Wheat is a grass widely cultivation for its seed, a cereal gram which is a worldwide staple food.The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum.Global demand for wheat is increasing due to the unique viscoelastic and adhesive properties of gluten proteins, which facilitate the production of processed foods.
Wheat is an important source of carbohydrates. it is the leading source of vegetable protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13%, which is relatively high compared to other major cereals. Major breeding objectives include high grain yield, good quality, disease and insect resistance and tolerance to abiotic stresses, including mineral, moisture and heat tolerance.
HISTORY: The cultivation of emmer reached Greece, Cyprus and Indian subcontinent by 6500 BCE, Egypt shortly after 6000 BCE, and Germany and Spain by 5000 BCE. From Asia, wheat continued to spread across Europe. In the British Isles, wheat straw (thatch) was used for roofing. The oldest evidence for hexaploid wheat has been confirmed through DNA analysis of wheat seeds, dating to around 6400-6200 BCE,
Yields of pure wheat per unit area increased as methods of crop rotation were applied to long cultivated land, and the use of fertilizers. There are around 30,000 wheat varieties of 14 species grown throughout the world. Of these about 1,000 are commercially significant. In the United States over 500 varieties are available. In Canada different varieties are blended prior to sale.Hexaploid wheats evolved in farmers’ fields. Either domesticated emmer or durum wheat hybridized with yet another wild diploid grass to make the hexaploid wheats, spelt wheat and bread wheat.
Wheat is grown on more than 218,000,000 hectares.Harvested wheat grain that enters trade is classified according to grain properties for the purposes of the commodity markets. Wheat is widely cultivated as a cash crop because it produces a good yield per unit area, grows well in a low rainfall.