All posts by anshupandeypragya

Political Parties

Political parties are groups of voluntary or organized individuals who share the same political views, seek political power through constitutional means, and work to promote national interests.

There are four types of political parties in modern democracies:

(i) A conservative political party that believes in the status quo.

(ii) A reactionary party clinging to an old socio-economic and political system.

(iii) The Liberal Party trying to reform the existing system.

(iv) A radical political party that aims to establish a new order by overthrowing existing systems. These parties are called left-wing, centrist, and right-wing parties. For example, in India, CPI and CPM are examples of left-wing parties, and centrist parliament and BJP are examples of right-wing parties.

There are three types of party systems in the world

(i) A one-party system in which there is only one ruling party, such as Eastern European countries and former communist countries such as the Soviet Union, and opposition is not allowed.

(ii) A two-party system with two major political parties, such as the United States and the United Kingdom

(iii) Multi-party system. There are several political parties, such as France, Switzerland, and Italy, that lead to the formation of a coalition government.

India’s party system

India’s party system has the following characteristics:

Multi-party system Numerous parties due to the continental size of the country, the diverse nature of Indian society, the introduction of a universal adult party system, the unique nature of the political process, and other factors.

Lack of a clear idealism With the exception of BJP and the two Communist Party, all other parties do not have a well-defined idealism. They are idealistically close to each other. Therefore, politics became problem-based rather than idealistic, and pragmatism replaced the attachment to principles.

One-party dominant party system Despite the multi-party system, India’s political situation has long been dominated by parliament. Therefore, prominent political analyst Rajni Kothari preferred to describe India’s party system as a “one-party dominance” rather than a “parliamentary system.”

Cult of personality is known to leaders, not manifests. It is true that Congress’s popularity was largely due to the leadership of Nehru, Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi. The emergence of local political parties Another important feature of India’s party system is the emergence of a large number of local political parties and their growing dominance.


Panchayati Raj

The term Panchayati system refers to India’s system of local autonomy. It was introduced in all states of India through the legislature law to build grassroots democracy. The Constitution was enacted by the 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act of 1992.

In January 1957, the Government of India appointed a committee to investigate the functions of community development programs and national dissemination services and propose measures for their better functions. This committee was chaired by Balwant Rai G Mehta. The community submitted a report in November 1957, encouraging the establishment of a “democratic decentralization” scheme that eventually became known as the “Panchayati system”.

Here are some recommendations from this community-

1. Establishing a three-tiered Panchayati system: village-level Gram Panchayat, block-level Panchayati Samiti,and district-level Zila parishad. These three levels should be organically linked through indirect elections.

2. All planning and development activities should be outsourced to these agencies.

3. The village Panchayat should be formed by directly elected representatives, and the Panchayati Samiti and Zila parishad should be formed by indirectly elected members.

4. The district collector must be the head of zila Parishad.

5. Panchayat Samiti should be the executive body and Zila Parishad should be the advisory, coordinating and supervisory body.

6. These agencies should be given sufficient resources to enable them to carry out their missions and fulfill their responsibilities.

Rajasthan was the first state to establish the Panchayati system. The program was started on October 2, 1959 by the Prime Minister of the Nagpur district. Most states established the Panchayati system by the mid-1960s, but there were variations from state to state in terms of number of levels, relative positions of Samity and Parishad, tenure, function, and finances. For example, Rajasthan adopted a three-layer system and Tamil Nadu adopted a two-layer system.

Many research teams, committees, and working groups have been appointed to investigate various aspects of the Panchayati system.

1. 1960 V.R.-chaired Panchayati Statistics Rationalization Committee

2.S.D. Mishra-chaired 1961 Working Group on Panchayati and Co-operatives.

3. 1962 research team on Nyaya Panchayats chaired by V. Iswaran.

