Banks for development of the country. These agencies asked Indian Government to open its restrictions on trade done by the private sector and between India and other countries.

Science and Technology: The experiment in the co-operative dairy movement By Dr.Verghese Kurien led to increase in milk production in India. This is called as White Revolution. Dr.Homi J.bhaba laid the foundation of the Indian atomic Power Programme. India insisted on using atomic energy for peaceful purposes like generation of electricity, pharmaceuticals and defense.

Change In Social Field: changes related to the women empowerment movement and other related to the policies regarding the uplift of deprived sections of the society