4. A 1963 research team on the position of Gramsabha in the Panchayati movement, chaired by R.R. Diwakar.

5. The 1965 Panchayati Election Commission, chaired by K. Santhanam.

World War II

The instability caused in Europe by World War I (1914-18) is the stage of World War II, another international conflict that will break out 20 years later and become even more devastating. Was set. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler takes power in economically and politically unstable Germany, a strategic treaty between Italy and Japan to rebuild the country and promote ambitions for world domination. Signed. With Hitler’s invasion of Poland in September 1939, Britain and France declared a war with Germany, and World War II began. Over the next six years, conflict will take more lives around the world and destroy more land and property than any previous war. An estimated 4.56 billion people were killed in 6 million Jews killed in Nazi concentration camps as part of Hitler’s demonic “final solution,” now known as the Holocaust. Pre-WWII The devastation of World War I (then known as World War I) made Europe terribly unstable, and World War II was settled by its early conflicts. It arose in many ways from problems that weren’t done. In particular, the continued resentment of Germany’s political and economic instability and the harsh conditions of the Versailles Treaty has spurred the rise of power between Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers’ Party. After becoming Prime Minister of the Empire in 1933, Hitler quickly solidified his power and anointed Fuller in 1934. Hitler was obsessed with the idea of ​​the dominance of the “pure” German race, which he called the “Aryan”, and this war is the only way to gain the “lebensraum” needed for the spread of the German race. I believed. In the mid-1930s, in violation of the Treaty of Versailles, he secretly began a re-arming declaration in Germany. After signing an alliance between Italy and Japan against the Soviet Union, Hitler sent troops to occupy Austria in 1938 and annexed Czechoslovakia the following year. Hitler’s open aggression was at the time because the United States and the Soviet Union focused on domestic politics, and neither France nor Britain (the other two most devastated countries of World War I) sought conflict. It wasn’t suppressed. Outbreak of World War II (1939) In late August 1939, Hitler and the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin signed a non-aggression pact between Germany and the Soviet Union. This raised enthusiastic concerns in London and Paris. Hitler had long planned an invasion of Poland. Poland is a country that has promised military assistance in the event that Britain and France are attacked by Germany. The agreement with Stalin meant that after the invasion of Poland, Hitler would not see a two-front war, but would receive Soviet support by conquering and dividing the country itself.

On September 1, 1939, Hitler invaded Poland from the west. Two days later, France and Great Britain declared war on Germany and began World War II. Western World War II (194041) On April 9, 1940, Germany simultaneously invaded Norway and occupied Denmark, and the war began in earnest. On May 10, German troops wiped out Belgium and the Netherlands in a so-called “blitzkrieg”. Three days later, Hitler’s army crossed the Moose River in a sedan at the northern end of the Magino Line, a chain of elaborate fortresses built after World War I that was considered an inaccessible defensive barrier. Was defeated. In fact, the Germans broke through the tank and plane lines and took over to the rear, making them useless. The British Overseas Dispatch Army (BEF) evacuated from Dunkirk to the sea in late May, but South French troops showed fateful resistance. As France is on the verge of collapse, Italian fascist dictator Benito Mussolini has formed an alliance with Hitler, the Pact of Steel, and Italy declared a war between France and Britain on June 10.

On June 14, German troops entered Paris. The new government, formed by Marshal Philippe Pétain, the hero of World War I in France, demanded a truce two nights later. France was then divided into two zones, one under German occupation and the other under the Petan government in Vichy France. Hitler has now turned his attention to Britain, which had the defensive advantage of being separated from the continent by the English Channel. German aircraft bombed Britain extensively from September 1940 to May 1941 to pave the way for an amphibious aggression (called Operation Sea Lion). The Royal Air Force (RAF) eventually defeated the Luftwaffe at the Battle of Britain, and Hitler postponed his invasion plan. When Britain’s defense resources reached its limits, Prime Minister Winston Churchill received significant support from the United States under the Lend-Lease Act passed by Parliament in early 1941.

Hitler vs Stalin: Operation Barbarossa (1941-42) By early 1941, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria had joined Axis, and by April German troops had taken control of Yugoslavia and Greece. Hitler’s conquest of the Balkans heralded his ultimate goal of invading the Soviet Union. The vast territory of the Soviet Union was intended to provide the “living space” needed by the German master race. The other half of Hitler’s strategy was the extinction of Jews throughout Europe under German occupation. The “final solution” plan was implemented around the time of the Soviet attack, with more than 4 million Jews dying in extermination camps in occupied Poland over the next three years.

On June 22, 1941, Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union called Operation Barbarossa. Soviet tanks and planes far outnumbered Germans, but Russian aviation technology is largely outdated, and due to the effects of a sudden invasion, Germans will reach within 200 miles of Moscow by mid-July. I was able to. The controversy between Hitler and his commander delayed the next German army’s advance until October, when it was stalled by the Soviet counterattack and the beginning of severe winter weather. Pacific World War II . Britain confronted Germany in Europe, and only the United States could fight Japan.

The Stone Age

Earth`s beginnings may be traced returned 4.5 billion years, however human evolution handiest counts for a tiny speck of its history. The Prehistoric Period—or while there has been human lifestyles earlier than statistics documented human activity—kind of dates from 2.5 million years in the past to 1200 B.C. It is normally classified in 3 archaeological periods: the Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age. From the discovery of gear made for searching to advances in meals manufacturing and agriculture to early examples of artwork and religion, this great time span—finishing kind of 3,2 hundred years in the past (dates range upon region)—became a duration of fantastic transformation.

The Stone Age

Early human ancestors portray a bison inner a cave in the course of the Paleolithic Age. Divided into 3 periods: Paleolithic (or Old Stone Age), Mesolithic (or Middle Stone Age), and Neolithic (or New Stone Age), this period is marked via way of means of the usage of gear via way of means of our early human ancestors (who advanced round 300,000 B.C.) and the eventual transformation from a tradition of searching and collecting to farming and meals manufacturing. During this period, early people shared the planet with some of now-extinct hominin relatives, consisting of Neanderthals and Denisovans.

In the Paleolithic duration (kind of 2.5 million years in the past to 10,000 B.C.), early people lived in caves or easy huts or tepees and have been hunters and gatherers. They used fundamental stone and bone gear, in addition to crude stone axes, for searching birds and wild animals. They cooked their prey, consisting of woolly mammoths, deer and bison, the usage of managed fire. They additionally fished and accumulated berries, fruit and nuts. Ancient people withinside the Paleolithic duration have been additionally the primary to go away in the back of artwork. They used combos of minerals, ochres, burnt bone meal and charcoal combined into water, blood, animal fat and tree saps to etch people, animals and signs. They additionally carved small collectible figurines from stones, clay, bones and antlers. The quit of this era marked the quit of the remaining Ice Age, which resulted withinside the extinction of many massive mammals and growing sea stages and weather alternate that subsequently precipitated guy to migrate. The Shell Mound People, or Kitchen-Middeners, have been hunter-gatherers of the past due Mesolithic and early Neolithic duration. They get their call from the exclusive mounds (middens) of shells and different kitchen particles they left in the back of.

During the Mesolithic duration (approximately 10,000 B.C. to 8,000 B.C.), people used small stone gear, now additionally polished and once in a while crafted with factors and connected to antlers, bone or timber to function spears and arrows. They frequently lived nomadically in camps close to rivers and different our bodies of water. Agriculture became added in the course of this time, which brought about greater everlasting settlements in villages.

Finally, in the course of the Neolithic duration (kind of 8,000 B.C. to 3,000 B.C.), historical people switched from hunter/gatherer mode to agriculture and meals manufacturing. They domesticated animals and cultivated cereal grains. They used polished hand axes, adzes for ploughing and tilling the land and began out to settle withinside the plains. Advancements have been made now no longer handiest in gear however additionally in farming, domestic creation and artwork, consisting of pottery, stitching and weaving.

Feminist Approaches in International Relations

Feminism is the advocacy of the rights of women. It explains that women were deprived in comparison to men and are subordinate to men due to a gadget of patriarchy.

`Patriarchy’ is a gadget of social systems and practices via which men dominate and take advantage of women. It ought to be clear that it’s miles a social, now no longer organic characteristics. For feminism the factor of reference is the query of Gender and now no longer of intercourse.Feminism evaluation equations of masculinity and feminity.It has not anything to do with the organic male-female differences.’Masculinity’ is related to autonomy, sovereignty, and the ability for cause and objectivity, while feminity is related to the absence of those characteristics. These are known as gender identities. Under gender construction, navy offerings are regarded because the herbal area of masculinity.The first feminist withinside the global is “Christine de Pisan”. Every man isn’t always in a function of domination, and each female isn’t in a function of sub ordination. The feminist motion entails battle for political and felony rights and same possibilities for ladies. The feminist method to International members of the family is a phenomena of the post-bloodless conflict period. In the 1980s feminist Scholars start studies in diverse instructional disciplines, from literature to psychology to history.Some of th outstanding feminist students consist of Joshua S Goldstein,Peterson Spike and Anne Sisson Runyan,Ann Tickner and Jill streans. Feminist argue that the bounds of nation have ancient excluded women from home and global political life, and feature dealt with International members of the family because the Exclusive keep of men, wherein masculinity prospers via domination over women. According to feminists, the phenomenon,of own circle of relatives Subordination and male domination has constantly stay unchanged, whether or not from the guaranteed to the current nation, or from feudalism to capitalism or from nature-nation to international governance.The International members of the family idea favours men and excludes female due to the fact it’s miles guys who’s recognized with nation. Feminist writers locate fault with this Approach.Further it’s miles argued that global members of the family have completely targeted on struggle and anarchy, as additionally on worry and competitions, exactly due to the fact women lives and stories don’t have any been well researched.Feminist is an out increase of the notion that on account that attributes like humility, peace, tenderness, compassion and forgiveness are related to female who’ve been historically ignored, the examine of global members of the family has constantly remained targeted on strife and anarchy.

Three Strands of Feminism-While all feminist students agree at the primary published that gender is important, there may be no unmarried feminist method to global members of the family. There are numerous such tactics or ‘strands’ of the idea of global members of the family. There are 3 strands as highlighted through Goldstein-

1.Difference Feminism-This strands of feminism attempts to price the precise contribution of female as female. These feminists do now no longer assume that female do all matters in addition to guys do.The contrary is likewise genuine in sure different activities. Thus, due to their more revel in with nurturing and human members of the family, female are visible as doubtlessly greater powerful than guys in resolving conflicts and in group-choice making.

2.Liberal Feminism-The arguments of Difference feminists are rejected through liberal feminist as being primarily based totally on stereotyped gender roles.They see ‘crucial distinctions’ withinside the competencies of males and females as trivial or non existent. For liberals, guy and female are same.They condemn the exclusion of female from function of power,however do now no longer consider that inclusive of female could alternate the character of the International Relations.

3.Postmodern Feminism-Postmodern feminists have attempted to deconstruct the language of realism, particularly because it displays impacts of gender and intercourse. For example- the primary atom bombs have been male.They have been named as’Fat guy’ and ‘Little boy’.The coded telegram despatched to US government approximately the hydrogen bomb without a doubt said ‘it’s miles a boy’ however the plane that dropped the atom bomb on Hiroshima changed into known as ‘Enola Gay’, a lady gender. It changed into named after the pilot’s mother.These efforts locate intercourse and gender all through the sub-textual content of realism.

High Court

The High Court is under the Supreme Court but operates above the Inferior Court. The High Court holds the highest position in the state’s judicial administration. The establishment of the High Court began in India in 1862, when the High Court was established in Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.

Articles 214-231 of the Constitution of India deal with the organization, independence, jurisdiction, authority, procedures, etc. of the High Court. Currently, there are 25 High Courts in the country. Of these, only three High Courts have jurisdiction over multiple states. In all Union Territories, there is an independent High Court in Delhi alone. The Union Territories of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh have a common High Court.

Composition of the High Court- Each High Court consists of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and other judges appointed by the President. It seems necessary from time to time.

High Court judges are appointed by the President. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is appointed by the President after consultation with the Chief Justice of India and the relevant Governor. The appointment of other judges shall also apply to the Chief Justice of the relevant Supreme Court in two or more states, and the governors of all relevant states shall be consulted by the President. The 2014 Amendment Article 99 and the 2014 National Judicial Appointment Commission Act replaced the university system for appointing judges in the Supreme Court and the High Court with a new organization called the National Judicial Appointment Commission.

Judge Qualification – A person appointed as a judge in the High Court must have the following qualifications:

1. He must be an Indian citizen.

2. He should have served the judiciary for 10 years on the sovereign territory of India.

3. He is said to have been a Supreme Court lawyer for 10 years.

From the above, it is clear that the Constitution does not set a minimum age for a judge in a higher court.

Judge’s Oath -Anyone appointed as a judge in the High Court must take an oath before taking office.

1. Have true faith and loyalty to the Constitution of India.

2. Support India’s sovereignty and integrity.

3. Perform office duties properly and honestly, without fear or favor, and to the best of my knowledge and beliefs.

4. Support the Constitution and the law.

Judge’s term -The Constitution does not set a term for judges in the High Court. However, there are four provisions in this regard:

1. He will be in office until he is 62 years old.

2. He can resign in writing to the President.

3. At the suggestion of Congress, the President may dismiss him.

4. When appointed as a judge of the Supreme Court, he resigns from his post.


Articles 153 to 167 of the Constitution of India deal with state administrations. The state executives are made up of the governor, the prime minister, the Council of Ministers, and the state attorney general.

The governor is the chief executive officer of the state. But like the president, he is the nominal executive branch, and the governor also acts as a representative of the central government. Therefore, an office or governor has two roles. Normally, there is one governor per state, but the Seventh Amendment of 1956 made it easy to appoint the same person as the governors of two or more states.

The governor is neither directly elected by the public nor indirectly elected by a specially formed electoral college, as is the case with the president, who is a candidate for the central government. However, as the Supreme Court was held in 1979, the position of Governor is not the appointment of the central government. It is an independent constitutional office. The Governor’s Direct Elections Can’t Be Reconciled The parliamentary system is well established in the state, and the governor is only the head of the constitution, so he makes great efforts to arrange his elections and spend huge amounts of money. There is no meaning. The governor’s direct election at this point raises serious leadership issues in the state’s general elections.

Conditions for the Governor’s Office The Constitution of India stipulates the conditions for the Governor’s Office as follows. 1. He must not be a member of the Houses of Parliament or the Legislature

2. He has the right to use his official apartment without paying rent.

3. He is entitled to such rewards, benefits and privileges that Congress may decide.

4. During his tenure, his compensation and allowances cannot be reduced.

The governor shall serve a five-year term from the date of his inauguration. However, the five-year term is at the discretion of the President.

Governor Features

There are several governor features

1. All administrative acts of a state government are formally carried out on behalf of that state.

2. He can convene or postpone the legislature and dissolve the legislature.

3. He confirms that the annual account has been submitted to the Legislature.

4.He can grant pardons,reprives,respites and remissions of punishment of suspend,remit and commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the state extends.

Chief Minister

The Chief minister is the actual executive branch. In other words, the Governor is the Head of State and the Chief Minister is the Head of Government. Therefore, the position of the Chief minister at the state level is similar to the position of the prime minister at the center.

The Constitution does not include specific procedures for the appointment of the Chief Minister, and Article 164 of the Constitution states that the Chief Minister is appointed by the Governor. However, this does not mean that the Governor is free to appoint the Chief Minister. Following the practice of parliamentary government, the governor must appoint the leader of the majority of the state’s legislative assembly as Chief minister. However, if neither party has a clear majority in parliament, the governor can exercise his personal discretion in the appointment and selection of the chief minister. Therefore, in such situations, the governor usually appoints the leader of the coalition or the largest party in parliament as Chief minister and demands a vote of trust in the House of Representatives within a month. If the incumbent Chief Minister died suddenly, no successor was found as the new Chief Minister, and the Governor had to appoint the Chief Minister, the Governor may need to make individual decisions in the appointment and appointment of the Chief Minister.

Chief Minister’s Oath- Before the Chief minister takes office, the Governor will take an oath of office and maintain confidentiality. In his oath of office, the Chief Minister swears as follows.

1. With true faith and loyalty to the Constitution of India

2. Perform the duties of his office faithfully and honestly

3. To support India’s sovereignty and integrity

4. To give justice to all kinds of people in accordance with the Constitution and the law, without fear, favor, affection or evil.

In a secret vow, the Chief Minister vows not to directly or indirectly communicate or disclose the issue under consideration to anyone.

The term of the Chief Minister is not fixed and he holds office during the pleasure of the governor.However this does not mean that the Governor can dismiss him at any time,but if he loses the confidence of the assembly he must resign or the Governor can dismiss him. The salary and Allowances of the Chief minister are determined by the state legislature.


Realism emphasizes relation among nations as they have been and as they are.It is not concerned with the ideal world.It is the International interpretation of human behavior.

Realism or political realism as an approach of international relations has evolved over the centuries. Prominent among its earlier advocates were Indian scholar Kautilya, Chinese strategies Sun Tzu, and Greek scholar Thucydides, English philosopher Thomas hobbes also contributed to the evaluation of Realism. Their ideas may be called classical realism,though Morgenthau is now considered the principal classical realist. Morgenthau was the most systematic advocate of realism. However, British professor EH Carr writes: The “Twenty Years of Crisis” prepared the basis for Morgenthau’s development of the theory of realism. Realism is a school of thought that explains international affairs from the perspective of exercising power. The exercise of mutual power by the states is often referred to as realpolitik or simply power politics.

Hans J. Morgenthau:

Morgenthau from Germany could not tolerate the arbitrary domination and brutality of Hitler’s Nazi regime. He taught Americans national interests and established the “School of Realism in International Relations”. And for that he called it Political Struggle Power.Many Americans, obsessed with legalism and moralism, hated Morgenthau’s emphasis on national interests. However, it was only Morgenthau’s national interest that made sense in international affairs. He believed that “understanding national interests makes it easy to predict foreign policy movements.” He argued that “God is on that side,” that is, there is no universal morality. All government actions should be based on prudence and practicality.

Morgenthau equates what he calls “realism.” He believes that the flaws in the world are “the result of the forces inherent in human nature.” According to this approach to improving the WORLD, one must cooperate with these forces rather than oppose them. Like EH Carr, Morgenthau began his approach by defining a position against what he was seeing, if not the rule of the liberal utopian principle. Morgenthau listed six principle of political realism, which when taken together summarises his theoretical approach to the study of international relations. In the first chapter of his famous book “Politics among Nations”( 1948), Morgenthau states that his theory is called realism because it is concerned “with human nature as it actually is and with the historical process as they actually take place”.

Morgenthaus’s six principle of Realism- There are six principle’s of Realism

1.Politics is governed by objective laws which have their root in human nature. These laws do not change over time and are impervious to human preference. A rational theory of politics and international relations can based on these laws: infact any such theory should reflect these objective laws.

2. The key to understanding international politics is the concept of interest, defined from the perspective of power. By referring to this concept, politics can be regarded as an autonomous space of action. It imposes intellectual discipline on the viewer and gives a rational order to the political subject.

3. The form and nature of government authorities varies by time, place and situation, but the concept of interest is consistent. The political, cultural, and strategic environment greatly influences the form of power a state chooses to exercise, just as the types of power that appear in relationships change over time.

4.Universal ‘moral principles’ do not guide state behaviour,though state behaviour with certainly have moral and ethical implications. Individuals are influenced by moral codes but states are not moral agents.

5.There is no ‘universally agreed set of moral principles’ though States from time to time will endeavour to cloth their behaviour in ethical terms.

6.Intellectually, the political sphere is ‘autonomous’ from every other sphere of human concern,whether legal ,moral or economic. This enables us to see the international domain as analytically distinct from other fields of intellectual enquiry.

Supreme Court

Article 124 to 147 of the constitution deals with the organisation, independence, jurisdiction.powers, procedures of the Supreme Court.The supreme court of India was inaugurated on 28 January,1950. At present time,The supreme Court consists of thirty four judges i.e.,one Chief Justice,and thirty three other judges.In 2019,an provision was passed in which centre notified an increase in the number of Supreme Court judges from thirtyone to thirtyfour,including The Chief Justice of India.

Appointment of Judges-The Judges of the Supreme court are appointed by The President.The Chief Justice is appointed by the President after consultation with such judges of the Supreme Court and High Court as he deems necessary.The other jugdes are appointed by the President after consultation with the Chief Justice and such other judges of the supreme court and high court as he deems necessary.

Qualification of Judges -A person should only be appoint as a judge of the supreme court if he/she should have following qualifications

1.He should be a citizen of India.

2.He should be a judge of high court for five years.

3. He is said to have been a Supreme Court lawyer for 10 years.

From the above discussion, it is clear that the Constitution does not mention the minimum age for appointment to the Supreme Court.

Oath of The judges -A person appointed as a judge of the Supreme Court must take an oath before taking office before the President or anyone appointed by him for that purpose. In this oath, the Supreme Court judge swears it.

1. Support India’s sovereignty and integrity

2. Have true faith and loyalty to the Constitution of India.

3. Perform office duties appropriately and honestly, without fear, favor or affection, and by maximizing my abilities, knowledge and judgment.

4. Support the Constitution and the law.

Salaries and Allowances- The Supreme Court judges’ salaries, allowances, privileges, holidays and pensions are determined by Parliament from time to time. In 2018, the presiding judge’s salary was raised from 10,000 rupees to 28,000 rupees per month, and the judge’s salary was raised from 900 million rupees to 25 million rupees per month. They also receive living allowances, free accommodation and other facilities such as medical care, cars and telephones. Retired chief justice and judges are entitled to receive 50 percent of their final salary as a monthly salary.

Tenure of the Judges-The Constitution does not specify a Supreme Court judge’s term. However, there are three provisions in this regard.

1. He will be in office until he is 65 years old.

2. He can resign in writing to the President.

3.He can removed from his office by the President on the recommendation of the Parliament.